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RULE111

Sec1:filingofcriminalactiondeemsthefilingofacivilactionaswellunlessupontheWAIVER,
RESERVATION,ORINSTITUTIONOFACIVILACTIONPRIORTOTHECRIMINALACTION.
thereservationofcivilactionshallbefiledbeforetheprosecutionpresentsitsevidence
andunderthecircumstancesitcanprovidetheoffendedpartyareasonableopportunity
tomakesuchreservation
whenoffendedpartywantstoincludeinitscivilactiontherecoveryofmoral,nominal
andexemplarydamageswithoutspecifyingtheamountitshallconstituteinthefilingfee
aaalienonjudgingtheawardofdamages.
BP22deemedtoincludecivilactionnoWAIVERORRESERVATION
Sec2:ifacriminalactionhasbeeninstituted,thefilingofseparatecivilactioncannotbe
instituteduntilfinaljudgementofcriminalaction
ifacriminalactionisfiledaftertheinstitutionofcivilaction,thecivilactionshallbe
suspendedatwhateverstageitmaybebeforethejudgementofitsmerits.
incaseofconsolidation,theevidencealreadyadducedinthecriminalstageshallbe
reproducedinthecivilaction.
Thepurposeofmergingcriminalandcivilactionforcriminalactionistopunishthe
offenderinordertodeterhimandothersfromcommittingthesameorsimilaroffense
andisolatehimfromsociety,reformandrehabilitate
forcivilactionisfortheresolution,reparationorindemnificationofprivateoffended
partyfordamageorinjuryhesustainedbythedelict
Sec3:evenifwhatisfiledisaseparatecivilaction,theseparatecivilactioncannotbe
instituteduntilfinaljudgementofthecriminalaction
thesuspensionofcivilactionwillconstituteadelaybutaremedyisprovided>
consolidationofcivilactionwithcriminalactionincourttryingthecriminalaction
suspensionofcivilactionduetoinstitutionofcriminalactionsuspendstheprescription
period.
sec4:civilliabilitiesarisingfromcriminalactionisextinguishedupondeath,independentcivil
actionshallcontinueagainstestateorlegalrepresentative
iftheaccuseddiesbeforearraignment,thecaseshallbedismissedbuttheoffended
partymayfilecivilactionagainsttheestateofthedeceased
NOTE:extinguishmentofcriminalliabilitydoesnotextinguishcivilliability
extinguishmentofcivilliabilitydoesnotextinguishcriminalliability
finaljudgmentrenderedincivilactionabsolvingthedefendantfromcivilliabilityis
notabartoacriminalactionagainstthedefendantfromthesameactoromission.
Sec7:whatisaprejudicialquestionanissueinvolvedinthecivilcasewhichissimilaror
intimatelyrelatedtotheissueinthecriminalaction,theresolutionofwhichdeterminedwhether
ornotthecriminalactionmayproceed.
rationaleoftheprincipletoavoid2conflictingdecisionsinthecivilcaseandinthe
criminalcase
requisites:(1)thepreviouslyinstitutedcivilactioninvolvesacasesimilartoorintimately
relatedtotheissueraisedinthesubsequentcriminalaction,(2)theresolutionofsuch
issuedetermineswhetherornotcriminalactionmayproceed
WHENAPREJUDICIALQUESTIONMAYNOTBEINVOKED:
1)botharecriminalcases
2)bothcivil
3)bothareadministrative
4)oneisadministrativeandtheotheriscivil
5)onecaseisadministrative:theotheriscriminal
6)whencriminalcaseinstitutedpriortocivilcase
THEACTIONTOBESUSPENDEDINAPREJUDICIALQUESTIONISTHECRIMINAL
NOTTHECIVILACTION

RULE112PRELIMINARYINVESTIGATION
Whoconductspreliminaryinvestigation?
theprosecutorconductspreliminaryinvestigationandafter10days,hecaneither
dismissorcontinuethecaseorrequiresubpoena
after5days,responsefromthesubpoena
ifthejudgethinksthatthecasehasaprobablecause,theprosecutoristofilecomplaint
tothepropercourtorhecanassignassistantprosecutortofilethecase.
Sec1:thepurposeofPIisinquisitorial,itonlyengendersthewellestablishedclaimwhethera
crimehasbeencommittedorwhetherthepersonisguiltyofthecrimetherof.
righttopreliminaryinvestigationmaybewaived,notaconstitutionalright
whatisapreliminaryinvestigation?conductedbytheprosecutortoascertainwhetherthe
allegedoffendershouldbeheldfortrial,tobesubjectedtotheoffense,rigorsand
embarrassmentoftrialoriftheoffenderoriftheoffenderistobereleased.executiveinnature,
prosecutorsjon
whatispreliminaryexamination?conductedbythejudgetodetermineprobablecauseforthe
issuanceofwarrant.judicialinnatureandlodgewiththejudge.
whatisprobablecause?theexistenceofsuchfactsandcircumstancesaswouldleadaperson
ofordinarycautionandprudencetoentertainanhonestandstrongsuspicionthattheperson
chargedisguiltyofthecrimesubjecttoinvestigation
whatisthedeterminationofprobablecause?1)executivemadeduringpreliminary
investigation2)judicialmadebythejudgetoascertainwhetherawarrantofarrestshouldbe
issuedagainsttheaccused.
whenisPInotrequiredevenifthecaserequiressuch?
personarrestedlawfullywithoutwarrantinvolvingacasethatrequiresPI
arrestedinflagrantedelicto
penaltyifoffenseishigherthan4years2mosand1day
arrestinplaceifinquestwasavailable
whatisaninquestproceeding?itisconductedwhenapersonislawfullyarrestedwithouta
warrantinvolvinganoffensewhichrequiresapreliminaryinvestigation
aninvestigationconductedbyaprosecutorincriminalcaseswhereapersonhasbeen
lawfullyarrestedanddetainedwithoutawarrantofarrest
itisdeemedcommencedatthetimetheinquestofficerreceivesthecomplaintand
referraldocuments,affidavitofarrest,investigationreports,statementsofcomplaintand
witnessesandsupportingevidencesgathered
dutyoftheinquestprosecutordetermineifthedetainedpersonhasbeenlawfully
arrestedinaccordancewithsec5rule113
SEE:TijamvSiboghanoy,YusopvSandiganbayan,SolivenvMakasiar,LimvFelix,
POevPp
Question:investigatingprosecutor,recommendsdismissalbuttheombudsmanreversesitare
theiractscontrollablebymandamusornot?NO.prosecutorsdiscretionaryactarenot
controllablebymandamus
Suppose,thecaseisfiledwithpublicprosecutor,distinguishministerialanddiscretionary
SEEBelgicavAquino,HonasanvSandiganbayan,GeorgeUYvSandiganbayan
INQUESTPROCEEDINGS:
ifthearrestisunlawful,theinquestofficershallnotproceedwiththeproceedingbuthe
shallrecommendthereleaseofthedetainee,notedownthedispositiononthereferral
documenttothecityprosecutorforappropriateaction
whentherecommendationisapproved,thedetaineeshallbereleasedandbeserved
withnoticeofpreliminaryinvestigation
ifthearrestislawfulany,theinquestofficershallproceedtoaskingwhetherthedetainee
desirestoavailhimselfofpreliminaryinvestigations.
Whenarrestisnotproperlyeffected,theinquestofficershall:
1. Recommendthereleaseofthepersonarrestedordetained
2. Notedownthedispositiononthereferraldocument
3. Prepareabriefmemorandumindicatingthereasonsfortheactiontaken
4. Forwardthesametogetherwiththerecordofthecasetocityprosecutortofor
appropriateaction.
Whocanconductpreliminaryinvestigation(apartfromPNOtheyalsohavesharedconcurrent
authoritywithDOJ)
1. OmnibusElectionCodeCOMELEC,throughdulyauthorizedlegalofficers,hasthe
power,concurrentwiththeotherprosecutingarmsofthegovernment
a. ConstitutionalpowerofCOMELECtoinvestigatewhenappropriateprosecutor
electioncasesbutchiefandstatefiscalsstillhavecontinuingauthorityas
deputiesofcommission
2.Ombudsmaninvestigateandprosecuteonitsownoroncomplaintbyanyperson,anyactor
omissionofanypublicofficerandemployeeoragencywhoseactsareillegal,unjust,improper
orinefficient.

**incaseofpreliminaryinvestigation,anappealmaybebroughttotheDOJfromresolutionof
thechiefstateprosecutor,regionalstateprosecutor(15daysfromthereceiptthereof)
1. Appealtothesecretaryofjustice
a. ForcasesrequiringPIappealmaybebroughttothesecretaryofjusticefrom
chiefstateprosecutor
b. Secretaryofjusticemayaffirm,reverse,modifytheappealedresolution.The
motioncanbedismissedif:
i. Thepetitionforreviewwasfiledbeyondperiodprescribed
ii. Prescribedprocedureofrequirements
iii. Noshowingofreversibleerrorasaccusedwasalreadyarraignedwhen
appealwastake,
2. Appealtotheofficeofthepresident
a. Petitionofreviewsbysecretaryofjusticecanbeentertainedbyofficeofthe
presidentconsideringthefollowingrequisites:
i. OffenseinvolvedispunishablebyRP
ii. Newandmaterialissuesareraisedwhichwerenotpreviouslypresented
beforethedojandwerenotruled
iii. Prescriptionofoffenseisnotduetolapsewithin6months
iv. Appealorpetitionforreviewfiledwithin31days
1. REMEDIESOFOFFENDEDPARTYWHENFISCALUNREASONABLY

RULE113
Arrestgenerallyimpliescontroloverthepersonundercustodyandasaconsequence,
arestraintonhislibertytotheextentthatheisnotfreetoleavehisvolition.
Whocanissuewarrantofissue/whocanitfileit?cannotbeissuedexceptupon
probablecausetobedeterminedpersonallybythejudgeafterexaminationunderoath
oraffirmationofthecomplainantandthewitnesseshemayproduce,andparticularly
describingtheplacetobesearchedandpersonsorthingstobeseized.
Howdoyoudetermineprobablecause?assumeexistenceoffactsthatwouldbeleada
reasonablydiscreetandprudentmantobelievethatacrimehasbeencommittedand
thatitwaslikelytobecommittedbythepersonsoughttobearrested.
PremisedonArt3billofrightsselfexecuting
Purposeofprohibitionofunreasonablesearchandseizureprotectionguaranteeagainst
arbitraryintrusionsrighttoprivacy
PresumptionofregularityNONEwhy?Presumptionthatsearchandseizure
unreasonableunlessthereisprobablecauses
Fundamentalguaranteeofsearchandseizurebetweenthepoliceandprivate
person>thereisatribunalandmagistratetodeterminewhetherawarrantofarrest
shallbeissued
Whenisapersonconsideredincustodyoflaw?
ConstructivecustodySantiagovVasquez,ppvlamahang
SOLIVENVMAKASIAR:Sec2thedeterminationofprobablecausebythejudgedoes
notmandatorilyrequirethejudgetopersonallythecomplaintandhewitnessinsteadhe
mayopttopersonallyevaluatethereportandsupportingdocumentssubmittedbythe
prosecutorordisregardsuchreportandrequiresubmissionofsupportingaffidavitsof
witness
Preliminaryinquiry(functionofjudge)determinesprobablecausefortheissuanceofa
warrantofarrest
Preliminaryinvestigation(functionofinvestigatingofficer)ascertainwhetherthe
offendershouldbeheldfortrialorrelease
SEC4methodofarrestwithwarrant
Warrantofarrestissuedbyjudge>deliveredbyproperofficer>theheadofofficeofsuch
agencyshallcausethewarranttobeexecutedwithin10daysfromreceipt>aftertheexpiration
of10days,theofficerwhowasassignedwiththeexecutionshallmakeareporttothejudge
whoissuedtoreceiptincaseoffailuretoexecute>statereasonsfornonexecution.

makingthearrestbyvirtueofwarrantofficershall:1.)informthepersontobeassertedofthe
causeofhisarrest2.)informhimtofthefactthatawarranthasbeenissuedbyhisarrest3.)
informationneednobemadewhenapersonflees,forciblyresists,givinginformationwillimperil
thearrest

Theofficerneednothavethewarrantofarrestatthetimeofarrest.However,after
arrestthewarrantshallbeshowntohimassoonaspracticable
Theofficerassignedtoexecutethewarrantofarresthasthedutytodelivertheperson
arrestedtothenearestpolicestation.
Arrestingofficermaysummonassistance,asmanypersonsashecanandtheyshall
perform,theirassignedtasks
SEC11whenthepersontobearrestedisinsidethebuilding,theruleauthorizesthetobreak
intoanybuildingtomakethearrestifheisrefusedremmittanceafterannouncinghisauthority
orpurpose.n

SEC5whenwarrantlessarrestislawful
Generalrule:arrest,searchesandseizuresisthatawarrantisneededinorderovalidlyaffect
thesame,
Exception:warrantlessarrestcanbedonebypeaceofficerorprivatepersons
2. Wheninhispresence,thepersontobearrested,committedoriscommittingor
willcommitanoffense
3. Whenanoffensehasbeencommittedandhehasprobablecausetobelieve
basedonpersonalknowledgeoffactsorcircumstance
4. Whenthepersontobearrestedisaprisonerwhohasescapedfromapersonal
establishmentorwherehewasservingfinaljudgement,temporarilyconfined
whilecaseispendingorescapedwhilebeingtransferredfromoneconfinement
totheother,
Apersonlawfullyarrestedescapesorisrescuedanypersonmayretakehimwithouta
warrantanytimeandanywhere
Whocanmakeavalidwarrantlessarrest?
Peaceofficer
Citizenandprivateperson
Requisiteofinflagrantedelictoaccusedperformedsomeovertactthatwouldindicate
thathehascommitted,actuallycommittingorattemptingtocommitanoffense
Overtactisdoneinthepresenceorwithintheviewofthepeaceofficer
PPVALUNDAY:
Exceptionofinflagrantedelicto:
1.Merepossessionofpistol,placedonthewaistofthepersondoesnot
constituteacrimeiftheofficerhasnotseenanovertactofthecrimeotherthan
thesuspicionthatthegunwasunlicensed.Inthiscase,inflagrantedelictoarrest
cannotbeinvokedifthepoliceofficerdoesnothavepersonalknowledge
indicatingthatpersontobearrestedhadcommittedanoffense
2.Receivingatipfromaninformerthataccusedwasonboardavesseland
carryingmarijuanapolicearrestedhimandinspectinghisbagretrieving3kof
marijuanaleaves.Inthiscase,therewasanillegalsearchnoovertacttoshow
thataccusedwascommittingacrimeatthetimeofhisarrest.
VALIDHOTPURSUITmusthavejustbeencommittedthecrime,therewasaprobable
causeandpersonalknowledgethatacrimehasbeencommitted.Theproximityofthe
crimeandthearrestmustbeimmediate.
2requisites:1.Offensehasjustbeencommitted2.Personmakingthearresthas
personalknowledgeoffactsindicatingthatthepersontobearrestedhas
committedit.
Exception:warrantlessarrestafterafewdays(GovCA)orafterayear
(PosadasvOmbudsman)isnotvalidanymore
Instancesofaninvalidwarrantlessarrest
1.Relayedinformationtothepoliceofficer,nopersonal
knowledge
METHODOFARRESTWITHOUTWARRANT
Ifarrestedbyofficer:informthepersontobearrestedofhisauthorityandthe
causeofhisarrest
Except:1.Theinformationneednotbegivenifthepersontobearrested
is
Engagedinthecommissionofanoffense
Intheprocessofbeingpursuedimmediatelyafteritscommission
Escapesofflees
Forcibleresists
Givingofinformationisimperilofhisarrest
Ifarrestedbyprivatepersoninformthepersontobearrestedofhisintentionto
arresthimandthecauseofhisarrest
RIGHTSOFTHEPERSONARRESTED
Righttobeassistedbyacouncilatalltimes
Righttoremainsilent
Righttobeinformedoftheaboverights
Righttobevisitedbyimmediatefamilymembers,counselofNGO
Absenceofcounselnocustodialinvestigationshallbeconductedandthesuspectedperson
canonlybedetainedbytheinvestigatingofficerinaccordancewiththeprovisionsinArt.125of
RPC
Whatiscustodialinvestigation?Thepracticeofissuinganinvitationtoapersonwhois
investigatedinconnectionwiththeoffenseheissuspectedtohavecommitted,without
prejudicetotheliabilityoftheinvitingofficerforanyviolationofthelaw
effectofanillegalarrestonthejurisdictionofthecourt>itdoesnotwaivertheadmissibilityof
evidenceseizedduringanillegalwarrantlessarrest.Ifthereareanyirregularityinthearrest
deprivingthecourtofjurisdictionuponhisperson,itshouldberaisedinamotiontoquashat
anytimebeforeenteringaplea
anapplicationforanadmissionofbailshallnotbartheaccusedfromchallengingthevalidityof
hisarrestorthelegalityfthewarrantissued,providedthatheraisestheobjectionbeforehe
entershisplea.

**legalityofanarrestaffectsonlythejurisdictionofthecourtoverhisperson,anydefectinthe
arrestoftheaccusedmaybecuredwhenhevoluntarilysubmitstothejurisdictionofthetrial
court.
**illegalarrestisnotasufficientcauseforsettingasideavalidargumentrenderedupona
sufficientclaimafteratrialfreefromerror.
**accusedisestoppedfromassailingthelegalityofhisarrestifhefailedto:(1)raiseanissue
(2)moveforthequashalofinformationagainsthimonthisground

Whoarepersonsnotsubjecttoarrest?Sec.11anysenatorormemberofthehouseof
representativesshallinoffenseofnotmorethan6yearsimprisonment,beprivileged
fromarrestwhilecongressisinsession.

SEARCHANDSEIZURE
Whatisasearchwarrant?Itisanorderinwritingissuedinthenameofthpeopleofthe
philippines,signedbyajudgeanddirectedtoapeaceofficercommandinghimtosearch
forpersonalpropertydescribedthereinandbringitbeforethecourt.
Searchwarrantisnotacriminalactionnorisacommencementofacriminal
prosecution
Purposeistosolelydiscoverandtogetpossessionofpersonalproperty
Natureofacriminalprocess
ScattershotwarrantwhichallowsmorethansearchofoneoffenseisINVALID

ARREST SEARCHANDSEIZURE

1. Concernedwithseizurefaperson 1. Searchmayfollowafterthearrest
andinvolvestakingofaperson butitmustbeincidenttoalawful
intocustody arrest
2. Probablecausejudgemusthave 2. Searchwarrantgenerallyserved
sufficientfactsinhishandsthat inthedaytimeunlessthereisa
wouldtendtoshowthatacrime directioninthewarrantthatit
hasbeencommittedtoissuea maybeservedatanytimeofdayor
warrantofarrest night.
3. Madeanydayandanytime 3. Validafter10daysforreasonof
protectionfromabusesofpolice
officerbecauseitcanbeutilized
arbitrarilyagainstperson

Applicationofsearchwarrantshallbefiledbeforeanycourtwithinterritorialjurisdiction
thatacrimehasbeencommitted.
Exception:a.applicationmaybemadebeforeanycourtwithinthejudicialregion
wherethecrimewascommittediftheplaceofcommissionisunknown
B.ithsallbefiledbeforeanycourtwithinthejudicialregionwherethewarrant
shallbeenforced
C.applicationshallbemadeonlyincourtwherecriminalactionispendingifit
hasalreadybeenfiled.
Filingforsearchwarrantofheinouscrimesillegalgambling,dangerousdrugs,illegal
possessionoffirearms
Whocanactonallapplicationforsearchwarrants?
ExecutiveandviceexecutivejudgeofRTCMNLandQuezonCity
Shouldbefiledbypnp,nbi,presidentialantiorganizedcrimetaskforceand
reactionagainstcrimetaskforce
Applicationforsearchwarrantisexparte.(wheremanythingsmaybedoneofonepart:
whentheoppositepartyhasanoticeandaffidavitordispositionissaidtobetaken
expartewhenonlyoneofthepartiesattendstotakingthesame)
Itsneitherpartofatrialorthetrialitself
Propertysubjectofthesearchandseizure
Personalpropertysubjecttotheoffense
Personalpropertystolenorembezzledandotherproceedsorfruitsoftheoffense
Personalpropertyusedtobeasameansofcommittinganoffense
Requisitesofissuanceofawarrant
Theremustbeaprobablecauseinconnectionwithonespecificoffense
Presenceofprobablecauseistobedeterminedbythejudgepersonally
Determinationbythejudgemustbemadeafteranexaminationunderoathor
affirmationofthecomplainantandwitnesseshemayproduce
Thewarrantmustspecificallydescribetheplacetobesearchedandthingstobe
seized.
Possibleremediestounlawfulwarrantlessarrestmotiontoquashbefore
arraignment
IllegalityofarrestraisedbeforetheSCisnotallowedanymore
Questionsmustbethoroughthatitcanguidethejudgetodeterminethe
probablecause
Searchwarrantcanonlybeissueduponprobablecause
Probablecauseforsearchwarrantsfactsandcircumstanceswhichwouldlead
toareasonablydiscreetandprudentmantobelievethatanoffensehasbeen
committedandtheobjectssoughtinconnectionwiththeoffenseareintheplace
tobesearched.
Probablecausetoarrestdeterminedbyjudgeiftheinformationissufficientto
issuewarrantofarrest
Howexaminationshallbeconductedbythejudge
Personallyconductedbythejudge
ExaminationinformofQandA
Complaintandwitnessesbeexaminedonthesefactspersonallyknowntothem
Statementsmustbeinwritingandunderoath
Attachthestatementsintherecord
Ascertainthenames,placesandthingstobesearchedexceptJOHNDOES.
however,thisdoesnothinderintheperformanceoftheirdutiesbysuperficial
adherencetotechnicality
PpvVelosojohndoeoccupiedabuildingno.124callearsobispo,
manilathisisclearthatthereisonepersonthatthisjohndoeisbeing
referredto.
Whataretheitemstobeseized?
Particulardescriptionofitemsorthingstobeseizedisdesignedtoprevent
generalsearchesandavoidtheseizureofathingnotdescribedinthewarrant
Warrantswhichdonotdescribethethingstobeseizedwithrequired
peculiaritygeneralwarrants

BAILPREVIEW
Purpose:tohonorpresumptionofinnocenceandfortheaccusedtoproperlyforhis
defense
Determinationofbailweightofevidencenotguiltofaccusedbeyondreasonabledoubt
becausedoingsowouldentailgoingintothemeritsofthecase
Impliedlimitationofbailbailisavailableonlythereisactualrestraintofthelawand
availableonlyincriminalcases
Bailisnotallowedtoanyperson:
Notincustodyoflaw
Accusedisconvicted
Probationlaw:appealorsuspensionofsentence(LEVISTEVCA)
Appealbroughttohighercourtitopensthewholecaseforreview
Scope:courtmayrefuse,modify,affirm,reaffirm,increaseor
decreasepenalty
Canaccuseinvokedoublejeopardyifhegoesonappeal?NO
ButifaccusedisconvictedinRTCbuthasnotfiledMRbutthe
prosecutionfiledtoCAtogivehigherpenalty,courtcandenythe
appealbecauseasfarastheaccusedisconcerned,theconviction
isfinalandexecutory.
AfterconvictioninRTCbailisNOTavailable
Burdenofproofalwayswiththeprosecutionwhileburdenof
evidencecanshift
Doesprobationwipeoutcriminalliabilityoftheaccused?NO
CaseisconvictedinMTC,appealedtoRTCcanbailbeamatter
ofright?YESSEC.4RULE114
RULE114
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