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95 mar/09
v.54 n.03

university settings

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robert Lemermeyer

NiC Lehoux

Courtesy North house

20 University of lethBridge 11 news
gh3 announced as winner of the June
1st choice centre for health & Callwood Park international design

competition; Stantec Architecture/
Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg
A weLCome AdditioN to the uNiversity of Lethbridge dutifuLLy respeCts CAmpus Architects selected as lead design
buiLdiNgs ANd ideALs from AN eArLier erA. teXt iAN Chodikoff consultants for George Brown Colleges
new waterfront campus.

28 QUest University 36 insites

A New privAte uNiversity iN squAmish represeNts A New direCtioN for post Douglas MacLeod introduces resource-
seCoNdAry eduCAtioN iN CANAdA. teXt tANyA southCott positive design, which proposes to
construct buildings that produce more
energy than they consume.
viCtoriA beLtrANo

40 calendar
Building on History at Torontos Harbour-
front Centre Architecture Gallery;
CanBUILD09Canadian Brownfield
Urban and Industrial Land Development

42 Backpage
Victoria Beltrano asserts that the appro-
priation of public space by elderly Asian
female street vendors in Torontos China-
town creates a richer, more vibrant urban
context in the process.

mArCh 2009, v.54 N.03

coverquest uNiversity iN squAmish, brit

The NaTioNal Review of DesigN aND PRacTice/ ish CoLumbiA. photogrAph by NiC Lehoux.
The JouRNal of RecoRD of The Raic

03/09 canadian architect 

p07 Contents.indd 7 3/2/09 1:57:33 PM


Ian ChodIkoff, OAA, MRAIC

associate editor
leslIe Jen, MRAIC

editorial adVisors
John MCMInn, AADIpl.
MarCo polo, OAA, MRAIC
Charles WaldheIM, OAlA(HOn.), FAAR

contriButing editors
gavIn affleCk, OAQ, MRAIC
herbert enns, MAA, MRAIC
douglas MaCleod, nCARb

regional correspondents
Halifax ChrIstIne MaCy, OAA
aBoVedIstrIbuted at a reCent leadershIp ConferenCe In WashIngton, dC, a portraIt of Montreal davId theodore
MarvIn MaleCha, the presIdent of the aMerICan InstItute of arChIteCts, graCes a flyer urg Winnipeg herbert enns, MAA
regina bernard flaMan, SAA
Ing arChIteCts to ContrIbute to a polItICal aCtIon CoMMIttee lobbyIng on theIr behalf. Calgary davId a. doWn, AAA
edMonton brIan allsopp, AAA
vanCouver adele Weder
Having had the opportunity to attend the Ameri dessert at one of the conference luncheons, it was
can Institute for Architects (AIA) Grassroots thus a most unusual experience to watch archi toM arkell 416-510-6806

Leadership & Legislative Conference held in tects writing $1,000 cheques enabling ArchiPAC sales manager
greg palIouras 416-510-6808
Washington last month, I was completely amazed to lobby on their behalf. circulation manager
at both the level of organization and gloom in the Although the Canadian political system is quite beata oleChnoWICz 416-442-5600 ext. 3543

customer serVice
architecture profession in the US. During one of different, architects on both sides of the border MalkIt Chana 416-442-5600 ext. 3539
the sessions, Kermit Baker, the Chief Economist cannot afford to wait and see if government production
JessICa Jubb
for the AIA, noted that over 17,000 positions in chooses to support issues such as new incentives
graphic design
architecture were lost over the past six months. for affordable housing, green buildings, historic sue WIllIaMson

There are two astounding components to this preservation, consistent building codes, better Vice president of canadian puBlishing
alex papanou
statement. Firstly, that the AIA actually has a schools and welldesigned civic spacesinitia president of Business information group
bruCe CreIghton
Chief Economist amongst its 800 staffers and tives useful in stimulating a recessionary econo
secondly, that seven percent of all architectural my, never mind the profession. head office
12 ConCorde plaCe, suIte 00,
positions have been eliminated in such a short In Canada, the Conservative government re toronto, on M3C 4J2
telepHone 416510645
period of time due to a recordlow level in bill cently announced its own economic stimulus faCsiMile 4165105140
e-Mail edItors@CanadIanarChIteCt.CoM
ings. During difficult economic times, it is impor package, claiming that it needs a free hand in Web site WWW.CanadIanarChIteCt.CoM
tant that architects lobby government on issues spending $3 billion of discretionary funds, even
Canadian architect is published monthly by business Information group,
that can help stimulate the construction industry. threatening an election should opposition parties a division of bIg Magazines lp, a leading Canadian information company
with interests in daily and community newspapers and businesstobusiness
In between the many keynote addresses deliv block it. Although the government intends to information services.
ered at the conference, architects practicing in report back after it spends the cash, which will be the editors have made every reasonable effort to provide accurate and
authoritative information, but they assume no liability for the accuracy or com
certain states (e.g., Alaska, Florida and Texas) part of an interim $30billionplus package to pleteness of the text, or its fitness for any particular purpose.

were urged to meet with designated AIA staff, help stimulate the economy, the only concrete subscription rates Canada: $52.95 plus applicable taxes for one year;
$3.95 plus applicable taxes for two years (gst #09751274rt0001).
who were waiting to advise them on how to pres spending announced thus far will include a job price per single copy: $6.95. students (prepaid with student I.d., includes
taxes): $32.50 for one year. usa: $101.95 u.s. for one year. all other
sure their respective senators into supporting training facility for exsoldiers and the renova foreign: $103.95 u.s. per year.

architecturefriendly measures that were in tion of a few hockey arenas. Architects need not us office of publication: 2424 niagara falls blvd, niagara falls, ny 14304
5709. periodicals postage paid at niagara falls, ny. usps #009192.
cluded in President Barack Obamas massive get too excited just yet. us postmaster: send address changes to Canadian architect, po box 111,
niagara falls, ny 14304.
$767billion economic stimulus package. At issue In addition to helping architects through politi return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: Circulation dept., Canadian
was the elimination of $4 billion slated for the cal advocacy, the AIA recently created an informa architect, 12 Concorde place, suite 00, toronto, on Canada M3C 4J2.

greening of federal government buildings, as well tive document entitled Architecture Practice in postmaster: please forward forms 29b and 67b to 12 Concorde place, suite
00, toronto, on Canada M3C 4J2. printed in Canada. all rights reserved.
as provisions to renovate aging public school an Economic Downturn: Challenges and Opportu the contents of this publication may not be reproduced either in part or in full
without the consent of the copyright owner.
facilities. Call your Senator! Dont let victory nities, which attempts to explain to architects from time to time we make our subscription list available to select companies
slip away! exclaimed George H. Miller, a partner the current macroeconomic conditions and and organizations whose product or service may interest you. If you do not
wish your contact information to be made available, please contact us via
of Pei Cobb Freed & Partners and First Vice their implications to individual firms. Faced with one of the following methods:

telephone 100662374
President of the AIA. a different political reality and a somewhat health facsimile 4164422191
To support a conduit between architects and ier economic environment, Canadian architects e-mail privacyofficer@businessinformationgroup.ca
Mail privacy officer, business Information group, 12 Concorde place, suite 00,
government leaders, in 1980 the AIA developed should still monitor the situation in the US care toronto, on Canada M3C 4J2

MeMber of tHe Canadian business press

an advocacy arm known as ArchiPAC, a political fully and reevaluate the status quo of their own MeMber of tHe audit bureau of CirCulations
action committee. The funding of ArchiPAC is activities to ensure that an architectural agenda publiCations Mail agreeMent #40069240
issn 0008-2872
not tied to professional dues, but relies solely on becomes a political reality that will improve our
personal contributions from interested members economy and the financial health of our firms.
of the AIA. In between the main course and Ian ChodIkoff ichodikoff@canadianarchitect.com

 canadian architect 03/09

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gh3 winner of the june callwood Park

international design competition.
The City of Torontos international design com
petition for the June Callwood Park has been won
by gh3, a Torontobased architecture and land
scape design firm. The starting point of the de
sign takes a voice sampling of Junes own words
I believe in kindnessphysically mapped onto
the site, its undulations creating the abstract
geometric pattern of openings and clearings
within the dense groves of the SuperReal Forest.
The edge of this voicewave pattern creates a
sinewy path that runs north to south through five
clearings in the forest, connecting Lakeshore to
Fort York, its black granite planks touching the
edges at several points to provide eastwest
community access into the park. The SuperReal
Forest inhabits the site with plantings of native
Canadian trees, a sampling of the specimens that
would have inhabited the Lake Ontario shoreline
at the time the city was settled. The park is
loosely zoned into six clearings: the Puddle Plaza,
the Puzzle Garden, the Maze, the Pink Field Plaza,
Time Strip Gardens, and Ephemeral Pools, each
with its own unique spatial character and aspects
of unprogrammed play it encourages. The range
of experience invited in the park is rooted in
archetypal, timeless themes of human play,
rather than contrived mechanical devices or
apparatus that often limit their enjoyment to a
specific age range. The surfaces openly invite
activity that can be social, recreational or medita
tive. Support for play and selfdirected games is toPthe design for the new June Callwood Park in toronto by gh3 inCludes a Puddle
implied in the spaces, open to ageless activities Plaza and a Pink Play sCulPture for Children. aBoVe a night view of the suPer-real forest,
that could range from splashing in the shallow where Children and members of the Community are invited to Plant trees.
pools and puddles in summer, to hideandseek
in the maze, to impromptu sports in the clearing Arts Centre at the Augustana campus in Camrose. George Brown college selects planning
and tai chi in the morning by the mist pools. The facility, to cost an estimated $22 million, will and design consultants for new waterfront
Community engagement in the process will also provide performing space for local arts groups, campus in toronto.
play an important role: gh3 imagines that schools and touring groups, as well as for the George Brown College has announced the selec
Toronto youth will be active in the parks creation University. It is slated for completion in late tion of Stantec Architecture/Kuwabara Payne
and stewardship. Children from elementary 2010. The new performing arts centre could McKenna Blumberg Architects as the lead design
schools across Toronto will be invited to plant a help turn Camrosea smaller city close to three consultants for its new waterfront campus at the
tree on behalf of their schools, gathering on the urban areasinto a festival town like Niagara on centre of Torontos East Bayfront redevelopment.
site in early spring to take part in a citywide the Lake or Tanglewood, says Steven Carruthers The firms, working in joint venture, will lead the
planting ceremony that will celebrate Junes of Zeidler Partnership Architects. At almost college through the functional planning and de
life and legacy in shaping the city. The forest 40,000 square feet, the Camrose Performing sign process, assist with the review of the con
planting will also welcome members of the com Arts Centre will be constructed in two phases. struction request for proposals, and manage the
munity, friends and family of June, along with Phase One will feature a 550seat main theatre siteplan approval process with the City of
people she influenced and mentored, who will be and audience chamber. Phase Two will add a Toronto and Waterfront Toronto. Bruce Kuwa
encouraged to come together to plant a tree in her black box theatre, drama studio and additional bara will be the lead design principal behind
honour. support spaces for performances. For the Alberta George Brown Colleges new Health Sciences
project, Zeidler will engage Halsall Associates as building and its adjacent residence and fitness/
Zeidler Partnership architects to design structural engineers, HH Angus and Associates as recreation complex. The addition of a waterfront
camrose Performing arts centre. mechanical and electrical engineers and Focus campus to its existing St. James and Casa Loma
Zeidler Partnership Architects has been selected Corporation as civil engineers. Zeidlers Victoria campuses will increase George Browns overall
to design the University of Albertas Performing office will act as landscape architects. footprint in the city by 40 percent and support

03/09 canadian architect 11

p11-16 News+Ads.indd 11 3/2/09 3:13:37 PM

ween Lower Sherbourne and Lower Jarvis
Streets. The twobuilding campus will face a park
at the foot of Sherbourne Street to the east
currently slated for completion in 2010and the
new Corus Entertainment building near Jarvis
Street to the west. In December, George Brown
College received approval from Toronto City
Council, the owner of the land at the waterfront,
granting the College a 100year lease on the
proposed site. The College has also discussed
with the City intentions to partner in the fitness
and recreation complex, where the City would
build and operate an Aquatic Centre as part of the
overall development.

renovation of hamilton Farmers Market

and hamilton central Public Library.
david premi Architects inc. in association with
Rounthwaite Dick and Hadley Architects Inc.
(rdh) were commissioned by the City of Hamil
ton in early 2008 to undertake a major renova
tion of the Hamilton Farmers Market and Public
Library in the citys core. The project, which
includes 6,500 square metres of renovation and
1,000 square metres of additions, rebrands both
the market and library, and has an anticipated
construction completion of Fall 2010. Together
with the reimaging of the combined facility to
reinforce its status as a public destination, the
project represents a significant component of
Hamiltons overall urban revitalization initiative.
The project will be completed simultaneously
with a Cityadministered York Boulevard
streetscapeimprovement project, including
widened sidewalks and conversion to twoway
traffic. The renovated facility will include a new
glazed faade with colourchanging LED lights, a
green wall, and many opportunities for integra
tion of public art including video installations.
Interior partitions are to be constructed of
tempered plate glass to allow maximum visibility
and penetration of natural light. The faade will
toPthe Current state of the hamilton Central library. aBoVe david Premi/rdhs design include large operable panels to allow interior
for the new Central library and farmers market renovation in downtown hamilton space to open to the sidewalk. david premi
inCludes a transformative market sPaCe, a Community kitChen where workshoPs will Architects inc. is a Hamiltonbased firm focus
be held, enhanCed led lighting and exPanded PubliC seating sPaCe.
ing on sustainable institutional and renewal
projects. rdh is an awardwinning Toronto
growth of up to 4,000 new students per year. project design principal Bruce Kuwabara. The based firm specializing in corporate and
George Brown College has worked with Stantec/ George Brown Lakefront Development Campus institutional architecture.
KPMB Architects in the past, collaborating on the project is as much about the creation of stateof
Young Centre for the Performing Arts, home of theart educational facilities as it is about vision awards
the colleges School of Theatre Arts in the citys ary citybuilding. George Brown Colleges
Distillery District. We are excited by this oppor Centre for Health Sciences will begin working Kelly nelson doran wins the Prix de rome
tunity to expand George Brown Colleges brand closely with Stantec/KPMB to design a new in architecture for emerging Practitioners.
identity and vision with a vibrant design that sets building to help the college maintain its leader University of Toronto architecture graduate Kelly
high standards for health sciences education, ship in the delivery of interprofessional health Nelson Doran is the winner of the Canada
sustainability, architectural excellence and sciences education and training, the primary Council for the Arts Prix de Rome in Architect
community buildingfully integrated with the focus of the campus. The new George Brown site ure for Emerging Practitioners. He will have the
East Bayfront, one of Waterfront Torontos will sit lakeside on two blocks of land just south opportunity to study the impacts that resource
emerging live/work, learn/play precincts, said of its St. James campus, on Queens Quay bet development companies have on the landscape,

12 canadian architect 03/09

p11-16 News+Ads.indd 12 3/2/09 3:13:39 PM

infrastructure and urbanism of the North. This district near Kge. Worth a special mention is the
$34,000 Prix de Rome is awarded to a recent conversion of the Torpedo Boat Shipyard at
graduate of one of Canadas ten accredited Holmen Copenhagen into a block of flats at the
schools of architecture who demonstrates out turn of the millennium. In this project, the
standing potential. Over the next year, Doran will challenging starting point inspired the designers
travel to six industrial communities in Iceland, to create a unique place in which to live. Vand
Norway, Sweden and Finland to study their econo kunstens works are characterized by creative use
mic structure and how they incorporate various of the composition of the landscape. Prime

elements of sustainable development that could examples of this are Det Bl Hjrne (the Blue
enhance regional planning practices in Canada. Corner, 1989) in Copenhagens Christanshavn
His research will culminate in the publication which defies orthodox ideas of harmony, and
and exhibition of the six case studies. Born in their winning entry to the recent Klvermarken Design by Robert Chipman
Winnipeg, Doran was the 2003 University Gold zoning competition, again in Copenhagen, in
Medallist at the University of Manitoba where he which the edges of a central park area are boldly
earned a Bachelor of Environmental Design. He adorned with a new type of housing and building
also holds a Master of Architecture degree from block typologies. The medal, designed by Alvar
the University of Toronto where he was the Aalto, is awarded by the Ministry of Education,
recipient of the Royal Architectural Institute of the Finnish Association of Architects SAFA, the
Canada Medal, the American Institute of Archi Museum of Finnish Architecture, the Finnish
tects medal, the Irving Grossman Prize, and the Society of Architecture and the Alvar Aalto Foun
2007 Cohos Evamy Travelling Scholarship which dation. Previous medallists are: Alvar Aalto
funded his research travel to Fort McMurray, (Finland, 1967), Hakon Ahlberg (Sweden, 1973),
Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk. His work has been James Stirling (UK, 1978), Jrn Utzon (Denmark,
published by the MIT Press and Canadian 1982), Tadao Ando (Japan, 1985), Alvaro Siza
Architect, and is currently on exhibit at the Har (Portugal, 1988), Glenn Murcutt (Australia,
vard Graduate School of Design. Professionally, 1992), Steven Holl (USA, 1998), and Rogelio
Doran has worked with WilliamsonWilliamson Salmona (Colombia, 2003).
Inc. (Toronto), Eisenman Architects (New York),
Syverson Monteyne Architects (Winnipeg) and olson sundberg Kundig allen architects
Corbett Cibinel Architects (Winnipeg). He cur receives 2009 aia architecture Firm
rently resides above the Arctic Circle in Troms, award.
Norway where he is working with 70N Arkitek Olson Sundberg Kundig Allen Architects has
tur AS on the sustainable redevelopment of a received the American Institute of Architects
former docklands site in Copenhagen. 2009 AIA Architecture Firm Award. The distinc
www.canadacouncil.ca/news/releases/2009/ tion is based on the Seattle firms 35 years of
ts128793585879854086.htm consistently excellent work, including its seam
less blending of architecture, art, and craft;
alvar aalto Medal awarded to danish firm community involvement; attention to sustainable
tegnestuen Vandkunsten. design; and nurturing of inhouse talent. The
The tenth Alvar Aalto Medal has been awarded to annual AIA Architecture Firm Awardoften
the Danish architectural practice Tegnestuen referred to as the Firm of the Year awardis
O95573 DT LF Plainwell-CANArch.indd

Vandkunsten. Representatives of the team re the highest honour the AIA bestows on an archi
ceived the award at the headquarters of the Social tecture firm and recognizes a practice that consist
Insurance Institution of Finland (KELA) de ently has produced distinguished architecture for
signed by Aalto. This is the first time that the at least 10 years. Principals Jim Olson (FAIA),
Alvar Aalto Medal was awarded to a team of Rick Sundberg (FAIA), Tom Kundig (FAIA), Scott

LF PLAINWELL 09 02_02.tif
architects instead of an individual. Since its Allen (AIA), Kirsten Murray (AIA), and Alan
establishment in 1967, the Alvar Aalto Medal has Maskin are known for their handson project
been awarded approximately every five years to involvement; deliberate efforts to share their
persons with significant achievements in creative knowledge with firm members, students, interns,
architecture. For almost 40 years now, Tegnes and clients; and intense collaboration with artists
tuen Vandkunsten has focused on residential and craftspeople. The firms commitment to
architecture and housing developments. For sustainable design finds its roots in the firm
Vandkunstens 30 designers, social awareness is Olson founded in Seattle in 1971, which he based
also a source of beauty which does not compro on two principles: buildings can serve as a bridge
mise their ability to retain a firm grip over between nature and culture, and inspiring sur
aesthetically perfected and innovative spaces, roundings have a positive effect on peoples lives.
forms and materials. The overarching principles Known primarily for their integration of modern 877.837.3275 s landscapeforms.com
applied by Vandkunsten to design were crystal forms that blend artfully into remote, natural
lized in the offices early worksthe best known settings of the Pacific Northwest, the firms work
being Tinggrden, an innovative residential is also adept at creating dynamic urban environ
circLe rePLy card 18

03/09 canadian architect 13

p11-16 News+Ads.indd 13 3/2/09 3:13:40 PM

ments. Previous recipients include Leers Wein du Qubec (OAQ) and the Association of Archi architectural de Montral and VicePresident of
zapfel, Moore Ruble Yudell, Murphy/Jahn, and tects in Private Practice of Quebec (AAPPQ) have Cadev. Demers will share his experiences orches
KieranTimberlake. announced that the Festival of Architecture and trating the Quartier international de Montral, a
Forum, organized jointly by these three associa major urban redevelopment project that has won
coMPetitions tions, will be held in Montreal from June 17 to numerous awards.
20, 2009. More than 500 architects are expected www.festival2009.raic.org
2009 Green Poster design competition. to attend the event. The keynote speech will be
The Toronto Society of Architects in association given June 19 by Jan Gehl, Hon. FRAIC and iideX/neocon canada 2009: call for
with the Canada Green Building CouncilGreater Professor (Retired) of Urban Design with the Presentations.
Toronto Chapter (CaGBCGTC) and the Design School of Architecture at the Royal Danish Share your insight and knowledge and make a
Industry Advisory Committee (DIAC) invite Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen. Bernardo difference in your industry by presenting a
submissions for its 2009 Poster Design Competi GmezPimienta, Hon. FRAIC, is Dean of the seminar at IIDEX/NeoCon Canada 2009. With
tion. The purpose of the competition is to pro School of Architecture at the Universidad over 5,000 conference attendees and 100+
duce an image that draws attention to the value of Anahuac and a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. sessions, IIDEX is Canadas largest conference
green design, and that illustrates how design can Based in Mexico but with a reputation that ex focused on design, architecture and the built
enhance economic, social, and ecological sustain tends worldwide, Mr. GmezPimienta will speak environment. If you have an interesting presen
ability. The competition is open to everyone, in at the RAIC Foundation Luncheon. During the tation or an idea that could be developed into an
cluding students and professional artists. Parti plenary sessions, various speakers will explore educational session, you are invited to submit a
cipants must register by May 1, 2009 and submis issues relating to the conference theme. Larry written proposal. To apply, please visit the
sions are due by May 15, 2009 (only electronic Beasley served as senior urban planner with the IIDEX/NeoCon website to download an applica
submissions will be accepted). Full details about City of Vancouver for 28 years and chairs the tion form, and submit to Matthew Searle at
the competition, including a copy of the compe National Capital Commissions National Advisory msearle@iidexneocon.com. The deadline for
tition brief, are available on the TSA website. Committee on Planning, Design and Realty. He applications is April 1, 2009.
www.torontosocietyofarchitects.ca will discuss the concept of experiential plan www.iidexneocon.com
ning as a complement to sustainable urban
whats new development. Clment Demers, MRAIC, is an the works art & design Festival.
architect and urban planner who gained exten From June 19 to July 1, 2009, The Works Art &
Festival of architecture and Forum. sive experience in landuse planning and project Design Festival presents HEAT, the first festival
The presidents of the Royal Architectural Insti management with the City of Montreal, and as of Edmontons summer season with world
tute of Canada (RAIC), the Ordre des architectes head of the Socit immobilire du patrimoine renowned mindaltering art exhibits. The Works,


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the largest free outdoor art and design festival of is 89.2%. The ExAC 2008 undertaken across (May 2324), an annual event that celebrates the
its kind in North America, is a spectacular event Canada in November 2008 for the first time was citys architecture by providing free access to
that showcases the best in cuttingedge design, very successful for both the English and French buildings that are not generally open to the
digital art and new media technology alongside versions of the tests. Of the 521 interns who came public. As a learned society devoted to the exami
traditional visual art mediums. The Works is from seven different provinces, 399 interns nation of the role of the built environment in
open to the general public, where anyone can successfully completed all required sections of Canadian society, the SSACs strength comes
take advantage of the free art programs in which the exam. In development for more than two from the diversity of research and activity under
they can create their own artworks, witness years, the fourpart exam focuses on the relevant taken by its members in the study of architecture
artistsatwork demonstrations, and attend aspects of the interns architectural professional in Canada. As the sole national society whose
featured artists' lectures and eventsall while experience after completion of their university focus of interest is Canadas built environment in
enjoying Canadian performers on The Works degree. The new exam offers an alternative path all its manifestations, the annual meeting pro
Street Stage, a vibrant artisan market, and the for Canadian interns to meet professional vides a forum for the exchange of ideas and
worldclass Works Food Street. The Works Art & licensure requirements which were originally knowledge by members from all regions of the
Design Festival continues to transform Edmon only provided by the American National Council country and from the range of disciplines that
tons downtown public spaces into alternative of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB). make up its membership. Recognizing that the
galleries attracting artists and patrons from The next administration of the ExAC is expected SSAC is an organization with a broad and multi
around the world, while boosting the energy to take place during October 2009, and registra disciplinary constituency, the theme presents a
and imagination of Albertas capital city every tion will open in April 2009. challenge to the participants to consider the
summer. It continually challenges the bounda www.cexac.ca study of architecture from a number of different
ries of contemporary art and design in regional, perspectives.
national and international milieus, offering a From theory into Practice: thinking critical- www.canada-architecture.org/conference09.php
plethora of exciting exhibits and special events ly about architecture, history and theory.
to the public. This is the theme of the Society for the Study of architects applaud new national mobility
www.theworks.ab.ca Architecture in Canadas 36th Annual Confer agreement.
ence, which takes place from May 2024, 2009 at The ratification of the National Agreement on
First group of intern architects take the Ryerson University in Toronto. Cochaired by Internal Trade is great news for Canadas bur
new examination for architects in canada. George Thomas Kapelos of Ryerson University geoning architectural community. The pact,
The results of the new national examination and Sharon Vattay, the conference will coincide negotiated by federal, provincial and territorial
for interns of architecture in Canada are in, and with the annual Festival of Architecture and De
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way for full labour mobility between provinces. not be exceedingly abundant, given the few indivi Canadian Architect is to be congratulated on
Under the provisions of the new agreement, duals and the short period of history, there is in running an informative report by Kelly Doran
which comes into effect on April 1, 2009, people fact a reasonable amount of information in print. entitled Scraping for Oil (see CA, January
with a specific professional or occupational To my knowledge, the most comprehensive 2009). He should be highly commended for
certification in one province or territory will be and informative work on the subject of women exposing this disaster for all to seenot just
recognized as qualified to practice their profes architects in Canada is Designing Women: Gender architects. Two further points should be noted.
sion in all provinces and territories where their and the Architectural Profession (University of These huge operations require large amounts of
profession or occupation is regulated. Prior to Toronto Press, 2000), a reliable scholarly work water in processing, presently being taken from
this agreement, individual architects had been written by Annmarie Adams and Peta Tancred. the Athabasca River, the source of which is
required to register separately in any provincial The book is readable and very informative, and Mount Athabasca and its glacier. The extraction
jurisdictions where they might have a business I think it includes all the facts that one reason process produces tonnes of CO2 and other
interest. Much of the groundwork for this new ably needs to learn about the history of Canadian contaminants that warm the atmosphere and
agreement was established through the success of women in architecture. It mentions both signifi further contribute to the melting of the Atha
the Trade, Investment and Labour Mobility cant women and milestones (but may be short on basca glacier. Meanwhile, the continued ex
Agreement (TILMA), a partnership between the juicy gossip). Designing Women also includes an pansion of tar sands extraction has resulted in
governments of British Columbia and Alberta. extensive bibliography. the further desecration of the boreal forest, acre
Under the reciprocity agreement, in place since Prior to this, a lengthy article on Canadian upon acre. This forest is one of the most natural
April of 2007, barriers to trade, investment and women in architecture appeared in the Bulletin of ways for CO2 emissions to be absorbed. Not only
labour mobility between the two provinces were the Society for the Study of Architecture in Canada in are these multinationals using processes that
removed, allowing the free flow of recognized 1991 (reprinted in an abbreviated form in threaten their own source of water, but they are
and registered professionals. Canadian Architect in 1993). There have been destroying the very means by which their deadly
other articles in the architectural press on emissions can be eliminated or contained. It is
Letters individual women, academic theses, doctoral truly sickening to see the rape and pillage of
dissertations and regional publications on the boreal forests and glaciers caused by a lack of
In Jennifer Haliburtons book review For the subject, such as Construction Careers: Profiles of control by federal and provincial governments.
Record: The First Women in Canadian Architecture Five Early Women Architects in British Columbia, These actions are prompted by one element
(see CA, September 2008), she stated that there which was published in 1996. greed.
is a limited availability of information
soprema_canadian_architect.pdf 2/26/09 on the PM
subject of Canadian womens early involvement Blanche Lemco van Ginkel FRAIC, (Hon.)FAIA K.H. Foster OAA(L), SCA
in architecture. Although this information may Toronto, Ontario Collingwood, Ontario

16 canadian architect 03/09 circLe rePLy card 21

p11-16 News+Ads.indd 16 3/2/09 3:13:45 PM

ISSUE 31.1
The Royal Architectural Institute of Canada

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RAIC members can now get 15% off the purchase 1st Vice-President and
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Ranjit (Randy) K. Dhar, FRAIC
update your standard specifications now. Go to the
Online Purchases section of www.raic.org to order 2nd Vice-President and
Keynote Speakers one or more divisions or the entire set! Treasurer
Stuart Howard, FRAIC
The Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (RAIC),
the Ordre des architectes du Qubec (OAQ) and the Immediate Past President
Association of Architects in Private Practice of Qu- Guidelines for Determining Appropriate Kiyoshi Matsuzaki, PP/FRAIC
bec (AAPPQ) are pleased to announce the keynote Fees for the Services of an Architect
Regional Directors
speakers of the Festival of Architecture and Forum in Be sure to review and submit your comments on
Montreal, June 17-20, 2009: Stuart Howard, FRAIC
the consultation draft of this important national docu- (British Columbia/Yukon)
Jan Gehl, Hon FRAIC. Professor ment and fee schedule. The final version will be Wayne Guy, FRAIC
Emeritus of Urban Design at the released in June. Free for RAIC Members! (Alberta/NWT)
School of Architecture, Royal Danish Charles Olfert, MRAIC
Academy of Fine Arts in Copen- (Saskatchewan/Manitoba)
hagen, and founding partner of Gehl David Craddock, MRAIC
Architects. (Ontario Southwest)
College of Fellows Convocation, Ralph Wiesbrock, FRAIC
Friday, June 19. (Ontario North and East/Nunavut)

Bernardo Gmez-Pimienta Hon. Claude Hamelin Lalonde, FIRAC

FRAIC. Director of the School of
Architecture of Anahuac University, Paul E. Frank, FRAIC
will speak at the RAIC Foundation
luncheon. Chancellor of College of
RAIC Foundation Luncheon, Fellows
Friday, June 19. Alexander Rankin, FRAIC

Larry Beasley. Former senior urban 2009 Fellows Council of Canadian University
planner with the City of Vancouver, Schools of Architecture
The RAIC is pleased to announce the 2009 members
Chair of the National Capital Com- (CCUSA)
advanced to Fellowship in the College of Fellows: Eric Haldenby, FRAIC
missions National Advisory Com-
mittee on Planning, Design and Russell Acton, FRAIC Jonathan Kearns, FRAIC
Editorial Liaison
Realty. Line Belhumeur, FIRAC Peter J. Kindree, FRAIC
Ralph Wiesbrock, FRAIC
Plenary Session, Thursday, June 18. Christopher P. Bozyk, FRAIC Marc Laurendeau, FIRAC
Stanley Britton, FRAIC William M. Locking, FRAIC
Clment Demers, MIRAC. Archi- D. Gregg Brown, FRAIC Robert Mellin, FRAIC Executive Director
Thomas Bunting, FRAIC Sean P. OReilly, FRAIC Jon Hobbs, FRAIC
tect, urban planner and project man- James A. Colizza, FRAIC Giovanni de Paoli, FIRAC
ager, Director General of the Socit Darryl Condon, FRAIC Reid Pattison, FRAIC Editor
Quartier international de Montral. Louis E.J. Cooke, FRAIC Whitford A. Petch, FRAIC Denise MacDonald
Plenary Session, Friday, June 19. Terry W. Danelley, FRAIC Stephen F. Pope, FRAIC
Tye S. Farrow, FRAIC Jean-Yves Richard, FIRAC The national office of the
Every day of the Festival and Forum Paul Faucher, FIRAC Edwin Rowse, FRAIC RAIC is located at:
includes a rich schedule of Continu- Alain Fournier, FIRAC Thomas N. Sutherland, FRAIC
Ronald J. Goodfellow, FRAIC Dean P. Syverson, FRAIC 330-55 Murray St.
ing Education Activities. From June 17-20, you can James R. Goodwin, FRAIC Bruno Verenini, FIRAC Ottawa ON K1N 5M3
fulfill all your annual continuing education require- Christopher G. Gower, FRAIC F. Grenville Weis, FRAIC Tel.: (613) 241-3600
ments while enjoying the architecture of Montreal Pierre Jodoin, FIRAC Fax: (613) 241-5750
and networking with your colleagues from across
Their convocation will take place on June 19 during E-mail: info@raic.org
Canada. Keep an eye out for further information.
the 2009 Festival of Architecture and Forum in www.raic.org
For more info: festival2009.raic.org Montreal.

p17-18 RAIC.indd 17 3/6/09 1:43:50 PM

NUMRO 31.1
PRINTEMPS 2009 bref LInstitut royal darchitecture du Canada
Le principal porte-parole de larchitecture au Canada

DDN Rabais additionnel pour les

Conseil dadministration membres de lIRAC
de lIRAC de 2008-2009 LIRAC offre maintenant un rabais
additionnel de 5 % sur son prix
de vente habituel du Devis di-
Paule Boutin, FIRAC
recteur gnral et du logiciel
Premier vice-prsident et ddition qui laccompagne. Les
prsident lu membres de lIRAC profitent donc dornavant dun
Ranjit (Randy) K. Dhar, FRAIC rabais de 15 % lachat de ces produits. Pour
profiter de cette offre et vous procurer les versions
Deuxime vice-prsident et les plus rcentes des diverses divisions du DDN et
trsorier de son logiciel, allez au Centre de commandes de
Stuart Howard, FRAIC Principaux confrenciers documents en ligne de lIRAC, au www.raic.org.
Prsident sortant de charge LInstitut royal darchitecture du Canada (IRAC), lOrdre
Kiyoshi Matsuzaki, PP/FRAIC des architectes du Qubec (OAQ) et lAssociation des Lignes directrices sur la dtermination
architectes en pratique prive du Qubec (AAPPQ) ont dhonoraires appropris pour les services
Directeurs rgionaux le plaisir dannoncer le nom des principaux confren-
Stuart Howard, FRAIC ciers du Festival darchitecture et Forum des architectes dun architecte
(Colombie-Britannique/Yukon) qui aura lieu Montral, du 17 au 20 juin 2009 : LIRAC sollicite vos commentaires sur la version prliminai-
Wayne Guy, FRAIC Jan Gehl, Hon. FRAIC. Professeur re dun document intitul Lignes directrices sur la ngo-
(Alberta/T.N.-O.) mrite en design urbain lcole dar- ciation dhonoraires appropris pour les services dun archi-
Charles Olfert, MRAIC chitecture de lAcadmie royale danoise tecte. LIRAC entend publier la version finale de ce docu-
(Saskatchewan/Manitoba) des beaux-arts de Copenhague et as- ment accompagn dun tarif dhonoraires en juin prochain.
David Craddock, MRAIC soci fondateur de Gehl Architects. Le document sera gratuit pour les membres de lIRAC!
(Sud et Ouest de lOntario) Crmonie dintronisation au Collge
Ralph Wiesbrock, FRAIC des fellows, le vendredi 19 juin.
(Est et Nord de lOntario/ Bernardo Gmez-Pimienta Hon.
FRAIC. Doyen de lcole darchitecture
Claude Hamelin Lalonde, FIRAC de lUniversit Anahuac, membre de
(Qubec) lAcadmie Nationale dArchitecture et
Paul E. Frank, FRAIC du Programme National des Crateurs
(Atlantique) de CONACULTA.
Petit djeuner de la Fondation de
Chancelier du Collge des lIRAC, le vendredi 19 juin.
Alexander Rankin, FRAIC Larry Beasley. Ancien directeur de
lurbanisme la ville de Vancouver,
Conseil canadien des coles prsident du Comit consultatif de
universitaires darchitecture lurbanisme, du design et de limmobi-
Fellows 2009
(CCUA) lier de la Commission de la capitale LIRAC a le plaisir de prsenter la liste de ses membres
Eric Haldenby, FRAIC
nationale Ottawa. qui seront admis au Collge des fellows en 2009 :
Conseiller la rdaction
Sance plnire, le jeudi 18 juin. Russell Acton, FRAIC Jonathan Kearns, FRAIC
Ralph Wiesbrock, FRAIC Clment Demers, MIRAC. Architecte Line Belhumeur, FIRAC Peter J. Kindree, FRAIC
et urbaniste la Ville de Montral, Christopher P. Bozyk, FRAIC Marc Laurendeau, FIRAC
Directeur gnral Stanley Britton, FRAIC William M. Locking, FRAIC
directeur de la Socit immobilire D. Gregg Brown, FRAIC Robert Mellin, FRAIC
Jon Hobbs, FRAIC
du patrimoine architectural de Montral Thomas Bunting, FRAIC Sean P. OReilly, FRAIC
et vice-prsident de Cadev. James A. Colizza, FRAIC Giovanni de Paoli, FIRAC
Rdactrice en chef
Denise MacDonald Sance plnire, le vendredi 19 juin. Darryl Condon, FRAIC Reid Pattison, FRAIC
Louis E.J. Cooke, FRAIC Whitford A. Petch, FRAIC
Diverses activits de formation conti- Terry W. Danelley, FRAIC Stephen F. Pope, FRAIC
Le sige social de lIRAC nue seront offertes pendant tout lvnement. Du 17 au Tye S. Farrow, FRAIC Jean-Yves Richard, FIRAC
est situ au,: 20 juin, ce sera donc loccasion idale daccumuler bon Paul Faucher, FIRAC Edwin Rowse, FRAIC
55, rue Murray, bureau 330 nombre dheures pour remplir vos obligations de dve- Alain Fournier, FIRAC Thomas N. Sutherland, FRAIC
Ottawa ON K1N 5M3 Ronald J. Goodfellow, FRAIC Dean P. Syverson, FRAIC
loppement professionnel tout en apprciant larchitec- James R. Goodwin, FRAIC Bruno Verenini, FIRAC
Tl.,: (613) 241-3600 ture de Montral et en rencontrant des collgues des Christopher G. Gower, FRAIC F. Grenville Weis, FRAIC
Tlec.,: (613) 241-5750 quatre coins du Canada. Demeurez lafft, dautres Pierre Jodoin, FIRAC
Courriel,: info@raic.org informations suivront!
La crmonie dintronisation aura lieu Montral, le
www.raic.org Consultez le site de lvnement 19 juin, dans le cadre du Festival darchitecture et
www.festival2009.raic.org. Forum des architectes 2009.

p17-18 RAIC.indd 18 3/6/09 1:43:52 PM


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Below the horizon
a new wellness centre at the University of lethBridge
respects the horizontality of the prairie landscape
while acknowledging the architectUre of its iconic
erickson-Massey Modernist neighBoUr.

When approaching the city of Lethbridge from Calgary in a small propeller expansion has not always been kind, as various additions have concealed
plane, it is immediately apparent how the great rift of the Oldman River and detracted from the elegant simplicity of the original EricksonMassey
valley, with its environmentally sensitive coulees, cuts the city into two designin which Modern architecture was successfully integrated with an
halves. On the edges of those coulees lie two forces. The first is the Univer undulating topography and a respect for clear views across the horizon.
sity of Lethbridge and the elegant University Hall designed by Arthur Erick Since the 1970s, a series of unfortunateeven misguidedmaster plans
son and Geoffrey Massey. This iconic lowslung concrete Prairie Modern have forced the campus to turn its back on its prairie landscape origins,
building opened in 1972 and still commands spectacular views and a poetic thereby encouraging windswept surface parking and outdoor spaces that are
relationship to the natural landscape. The second force occurs along both completely antithetical to the early vision of a university life where students
edges of the river valley and is defined by the subdivisions and sprawl would socialize indoors rather than trudge across harsh exterior landscapes.
inching toward the coulees edge, marring its natural beauty in the desire to In an effort to rectify these wrongdoings, the 1st Choice Centre for Health
capitalize upon the expansive views of the remarkable prairie landscape & Wellness successfully enhances the social, athletic and community life at
beyond. When combined, these two forces create a condition of conflict the university by healing the spatial disjuncture resulting from the campus
between preserving the sublime aspects of this community, and the need expansion. A recent phenomenon at universities across Canada, the concept
for progress. of a wellness centre replaces the less holisticsounding athletic centre
Since the campus opened in 1972, the student population at the Univer through a broadbased approach to the sports and recreation requirements
sity of Lethbridge has grown to nearly 7,000 fulltime students. Campus of a university. As a young practitioner, Barry Johns, the design and LEED

20 canadian architect 03/09

p20-25 Lethbridge U.indd 20 3/2/09 3:27:05 PM

consultant of the facility, worked in Ericksons office. When the time came a view of the five-metre overhang and clerestory
to modify his mentors earlier vision, both Johns and partner in charge windows containing the three gymnasia. aBove the indoor
Doug Gage of Gibbs Gage Architects, the architect of record/prime consult glass-enclosed climbing wall provides a sense of drama and
ant, wanted to complement some of the original design intentions of Uni verticality to the new facility.
versity Hall.
Consisting of a new, belowgrade triple gymnasium, an elevated 200 tion programs, biomechanics and human performance research, class
metre running track and roughly 12,000 square metres of new space, the rooms and multipurpose community facilities. There is also a fitness
17,250squaremetre facility was completed in June 2007 at a total cost of centre, climbing wall, and new locker facilities. Serving both the university
approximately $23.3 million. The gymnasium and track complex is and the local community, fundraising activities were made easier. The
primarily new construction while the remainder of the work is carved out of university financed the majority of the project while the City of Lethbridge
the existing building. In deference to University Hall, the design team contributed $5.3 million, and a communityled capital campaign topped up
mitigated the bulk of the vertical programming and massing of the new the balance of the money required to make the building a reality.
facility by effectively burying substantial portions of the building below The entire redevelopment construction process spanned two academic
grade. Designed to accommodate both university and community athletes, years with the building being continuously occupied except for the partial
recreational athletics and even regional and national sporting events, the summer recess. The first phase involved the demolition and salvage of a
facilitys programming is vast. It includes kinesiology and physical educa small classroom wing and the conversion of a concrete, semicircular gym

03/09 canadian architect 21

p20-25 Lethbridge U.indd 21 3/2/09 3:27:07 PM

nastics studio into a tiered lecture theatre
accommodating 300 people.
The main entrance on the north side guides
visitors through a central street linking the old
building with the new facility, allowing visitors to
experience the excitement of looking onto an
elevated fourlane indoor track within the large
50foothigh volume housing three gymnasia
with retractable seating for 2,100 people. Regu
larly held spectator events and convocations will
be serviced via track access to the retractable
seating in the gymnasium. The daytime activities
will emphasize university program and academic
uses with sports and recreation activities during
the evenings. The triple gymnasium is oriented
in a northsouth direction, and excavated deep
enough below grade to connect with the existing
and adjacent Physical Education complex, Max
Bell Pool and the Student Union Building through
a system of tunnels. Also on the main level are
kinesiology research labs, classrooms and other
foodservice facilities.
Critical to the success of the design is an
additional floor that was inserted in between the
main level and the level of the gymnasium floor
which contains the control/management centre,
multipurpose rooms, fitness areas, sports medi
cine clinics, and change roomsboth for the
students and for the community. David Hewko, a
building program consultant with Cannon,
orchestrated this achievement. Building a new
floor into the volume of the existing gym allowed
the program elements to fit together, enabling a
much needed expansion to the otherwise con
strained locker room areas at the gym level while
transforming the original dark corridors on the
main level into more generous daylit spaces.
There is even a glassenclosed climbing wall
that provides a focal point to the interior of
the facility as it rises up through the structure,
defining the buildings verticality and sense of
The architect team was initially targetting the
building for LEED Silver, but in fact they are now
pursuing LEED Gold. Through a range of sustain
able design strategies, the project has achieved
energy savings of more than 40 percent, as
compared to a similar building of its type and
size. With a partially buried building, the design
certainly incorporates a highperformance
building envelope. To enhance its sustainability
quotient, the facility uses strategies such as PVC
roofing to reduce heat absorption, displacement

top left previously a gymnastics studio,

this semicircular concrete drum has
been converted into a tiered lecture
theatre that can accommodate 300
students. left a glass-guardrailed stair
leads visitors from the main level to an
infill floor containing a myriad of
athletic and community activities.

22 canadian architect 03/09

p20-25 Lethbridge U.indd 22 3/2/09 3:27:09 PM

ventilation, and a water reduction program
resulting in a 30percent decrease in water
consumption. To power the building, the centre
has a 10year power contract with a nearby com
mercial wind farm in McGrath.
The horizontal perimeter of clerestory glazing
is a driving architectural element in the new
building, providing light during the day and
emitting a glowing band of light at night. The
material palette of the exterior is straightforward,
comprising groundface masonry units, con
crete, zinc and composite aluminum. Materiality
on the interior is equally simple with the addition
of wood elements wherever possible. The inte
riors originally envisioned more timber and
wood elements that were eventually sacrificed.
Nonetheless, there is still an effective contrast
between the heavier elements of concrete and
the comparatively lighter elements of prosaic
drywall and tempered glass guardrails. The
glazing used in certain areas around the gymna
sium and the climbing gym certainly helps en
hance the perception of unencumbered space
and increased natural daylight.
In 2007, the Canadian Institute of Steel Con
struction recognized the project for its unique
steel structure supporting the roof. To stabilize
the floating roof over the gymnasium and to
maximize the effect of the clerestory windows,
steel columns were specially designed to provide
more lateral bracing than usual. The structure
incorporates threedimensional HSS trusses,
spanning 36 metres and supported by sloping V
shaped columns. Secondary trusses span over the
primary trusses, thereby creating roof overhangs
that cantilever almost five metres beyond the
building face, achieving the effect of a floating
roof. The curved bottom chords of the trusses
were developed to maintain the roofs sleek
profile and to minimize truss depth, maximizing
transmission of natural light from the clerestory
windows that surround the building. Engineers
used shear walls to provide additional stability.
When combined with the light shelves oriented
primarily in a northsouth direction, the cleres
tory permits light levels in the gymnasium and
running track to exceed 400 lux, allowing the
facility to operate during the day without lighting.
The new University of Lethbridge1st Choice
Centre for Health & Wellness is a sympathetic
addition to the campus. It is a building whose
vertical circulation is highly expressed, as
illustrated by such devices as the gymnasium,
climbing wall and central stair. But as much of its

top rightthe new triple gymnasium can

operate during the day with little or no
artificial lighting. right the elevated 300-
metre running track can be directly
accessed from the public level or main

03/09 canadian architect 23

p20-25 Lethbridge U.indd 23 3/2/09 3:27:11 PM

1 2


3 4 5


9 9


level 02


topthe entrance to the facility, when

approached from the parking lot. aBove
1 the convergence of aluminum, glass
and concrete block provides an ele-
gant low-slung foundation to the
7 floating roof.
program operates below grade, it maintains a low
profile on campus, thereby respecting the
architecture of its EricksonMasseydesigned
4 neighbour while acknowledging the importance
level 01
of the horizon linean element that is so im
portant to this prairie community. ca

level 02
1 field events/multi-purpose training centre
2 main entrance
3 food service seating and new circulation
4 tickets
5 5 storage
6 replacement classroom
7 multi-purpose
4 8 future kinesiology lab
9 washrooms
10 auditorium
3 11 eXisting offices
12 upgraded labs and classroom space
13 eXisting pool facility
level 01
1 triple gymnasium
2 fitness centre
3 climbing centre
4 future sports medicine
5 renovated and new public circulation
2 2 1 6 multi-purpose room
7 locker/change room
8 eXisting pool facility
9 storage
10 eXisting change room facilities

level 00
1 eXisting teaching lab
2 teaching labs
3 sessional/graduate student offices
4 breakout room
5 fitness storage
level 00 0 8M 6 storage

24 canadian architect 03/09

p20-25 Lethbridge U.indd 24 3/2/09 3:27:13 PM

courtesy university of lethbridge
client university of lethbridge
architect teaM doug gage, vince dods, ed sych, harold
bichel,tom khuu, sandra zelt, keith armbruster, Jeff cordick,
barry Johns, graeme Johns, david hewko, darryl Johnson,
bruce hagedorn, John paulsen, bob Johnston, larry podhora,
art ferrari, dan westwood, henry warszawski
strUctUral read Jones christoffersen engineering ltd.
Mechanical wiebe forest engineering ltd.
electrical stebnicki + partners the horizontal beacon glows at night; a corner view illustrates
clockwise froM top left
landscape gibbs gage architects
contractor graham construction the discreet nature of this new facility and its respect for the original campus archi-
area 17,250 m2
BUdget $23.31 m
tecture; the first building on campusthe iconic university hall; the new wellness
coMpletion June 2007 centre with the high level bridge seen in the background.

section 1

new existing

section 2 0 6M

03/09 canadian architect 25

p20-25 Lethbridge U.indd 25 3/2/09 3:27:24 PM

CirCle reply Card 24

p26 Alpolic ad.indd 26 3/6/09 2:43:33 PM

CirCle reply Card 25

p27 Enbridge ad.indd 27 3/4/09 11:48:58 AM

Quest for the future

an ambitiously planned private university

responds to the dramatic mountainous
landscape of coastal british columbia.

proJectQuest university Canada, sQuamish, British ColumBia

hotson Bakker BonifaCe haden arChiteCts + urBanistes
teXt tanya southCott
photos niC lehoux

The challenge of place-making in the heart of Sea former president of the University of British tution that charges a $25,000 annual tuition.
to Sky Country is to create an architecture that is Columbia who had a vision to build a private Today, the $100-million campus considers itself
responsive to the dramatic landscape of coastal university soon after he retired as president in an integrated community that draws its inspira-
British Columbia rather than subservient to it. 1997. The process of creating Quest University tion from its spectacular context while nurturing
Located in Squamish, a community geographi- was not without its challenges from those who an intimate sense of community akin to the
cally midway between Vancouver and Whistler, felt that the university would undermine the European hillside village, albeit one with state-
Quest University is Canadas first private not- public educational system. Despite these chal- of-the-art sustainable design.
for-profit, secular liberal arts university. It was lenges, Strangway managed to open the university In 2003, Hotson Bakker Boniface Haden Archi-
created through the vision of David Strangway, a in 2007, with 160 students enrolled in an insti- tects + Urbanistes were retained by the Sea to Sky

28 canadian architect 03/09

p28-34 Quest U+Ad.indd 28 3/2/09 3:07:38 PM

Foundation (now known as Quest University
Canada) to develop a master plan for the univer-
sity. Located at the mouth of Howe Sound, the
new campus sits atop 240 acres of coastal moun-
tain range in the Garibaldi Highlands about 10
kilometres outside Squamishs town centre. The
first phase of the project featured the design of
key campus buildings including the library,
academic building, services building and the
recreation centre. Yet to be completed, the
second phase will feature more community-
driven development including residential market
housing, a chapel, a theatre and a neighbourhood
commercial hub, not to mention more academic
buildings to accommodate a student population
that will eventually surpass the universitys cur-
rent capacity of 800 students.
The university marks a new direction for post-
secondary education in Canada. Designed pri-
marily for undergraduate studies, the liberal arts
and science program approaches its curriculum
thematically, integrating multiple disciplines
into intensive three-and-a-half-week blocks.
Classes are kept small through seminar-based
learning with a student-to-teacher ratio of not
more than ten to one. Even the universitys
mottoIntimate, Integrated and International
attempts to describe this unique educational
experiment while setting the stage for an archi-
tectural manifestation of its ideology. The oppor-
tunity to develop a campus design that responds
to the universitys philosophy while addressing
the students yearning for a different educational
environment is unprecedented.
Winding its way up and around the campus, the
approach along University Parkway reveals a
series of robust buildings carefully integrated
into their natural surroundings. Of note is the
central academic complex that sits at the top of
the steeply sloping knoll like a modern acropolis.
But rather than design pristine sculptural objects
set against the landscape, the architects designed
campus buildings to firmly embrace the site and
its surrounding beauty.
At the core of the university, buildings are
designed to take advantage of dramatic views
that frame a series of interlocking plazas. The
campuss library sits on the uppermost peak
while the academic and services buildings are set
into the more steeply sloping western portion of
the site. Collectively, they frame the main
outdoor social area for the campus whose fourth
opposite The new library aT QuesT univer-
siTy is a glowing beacon amidsT The
snow-capped peaks of The garibaldi
highlands. riGht, top to bottom The brighT
red sTair inside The library is inscribed
wiTh many liTerary QuoTes; sTudenTs
Take The afTernoon off and drink
smooThies on The Terrace of The new
sTudenT services building.

03/09 canadian architect 29

p28-34 Quest U+Ad.indd 29 3/2/09 3:07:44 PM

aboveThe rhyThm of The library buildings
faade is clearly arTiculaTed, while The
colourful sTairs aT The corners anchor
The building.

side opens up to the landscape beyond. Outdoor


walkways, landscaped open spaces and large

terraces link one building to the next and tie the
1 45

complex together through numerous opportu-

nities for visual connections with the outdoors.
1 55

1 55

The library serves as both the heart of the

campus and a gateway to the university
6 community. Yet it is an introverted, centrally

5 focused building constructed around a large

2 H:1V

1 three-storey interior atrium functioning as the

5 main social hub for the building. High clerestory
windows allow daylight to penetrate deep into the
1 55

2 interior, creating a room that is warm and wel-

16 1 5.

coming, even during the shorter days of winter.

An opportunity for impromptu social engage-
ment, the central staircase connects the adminis-
tration, student services and caf at the ground
level with the upper two levels of the library. With
360-degree awe-inspiring views as a panoramic
backdrop, only the view from the library stacks
site plan 0 100M uses the landscape as a visual focus.
1 library 5 future residences The academic building is the largest building
2 services building 6 future building
3 academic building 7 future meditation centre in the complex. Organized around a central
4 recreation centre
exterior courtyard that follows the natural

30 canadian architect 03/09

p28-34 Quest U+Ad.indd 30 3/2/09 3:07:51 PM

above The curved archiTecTure of The
academic building embraces sTudenT life
while miTigaTing The feeling of long,
insTiTuTional corridors.

contours of the site, each floor plate is designed

to create a series of social spaces that contribute
to the academic life of the school. Modestly sized library building: longitudinal section 0 10M library building: cross section

seminar rooms are located along the perimeter of

the building, while smaller breakout rooms are
focused inwards. Wide corridors with framed
views of the courtyard below and the mountains
beyond link these two areas together. To give
another level of expression to the building, each
study and meeting space is coded by door type
and differentiated by glass panels that feature a
different piece of a larger poem. recreation building: east elevation recreation building: section 0 10M

Both the services building and recreation

centre are designed as meeting places for
students and faculty as well as the local com-
munity. The double-curved roof of the services
building opens up toward the south while over-
head doors open up to the patios and plazas to
maximize sunlight and provide opportunities to
connect outdoor spaces with the large informal
cafeteria and multipurpose room. To date, the
recreation centre accommodates a collegiate-
level gymnasium, fitness area, squash courts and
change rooms. Commercial units are still under service building: longitudinal section 0 10M

03/09 canadian architect 31

p28-34 Quest U+Ad.indd 31 3/2/09 3:07:58 PM

development and have yet to become operational. adapted throughout the campus to further above left glass-and-cedar canopies shield
As the first development along Village Drivethe enhance the user experience. Along with sTudenTs from The elemenTs as They
universitys main streetthe recreation centre concrete, metal, glass and wood, colour is used to walk across The cenTral courTyard.
above The concreTe faade of The aca-
offers the opportunity to become a more auth- unite the architectural expression of each
demic building uses recessed openings
entic village centre once development in the area building and becomes a tool for wayfinding
To play wiTh sun and shadow. bottom,
increases. within the complex. Individual floors within left to riGht walking across one of The
While the experience of each building is gov- each building are distinguished by fields of many courTyards on campus; The solar
erned by its individual program-driven design, colour, as are prominent circulation cores that shading devices insTalled on The aca-
the buildings complement each other throughout become beacons of colour and light. demic building are clearly visible; look-
ing pasT The library Toward The academ-
the complex via common materials, colour, and Both compact and walkable, the campus is also
ic building wiTh a view of The moun-
their relationship with the outdoors. The completely accessible. Visitors are dropped off at Tains beyond.
materiality of the buildingsheavy timber and the library where access to all buildings and
laminated beams, or horizontally laid corrugated amenities is convenient and close. Parking and accessible from one entrance bay only, thereby
metal sidingis clearly informed by the indus- service areas are located underground, along a eliminating requirements for excessive service
trial context of the region. Canopies and shading utilidor that runs beneath the complex and access roads.
devices are assembled from a kit of parts, beyond pedestrians experience. These are Part of the mandate for Quest University was to

32 canadian architect 03/09

p28-34 Quest U+Ad.indd 32 3/2/09 3:08:01 PM

use environmentally, socially and economically
responsible principles going back to Strangways
original motto, and to this end the strategies read
like a checklist. Geothermal heating and cooling,
used as the main energy source for the campus,
are distributed through radiant-slab systems.
Siting was sensitive to the existing conditions of
the landscape to minimize rock blasting while
retaining the maximum number of trees. More-
over, the design of interior and exterior spaces
was also governed by solar orientation. All
buildings have operable windows for natural
ventilation and user comfort while exterior
sunshades and high-performance glazing were
used wherever appropriate. Locally sourced
materials, the use of bioswales, infiltration fields
and retention ponds further reduce environ-
mental impact of the campus.
Though modest in program and spatial require-
ments, Quest University could have easily been
accommodated by one building with a more com-
pact footprint. As it sits, the campus uses 60
acres to accommodate fewer than 1,000 full-time
students, faculty and staff. The decision to spread
the program across the site reflects a socially
motivated attempt to instill a more urbane, user-
friendly environment for the new student popu-
lation. The use of circulation to enhance social
interaction in the creation of more sustainable
spaces has been a focus of Hotson Bakker Boni-
face Hadens work since their redevelopment of
Vancouvers Granville Island in the 1970s. While
the transformation of a dilapidated industrial site
into a vibrant, livable community was visionary at

The services building is

riGht, top to bottom

viewed from inside The library; The expres-

sive sTeel-and-wood-sTrucTure inside The
services building; exTerior of The recrea-
Tion building.

03/09 canadian architect 33

p28-34 Quest U+Ad.indd 33 3/2/09 3:08:04 PM












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p35 BASF ad.indd 35 ad CanArch.indd 1 Docket #: BAS09-5717 Magazine: Canadian Architect Colours: cmyk 1/22/09 11:33:25AM
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Client: BASF Canada Issue: Resolution: 300 dpi

remaining Positive

ResouRce-Positive Design is becoming the latest aPPRoach in

aDaPting the Design PRocess to incoRPoRate bRoaDeR issues of aBovean examPle of ResouRce-Positive Design initiatives is team
sustainability. noRth, which involves stuDents anD faculty at the univeRsity
of wateRloo, RyeRson univeRsity anD simon fRaseR univeRsity,
along with inDustRy PaRtneRs. as one of only two canaDian
teXt Douglas macleoD entRies selecteD to PaRticiPate in the 2009 solaR Decathlon
comPetition taKing Place at the national mall in washington,
Dc in octobeR, team noRth will builD a maRKetable solaR-
PoweReD home that maKes use of the latest in high-PeRfoRm-
ance aRchitectuRe anD mobile communication technology.

Over the past few months I had the privilege of interacting with some of This concept is similar to the Living Building Challenge created by the
Canadas top engineers, architects and social scientists in the field of Cascadia Region Green Building Council (www.cascadiagbc.org/lbc)
sustainable design, and their work suggests a sea change in architecture and although the Living Building Challenge does include mechanical electrical
design that will make computerization look like a minor disturbance. systems in its design process. Emmanuel Lavoie, an engineer and president
Exemplary programs such as Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporations of Reevolution in Kelowna, has been active in the Living Building move-
EQuilibrium Sustainable Housing Demonstration Initiative (www.cmhc.ca/ ment, and as he describes it, The buildings are meant to generate no waste,
en/inpr/su/eqho/index.cfm) have shown that it is possible with todays emit no carbon emissions, and interact with the environment similarly to a
materials and technologies to construct buildings that are net zeroin flower. Examples of these prerequisites include a requirement to achieve
other words, they produce as much energy as they consume. In the near net-zero energy and water independence for the project, treat all sewage
future, however, we may be able to create buildings that are a benefit (rather onsite, and provide a one-time project construction carbon offset.
than a detriment) to the environment, and this is the promise of resource- No matter what this movement is called, it raises significant questions
positive design. that the profession must address: What if our buildings generated more
I first heard the term resource-positive design from Toronto-based energy than they consumed? What if they purified more water than they
architect Martin Liefhebber, principal of Breathe Architects, who explained used? What if they generated more fresh air than the greenhouse gases they
that, Traditional design relies on energy solutions through mechanical emitted? What if they incorporated more waste materials in their construc-
electrical systems which pollute as they deliver comfort. Resource-positive tion than they created? What if every new development grew more food than
design suggests that comfort can be delivered by means of material re- it needed?
sources instead of machines. Here, the building fabric is the facilitator of These questions are not just environmental or architectural in nature.
comfort without fouling our primary materialthe atmosphere. They suggest both a reassessment of our basic economic strategies and our

36 canadian architect 03/09

p36-38 Insites.indd 36 3/2/09 2:01:13 PM

approach to urbanization and development. In 1994, John Elkington used aBove a collaboRation of stuDents, faculty anD staff fRom
the phrase Triple Bottom Line to describe a full cost-accounting approach calgaRys fouR leaDing PostseconDaRy schoolsthe univeRsity
to human activities. This has variously been described as Economy, Environ- of calgaRy, sait Polytechnic, mount Royal college anD the
ment and Equity, or People, Planet and Profits, but the idea is that success- albeRta college of aRt + Designthe albeRta solaR Decathlon
ful developments must add value to all three dimensions and this defines a team will PResent its Design foR an eneRgy-efficient home at
the solaR Decathlon in washington, Dc. the Design combines
sweet spot where they all overlap. In architecture, this sweet spot has moDulaR exteRioR anD inteRioR comPonents incoRPoRating
proven elusivenot only do buildings have a poor environmental record, tRaDitional westeRn canaDian wooDen Post-anD-beam stRuc-
but we have also reached a point where home ownership is beyond the reach tuRes, a south-facing DecK anD a RooftoP Patio accessible
of far too many Canadians. fRom insiDe the home. a centRal coRe, finisheD with a DaRK
Resource-positive design could change that. I currently pay more than stone suRface, houses all the functional amenities. the exteR-
ioR claDDing featuRes ReclaimeD wooD oveR a PanelizeD steel
$500 a month in utilities including heating, water, electricity and telecom- system, anD an innovative solaR hot-wateR system is integRat-
munications. With a resource-positive house, that equation could be eD into a glazing unit.
reduced or even reversed. Homeowners would be compensated for the
excess energy they generated, the carbon they sequestered or the water they
purified. In a wireless world, they could even generate revenue by bouncing the utilization of its thermal mass, and the use of daylight and natural venti-
cell phone and Internet signals from one house to the next. While this in lation are the simplest and most effective means to move a building towards
itself wont make housing affordable, it would have a significant and net-zero emissions. Passive design is a gift which we have yet to fully appre-
positive impact on the monthly costs of home ownership, and hence, on ciate or take advantage of. Hydes confirms this point of view when he says,
social equity. As with all renewable energy ideas, the key is to reduce the basic load by
Is resource-positive design possible or even feasible? According to Kevin smart design, then buy the power-generating technology.
Hydes, the former Chair of the World Green Building Council and CEO of Nonetheless, a great deal still has to occur before resource-positive
Integral, Resource-positive buildings are not only possible but are design becomes commonplace. Liefhebber asserts that, Each Canadian
happening already. In the United States, the Department of Energys Solar needs to reduce his or her share of carbon production by 95%. Reduced
Decathlon competition requires a net-zero approach and net-zero- consumption is essential for the success of this idea, but as Dr. Andr
emission buildings are being designed and built globally as we speak. This Potvin of Laval University points out, some 25% of a buildings performance
year, two Canadian teams will be taking part in the international Solar depends on the behaviour of its occupants. In other words, we need to use
Decathlon competition where university students compete to build solar- design to encourage us to change our behaviours. This can be as simple as
powered houses on the Mall in Washington, DC (www.albertasolardecathlon. operable windows or easily understood meters that tell us how much energy
ca and www.team-north.com). Hydes adds that, We have the knowledge, the we are consuming.
skills and some of the learning already in place. In Europe, for example, the According to Hydes, The main issue for Canada is cost. Our building
PassivHaus has set the benchmark for low-energy residential homes, and materials for low-energy buildings are still too expensive due to lack
global technology transfer is happening now. (www.passiv.de/English/ of adoption. Three-element glazing, for instance, is a minimum stan-
PassiveH.htm) dard in northern Europe but not in Canada. Maguire adds, We also
As Liefhebber has advocated, the PassivHaus is designed to achieve a need our clients to show and express an interest and desire for these new
reasonable level of comfort without active heating or cooling systems. What approaches.
it demonstrates is that even without advanced technologies, a great deal can To help those clients take advantage of the potential of resource-positive
be accomplished with a common-sense approach to design. Alan Maguire, design, we may need new economic structures as well. In a working paper
principal of Alan Maguire Architect, points out that, First we need to entitled Homes With Tails: What If You Could Own Your Internet Connec-
exploit the possibilities of passive designthe careful siting of a facility, tion, (www.newamerica.net/publications/policy/homes_tails), authors Derek

03/09 canadian architect 37

p36-38 Insites.indd 37 3/2/09 2:01:13 PM

Slater and Tim Wu relate how rural communities
often set up their own power and telephone
utilities when other forms of service were not
feasible. We may need to return to this model to
tap into locally generated energy sources, and we
may also need expanded funding programs to
help homeowners, building owners and
communities upgrade and retrofit their buildings
to become resource-positive.
Most of all, if we are to achieve resource-
positive design, Canada needs a comprehensive
research program in green buildings. According
to the Canada Green Building Council, while the
Canadian construction industry accounts for
some 12% of our Gross Domestic Product, less
than 0.7% of the total cost of building permits
issued in 2006 was reinvested in research. The
sad fact of the matter is that we really dont know
what works and what doesnt.
Recently, I had the opportunity to work
with Dr. Ann Dale, Canada Research Chair in
Sustainable Community Development at Royal
Roads University on a research proposal called
Resource+, which hopes to address this issue.
As Dale explains it, Resource+ is an inter- and
trans-disciplinary, trans-institutional research
collaboratory, which will capture critical data on
the carbon and energy footprints of buildings and
communities to inform the development of
carbon-management strategies for decision-
makers in government and business. This
$15-million proposal includes close to 100 re-
searchers at 16 universities from across Canada
and a variety of private-sector companies ranging
from international giants such as IBM to startups
such as Energy Aware Technology, which pro-
vides tools for real-time feedback on energy
The strength of Dales approach is in its cross-
sectoral nature. Given the multifaceted nature of
the problem, resource-positive design cannot be
achieved by a single profession or discipline. It is
not too farfetched to say that resource-positive
design provides the AEC industry with a chance
to make a profound difference to the future of the
planet if we can develop the means to work
together effectively. There is no doubt that such
an approach demands a radically different
approach to design, but there is also no doubt
that Canadian architects, engineers, developers,
contractors, owners, operators, financiers and
researchers could play a leadership role in this
movement. ca
toP the abonDance le soleil PRoject is a tRiPlex that was built on an emPty lot in veR-

Note: Over the last few months, a number of Dun, Quebec. it combines a wiDe Range of eneRgy-efficient techniQues anD technolo-
gies with its own in-house sustainable eneRgy systems such as a geotheRmal heat
architects and engineers have generously agreed to
PumP system, solaR theRmal Panels anD an 84-Panel Photovoltaic aRRay. aBove the toP
share their presentations on sustainable design. To of the annex townhomes is a toRonto infill PRoject that emboDies a new vision foR
view these presentations, please visit www.ostec.ca uRban infill housing. the thRee townhouses will incoRPoRate a Range of eneRgy-
and click on the link called Canada-British Colum- efficient featuRes, incluDing gRounD-souRce heating, a highly insulateD builDing
bia Green Building Mission. enveloPe, eneRgy-efficient winDow glazing, concRete walls sePaRating the units anD
a concRete toPPing on the flooRs.

38 canadian architect 03/09

p36-38 Insites.indd 38 3/2/09 2:01:15 PM

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Flynn Canadas new AccuPly compos- exhibition at Torontos Harbour University of Waterloo School of
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cost-effective approach to new and
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aluminum composite wall panels and Company Ltd. Architects, E.R.A. robert Miles Kemp lecture
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can be incorporated as an exterior or
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construction and/or any retrofit appli- of work from the photographic ser Faculty Building at the University of
cations. ies Elegy for a Stolen Land by Peter Calgary.
circLe rePLY card 109 Sibbald in response to his own re www.architecture.ca/causa/index.
flections and questions posed by html
Kingpsan insulated Panels this idea.
Kingspan Insulated Panels has estab- www.harbourfrontcentre.com/ anne Lacaton lecture
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Le CorbusierThe Art of lecture on her recent work at
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perior performance and environment- Architecture 6:30pm at the University of Water
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circLe rePLY card 110 together a wealth of Le Corbusiers Chan Lecture at 6:00pm in Room
paintings, films, sculpture and G10 of McGill Universitys Mac
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February 25-April 30, 2009 This ex of Architecture, Landscape and De
mercial properties, Versailles Stone
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40 canadian architect 03/09

p39-41 Show+Clndr+Ad.indd 40 3/4/09 4:58:04 PM


canBuiLd09: canadian Brown- ers this lecture at 6:30pm in Room Philip Beesley lecture of The Culture Industry in Los An
field urban and industrial Land 103 of the John H. Daniels Faculty of April 9, 2009 Philip Beesley of the geles delivers this lecture at 6:00pm
development Summit Architecture, Landscape and Design University of Waterloo School of in Room 2160 of the Professional
April 1-2, 2009 This event at the at the University of Toronto. Architecture in Cambridge delivers Faculty Building at the University
Marriott Toronto Airport will focus www.daniels.utoronto.ca this lecture at 6:00pm in Room of Calgary.
on key solutions for land redevelop 2160 of the Professional Faculty www.architecture.ca/causa/index.html
ment, how to raise revenue, clean chantal Mouffe lecture Building at the University of
up derelict districts and improve April 9, 2009 As part of the Urban Calgary.
the quality of life in the community. Field Speakers Series, Mouffe, www.architecture.ca/causa/index. For more inFormation about
these, and additional list-
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ings oF Canadian and inter-
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nancing options, community en on several understandings of the Benjamin h. Bratton lecture www.canadianarchitect.com
gagement, and design integration. notion of public space and their April 16, 2009 Benjamin H. Bratton
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03/09 canadian architect 41

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informal Publics
observAtions on how the creAtive Act of street-venDing Asserts
A collective right to the city.

teXt + Photos victoriA beltrAno

leftAt the DunDAs/spADinA intersection

in torontos vibrAnt chinAtown,
resourceful femAle siDewAlk venDors
sell their wAres from mAkeshift cArD-
boArD-box tAbles.

temporarily appropriate the private space of an

adjacent vestibule or unattended lobby, placing
themselves past the boundaries of public juris-
diction, thereby proving their tactical strength in
relation to challenges of authority.
The vendors also appropriate time in the
formal urban fabric. Their actions reveal
untapped temporal use of urban space during
sanctioned tenants off hours, as in the case of
weekend spatial appropriations. Otherwise,
underused or invisible surfaces such as ledges,
thresholds and doorways are occupied, identify-
ing and creatively expanding the ways in which
these spaces are used at various times of the day,
week or season.
Finally, through different actionsfinding,
claiming, bringing their wares to, and participat-
ing collectively in these spacesthe women place
themselves in a position to see and be seen, seiz-
ing an otherwise untapped potential. Demon-
strating resourcefulness and ingenuity, they
appear to construct their adaptable micro-archi-
tectures out of local finds or discards and sell
mostly wares that are seemingly homegrown
(gourds and greens), made (lotus leaf-wrapped
sticky rice) or found (used clothing).
Testing accepted spatial and temporal bound-
aries, these vendors collectively contribute to the
Like countless other major North American cit- no exception. Its public and semi-public realms production of a richer, more vibrant urban pub-
ies, Toronto has been shaped by a complex and have a history of being temporarily appropriated lic. In a city voicing concerns about sanitization
evolving set of urban plans, formalized visions by street merchants, ranging from shopkeepers and privatization of our public realm, the design
and regulations. However, in terms of its politic- formalized sidewalk stalls to more controversial community can learn from such participants and
al, cultural and social production, the city is also situations not legally sanctioned. Interesting their modes of operating. These resourceful,
transformed by peoples accumulated engage- ephemeral examples of the latter are the groups often discrete actions should remind designers
ments with it. These activities can best be of elderly Asian sidewalk vendors. While the that there are lessons to be learned from everyday
described as the informal publics of everyday informal acts of these women may seem weak and spatial expertsthose who find, actively engage
life. Most often beyond designers intentions, marginal, they are in fact producing a relational and redesign urban space anew. ca
these publics reveal less visible urban dynamics public urban space created by peoples engage-
and serve a more fundamental role in what ment with it, rather than defined by a permanent Victoria Ann Beltrano is currently studying the role of
French sociologist and urban theorist Henri built form or presence. informal publics and urban social spatial appropria-
Lefebvre refers to as ones right to the city. The activities of the street vendors in China- tions at the University of Waterloo School of Architec-
The busy intersection of Spadina Avenue and town are unsanctioned, but for the most part tol- ture.
Dundas Street in the heart of Chinatown West is erated. When authorities intervene, the women

42 canadian architect 03/09

p42 BackPage.indd 42 3/2/09 2:01:41 PM

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