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# Aristotle Galileo-the first mathematical law of nature

A moving object will continue moving in a straight line at a constant speed, and a stationary object will remain at rest,
unless acted on by an unbalanced force.
The acceleration produced on a body by a force is parallel and proportional to the magnitude of the force, and inversely
proportional to the mass of the object.
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
newtons, joules, watts, Kelvin, Celsius
1 kcal = 4182 J, 1 eV = 1.6 x 10-19 J,
Food chain
Third trophic level
producers- herbivores- carnivores- big carnivores
Efficiency of organism converting energy from the lower trophic level to build up their own body (in forms of chemical
energy) is quite low in general (< 10%).
closed or isolated system=> in a closed system the total amount of energy, including heat, is conserved.
Heat will not flow spontaneously from a cold to a hot body
You cannot construct an engine that does nothing but convert heat to useful work
Every closed system becomes more disordered with time
In macroscopic description, entropy can be defined as dS = q/T. change of entropy, q is the heat added to the system
reversibly, and T is the temperature
Abiogenesis
Frank Drake also proposed in 1961 a method to estimate the number of active extraterrestrial civilizations in the Milky Way
galaxy with which we could make contact
Dalton: Atoms as tiny, indivisible, dense, solid spheres. identical mass for given element.
Thomson: Raisin bun model of atom (or Plum pudding model)
Rutherford: atomic nuclei, Scattering experiment: Solar system model of atoms
isotopes hydrogen deuterium tritium
Leptons: Do not participate in strong force; Hadrons quark; Higgs-like boson
Bohr model; Planck's constant; ground state; excited states
The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
measurements*: sample; source of energy; detector; Wave-particle duality
Nuclear fusion; Neutron capture; nuclear decay; S-process: a neutron; R-~: several neurons
Periodic Table; Technetium (Tc) and promethium (Pm) are synthesized elements
atomic radius, ionization energy, and electronegativity
Halogens Alkali MetalsAlkali Earth MetalsThe Noble GasesAufbau Principle
A molecule is an assembly of nuclei and electrons which prepare to coexist in a certain configuration and with considerable
stability.
Chemical reaction occurs whenever bonds are formed or broken between molecules
Single displacement: an uncombined element displaces another element from a compound
Double displacement: two sets of atoms are replaced
Exothermic Endothermic activation energy Concentrations k=A exp(-Ea/RT) Arrhenius
selective bond dissociation (SBD) Intermolecular Interaction (H bond)
Some particular combinations of atoms give character to the molecule =: functional group
Valence shell ; Tetrahedral Solvent
Structural isomers; Stereoisomer Conformational isomerism Enantiomers
Amorphous ; Graphene ; Fullerene C60; Graphite ; allotropes capillary effects
A reaction is said to be spontaneous if it could occur by itself at a particular temperature (and/or pressure) without the help
of any outside force or influence.
Turbine