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Mazhab Maliki

History: Malikiyyah was founded by Malik ibn Anas (c.713-c.795), a legal expert
in the city of Medina. Such was his stature that it is said three 'Abbasid caliphs
visited him while they were on Pilgrimage to Medina. The second 'Abbasid caliph,
al-Mansur (d.775), approached the Medinan jurist with the proposal to establish a
judicial system that would unite the different judicial methods that were
operating at that time throughout the Islamic world.
The school spread westwards through Malik's disciples, becoming dominant in
North Africa and Spain. In North Africa Malikiyyah gave rise to an important Sufi
order, Shadhiliyyah, which was founded by Abu al-Hasan, a jurist in the Malikite
School, in Tunisia in the thirteenth century.
During the Ottoman period Hanafite Turks were given the most important judicial
in the Ottoman Empire. North Africa, however, remained faithful to its Malikite
heritage. Such was the strength of the local tradition that qadis (judges) from
both the Hanafite and Malikite traditions worked with the local ruler. Following
the fall of the Ottoman Empire, Malikiyyah regained its position of ascendancy in
the region. Today Malikite doctrine and practice remains widespread throughout
North Africa, the Sudan and regions of West and Central Africa.

Born in 93H Malik Ibn Anas grew up at a time when the Fiqh of the Shari'ah was
flourishing and Ahlul Bayt had a greater leeway to explain its detail since Benu
Umayya's grip on power was waning. Malik Ibn Anas attended many of the
discussion assemblies Imam Al-Saadiq was giving. Malik Ibn Anas was 10 years
younger than Al-Saadiq, and lived to the ripe age of 86, when he died in 179H.
Like Imam Al-Saadiq, Malik spent all his time in Medina.

It is claimed that Malik Ibn Anas was a firm supporter of Ahlul Bayt and their
cause. Malik gave full support to Muhammad Dhul Nafs Al-Zakiya when he
revolted against the oppression of Benu Abbas in 144H. In 146H, because of that
support (or because of some disagreement with the government) Malik Ibn Anas
was arrested by the governor of Medina and lashed 50 times. That resulted in
damaging his left arm which remained crippled the rest of his life.[10]
Malik Ibn Anas lived at a time when forgeries of the Hadith were widespread.
Therefore he took great care in selecting authentic Hadiths, as a result his
popularity began to increase. Many people started to quote him and study at his
hand.
At the same time however, Khalifa Al-Mansoor was ever anxious to build
forces to counteract the profound influence of the school of Ahlul Bayt. In 153H
Al-Mansoor approached the 60 year old Malik Ibn Anas offering him a position to
be Supreme Justice over Medina and Hijaz, but with a request for Malik to write a
book in Fiqh, so that Al-Mansoor would enforce it over the whole Ummah.
Al-Mansoor had one more request, however, that the book not mention even
once the name of Imam Ali.[11]

Malik Ibn Anas agreed, sensing that his book, as supported by the
government, would have immediate success. However, the down-side to this
was not mentioning Ali, but that would be the price to be paid against the
advantage of spreading his Islamic knowledge.
The result was the book called Al-Mu'watta'. The Fiqh in Mu'watta' was later
known as Fiqh of Malik Ibn Anas. It was spread and patronized by many rulers of
Benu Abbas, and especially in Andalusia (Spain), North Africa, and some parts of
Middle East. Malik Ibn Anas became the official high powered Supreme Judge for
a long time. He was sponsored and patronized by Khalifa Al-Mansoor, then
Khalifa Al-Mahdi, then Khalifa Al-Haadi, then (and especially so) by Khalifa
Al-Rasheed. This support was done not due to what this Fiqh deserved but
mainly as a counterweight against Ahlul Bayt and their enormous influence in the
society.
Many Books were published as commentaries about Al-Mu'watta' and the
school of Maaliki became one of the survivors of the many Islamic Schools of
Thought at the time. What was crucial to its survival (besides its dynamism) was
the official support and encouragement of the Abbasi government to spread it as
far as possible.
Historically during this period there were many Schools of Thought ofgreater
depth than the Maaliki, which even continued for a century or two but eventually
died out because they insisted to be independent of government influence,
therefore the government did not support them, thus leading to their demise.

From: http://islamic-laws.com/articles/sunnischools.htm
Mazhab Maliki

Biography
His full name was Abu Abdullah Mlik ibn Anas ibn Mlik Ibn Ab 'mir Ibn 'Amr
Ibnul-Hrith Ibn Ghaimn Ibn Khuthail Ibn 'Amr Ibnul-Haarith.

Malik was born the son of Anas ibn Malik (not the Sahabi) and Aaliyah bint
Shurayk al-Azdiyya in Medina circa 711. His family was originally from the al-
Asbahi tribe of Yemen, but his great grandfather Abu 'Amir relocated the family
to Medina after converting to Islam in the second year of the Hijri calendar, or
623 CE. According to Al-Muwatta, he was tall, heavyset, imposing of stature, very
fair, with white hair and beard but bald, with a huge beard and blue eyes.[1]

Teacher
Living in Medina gave Malik access to some of the most learned minds of early
Islam. He memorized the Quran in his youth, learning recitation from Abu Suhail
Nafi' ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman, from whom he also received his Ijazah, or certification
and permission to teach others. He studied under various famed scholars
including Hisham ibn Urwah, Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, and along with Abu Hanifa,
the founder of the Hanafi Sunni Madh'hab- and under the household of the
Prophet's lineage, Jafar al Sadiq.[3] This fact may explain the mutual respect and
relative peace that has often existed between the Hanafi and Maliki Sunnis, on
one hand, and the Shi`is on the other.

Golden Chain of Narration


Malik's chain of narrators was considered the most authentic and called Silsilat
ul-Zhahab or "The Golden Chain of Narrators" by notable hadith scholars
including Muhammad al-Bukhari.[4] The 'Golden Chain' of narration (i.e., that
considered by the scholars of Hadith to be the most authentic) consists of Malik,
who narrated from Nafi', who narrated from Ibn Umar, who narrated from
Muhammad.

Mention in Hadith
The Prophet Muhammad reportedly said in a hadith authenticated by Muhammad
ibn `Isa at-Tirmidhi: Very soon will people beat the flanks of camels in search of
knowledge, and they shall find no-one more knowledgeable than the
knowledgeable scholar of Madina. Qadi Ayyad, Al-Dhahabi and others relate
from Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah, Abd ar-Razzaq as-Sanani, Ibn Mahdi, Yahya ibn
Ma'in, Dhuayb ibn `Imama, Ibn al-Madini, and others that they considered that
scholar to be Malik ibn Anas.[5]
Death
Imam Malik died at the age of 85 in Medina in 795 and is buried in the famous
Jannat ul-Baqi cemetery across from the Masjid al Nabawi. Malik's last words
were related by one Isma'il Ibn Abi Uways who said, "Malik became sick, so I
asked some of our people about what he said at the time of his death. They said,
`He recited the shahadah (testification of faith), then he recited:

Their affair is for Allah, before and after.[17]

From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malik_ibn_Anas
IMAM MAALIK IBN ANAS (ra)

1. Abu Abdullah Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Abi Aamir (ra) was born in
Madina in the year 93 A.H. (714 A.C). He came from a respectable family.

2. His ancestral home was in Yemen, but his great grandfather - Aamir -
settled in Madina after embracing Islam.

3. His grandfather - Maalik - was an important Taabi-ee and a famous


reporter of Ahadith.

4. He was greatly attracted to the study of Islamic Law and devoted his
entire interest to the subject after completing his primary education.

5. Madina was the most important seat of Islamic learning as the immediate
descendants of the Sahaba-e-Kiraam were inhabitants of the City.

6. For the purpose of his study, he sought out over 300 "Tabi'een" = those
who saw the Sahaba/Companions of the Holy Prophet (saw), and acquired
from them the knowledge of the Holy Prophet's (saw) Ahadith and Sunnah.

7. He spent his entire life in Madina where he studied Fiqah from 95 Shaikhs.
It is these Shaikhs from whom he recorded the Ahadith in his Kitab-ul-
Muatta.
This Kitab contains 1725 Ahadith of Rasulullah (saw).

8. He studied Qira'at & Hadith for nearly ten years under Hazrat Naafe' the
slave of Hazrat Abdullah ibn Umar (ra). Hazrat Naafe' had served his
master for nearly 30 years.
Naafe' was once sent by Umar ibn Abdul Aziz (ra) to impart knowledge
in Egypt.

9. Although he is the author of numerous books, his most important work is


the Kitab-ul-Muatta, which deals with the subject of Islamic Law based on
Ahadith and Sunnah. The Kitab-ul-Muatta is the earliest surviving book of
its kind - written around 150 A.H. - and it is used in all Islamic institutions
as one of the text books in the final year studies by graduating Ulama.

10.Imam Malik had the highest regard for the Holy Prophet (saw) as well as
for his Ahadith. He never tolerated indiscipline whilst Hadith-e-Rasul was
under discussion.
He even rebuked Al-Mansoor for talking loudly when some Ahadith were
being discussed.
11.The Imam always made Wudu or Ghusal, wore fresh clean attire and
applied perfume before conducting lessons on Ahadith.

12.He delivered lectures on Islamic Law, and issued fatwas (Islamic Rulings)
for nearly 62 years. Approx. 1,300 people have reported Ahadith from him.

13.He had the honour of occupying the home of Hazrat Abdullah ibn Mas'ud
(ra) and conducting lessons from the same spot where Rasulullah (saw)
spent his time for I'tikaaf, in the Masjid-un-Nabi.

14.Imam Malik was famous for his piety and integrity, and courageously stood
up prepared to suffer for his conviction.
For example, in 135 A.H., When the governor of Madina demanded and
forced people to take the oath of allegiance in favour of Khalifa Al-Mansoor,
the Imam issued a Fatwa that such an oath was not binding because it was given
under duress.

15.Since this fatwa was not in the interest of the ruler, the governor arrested
the Imam and had him publicly flogged for the "crime".
Al-Mansoor, learning of this outrage, apologized to the Imam and
dismissed the errant governor.

16.Imam Malik (ra), was offered 3,000 gold coins (dinars) by Mansoor, as
travelling expenses to Baghdad and subsequent residence in the Capital,
but the Imam politely refused the offer saying that he prefered to live in
Madina near Rasulullah (saw).

17.Imam Malik never intended the formation of a school of thought bearing


his name. It was his disciples & followers who later developed a Fiqah
School based on Imam Malik's rulings.

18.Malikis are found mostly in North & West Africa - Tunis, Algeria, Morrocco
and Egypt.

19.This Great Leader of Islamic Law died in Madina on the 11th Rabi-ul-Akhir
179 A.H. at the age 86 years. He lies buried in the Jannatul Baqi in Madina.

From: http://www.beautifulislam.net/biographies/four_imams.htm