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North American University

Education Department
M.Ed. in EDLE & CUIN

Name:_Fatma Uguz___ Date: ____3/13/2017____

Instructional Project 3


This is a research assignment. Use your textbook, web articles, and NAU library
to conduct research when writing this paper.

Use APA style references and in-text- citations. You need to use at least 3
different resources besides Castronova (2002), and Moore (2015).


Download and read the following article:

Castronova, J. A. (2002). Discovery learning for the 21st century:

What is it and how does it compare to traditional learning in
effectiveness in the 21st century. Action Research Exchange, 1(1), 1-
12. Retrived from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?
After reading this article and conducting additional research, answer
to the following questions.

What is discovery learning?

Discovery Learning is an intentional learning through supervised problem
solving following the scientific method and scientific procedures. In this
method learning must be planned and supervised at each level of scientific
investigation.(Moore, 2015, p.330). Discovery learning encompasses an
instructional model and strategies that focus on active, hands-on learning
opportunities for students (Dewey, 1916/1997; Piaget, 1954, 1973). Bicknell-
Holmes and Hoffman (2000) describe the three main attributes of discovery
learning as 1) exploring and problem solving to create, integrate, and
generalize knowledge, 2) student driven, interest-based activities in which
the student determines the sequence and frequency, and 3) activities to
encourage integration of new knowledge into the learners existing
knowledge base. (Castronova, 2015, p.1 )
How does this form of teaching compare to traditional, teacher-centered
According to Castronova(2015),The first attribute of discovery learning is a
very important one. Through exploring and problem solving, students take
on an active role to create, integrate, and generalize knowledge. Instead of
engaging in passively accepting information through lecture or drill and
practice, students establish broader applications for skills through
activities that encourage risk-taking, problem solving, and an examination
of unique experiences (Bicknell-Holmes & Hoffman, 2000). Castronova says
that The five major differences between discovery learning and traditional
learning are;
Learning is active rather than passive
Learning is process-based rather than fact-based
Failure is important
Feedback is necessary
Understanding is deeper Discovery learning can be facilitated through
various strategies, or architectures, in the classroom.

What educational theories support the discovery learning model?

Jerome S. Bruner is credited with first introducing discovery learning as a

formal learning theory in 1960. Bruner publishes The Process of Education
in 1960, which introduces the concept of discovery learning. In 1966,
Toward A Theory of Instruction is published, which formalizes his earlier
work and expands the four components of discovery learning. In 1972,
Muska Mosston, introduces the concept of Guided Discovery Learning
Theory, which becomes a branch of discovery learning theory used in
tactile learning environments and situations. In 1986, problem solving
becomes a second classification of discovery learning theory and Bruner
includes this in his text Active Minds, Possible Worlds. In his more recent
works, Bruner (1986, 1990) has expanded his theoretical framework to
encompass the social and cultural aspects of learning.
What is the most important thing you discovered about discovery learning?

Students take on an active role to create, integrate, and generalize

knowledge. Instead of engaging in passively accepting information through
lecture or drill and practice, students establish broader applications for
skills through activities that encourage risk-taking, problem solving, and an
examination of unique experiences.

How can you apply this method to your future classroom?

Acoording to Garcia there are five methods that you may apply discovery
learning to classroom environment;

1. Practice PBL and STEM Within Community Partnerships

PBL (project-based learning) supports teachers in developing authentic
learning experiences with a focus on inquiry-based instruction.
2. Engage in Purposeful Play
Purposeful play should be the central learning experience in early learning
classrooms. It's a natural way of learning that supports creativity and
3. Provide Opportunities for Student-Centered Constructionism.
4. "Bloom" Your Books
Bloom's Taxonomy is complex, so rather than tackling the content in its
entirety, vet out age-appropriate question prompts and use them to guide
your read-aloud conversations.
5. Partake in Picture-Book Philosophy
Picture books hold deep philosophical curiosities. Create a community of
inquiry as a social-emotional tool to build a respectful discussion


Select one of the following chapters to conduct research: Chapter 2,
3, 5 or 12. Review the chapter and respond to related questions for
that chapter by conducting your own research.

Chapter 2- Teaching Diverse Students

1. Teaching all students. Remember that a teachers job is to teach all

students and assume an attitude that all students can learn. Research
techniques and strategies that can be used to accomplish this task.
Sources of information include the library, the Internet, current journals,
and recent books.

All students can learn by altering the structure of schoolsincluding

classroom organization, curriculum, instruction so that they are
responsive to cultural differences in socialization, cognition, and
patterns of communication.

As a result, educational practices would be differentiated in ways

that accommodate students culturally based patterns of learning
and behavior, foster the development of bicultural/bilingual
competence among all students, and lead to high academic
outcomes for all groups of children.

NCLB Act, must be examined through an equity lens to ensure that

the multiple perspectives reflected in culturally and linguistically
diverse communities are taken into account, that they guide our
development of reform activities, as well as our final evaluations of

2. Intelligence profile. Evaluate your own intelligence profile according to

Gardner. In what frames of mind (intelligence areas) do you come out strongest?
Based on Gardner evaluation my strongest intelligence area is Nature. The
evaluation says that I am sensitive to nature and environment. It says You
probably know the names of rocks, flowers, birds, and trees. You love to be
outdoors. Here are some ways to use your nature intelligence in your
Work in the garden.
Read about plants and/or animals.
Study habits of fish or birds.
Read nature magazines.
Go hiking. Take photographs of what you find on your hike. Write a
story describing the photographs.

Chapter 3- Managing Classroom Environment

1. Discipline approaches. Analyze the three approaches to classroom

management. Which approach, if any, do you prefer? Can you put
together parts of the different approaches and come up with an eclectic
approach that you think would work for you? Can you identify some basic
concepts that appear to be true of all three approaches?

My role of classroom leadership is Democratic Teacher which is kind,

caring and warm but also firm. I provide stimulation from within
through a sharing of responsibility and encouragement, rather than
demands. I dont think this is possible. If you are a democratic
teacher you cannot be authoritarian or laissez-faire at the same time.
All three methods of leadership try to organize and conduct the
business of the classroom relatively free of behavior problem. They
all try to establish and maintain of the classroom environment so
that educational goals can be accomplished.

2. Causes of misbehavior. Think back over the classes you have attended
in which there have been disciplinary incidents. List the possible causes
for any such misbehavior. How might knowledge of the causes of these
incidents influence a teachers actions? Some behavior problems are
teacher created and some are student centered. Can you think of

One of the incident that I see in my middle school time was a

classroom fight it was a break time and there was no supervision in
the time. Two boys involved a fight and they both suspended for 3
days from school. I believe there was a lack of supervision and
students misbehaved. Normally, students are supposed to be
supervised all the time including break time. This example was not
only student centered it was also teacher centered. Another example
for student centered type; we had a student who were excessively
talking in the classroom even though teacher explain all the
classroom rules and routines and he knows that he is not supposed
to talk during the instruction. Rules and expectation was clear and
we went through this procedure before in the classroom but this
student chooses still a bad attitude instead of good one.

Chapter 5- Using Classroom Technology

1. How does technology enhance the teachers ability to plan
instruction? Use one of the available search engines to explore the
web for technological tools such as lesson planning software,
worksheets and puzzle tools, poster and bulletin board production
tools, and time management tools that will assist you in planning.
Share your findings with your class.
In our school district all teachers use Eduphoria online
platform. Teachers submit their lesson plans, PD hours,
District test results,etc. in Eduphoria. There is a format for
lesson plans in the site we just upload the new plan every
week and this makes it very convenient.

3. Technology offers tools that can help students learn. To what technology
should students have access? Do you have any educational concerns
about the use of these technologies in schools? If so, what are they? If
not, why not?
In our school we offer chromebooks to all students in the classroom.
Students are using math and ELA online study and testing platforms
with their assigned notebook. They also use these chromebooks in
the project based learning class. They research for their project
homework and question banks. Using technology in the classroom is
definitely useful for students and helps their creativity, testing skills,
research skills but at the same time there should be a limitation of
using technology in the classroom and at the house. I believe
technology is necessary but if we use it excessively, it will lack
students development of social skills, their creativity and critical
thinking skills which are very critical for every students educational
and academic growth.



Moore, K. D. (2012). Effective Instructional Strategies From Theory to

Practice (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, TX: SAGE Publications Inc.

Castronova, J. A. (2015). Discovery learning for the 21st century: what is it and how
does it compare to traditional learning in effectiveness in the 21st Century? [PDF].
Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?
Bruner, J. (1990). Acts of Meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Garcia, S. B., & Guerra, P. L. (2003, March 3). Do We Truly Believe All Children Can

Learn?. Adelante [Austin], p. 5. Retrieved from


Garcia, E. (2014, December 2). Innovative practice: 5 Strategies for the Early Learning

Classroom. Retrieved from