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Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 378396

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Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research


j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s e v i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / j v o l g e o r e s

Petrological inferences on the evolution of magmas erupted in the Andagua Valley,


Peru (Central Volcanic Zone)
E.V. Srensen , P.M. Holm
Department of Geography and Geology, Geocenter Copenhagen, University of Copenhagen, ster Voldgade 10, Dk-1350 Copenhagen, Denmark

A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T R A C T

Article history: Major and trace element and Sr and Nd isotope data is presented from the Andagua valley scoria cone and
Received 30 March 2007 lava eld (1532 S 7219 W), Southern Peru in the northernmost part of the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ).
Accepted 30 May 2008 The rocks are all quite evolved in composition (SiO2 = 5564 wt.%) and classify as benmoreites, latites and few
Available online 9 June 2008
mugearites and trachytes. Samples are characterized by high Na2O (4.25.2 wt.%), Sr (6001300 ppm), Ba
(8001600 ppm). The main difference between the benmoreites and latites is in the Na2O content that reach
Keywords:
Andes
the highest so far reported from CVZ for these SiO2 concentrations. The rocks are generally nearly aphyric but
Andagua latites and trachytes are more porphyritic. Amphibole microphenocrysts generally are only present in latites
geochemistry and trachytes. The difference between benmoreite and latite samples is reected in lower P2O5 and Zr
fractional crystallization content of the latite samples documenting the existence of two compositional different parental magma
mixing types. The investigated volcanic activity spans the Pleistocene to Recent with the historic activity
concentrated in the area just south of Andagua. Combined relative stratigraphy, petrography and
geochemistry dene volcanic units and demonstrate that rocks from Chilcayoc Grande, Chilcayoc Chico 2,
Jenchana, Sucna 1 and Chilcayoc Chico 1 represent the most recent volcanic activity. The main trend samples,
each form a co-magmatic group resulting in sub-parallel trends in many variations diagrams. It is
furthermore shown that these trends point towards calculated mixing lines relating the individual units
through a binary mixing process, thus indicating a two stage evolution. In the case of Jenchana, Sucna 1 and
Chilcayoc Chico 1, the samples dene positive correlation trends in the Sr vs. Rb diagram that can be
extrapolated back towards origo indicating nearly perfect incompatibility of Sr and Rb. This together with
generally high Sr/Y (50105) and low Y content (b 16 ppm) suggest lack of plagioclase fractionation and
residual garnet in the source and is taken as evidence for relatively high pressure (lower crustal) origin of the
mixing event. The amphibole bearing samples form individual co-magmatic groups that cannot be related to
each other. This means that the amphibole bearing samples originates from different magmas. The lavas of
the Ninamama group are comparable in age to the main trend samples but different in petrography and
composition, why the two compositional different magmas must have existed within a small conned area
within a limited time span.
2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction for around a 300400 km horizontal distance before it changes again


to a steeper subduction angle (Hasegawa and Sacks, 1981).
The volcanic activity in the Andean Cordillera related to the Generally primary arc magma production is believed to be initiated
subduction of the Nazca Plate is in general divided into 3 zones the in the metasomatised asthenopheric mantle wedge over the sub-
Northern (NVZ), Central (CVZ), Southern (SVZ) volcanic zones (Fig. 1a). ducted plate and subsequently evolved through a range of possible
They are characterized by a relative steep (2530) subduction angle processes like MASH, fractional crystallization, AFC and magma
(Barazangi and Isacks, 1976) separated by volcanic inactive segments mixing at different levels in the mantle and crust. The Central
(Fig. 1a), the Peruvian Flat-slab (PFS) and southern Pampean Flat-slab Volcanic Zone is underlain by an old and exceptionally thick
(PFS) where shallow subduction is relatively steep (2530) until continental crust of ~ 70 km (James, 1971). The erupted products are
depths of around 100 km where the subduction becomes relatively at mainly andesites, dacites and rhyolites and to a lesser extend basaltic
andesites all are highly enriched in incompatible elements and have
elevated 87Sr/86Sr, 18O/16O and low 143Nd/144Nd isotopic ratios,
characteristics usually accredited to crustal contamination.
Corresponding author. Present address: Geological Survey of Denmark and
Greenland, ster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Kbenhavn K, Denmark. Tel.: +45 38142265;
Davidson and Silva (1992) have shown that study of minor centers
fax: +45 38142050. with mac rocks might reveal more information on origin of magmas
E-mail address: evs@geus.dk (E.V. Srensen). than the plagioclase and amphibole porphyritic rocks typical of the

0377-0273/$ see front matter 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.05.021
E.V. Srensen, P.M. Holm / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 378396 379

Fig. 1. (a) Location map of the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) in the western South America (modied after Ort et al., 1996). NVZ, SVZ and AVZ are the Northern, Southern and Austral
Volcanic Zones of the Andes. CVZ is separated from the NVZ and SVZ by the volcanic inactive Peruvian at-slab and Pampean at-slab segments. (b) Map showing the Northern most
part of CVZ in southern Peru (modied after Thouret et al., 2005). The Andagua valley is located immediately behind the volcanic front close to the large Sabancaya and Coropuna
volcanic complexes in the northernmost part of CVZ.

large stratovolcanoes that make up the bulk of the CVZ volcanic front, volcanic rocks of Cenozoic (Barroso Group) and Miocene (Orocpampa
since any geochemical trend in the latter is likely to reect fairly mainly formation) age are exposed in the valley sides in the northern part.
shallow level differentiation. Many of these minor centers are Cabrera and Thouret (2000) has subsequently divided the Andagua
distributed along structural lineaments within the crust and may group into 4 subgroups (Andagua 14) based on morphology of cinder
therefore represent tapping from lower level magma chambers cones, where Andagua 1 are the oldest and thought to be of
(Davidson and Silva, 1992; Mattioli et al., 2006). The Andagua valley Pleistocene to early Holocene age, Andagua 2 is estimated to be of
lava eld (1532 S 7219 W) in the northernmost part of CVZ close to middle Holocene age while Andagua 3 is from the younger Holocene
the transition to the Peruvian at slab region is an example of such, and and Andagua 4 represents the historic activity.
therefore potentially hold important information to be extracted about
processes occurring at deeper crustal levels. In this study, eld 3. Sample collection
characteristics, major and trace element data together with Sr and Nd
isotope data are presented documenting the volcanic history from The investigated area was divided into 3 geographical areas being
Pleistocene to recent. Main emphasis is put on explaining observed northern Andagua, central Andagua, and southern Andagua as shown on
compositional variation though possible magmatic processes. By Fig. 2. The samples were mainly collected from lava ows and cinder
focusing on the youngest activity it is shown that a suite of nearly cones and are subsequently divided into volcanic units, such that each
aphyric samples form individual co-magmatic groups that can be related volcanic unit represents a separate eruptive phase that can be
to a common source through binary mixing at lower crustal depths. distinguished in the eld. An overview of petrography, area coverage
and eld characteristics of the sampled volcanic units are given in Tables
2. Geological setting 1 and 2, with the main characteristics briey summarized below.

The Andagua valley (1532 S 7219 W) is located 300 km NW of 3.1. Northern Andagua
Arequipa in southern Peru (Fig. 1b) immediately behind the volcanic
front in the northernmost part of the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) The volcanic units from Northern Andagua were further subdivided
approximately 230 km from the PeruChile Trench and about 125 km into Northern Andagua N, Northern Andagua S and Puca Mauras based on
above the subducting Nazca-plate. The Nazca Plate is 44 Ma old geographical occurrence (Fig. 2) and estimated relative age of the different
(anomaly 20 after Herron, 1972) around the southern cost of Peru and volcanic structures. The volcanic units sampled from Northern Andagua N
is subducted in a N80 direction at an average rate of 46 mm/yr are summarized in Table 1. They are all cinder cones with related lava
(Sbrier and Soler, 1991). The Andagua valley is around 60 km long ows located north of Puca Mauras. No further distinguishing was made
from Orcopampa 3800 m a.s.l. to the intersection with the Colca valley between the volcanic units. The cinder cones are generally more gently
south of Ayo 1600 m a.s.l. and is a rift structure limited by N 150160 sloping and vegetated as are their lavas compared to Northern Andagua S
faults oriented oblique to the western cordilleras (Venturelli et al., and Puca Mauras volcanic units and are therefore thought to represent the
1978; Delacour et al., 2002). The regional geology is described by oldest volcanic activity. Cabrera and Thouret (2000) mentioned the
Caldas (1993). The valley is characterized by young volcanic rocks Mauras N cone as an example of the oldest Andagua 1 group activity and
mainly lava ows and cinder cones that form an extensive lava eld, the volcanic units from Northern Andagua N will therefore be considered
referred to as the Andagua Group by Caldas (1993). The Andagua belonging to this group although no direct dating have been done.
volcanics rest upon older Pleistocene alluvial deposits and sandstones The samples from Northern Andagua S were collected from the
from the Yura Group of Jurassic age. The Yura Group sandstones are Tisco, Yanamauras and Yanamauras S all cinder cones with no clear
exposed in the valleys sides in the southern part of the valley, while lava ows related to them. The 3 cones are closely spaced in an
380 E.V. Srensen, P.M. Holm / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 378396

Fig. 2. Simplied geological map of the area around the Andagua valley (modied after Caldas, 1993). Young volcanics are grouped as the Andagua Group. The geographical extent of
the Andagua Valley is marked by the extent of the Andagua group from around Orcopampa in the north (stippled) towards the intersection with the Colca River near Ayo. The studied
area has subsequently been divided into Northern Andagua, Central Andagua and Southern Andagua geographical areas. The volcanic structures in the northern part are older and
more degraded compared to the volcanic structures of the central area that represent the youngest activity. No eruptive centers have been identied in southern Andagua.

approximately linear fashion south of Puca Mauras and are thought to volcanic structures are cinder cones with associated lavas, but some pure
be older than Puca Mauras cone based on vegetation and slope angle. effusive units (Ninamama and Sucna 1) and dome like structures (Cerro
Cabrera and Thouret (2000) has reported a 14C age of 4050 50 years Accopampa) occur as well. The Ninamama unit includes two separate
for the Cerro Tisco ash from the Andagua 2 group. The 3 sampled lava ows that subsequently are grouped together because of similar
volcanic units will be considered belonging to this group. geochemistry and petrography. Through eld work and interpretation of
The samples from Puca Mauras of middle Holocene age (Cabrera and aerial photographs a relative stratigraphy was partly establish and
Thouret, 2000) were collected from lavas associated with the Puca summarized in Table 2. The youngest units seem to be Ninamama,
Mauras cinder cone the largest volcanic complex in the eld area. The Chilcayoc Chico 1 and Sucna 1. Cabrera and Thouret (2000) gives a 14C
Puca Mauras lavas covers and area of approximately 50 km2 and are partly age of 370 50 BP for the Chilcayoc Chico 1 cone giving the youngest
covered by volcanic ash on the southern side. The sampling however volcanic activity a historic age. The oldest volcanic units seem to be
shows that the geochemical composition of the eruptive products are Jatun, Uchuy, Soporo and Antaymarca all located in the NV part of central
quite diverse and a further division into 4 units (Puca Mauras 14), that Andagua at or close to the valley side. These have subsequently been
can be related to geographical distribution, can be made, being ash grouped together as Older Central Andagua and are characterized by
samples from the southern ank, the southernmost lavas, near crater having a different trace element composition compared to the youngest
samples and samples from the northernmost lavas respectively. It is samples from central Andagua. It is not clear if the Older Central
therefore not certain if all 4 units are of middle Holocene age. Andagua samples should be grouped as Andagua 2 or 3 in the
terminology of Cabrera and Thouret (2000).
3.2. Central Andagua
3.3. Southern Andagua
The central area around Andagua can be characterized as a vast lava
and cinder cone eld from which 17 volcanic units that covers an area of The southern part of the Andagua valley covers the area from around
around 38 km2 (Fig. 2) have been extensively sampled. Most of the the Sucna village to the Colca River. The area is characterized by
Table 1
Table 1 overview of petrographic characteristics, areal coverage and eld characteristics of the volcanic units from the northern and southern area and the subarea with the older central Andagua units. Each geographic area is divided into
Schematic
Schematic
geographicoverview
subunits of petrographic
that volcanic units areal coverage and eld characteristics of the volcanic units from the northern and southern area and the subarea with the older central Andagua units. Each geographic area is divided into
contain thecharacteristics,
geographic subunits that contain the volcanic units

E.V. Srensen, P.M. Holm / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 378396
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382 E.V. Srensen, P.M. Holm / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 378396

narrowing of the valley to around 1.52 km combined with a large change calculation of trace elements concentrations. In samples where major
in topography. The change in topography has resulted in some long thin element compositions have not been determined by XRF on fused glass
lava ows. These lavas was originally divided into four units (Sucna 2, Pre discs a different method was used in establishing the trace element
Sucna, Ayo and Colca lava) which could be distinguish in the eld and on composition. By measuring all 150 samples for major elements by XRF on
aerial photographs. Of these 4 units only Sucna 2 could be traced to an pressed powder pellets and comparing the counting rate to the major
eruptive center immediately east of the Sucna eruptive center and no element composition of the 38 samples as given by analysis on fused glass
eruptive center was found south of Sucna. The lavas from southern discs a linear relation can be established relating counting rate with major
Andagua cover an area of approximately 23 km2 and are subsequently element composition. This relation is subsequently used to establish the
considered as one group, although this might be a simplication. major element composition to be used in the calculation of trace element
composition of the remaining samples. The isotopic compositions of Sr
4. Petrography and Nd were measured on a VG Sector 54 TIMS instrument at the
Geological Institute, University of Copenhagen. Sample powders were
The Andagua lavas are generally nearly aphyric with a trachytic dissolved in concentrated HF and HNO3. Standard laboratory methods
texture with 02% microphenocrysts of mainly an- to subhedral clino- were used for extracting Sr and Nd. The Sr isotope analyses were corrected
pyroxene and an- to euhedral plagioclase in a glassy matrix with some for mass fractionation to 86Sr/88Sr=0.1194. Reproducibility was tested by
cryptocrystalline material, plagioclase microlites and 12% oxides. measuring the NBS987 standard which yielded 87Sr/86Sr=0.71023415 (2
Olivine occurs in a few samples as sub- to euhedral microphenocrysts , n=19). The within run precision for 87Sr/86Sr is between 57 ppm
with variable amount of iddingsite in cracks, and as skeletal hopper type (2SEM). The Nd isotope analyses were corrected for mass fractionation to
146
(Donaldson, 1976) microphenocrysts (Fig. 3). Amphibole is present in Nd/144Nd=0.7219 and the reproducibility was measured by the JM Nd
some samples as sub to euhedral microphenocrysts and phenocrysts standard which amounted 143Nd/144Nd=0.51110615 (2 , n=16). The
(Fig. 3). The amphiboles are generally partly to completely replaced by within run precision for 143Nd/144Nd was 38 ppm (2SEM).
opaque material (oxides see Fig. 3). Orthopyroxene is rare and have only
been found in two of the older samples (#121-006 and #121-133). 6. Geochemistry
The samples can be divided into two petrographic groups based on
the presence of amphibole of which the amphibole bearing samples 6.1. Rock classication
generally are more porphyritic. A short summary of samples contain-
ing amphibole, which is petrographically identied to be oxyhorn- The samples are classied after the total alkalis (Na2O + K2O) versus
blende, is included in Tables 1 and 2. Samples containing amphibole SiO2 diagram (Fig. 4) as recommended by IUGS (Le Maitre et al., 2002).
from Northern Andagua geographical area are restricted to the Puca The majority of the samples classies as trachyandesites and can be
Mauras volcanic center and are only found in the near crater samples further divided into a sodic and a potassic (benmoreite and latite) series
and from the northern Puca Mauras lavas. Samples containing according to Le Bas et al. (1986). A few basaltic trachyandesites that
amphibole from Central Andagua geographical area are restricted to belong to the sodic series (mugearite) as well as trachytes also occur. All
Uchuy volcano unit from Older central Andagua, Ninacaca, Jechapita, samples are quartz normative and therefore sub-alkaline although they
Ninamama and from one sample from Sucna 1 while samples from the plot at or above the dividing lines between alkaline and sub-alkaline
southern Andagua geographical area all but one (Colca lava) have rocks proposed by Kuno (1966) and Irvine and Baragar (1971). Since only
amphibole either as a phenocryst or as reaction products after Fe3+(total) and not Fe2+ have been measured, Fe2O3/FeO ratios recom-
amphibole. The plagioclase phenocrysts from the amphibole bearing mended by Middlemost (1989) have been used in the CIPW norm
samples from Central and Southern Andagua generally have more calculations. Even if all iron occurs in its divalent state, the samples
euhedral shapes than the amphibole baring samples from Northern would be quartz normative and they are denitely sub-alkaline. It
Andagua which show more rounded feldspars with sieve texture should be noted that Delacour et al. (2002) classify the Andagua
(Fig. 3). There is no unambiguous correlation between the occurrence volcanics as high-K andesites based on the K2O vs. SiO2 plot (Gill, 1981).
of amphibole and rock type although most amphibole bearing According to the TAS classication only samples plotting in the basalt,
samples classies as latites and trachytes. basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite and rhyolite elds may be subdived
Xenoliths are present in some samples and are generally of two according to relation between K2O and SiO2 and thus not the Andagua
types. The rst type has a rather sharp contact with the host and rocks. To ease comparison with the previously published analyses we
consists of equigranular quartz grains, and resembles quartzite from show lines dividing low-K, medium-K, high-K and shoshonite have been
the Yura Group that makes up the sub-volcanic basement. This type of included in the K2O vs. SiO2 diagram (Fig. 5a).
xenolith is mainly found in the Ninamama lavas where it reaches sizes
of up to 10 cm. These xenoliths have probably been incorporated at a 6.2. Major and trace element
late stage during magma ascent and the geochemical interaction
between xenocryst and melt is thought to have been minimal. Quartz Variation diagrams of selected major and trace elements are
also occurs as xenocrysts as larger grains with a corona of pyroxene presented in Figs. 5ad and 6. SiO2 ranges 5564 wt.% with a small
(Fig. 3) and therefore represents a different xenocryst where time compositional gap between 60 and 64 wt.%. Silica correlates
allowed quartz to react with the melt. negatively with CaO, TiO2, Fe2O3(total), MnO and MgO while K2O
and Na2O correlate positively with SiO2. By comparing the K2O and
5. Analytical methods Na2O variation diagrams (Fig. 5a and b) it is clearly shown that the
main difference between benmoreite and latite series is in the Na 2O
Major element composition were determined at the Geological Survey content while the K2O content at a given SiO2 level is approxi-
of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) by XRF on fused glass discs using a mately the same for the two rock types. Benmoreite samples from
Phillips PW1606 instrument except for Na2O (atomic absorption spectro- Jechapita and 2 samples from Older Central Andagua however fall
metry) and FeO (potentiometric titration) for 38 selected samples. Details out of this trend. In the case of the Jechapita samples they are at the
of the analytical procedure are given in Kystol and Larsen (1999). Trace same time correspondingly low in K2O, why they still classify as
element compositions were measured on 150 samples by XRF at the benmorietes. Al2O3 correlates positively with SiO2 in the case of the
Geological Institute, University of Copenhagen on pressed powder pellets latites samples while the benmoreites correlate negatively
using a Phillips PW 1400 instrument. Major element composition of (Fig. 5d). The latites generally have lower P2O5 content at a given
samples is used to establish the mass-absorption coefcient used in the SiO2 and do not show a clear correlation with SiO2, while the
Table 2
Schematic overview of petrographic characteristics, areal coverage, eld characteristics and relative stratigraphy for central Andagua. Each geographic area is divided into geographic subarea that contains the volcanic units. For each volcanic
unit is listed the units younger and older than the given volcanic unit, respectively, based on eld relations

Area Central Andagua

E.V. Srensen, P.M. Holm / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 378396
Subarea Jenchana Cerro Ninamama Ninacaca Chilcayoc Chico 1 Chilcayoc Chico 2 Jechapita Chilcayoc Grande Sucna 1
Accopampa

Volcanic Unit Jenchana Cerro U-lava Ninamama Ninacaca Chilcayoc Chico 1 Chilcayoc Chico 2 Jechapita Chilcayoc Grande Sucna 1
Accopampa
Petrographic Nearly aphyric Fine grained Fine grained, 510% Fine grained Nearly aphyric Aphyric Fine grained 5% Nearly aphyric. Few skeleltal Nearly aphyric. Few
characteristics aphyric amphibole 510% microphenocrysts olivine phenocrysts skeleltal olivine
phenocrysts, large (up phenocrysts amphibole phenocrysts
to 10 cm) quartzitic amphibole
xenocrysts

Areal coverage 5 1 0,3 3,5 1,5 6,5 0,15 4,5 10 2,7 (+aprox. 3)
(km2)

Volcano type Open cinder cone with related Circular dome Small Lava ow Cone like Open cinder cone Open cinder cone Cinder cone with small Cinder cone with related lava ow. Lava ow extruded
and eld lavaow that can be followed like base u-shaped with well structure with with related lava with Chiclayoc leeves on easten anks The lava can be followed for 5 km on top of the
characteristics towards Chachas. The lava is structure with lava ow devolped small gullys ow that can be Chico 1 lavas and partly ash covered in the Central Andagua where it Chilcayoc Grande
found under the Chilcayoc steep northen levees partly covered followed on and covering southern lavas to the south. The forms a broad lava coverage from lava. The lava can be
Chico 2 and Ninamama lavas anks covered by outlining by younger around the southern ank hindering ash is only found on this where decents into Southern followed as a thin
and on the northern ank of a small lavaow the ow. volcanic ash ank of Chilcayoc identifcation of unit and not on any of Andagua as around 3,5 km long lava ow for around
the Chiclcayoc Chico 2 cone. on the sloping that restricted Chico 2 towards possible related the surrounding units. thin lava ow that can be followed 12 km into Southern
southern ank. to the unit. Chilcayoc Grande. lavaows. for 3,5 km. Andagua.

Younger than Ninacaca Chilcayoc Chico 2 Ninacaca Cerro Accopampa Jechapita Chilcayoc Jechapita Chilcayoc Chico 2 Chilcayoc Grande
based on eld Older Central Andagaua Ninacaca Older Chico 2 Older Central Southern Andagua
relations Central Andagua Andagua Jenchana
Jenchana Chilcayoc Grande
Ninacaca

Older than U-lava Ninamama Chilcayoc Ninamama Ninamama Chilcayoc Chico 1 Chilcayoc Chico 1 Chilcayoc Chico 1 Sucna 1
based on eld Chico 1 U-lava Cerro Jenchana Chilcayoc Grande
relation Accopampa Chilcayoc Grande
Jenchana Ninamama
Chilcayoc
Chico 1

383
384 E.V. Srensen, P.M. Holm / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 378396

Fig. 3. Photomicrographs of selected samples. (a) Nearly aphyric Chilcayoc Grande lava with rare skeleltal olivine phenocrysts sat in a glassy matrix with feldspar laths dening a
trachytic texture. (b) Porfyritic Ninacaca lava (trachyte) with sub to euhedral plagioclase (white) and amphibole phenocrysts (dark grey) sat in a trachytic matrix. (c) Lava with
rounded feldspar phenocryst with typical sieve texture. (d) Uchuy lava showing quartz xenocryst surrounded by a corona of clinopyroxene.

Benmoreites form a broad positive trend at higher P2O5 at a given tion between Rb and SiO2 (Fig. 6a) and is enriched approximately 45
SiO2 (Fig. 5c) (Table 3). times from the most primitive to most evolved sample. The overall
Since major elements have only been measured for parts of the trend is that the HFSE (Nb, Th and Zr) LREE (Ce, Nd and La) and LIL (Ba,
sample set, while trace elements have been analyzed in all samples, Rb and Pb) elements behave incompatibly, while the transition metals
SiO2 can not be used as a fractionation index in presenting trace (Cu, Zn, V, Ni and Cr), Ga and Sr behaves compatible. Y and Sc do
element variation. Instead Rb is used as a fractionation index since it generally not correlate with Rb. The overall trends are far from simple
behave incompatible during differentiation as shown by the correla- and might be a little misleading because there is a large variation
within some volcanic units at one level of Rb and Sr even behaves
incompatibly within some groups. The variation with respect to
volcanic units will be addressed in the following paragraph.
The samples have typical CVZ characteristics such as negative
Nb anomaly in primordial mantle normalized spider diagrams with
high LILE/HFSE (Ba/Nb 100170) and LILE/LREE (Ba/La = 2438). Most
samples either have a small positive Sr anomaly or at pattern in the
PM normalized spider diagram. They have high Sr/Y ratios (50105)
and all plot in the adakite eld of Defant and Drummond (1990).

6.2.1. Trace element characteristics of individual volcanic units


The volcanic units can be distinguished and characterized by their
trace element composition since most volcanic units form discrete
groups with a relatively limited trace element variation. The
geochemical characteristics of the volcanic units have been summar-
ized in Table 4 and will be described in the following.

6.2.1.1. Chilcayoc Grande, Chilcayoc Chico 2, Jenchana, Sucna 1 and


Chilcayoc Chico 1. Samples from Chilcayoc Grande, Chilcayoc Chico 2,
Fig. 4. Total alkalis vs. SiO2 (TAS) diagram showing classication of samples. Solid lines Jenchana, Sucna 1 and Chilcayoc Chico 1 volcanic units form well
denoted Kuno (1966) and Irvine and Baragar (1971) are proposed dividing lines
between alkaline and subalkaline rocks. The Andagua samples are at or above these
constrained correlation lines in Zr vs. Rb (R2 = 0.97) and in Nb vs. Rb
dividing lines. All samples, however, are quartz CIPW normative and therefore (R2 = 0.92) that subsequently will be referred to as the main trend to
considered subalkaline. which the other volcanic units can be compared (Fig. 6b and c).
E.V. Srensen, P.M. Holm / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 378396 385

Fig. 5. (ad) Variation of K2O, Na2O, P2O5 and Al2O3 vs. SiO2. Legend is given in 5a. Dividing lines between low-K, medium-K and high-K in Fig. 5a are taken from Le Maitre et al. (2000)
whereas the dividing line between high-K and the shoshonite eld are taken from Rickwood (1989). (eh) Comparison of the Na2O, P2O5, Sr and Ba content of the Andagua samples to
southern Peruvian samples, the overall CVZ compositional variation and samples from Payachata, Tata Sabaya and the Bolvian Altiplano. Legend is given in Fig. 5f. Data from Southern
Peru (Ubinas: Thouret et al., 2005; Sabancaya: Gerbe and Thouret, 2004; Coropuna: Venturelli et al., 1978; Solimana: Vatin-Perignon et al., 1992), Nevados Payachata (Wrner et al.,
1988; Davidson et al., 1990), Bolivian Altiplano (Davidson and Silva, 1995), Tata Sabaya (de Silva et al., 1993), CVZ (GEOROC database accessed Nov. 2006).
386 E.V. Srensen, P.M. Holm / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 378396

Fig. 6. (ah). SiO2, Zr, Nb, V, Sr, Ba, La and Y vs. Rb. The overall trend is that HFSE, LREE and LIL elements behave incompatibly, whereas transition metals and Sr behaves compatibly.
Generally Y do not correlate with Rb. Main trend samples (Chilcayoc Grande, Chilcayoc Chico 2, Jenchana, Sucna 1 and Chilcayoc Chico 1) dene sub-parallel trends best illustrated in
the Sr, Ba, La and Y vs. Rb plots. It is furthermore noted that Sr behaves incompatibly within the volcanic units of the main trend samples. This is illustrated in Fig. 6e where the
primary arrow denotes the overall decrease of Sr with increasing Rb. Arrows marked secondary illustrates the contrasting positive correlation of Sr and Rb for the main trend
samples. The correlation trends of the main trend samples can be extrapolated back towards (0,0) as illustrated by the stippled arrow which indicates that Sr behave incompatibly
within the main trend samples. See text for further discussion.
Table 3
Major and trace elements and Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of Andagua volcanic rocks

Area Northern Andagua Central Andagua

Subarea Northern Andagua N Northern Andagua S Puca Mauras Older central Andagua

Volcanic Mauras N Mauras S Cerro Tisco Yanamauras S Puca Mauras 3 Southern ank Puca Mauras 4 Puca Mauras 2 Uchuy Jatun Soporo Antaymarca
unit

Rock type Benmoreite Latite Benmoreite Benmoreite Latite Trachyte Benmoreite Benmoreite Benmoreite Benmoreite

E.V. Srensen, P.M. Holm / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 378396
Sample # 121019 121133 121045 121016 121102 121061 121064 121130 121135 121149 121148 121025 121026
SiO2 58.366 58.317 58.504 58.119 56.444 60.453 63.873 56.697 56.543 56.698 58.473
TiO2 1.011 1.085 1.125 1.173 1.332 1.122 0.917 1.298 1.281 1.26 1.129
Al2O3 16.765 16.49 16.785 16.698 16.883 16.762 15.892 17.641 17.021 17.033 16.875
Fe2O3(total) 6.192 6.404 6.144 6.286 6.926 5.607 4.946 6.683 7.228 6.873 6.019
MnO 0.087 0.09 0.079 0.079 0.088 0.074 0.072 0.086 0.09 0.085 0.079
MgO 2.736 2.696 2.502 2.632 3.359 2.337 1.875 2.972 3.66 3.051 2.458
CaO 5.537 5.27 5.393 5.673 6.535 4.966 4.231 6.195 6.686 6.322 5.407
Na2O 5.12 4.24 5.01 4.91 4.74 4.84 4.83 4.4 4.26 4.66 5.09
K2O 3.022 3.346 2.699 2.633 2.178 2.866 3.084 2.129 1.882 2.227 3.005
P2O5 0.604 0.511 0.596 0.624 0.583 0.498 0.41 0.524 0.418 0.549 0.637
LOI 0.12 0.82 0.37 0.3 0.0 0.09 0.08 0.88 0.56 0.47 0.14
Sum 99.56 99.269 99.207 99.127 99.068 99.615 100.21 99.505 99.629 99.228 99.312

V 139 139 146 151 174 134 73 102 144 170 178 157 138
Cr 36 31 26 28 65 23 12 17 26 33 79 40 25
Ce 128 105 106 28 84 93 94 71 108 84 52 83 116
Nd 55 48 50 50 43 45 39 35 50 44 32 43 53
La 67 54 53 53 41 45 49 33 56 38 22 40 60
Sc 11 13 9 11 11 9 5 6 9 13 11 10 8
Co 14 14 14 15 19 14 9 10 14 17 19 18 13
Ba 1719 1522 1534 1493 1276 1305 1152 990 1595 1186 787 1165 1600
Nb 13.1 13.2 10.9 9.8 8.0 9.9 10.7 9.5 10.0 8.0 6.1 7.3 11.6
Zr 279 297 241 224 183 231 224 171 229 191 145 183 256
Y 14.8 15.7 13.2 12.5 13.0 11.7 11.3 12.0 12.6 12.8 11.8 12.9 12.5
Sr 1178 893 1177 1247 1244 999 622 864 1265 1118 925 1166 1263
Rb 78 69 54 48 34 72 184 86 51 34 31 34 58
Zn 105 104 111 106 104 97 76 87 101 97 103 104 108
Ni 21 19 19 19 35 18 12 16 18 25 43 28 17
Cu 60 74 71 76 61 58 42 51 61 71 70 73 61
Th 5 6 5 3 3 6 22 7 3 4 2 4 4
Pb 12 13 12 10 11 11 19 16 10 10 9 11 14
Ga 23 23 25 24 24 22 23 23 23 24 25 25 23
Sum 3956 3441 3660 3573 3531 3201 2674 2619 3780 3172 2548 3187 3827

87
Sr/86Sr 0.705981 0.706110 0.706245 0.706369 0.706189 0.706024
143
Nd/144Nd 0.512475 0.512487 0.512451 0.512416 0.512460 0.512482

(continued on next page)

387
388
Table 3 (continued)

Area Central Andagua

Subarea Jenchana Ninamama Cerro Accopampa Ninacaca Chilcayoc Chico 1 Chilcayoc Chico 2

Volcanic Jenchana U-lava Ninamama Cerro Accopamapa Ninacaca Chilcayoc Chico 1 Chilcayoc Chico 2
unit

Rock type Benmoreite Latite Latite Benmoreite Trachyte Benmoreite Latite Benmoreite

E.V. Srensen, P.M. Holm / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 378396
Sample # 121005 121007 121043 121076 121034 121039 121051 121070 121073 121052 121055 121011 121013 121141 121085
SiO2 57.694 57.653 57.535 58.975 57.551 58.063 58.3 57.597 63.865 58.528 58.453 57.634
TiO2 1.224 1.23 1.212 1.131 1.186 1.151 1.247 1.224 0.800 1.174 1.17 1.234
Al2O3 16.91 16.881 16.812 16.763 16.714 16.705 16.964 16.903 16.489 16.898 16.767 16.944
Fe2O3(total) 6.707 6.467 6.724 6.584 6.788 6.576 6.725 6.49 4.722 6.588 6.497 6.719
MnO 0.084 0.083 0.084 0.093 0.093 0.091 0.083 0.085 0.061 0.084 0.087 0.086
MgO 2.926 2.911 2.889 3.224 3.401 3.223 2.853 2.921 1.848 2.905 3.067 3.043
CaO 5.917 5.903 5.96 6.061 6.35 6.089 5.985 5.887 4.2 5.846 5.902 6.069
Na2O 4.99 4.87 4.85 4.38 4.33 4.35 4.81 4.91 4.56 4.97 4.51 4.97
K2O 2.517 2.519 2.552 2.513 2.426 2.481 2.263 2.538 3.210 2.652 2.631 2.476
P2O5 0.603 0.587 0.588 0.465 0.498 0.465 0.505 0.593 0.310 0.577 0.537 0.587
LOI 0.02 0.1 0.11 0.07 0.19 0.05 0.09 0.07 0.02 0.05 0 0.02
Sum 99.552 99.204 99.316 100.259 99.147 99.144 99.645 99.078 100.054 100.172 99.621 99.782

V 157 156 152 157 144 157 145 151 157 98 101 148 154 146 161
Cr 37 38 35 40 30 33 30 31 39 14 15 35 41 39 44
Ce 102 104 99 101 88 90 90 80 105 82 85 101 99 95 96
Nd 49 50 49 50 43 43 44 42 50 37 39 47 47 48 47
La 51 50 47 50 42 43 46 37 51 40 42 48 46 47 48
Sc 12 9 8 12 11 12 11 9 11 7 7 9 12 11 10
Co 13 17 16 16 14 15 15 15 16 9 10 14 17 16 18
Ba 1389 1385 1343 1368 1190 1224 1208 1143 1376 1312 1316 1383 1279 1301 1314
Nb 10.4 10.3 10.3 10.2 10.9 11.1 11.2 7.7 10.1 9.0 9.4 10.8 10.7 10.9 9.8
Zr 225 227 228 228 228 228 231 184 224 248 254 239 21 242 218
Y 13.2 13.3 13.3 13.2 15.7 16.0 15.8 12.6 13.3 10.0 10.1 13.7 14.5 14.2 12.9
Sr 1181 1197 1167 1204 932 1034 968 1091 1172 689 716 1134 1050 1061 1164
Rb 44 45 44 44 53 48 53 42 43 90 91 49 49 49 41
Zn 109 105 98 109 96 91 90 85 113 85 86 99 101 95 115
Ni 28 25 22 26 17 19 17 23 29 12 13 23 23 22 32
Cu 66 70 67 67 55 41 52 35 70 48 54 64 57 62 78
Th 3 3 3 3 4 3 5 4 3 6 6 4 4 4 2
Pb 12 11 11 13 10 9 11 10 12 15 15 11 9 12 10
Ga 25 23 22 24 23 24 23 24 24 22 24 22 23 24 26
Sum 3518 3534 3418 3525 3022 3125 3050 3025 3499 2831 2904 3474 3271 3299 3452

87
Sr/86Sr 0.706072 0.706073 0.706125 0.706021 0.705976 0.705997 0.706517 0.706488 0.706132 0.706191 0.706192
143
Nd/144Nd 0.512480 0.512471 0.512466 0.512480 0.512473 0.512476 0.512406 0.512410 0.512465 0.512455 0.512461
Table 3 (continued)

Area Central Andagua Southern Andagua

Subarea Jechapita Chilcayoc Grande Sucna 1 Southern Andagua

Volcanic unit Jechapita Chilcayoc Grande Sucna 1 Sucna 2 Pr Sucna Ayo Lava Colca Lava

Rock type Benmoreite Benmoreite Mugearite Benmoreite Benmoreite Benmoreite Benmoreite Latite Latite Benmoreite Benmoreite Latite Benmoreite

Sample # 121087 121142 121146 121121 121122 121137 121143 121089 121107 121090 121099 121095 121098 121111 121114 121109

E.V. Srensen, P.M. Holm / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 378396
SiO2 60.496 59.827 55.257 56.254 57.078 57.629 58.078 60.336 60.324 60.347 59.399 58.245 59.636 59.049
TiO2 1.144 1.159 1.393 1.364 1.281 1.211 1.197 1.012 0.998 1.032 1.097 1.183 1.117 1.088
Al2O3 16.978 16.88 16.989 17.206 16.96 16.811 16.945 16.837 16.86 16.944 17.091 16.947 16.878 16.719
Fe2O3(total) 6.138 6.258 7.692 7.448 6.838 6.544 6.603 5.792 5.816 5.719 6.25 6.246 5.954 5.94
MnO 0.078 0.08 0.096 0.092 0.085 0.085 0.084 0.076 0.077 0.078 0.082 0.081 0.078 0.081
MgO 2.439 2.563 3.974 3.258 2.835 2.97 2.924 2.31 2.394 2.45 2.643 2.718 2.431 2.544
CaO 5.266 5.34 7.267 6.587 6.046 5.946 5.894 4.887 4.963 4.982 5.399 5.494 5.207 5.765
Na2O 4.77 4.64 4.59 4.9 4.89 4.79 4.79 4.66 4.74 4.67 4.96 5.06 4.78 4.95
K2O 2.633 2.61 1.78 1.911 2.374 2.634 2.596 2.988 2.945 2.95 2.784 2.886 2.952 2.805
P2O5 0.475 0.499 0.588 0.567 0.609 0.586 0.574 0.455 0.464 0.470 0.506 0.572 0.529 0.583
LOI 0.14 0.07 0.05 0.16 0.17 0.03 0 0.01 0 0 0.04 0.15 0 0
Sum 100.277 99.786 99.576 99.747 99.166 99.176 99.685 99.363 99.581 99.642 100.251 99.582 99.562 99.524

V 134 146 142 161 189 181 155 155 147 121 125 125 140 145 132 140
Cr 20 30 27 29 88 45 29 35 35 25 21 25 28 31 23 23
Ce 83 89 87 97 85 75 96 104 98 95 95 94 95 108 102 101
Nd 42 46 44 49 44 40 47 49 47 44 45 44 45 50 49 47
La 39 40 40 46 39 35 47 51 48 46 46 46 46 52 48 50
Sc 9 11 10 9 12 10 8 11 9 10 9 11 10 9 9 9
Co 13 14 16 15 20 19 14 16 15 11 12 12 15 14 12 13
Ba 1145 1177 1184 1297 1007 1038 1301 1396 1381 1342 1371 1365 1370 1480 1409 1468
Nb 9.9 9.4 9.9 9.1 7.3 7.6 9.0 10.5 10.6 11.8 12.1 11.6 11.4 12.5 11.4 9.6
Zr 219 211 224 205 162 173 209 236 236 279 278 273 262 267 273 218
Y 12.4 12.7 12.8 13.1 13.8 12.8 13.0 13.6 13.6 12.2 12.4 12.8 12.9 13.2 13.1 12.7
Sr 911 1101 985 1245 1302 1180 1278 1160 1150 886 904 895 982 1142 1016 1265
Rb 55 45 53 37 25 27 38 48 48 70 69 68 62 58 63 61
Zn 101 103 103 107 104 108 110 101 89 94 102 100 100 104 96 97
Ni 18 20 20 22 45 32 21 24 21 17 18 17 19 20 18 20
Cu 66 69 61 72 74 75 83 67 60 61 61 62 65 66 65 62
Th 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 5
Pb 10 11 11 10 8 8 11 10 9 12 12 14 12 12 14 14
Ga 24 24 24 26 25 25 27 23 23 23 24 25 24 23 23 24
Sum 2931 3059 3445 3247 3095 3481 3497 3444 3154 3215 3202 3322 3611 3377 3635

87
Sr/86Sr 0.706205 0.706246 0.706212 0.706076 0.706276 0.706079 0.706109 0.706122 0.706201 0.706140
143
Nd/144Nd 0.512464 0.512474 0.512452 0.512476 0.512453 0.512478 0.512466 0.512465 0.512453 0.512475

389
390 E.V. Srensen, P.M. Holm / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 378396

Table 4
Table showing the main geochemical characteristics of the volcanic units

The ve volcanic units above all belong to the youngest volcanic samples are at the same time different from the main trend in
activity and this close relationship suggests they are related through a that they are lower in Na2O and P2O5 (Fig. 5b and c) and classify
common process. The close relationship between Zr a non mobile as latites, as well as being more porphyritic with amphibole as a
element and Rb a mobile element also is a strong argument against phenocryst and have large xenoliths restricted to this specic
any notable post magmatic mobilization of Rb as this would decrease volcanic unit.
Rb at constant Zr and blur the trend (Fig. 6b). This, at the same time,
means that the older samples from Older Central Andagua can not be 6.2.1.3. Jechapita. Samples from Jechapita generally form a group that
related to the younger samples through post-magmatic mobilization fall below the main trend at lower Zr and Nb concentrations at
of Rb. The main trend samples dene characteristic sub-parallel measured Rb concentrations (Fig. 6b and c) close to the Ninamama
positive correlations trends in Ba and LREE vs. Rb diagrams (Fig. 6f volcanic unit. The Jechapita samples like the Ninamama samples
and g) and steep negative correlation trends in for example Ni vs. Rb are more porphyritic and have amphibole as phenocrysts but can
(Fig. 9) which distinguish the young volcanic units from each other be distinguished from the Ninamama samples in their K2O and Y
and relate each to different magmas. This is further shown by parallel concentration (Figs. 5a and 6h).
trends of Sr vs. Rb (Fig. 6e) of the Jenchana, Sucna 1 and Chilcayoc
Chico 1 units. The parallel trends imply that although the samples 6.2.1.4. Older Central Andagua. Samples from Older Central Andagua
probably are related through a common process they are not co- divides into two groups related to geographical position. Such
magmatic in the strict meaning of the word. Thus each of the groups that samples from Volcan Antaymarca and Soporo both located on a
forms a distinctive co-magmatic group that probably can be related mountain ridge south of Jenchana form a group the/that parallels the
through a common process. main trend samples but a just slightly lower Nb and Zr concentrations at
measured Rb concentrations (Fig. 6b and c). The second group
6.2.1.2. Ninamama. Samples from Ninamama also belongs to the consisting of samples from Jatun and Uchuy located vest of Andagua
most recent activity as shown by the relative stratigraphy but are probably older and has notably lower Zr and Nb concentrations for a
differ from the main trend in that they have lower Zr concentrations given Rb concentration compared to the main trend (Fig. 6b and c). The
at given measured Rb concentrations (Fig. 6b) as well as being low Nb and Zr samples are at the same time correspondingly low in
lower in Ba, Sr and LREE and higher Y concentrations (Fig. 6eh). The Na2O (Fig. 5b).
E.V. Srensen, P.M. Holm / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 378396 391

6.2.1.5. Cerro Accopampa. Samples from Cerro Accopampa divides into the main trend. The Puca Mauras 3 samples are again more evolved
two compositional groups related to the geographical position, such but have similar Zr and Nb concentrations. The Puca Mauras 3
that older samples collected from the steep NV side plots below the samples however differ in that they have amphibole as a phenocryst
main trend close to the samples from Uchuy and Jatun from the Older and classify as latites. The Puca Mauras 4 samples also have
Central Andagua, while samples collected from the younger lava ow amphibole as a phenocryst, but are more evolved (higher Rb and
covering the southern ank mainly fall within the main trend. SiO2 concentrations) and classify as trachytes. The Puca Mauras
trachytes differ from the Ninacaca trachytes in that they are lower in
6.2.1.6. Ninacaca. Ninacaca samples are the most evolved from the Zr and Ba (Fig. 6b and f) as well as being different in major element
Central Andagua geographical area and falls into two groups with the composition. Additional to the samples from the 4 volcanic units,
older samples being trachytes characterized by high Rb concentra- one sample (#121064) from the southern ank of the Puca Mauras
tions, while the younger ash samples partly covering the volcanic cone shows a 5. possible group. This sample also classies as a
structure are less evolved and plots within the main trend around the trachyte and has similar SiO2 concentrations as the Puca Mauras 4
Chilcayoc Grande samples. The Ninacaca ash samples can be trachytes. The sample however is highly enriched in Rb (184 ppm) as
distinguish from the Chilcayoc Grande samples in that they form a well as Th (22 ppm) and has Zr, Nb, Ba and LREE values between the
parallel trend in V vs. Rb a trend the Puca Mauras ash samples also Ninacaca and Puca Mauras trachytes.
seem to follow (Fig. 6d).
6.2.1.9. Northern Andagua S. Finally samples from the Northern
6.2.1.7. Northern Andagua N and Southern Andagua. Samples from Andagua S geographical area form a compositional group dening a
Northern Andagua N and Southern Andagua have been collected from positive correlation trend parallel to the main trend at slightly lower
larger areas and generally forms broad compositional areas character- Zr and Nb concentration at a measured Rb concentration (Fig. 6b and
ized by high concentrations of incompatible elements (Rb, Ba, Th, Nb, c). Samples from Yanamauras has the lowest Rb as well as SiO2
LREE and Zr) that lies in continuation of the main trend. Samples from concentrations while the Cerro Tisco samples forms a group with the
Northern Andagua N have the highest concentrations of the two and highest Rb and SiO2 concentrations, while Yanamauras S samples has
are clearly distinguished on Ba, LREE and Y vs. Rb plots (Fig. 6fh). intermediate Rb and SiO2 values.
Within the Southern Andagua samples from the Colca Lava unit differ
in that they form a separate group lower in Zr and Nb at measured Rb 6.3. Regional comparison
concentrations (Fig. 6b and c).
Major and trace element data from the Andagua lavas are
6.2.1.8. Puca Mauras. Samples from Puca Mauras show a large overall compared with published data from southern Peru and other CVZ
variation with samples from Puca Mauras 1 being the most primitive volcanic centers in Fig. 5eh. The Andagua lavas are characterized by
and Puca Mauras 4 samples being the most evolved. Puca Mauras l high Na2O, P2O5, Sr and Ba contents, as noted by Venturelli et al. (1978)
samples are all ash samples characterized by relatively low Rb, Zr who analyzed 5 samples from the Andagua Area. Our data show,
and Nb concentration as well as high Sr concentrations, and furthermore, that the Andagua lavas have the highest Na2O content so
generally lies within the main trend around the Chilcayoc Grande far reported from the CVZ at the measured SiO2 level (Fig. 5e) while
samples from which they can be distinguished from in V vs. Rb plot P2O5 fall within the uppermost part of the CVZ compositional
(Fig. 6e). Samples from Puca Mauras 2 are more evolved than Puca variation (Fig. 5f). The comparison also reveals that young volcanic
Mauras 1 samples (higher Rb concentrations) and falls slightly below rocks from the Peruvian part of CVZ as a hole generally have high

Fig. 7. (a) 143Nd/144Nd vs. 87Sr/86Sr variation diagram for the Andagua volcanics. (b) Comparison of the Sr and Nd isotopic of Andagua volcanics with other southern Peruvian CVZ
samples and the overall CVZ compositional variation. Data sources: Solimana (Vatin-Perignon et al., 1992), Sabancaya (Gerbe and Thouret, 2004), Arequipa and Barroso (James, 1982),
Ubinas (Thouret et al., 2005) and CVZ (GEOROC database accessed Nov. 2006).
392 E.V. Srensen, P.M. Holm / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 378396

absolute Na2O content as well as P2O5 compared to the overall 6.4. Sr and Nd isotopes
variation within CVZ. Ba and Sr concentrations are very high but lie
within the upper limit of previously reported Sr and Ba concentrations A total of 27 samples were analyzed for Sr and Nd isotopic
(Fig. 5g and h) resembling samples from the Nevados Payachata region composition. The 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic composition
in northern Chile (Wrner et al., 1988; Davidson et al., 1990), the varies between 0.512410.51249 and 0.705980.70652, respectively,
Bolivian part of the altiplano (Davidson and Silva, 1995) and Tata and are negatively correlated (Fig. 7a). The overall variation overlaps
Sabaya behind the volcanic front (de Silva et al., 1993). The Andagua values reported by Delacour et al. (2002) from minor quaternary
samples differ from the mentioned high Ba and Sr samples in that they volcanic centers in southern Peru including the Andagua valley and
have a tendency to lower Rb, Th, Pb, Y and Sc and higher Nb is small compared to the overall CVZ Nd and Sr isotopic variation
concentrations at a given SiO2 but all lie within previously documen- (Fig. 7b). The Andagua samples form a group that overlaps the
ted values for CVZ volcanics with Rb, Th, Y and Sc for the Andagua Solimana volcanics from the northernmost end of CVZ (Vatin-
samples in the lower end. Perignon et al., 1992) and continues towards samples from Sabancaya

Fig. 8. (a) K/Rb vs. Rb. Arrows illustrate differentiation by fractional crystallization and AFC, binary mixing and variable degrees of partial melting. The curved trend of the Andagua
volcanics shows that fractional crystallization alone cannot explain the observed variation. Legend is given in Fig. 8(c. b, c and d) Zr/Rb vs. Rb, Ba/Rb and Nb/Sr. Drawn lines represents
mixing between main trend samples with Chilcayoc Grande sample #121118 and Chilcayoc Chico 1 sample #121015 as starting and end components, respectively. Mixing lines have
been calculated using equations of Langmuir et al. (1978). Main trend samples plot at or close to the calculated mixing line, with the variation within each volcanic unit forming a
subsequent differentiation trend away from the calculated mixing lines as illustrated in Fig. 8d. See text for further discussion.
E.V. Srensen, P.M. Holm / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 378396 393

around 50 km to the SV of Andagua (Gerbe and Thouret, 2004) and the crystallization. It is therefore concluded that fractional crystallization
Arequipa and Barroso volcanics from James (1982) further south. alone probably was not a dominating process producing the overall
The Sr and Nd isotopic composition of the analyzed samples geochemical variation.
conrm the geochemical difference between the volcanic units as Other minor variation within some volcanic units, however, is
established by trace element composition. Samples with the lowest likely to be explained by fractional crystallization. Samples from
87
Sr/86Sr and highest 143Nd/144Nd are samples from Ninamama, and Jenchana, Sucna 1 and Chilcayoc Chico 1 & 2 have been shown to
one sample from both Northern Andagua N and Puca Mauras while dene sub-parallel correlation trends. In the case of Sr vs. Rb it is
the Ninacaca trachytes has the highest 87Sr/86Sr and lowest 143Nd/ possible to extrapolate these correlation trends towards origo as
144
Nd isotopic ratios. Ninamama samples dene a group with similar shown on Fig. 6e. This means that Sr and Rb were almost completely
87
Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios different from the main trend incompatible during differentiation within these groups. The variation
samples to which they have comparable relative age. The main within the volcanic units can be modelled to extend out from a line
trend samples have higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios and form an array with connecting the most primitive (lowest Rb) from each unit (Fig. 6e)
slightly increasing 87Sr/86Sr ratios and decreasing 143Nd/144Nd ratios, excluding two samples from Chilcayoc Grande, meaning that main
such that Chilcayoc Grande and Jenchana have the lowest 87Sr/86Sr trends samples could be related to a common evolving parental
ratios while Chilcayoc Chico 1 samples has the highest 87Sr/86Sr ratios magma. The two excluded primitive samples have higher 87Sr/86Sr
and Sucna 1 samples plotting in between. One sample from Chilcayoc isotope ratios than both the other Chilcayoc Grande samples and other
Grande however differs in that it has the highest 87Sr/86Sr ratio of the main trend samples, and probably suffered some crustal contamina-
main trend samples. This sample is at the same time the least evolved tion, maybe as early magmas clearing the pathways for future main
as judged from Rb and SiO2 concentrations. Samples from Puca trend samples. The increase in Sr and Rb concentration within the
Mauras have the largest variation in isotopic composition in agree- Jenchana, Sucna 1 and Chilcayoc Chico 1 units amounts to roughly 7%
ment with trace element variation. The lavas from the southern part of and could be explained by around 7% fractional crystallization of for
the complex has the lowest 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the Puca Mauras example clinopyroxene which is the most frequently occurring
samples with the high Rb and Th sample being the most evolved. Of phenocryst in the nearly aphyric samples assuming incompability of
the remaining two Puca Mauras samples the trachyte sample has the Rb and Sr in clinopyroxene (KSr Rb
d (cpx) = 0.1 and Kd (cpx) = 0.1). The
lowest 87Sr/86Sr ratio falling close to the Chilcayoc Chico 1 samples, effect of clinopyroxen fractionation is outlined in the Ni vs. Rb diagram
although more evolved as judged from both Rb and SiO2 concentra- (Fig. 9) showing good agreement with calculated fractional crystal-
tions. This also conrms the compositional difference between the lization paths. Given the presented arguments it seems likely that the
Puca Mauras and Ninacaca trachytes. Samples from the Northern main trend samples may have evolved in two stages. A rst process is
Andagua N and Southern Andagua geographical areas differ in their responsible for causing a primary variation of increasing Rb, Zr and Nb
87
Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios. These samples have been sampled and decreasing Sr concentration on which a subsequent secondary
from different volcanic units covering broad areas and have subse- differentiation process (increasing Sr concentrations as well as other
quently been grouped together. Finally samples from Jechapita forms a elements) has been imposed.
group with one sample being just slightly different when considering A clinopyroxene-dominated fractionation assemblage can be
analytical uncertainty. expected to reect higher pressure (deeper) conditions. Plagioclase is
unstable at lower crustal depths of N3040 km and Sr therefore would
7. Discussion be an incompatible element unlike in the upper crust. It is therefore
likely that Sr should go from being incompatible in the lower crust
The volcanic units from the Andagua Valley volcanic eld (plagioclase unstable) to compatible in the upper crust (plagioclase
are highly varied in composition with most units being different stable) when magmas ascends through the crust towards the surface.
from each other. Good correlations among some of the volcanic units For Andagua this indicates clearly that the secondary evolution as well as
(e.g., Zr and Nb vs. Rb) suggest that these may be related through the primary variation is most likely of deep crustal origin. A deep origin
common processes.

7.1. Fractional crystallization

Fractional crystallization is evaluated through geochemical model-


ling based on petrographic observations. The Andagua lavas often are
aphyric and quantitative modelling therefore has to be done with a
ctional combination of minerals as well as mineral compositions.
Fractional crystallization models for major element variation assuming a
plagioclase dominated fractionate (since plagioclase is the main mineral
for Sr, and the Sr concentration drop from around 1300 ppm to around
700 ppm from the least evolved to most evolved sample) can to some
extend explain the overall variation of the major elements, but however,
fail to explain the observed variation of other trace elements. During
fractional crystallization the ratio between two very incompatible
elements will not change drastically and samples related through
fractional crystallization should dene an approximately horizontal line
if plotted against a fractionation index. This is however not the case as
shown in Fig. 8a, where the K/Rb ratio drops with increasing Rb
concentration. Fractionation of alkali feldspar and to some extent
amphibole could also give the observed trend. In Andean rocks, alkali
feldspar is normally crystallizing at higher SiO2 than seen in the Andagua Fig. 9. Ni vs. Rb. The straight line is a mixing line between the least evolved main trend
sample and through the least evolved sample of each unit of the main trend samples.
rocks and amphibole is not observed among main trend samples. Similar This line can be extended towards samples from Volcan Antaymarca of Older Central
trends are seen for Ba/Rb and Zr/Rb vs. Rb as well as Zr/Nb vs. Nb and this Andagua (Stippled). The curved lines are fractional crystallization paths. Lines
variation cannot be explained by alkali feldspar or amphibole fractional extending out from the mixing line show the effect of clinopyroxene fractionation.
394 E.V. Srensen, P.M. Holm / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 378396

Fig. 10. 87Sr/86Sr vs. Sr showing the effect of contamination of sample #121039 with the Charcani gneiss of the PrecambrianPaleozoic Arequipa massif (James, 1982). AFC parameters
are given in the gure. Numbers in % represent the remaining proportion of melt after assimilation. Curves have been calculated according to DePaolo (1981).

of the magmas is in accordance with the adakite like signature of high approximately 60 ppm Rb. Similar lines can be drawn in many
Sr/Y and low Y concentrations of all samples. elements vs. Rb type plots indicating that the primary variation at
least in the case of the main trend samples is more likely to be
7.2. Variable degrees of partial melting explained through binary mixing since this will give straight lines in
element vs. element plots, rather than through AFC processes.
Variable degrees of partial melting could explain the observed In a further attempt to asses the effect AFC processes would have
variation in the K/Rb vs. Rb diagram (Fig. 8a), since Rb is more on controlling the primary variation 87Sr/86Sr have been plotted
incompatible than K. This, however, requires very low degrees of partial against the Sr concentration (Fig. 10). Choosing a suitable contaminant
melting that would give lower K/Rb at higher Rb concentrations. for AFC modelling is a limiting factor since few data are available on
Samples related through variable degrees of partial melting will form basement rock from southern Peru. The Charcani gneisses, a typical
positive correlation trends in incompatible vs. incompatible element granulite of the late PrecambrianPaleozoic Arequipa massif have
plots and negative correlation trends in compatible vs. incompatible been used by James (1982) to explain the trace element and isotopic
element diagrams. Sr must therefore have been compatible in the variation of the Arequipa and Barroso volcanics from southern Peru
source, if variable degrees of partial melting should explain the primary and can be taken as a suitable basement contaminant in the northern
variation. This however is in contrast to the internal variation of the CVZ. Three scenarios are considered (solid lines denoted AFC1, AFC2
Jenchana, Sucna 1 and Chilcayoc Chico 1 volcanic units were Sr and Rb and AFC3 in Fig. 10). The rst assumes a bulk KSr d = 2 (plagioclase is a
behaves almost completely incompatible. dominating mineral in the fractionate), the second assumes a bulk
KSr
d = 1 (plagioclase not a dominating fractionate) while the third
7.3. Evolution through AFC processes assumes a bulk KSr d = 0.01 (complete incompatibility of Sr). The ratio
between assimilation and fractional crystallization is set to 0.1 and
Combined assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) is assumed constant as well is the KSr d during each case. This might be a
another way of explaining the curved trend in K/Rb vs. Rb (Fig. 8a) simplication since r and KSr d might change during differentiation. As
as well as in other ratios vs. element plots. Returning to the Ni vs. Rb starting composition sample #121039 from Ninamama with the
diagram (Fig. 9) the overall variation could be argued to be curved as lowest 87Sr/86Sr ratio has been chosen. The composition of the
typical of fractional crystallization or combined assimilation and contaminant is taken from James (1982) and given in Fig. 10. In
fractional crystallization (AFC) Wrner et al. (1988). This however addition to this two curves (stippled) are plotted showing the effect of
might be an apparent trend since the samples are not co-magmatic or a larger ratio between assimilation and fractional crystallisation
since not all the samples. Focussing on the main trend samples a line (r = 0.3 which is taken as a maximum value) for the AFC1 and AFC3
can be drawn connecting the least evolved Chilcayoc sample conditions. As seen in the gure there is a relatively large variation in
87
(#121122) towards the least evolved of each unit in the main trend Sr/86Sr and Sr concentrations indicating that if contamination was to
units. This trend can as noted on Fig. 9 be extended towards the Volcan explain the variation, or for that sake any other process, it has not been
Antaymarca (Older Central Andagua) as shown on the gure leaving a continuously evolving process from one single parent magma. The
no samples on the right hand side at Rb concentrations lower than variation within the volcanic units can to some extend be tted
E.V. Srensen, P.M. Holm / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 378396 395

towards the calculated AFC 1 curves (KSr d = 2) or any given curve within Samples from Northern Andagua S have been showed to form parallel
the span between the AFC1 and AFC2 curves (if extrapolated towards trends in Nb and Zr vs. Rb (Fig. 6b and c) and also fall close to the mixing
different starting composition) indicating that if AFC processes were line in Ni vs. Rb (Fig. 9). These samples are all cinder cones arranged in
to explain the observed variation, contamination must have taken place linear fashion and have similar petrology. The close relationship and the
with a plagioclase dominated fractionate (upper crust). The spread parallel trend suggest that these samples probably have formed through a
however is relatively small and for some units only two samples have similar process as the main trend samples.
been analysed why the observed trends might just as well be explain- From the remaining samples evidence is less clear to what extent
ed by binary mixing. AFC processes occurring at lower crustal depths binary mixing will explain the variation. Ash samples from Ninacaca
(4070 km) where plagioclase is likely to be unstable would result in and Puca Mauras however plot close to the main trend samples and
positive correlation between the 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratio and the Sr Northern Andagua S in both Zr and Ni vs. Rb plots (Figs. 6b and 9).
concentration, while upper crustal contamination typical results in Samples from the young lava from Cerro Accopampa is similar in
negative correlation using the Charcani gneiss as the contaminant. This composition to the Jenchana samples and shows similar trends in most
is illustrated by the AFC3 curve. As earlier argued magmas evolved at plots indicating that they could have evolved in a similar manner as the
deep crustal levels and one should therefore expect positive correlation Jenchana samples. It is however not possible to relate the young Cerro
in Fig. 10 which is not observed. This is a strong argument against Accopampa lava to the Jenchana lava due to lack of eld relations.
contamination with the Charcani gneiss or any other high 87Sr/86Sr Besides the geochemical evidence for magma mixing, some petro-
contaminant as a responsible process creating the main part of the graphic evidence is found the Andagua samples in form of rounded and
primary mixing variation. Although the overall variation is more likely to sieve textured feldspar. However such evidence is mainly restrained to
be caused by a binary mixing process than combined assimilation and samples containing amphibole and not the main trend samples. This
fractional crystallization, a crustal component or contamination cannot could indicate that the melts were homogenized and that magma mix-
be excluded since high 87Sr/86Sr and low 143Nd/144Nd isotope ratios ing was not a late eruptive related process in case of the main trend
exclude a direct mantle source origin. Delacour et al. (2002) mentioned samples. The effect of binary-mixing and for that manner any process on
that fractional crystallization from a primitive magma and variable rates the amphibole bearing samples (Ninamama, Jechapita, Southern Andagua,
of contamination affected the lavas. From our data it seem that this trachytes and Puca Mauras latite samples) is difcult to evaluate since
crustal component is incorporated at an early stage and not important these volcanic units are not easily related to each other and probably not
during differentiation of at least samples of the main trend. co-magmatic. This indicates that these amphibole bearing magmas prob-
ably were tapped from different chambers. Samples from Ninamama are
7.4. Magma mixing comparable in age to the main trend samples from which they differ in
petrography, major and trace element and isotopic composition. This
Excluding variable degrees of partial melting and AFC processes to shows that various latites and benmoreites are tapped from different
explain the primary variation leaves two-component mixing of magmas that coexisted within a small conned area.
magmas to be evaluated. In order to test for binary mixing, mixing
curves using the equations of Langmuir et al. (1978) have been 8. Conclusions
calculated for Zr/Rb vs. Rb (Fig. 7b), Zr/Rb vs. Ba/Rb (Fig. 7c) and Zr/Rb
vs. Nb/Sr (Fig. 7d) for the main trend samples with Chilcayoc Grande The data presented documents the geochemical and petrologic com-
sample #121118 as starting material and Chilcayoc Chico 1 sample position of the Andagua Valley scoria and lava eld (1532S 7219W),
#121015 as the end component. Chilcayoc sample #121122 could have Southern Peru spanning the Pleistocene to recent volcanic activity. By
been chosen as staring material to get the entire Rb concentrations. combining eld observation with geochemical and petrologic observa-
This sample, however, has higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios and lower Sr tion the following main points/conclusions have been drawn:
concentrations than other Chilcayoc Grande samples (Fig. 10) and
probably suffered some contamination why it is not suited as starting (1) Samples are sub-alkaline high K basaltic trachyandesites,
material. As shown in Fig. 8bd samples from the main trend fall close trachyandesites and trachytes characterized by high Sr and Ba
to but slightly off the calculated mixing lines. It is at the same time seen and the highest Na2O so far reported from CVZ at the measured
that the variation within each volcanic unit forms a trend towards the SiO2 content. The samples can be divided into two series, a
calculated mixing line (Fig. 8d). This is interpreted as two-component relatively sodium rich (mugearite and benmoreite) and a sodium
mixing as explanation for the difference between units. At different poor (latite) series. The difference between the two series is also
times the samples subsequently evolves away from the mixing line reected in mineralogy and trace element composition, and
through a secondary differentiation process probably through frac- Andagua samples therefore must be formed from at least two
tional crystallisation as schematic illustrated in Fig. 8d. The best t with compositional different magmas.
the mixing model is shown by the Chilcayoc Chico 1 & 2, Sucna 1 and (2) Trace element variation of the main trend samples (young
Jenchana units while Chilcayoc Grande samples show the biggest benmoreites) is explained by a two stage process. A primary
deviation. This is due to Chilcayoc Grande samples having a larger process that is best explained by two-component mixing and a
variation in Zr, Nb, Ba and Rb concentrations. Samples from Chilcayoc secondary process that can be explained by fractional
Grande samples are closely related to the other main trend samples crystallization.
through relatively stratigraphy, geographic position (aligned in an (3) Sr and Rb behave almost completely incompatible within some
approximately linear fashion) and petrography and are well correlated main trend samples. This together with high pressure
in Zr and Nb vs. Rb diagram. Main trend samples at the same time form signature (Sr/Y = 50105 and Y b 16 ppm) of all the Andagua
an array with increasing 87Sr/86Sr and decreasing 143Nd/144Nd ratios volcanics is taken as evidence that mixing and subsequent
going from Chilcayoc Grande towards Chilcayoc Chico 1 samples fractional crystallization occurred at high pressure in the lower
(oldest-youngest) why Chilcayoc Grande samples despite the devia- crust.
tion from the calculated mixing lines are believed to be related through (4) Amphibole bearing samples (latites and trachytes) form
a common process. The deviation from the calculated mixing path for individual co-magmatic groups that cannot be related to each
the Chilcayoc Grande samples can be explained by individual Chilcayoc other by fractionation processes, why they must have been
Grande samples having evolved away from the mixing line at different formed from different magmas. Field occurrence demonstrates
times while the remaining main trend units represents one mixing that the youngest amphibole bearing and amphibole free
event that subsequently evolved away from the mixing line. magmas (benmoreites) existed within short lateral distances.
396 E.V. Srensen, P.M. Holm / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 177 (2008) 378396

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