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Transformer oils - Production, performance and in-service behaviour Johan Grövik Nynas AB TRANSFORM Partner

Transformer oils - Production, performance and in-service

behaviour

Johan Grövik

Nynas AB

TRANSFORM Partner

Transformer oils - Production, performance and in-service behaviour Johan Grövik Nynas AB TRANSFORM Partner
Transformer oils - Production, performance and in-service behaviour Johan Grövik Nynas AB TRANSFORM Partner
Transformer oils - Production, performance and in-service behaviour Johan Grövik Nynas AB TRANSFORM Partner
Transformer oils - Production, performance and in-service behaviour Johan Grövik Nynas AB TRANSFORM Partner

Nynas

Nynas
Nynas Nynas AB founded 1928 Swedish based company Approximately 850 employees Turnover 2 billion EURO 28
Nynas AB founded 1928 Swedish based company Approximately 850 employees Turnover 2 billion EURO 28
Nynas AB founded 1928
Swedish based company
Approximately 850 employees
Turnover 2 billion EURO
28 Sales channels
More than 18 TRO depots
Market leader of transformer
oils with market share of 25 %
TRO depots Market leader of transformer oils with market share of 25 % Johan Grövik, Nynas
TRO depots Market leader of transformer oils with market share of 25 % Johan Grövik, Nynas

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

Page 2

Outline

Outline
Outline  Oil demand in the world 2012 versus transformer oil  Manufacturing of a transformer

Oil demand in the world 2012 versus transformer oil

Manufacturing of a transformer oil

Failure statistics

Selection of insulating oil

Maintenance of an insulating oil

Summary

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Naphthenic crude supply

Naphthenic crude supply
Naphthenic crude supply Proven Naphthenic crude reserves for the next 70 years TOTAL= 4442 million Mt

Proven

Naphthenic

crude

reserves for the next 70

years

Proven Naphthenic crude reserves for the next 70 years TOTAL= 4442 million Mt BASE OIL= 36

TOTAL= 4442 million Mt

BASE OIL= 36 million Mt

TRO = 1,2 Million Mt

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Basic: -Chemical composition of crude oil

Basic: -Chemical composition of crude oil
Basic: -Chemical composition of crude oil Mineral insulating oil is made from crude oil by different

Mineral insulating oil is made from crude oil by different refining processes.

The constituents are hydrocarbons combined in various structures and sizes.

constituents are hydrocarbons combined in various structures and sizes. Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 5

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Trends in the world of refining

Trends in the world of refining
Trends in the world of refining Technical trend - Development of base oils with high VI

Technical trend

- Development of base oils with high VI

Focus on lubrications

- Market >36 Mt

Key driver for engine oils

- To minimize friction

- Fuel efficiency

TRO oils do not have that technology driver! It require a low VI oil

for best performance

that technology driver! It require a low VI oil for best performance Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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What are the requirements of an insulating oil?

What are the requirements of an insulating oil?
What are the requirements of an insulating oil? Provide good cooling Act as an electrical insulator

Provide good cooling

Act as an electrical insulator

Have an excellent cold start property

Material compatibility

Last the lifetime of transformer

Act as an information carrier

Last the lifetime of transformer Act as an information carrier Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Production of insulation oil Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 8
Production of insulation oil Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 8
Production of insulation oil Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 8
Production of insulation oil
Production of insulation oil

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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A modern hydrotreatment refinery

A modern hydrotreatment refinery
A modern hydrotreatment refinery Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 9
A modern hydrotreatment refinery Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 9

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Distillation

Distillation
Distillation Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 10
Distillation Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 10
Distillation Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 10

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Hydro-treating processes

Hydro-treating processes
Hydro-treating processes Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 11
Hydro-treating processes Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 11
Hydro-treating processes Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 11

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Degree of refining

Degree of refining
Degree of refining Before hydrotreatment C A 25% C N 30 C P 45 Sulphur 2

Before

hydrotreatment

C

A

25%

C

N

30

C

P

45

Sulphur

2

IP346

10

N 30 C P 45 Sulphur 2 IP346 10 After hydrotreatment   A B C C

After

hydrotreatment

 

A

B

C

C

A

15

10

5

C

N

42

50

50

C

P

43

40

45

Sulphur

0.03

0.01

0.01

IP346

2

1

<1

Carbon type distribution determined with IR analysis

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Failure statistics Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 13
Failure statistics Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 13
Failure statistics Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 13
Failure statistics
Failure statistics

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Failure rates of substation transformers

Failure rates of substation transformers
Failure rates of substation transformers Failures / 69-100 100-200 200-300 300-500 >700 ALL

Failures /

69-100

100-200

200-300

300-500

>700

ALL

population

kV

kV

kV

kV

kV

info.

Failures

145

206

136

95

7

589

Transformer - years

15077

46152

42635

29437

219

135491

Failure rate

0,96%

0,46%

0,32

0,32%

3,20%

0,43%

Failure rate for step up transformers = 0,46 %

Ref; April 2012 Electra

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Failure rate conclusion

Failure rate conclusion
Failure rate conclusion Preliminary results; (data collection still in progress) I. Study based on 150 000

Preliminary results; (data collection still in progress)

I. Study based on 150 000 unit years

II. Totally 685 failures

III. Data from 48 utilities

Average failure rate = 0,44%

III. Data from 48 utilities Average failure rate = 0,44% Main fault locations (*=GSU transformer) Old

Main fault locations (*=GSU transformer)

Old study from 1983

(failures occurring 1968-1978)

Concluded a failure rate benchmark of

2%

45-49*

%

of failures related to windings

26-11*

%

of failures related to tap changers

9*-17

%

of failures related to bushings

7-19*

%

of failures related to lead exits

Ref; April 2012 Electra

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Generic failure model; 2 perspective methodology

Generic failure model; 2 – perspective methodology
Generic failure model; 2 – perspective methodology Stress / Strength Damage from incidents Maintenance Incidents

Stress / Strength

Damage from incidents

Maintenance

Incidents

Strength Stress encountered

Failure

Time

Incidents Strength Stress encountered Failure Time Transformer quality Analysis => information Maintenance

Transformer qualityIncidents Strength Stress encountered Failure Time Analysis => information Maintenance actions Grid design

Analysis => informationStress encountered Failure Time Transformer quality Maintenance actions Grid design Operations Protection

Maintenance actionsTime Transformer quality Analysis => information Grid design Operations Protection equipment Johan Grövik,

Grid designquality Analysis => information Maintenance actions Operations Protection equipment Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

OperationsAnalysis => information Maintenance actions Grid design Protection equipment Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013

Protection equipmentAnalysis => information Maintenance actions Grid design Operations Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 16

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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What is the lifetime of a transformer dependent on?

What is the lifetime of a transformer dependent on?
What is the lifetime of a transformer dependent on? Operating conditions Ambient temperature Design and materials

Operating conditions

Ambient temperature

Design and materials

Manufacturing and installation

Follow up and maintenance

Electricity quality/protection equipment

Design / Manufacturing / Material

equipment Design / Manufacturing / Material Operations e.g. load Maintenance Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

Operations e.g. load

Maintenance

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Selection of insulating oil Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 18
Selection of insulating oil Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 18
Selection of insulating oil Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 18
Selection of insulating oil
Selection of insulating oil

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Product Data Sheets
Product Data Sheets

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Values and benefits - life cycle perspective

Values and benefits - life cycle perspective
Values and benefits - life cycle perspective Low viscosity oils Lower operating temperatures Good oxidation stability
Low viscosity oils Lower operating temperatures
Low viscosity
oils
Lower operating
temperatures
Good oxidation stability Low acid values and low sludge production Keep sludge Better circulation High
Good oxidation
stability
Low acid values
and low sludge
production
Keep sludge
Better circulation
High solvency
dissolved in oil
properties

Less maintenance over time

Slow degradation

of oil and paper

Longer transformer life

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Values and benefits daily operations

Values and benefits – daily operations
Values and benefits – daily operations Low pour point Good flow properties at very low temperatures
Low pour point Good flow properties at very low temperatures Can withstand Excellent Excellent insulator
Low pour point
Good flow
properties at very
low temperatures
Can withstand
Excellent
Excellent insulator
very high
compatibility with
electrical stress
cellulose
Information
Record & store
carrier
fault gases
Allow to detect
electrical &
thermal faults

Transformer can be energized in low temperaturesVery strong and stable insulation system enable compact design and high voltages Diagnostic tool to

Very strong and stable insulation system enable compact design and high voltagesTransformer can be energized in low temperatures Diagnostic tool to prevent failures and avoid outages

Diagnostic tool to preventtemperatures Very strong and stable insulation system enable compact design and high voltages failures and avoid

failures and avoid outages

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Selection of transformer oil

Selection of transformer oil
Selection of transformer oil Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 22
Selection of transformer oil Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 22

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Maintenance Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 23
Maintenance Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 23
Maintenance Johan Grövik, Nynas AB 06.06.2013 Page 23
Maintenance
Maintenance

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Antioxidant molecule and specification limits

Antioxidant molecule and specification limits
Antioxidant molecule and specification limits DBPC Di-tert-butyl-para-cresol IEC 60296 Edition 4. 2012 Uninhibited Not
DBPC Di-tert-butyl-para-cresol
DBPC
Di-tert-butyl-para-cresol

IEC 60296 Edition 4. 2012

Uninhibited

Not detectable

Trace

Max 0,08

Inhibited Max 0,40

ASTM D 3487

Type I

Max 0,08

Type II

Max 0,30

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Acidity level and inhibitor content

Acidity level and inhibitor content
Acidity level and inhibitor content Inhibitor (%) 0,4 0,3 0,2 Acidity (mg KOH/g) 0,1 0 1
Inhibitor (%) 0,4 0,3 0,2 Acidity (mg KOH/g) 0,1 0 1 24 47 70 93
Inhibitor (%)
0,4
0,3
0,2
Acidity (mg KOH/g)
0,1
0
1
24
47
70
93
116
139
162
185
208
231
254
277
300
323
346
369

No of samples (increased inhibitor content to the right)

- 400 oil immersed power transformers

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Maintenance strategy

Maintenance strategy
Maintenance strategy Historical data Oil status DGA status Analysis What? How? Who? Why? Diagnostic Information Decisions
Historical data
Historical data
Oil status
Oil status
Maintenance strategy Historical data Oil status DGA status Analysis What? How? Who? Why? Diagnostic Information Decisions
Maintenance strategy Historical data Oil status DGA status Analysis What? How? Who? Why? Diagnostic Information Decisions
DGA status
DGA status
Analysis
Analysis

What?

How?

Who?

Why?

Diagnostic
Diagnostic
Information Decisions
Information
Decisions
What? How? Who? Why? Diagnostic Information Decisions New investment Upgrade etc. Maintenance Risk level Johan

New investment

Upgrade etc.

Maintenance

Risk level

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Summary; Standards for insulating oils

Summary; Standards for insulating oils
Summary; Standards for insulating oils IEC 60296 Fluids for electrotechnical applications ̶Unused mineral insulating
Summary; Standards for insulating oils IEC 60296 Fluids for electrotechnical applications ̶Unused mineral insulating
IEC 60296 Fluids for electrotechnical applications ̶Unused mineral insulating oils for transformers and switchgear
IEC 60296
Fluids for
electrotechnical
applications
̶Unused mineral
insulating oils for
transformers and
switchgear

IEC 60296 Before filling into a transformer

IEC 60422 Mineral insulating oils in electrical equipment ̶Supervision and maintenance guidance
IEC 60422
Mineral insulating
oils in electrical
equipment
̶Supervision and
maintenance
guidance

IEC 60422 After filling into a transformer

guidance IEC 60422 After filling into a transformer IEC 60156 Insulating liquids Determination of breakdown
IEC 60156 Insulating liquids Determination of breakdown voltage at power frequency – test method
IEC 60156
Insulating liquids
Determination of
breakdown
voltage at power
frequency –
test
method

Test & Measuring

methods

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Summary

Summary
Summary Transformer oil quality Excellent insulator Low Viscosity & VI Superior long term stability Operations

Transformer oil quality Excellent insulator Low Viscosity & VI Superior long term stability Operations

Cooling

- As low temperature as possible

Oxygen

- Protection systems Loading

- Do not over load

Maintenance

Antioxidant levels

- Monitor and top up

- Do not over load Maintenance Antioxidant levels - Monitor and top up Johan Grövik, Nynas

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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Nynas Group Head Office P.O. Box 10700 SE-121 29 Stockholm Sweden Transformer oils My contact
Nynas Group Head Office P.O. Box 10700 SE-121 29 Stockholm Sweden Transformer oils My contact
Nynas Group Head Office P.O. Box 10700 SE-121 29 Stockholm Sweden Transformer oils My contact

Nynas Group Head Office

P.O. Box 10700 SE-121 29 Stockholm Sweden

Transformer oils

My contact details;

- Production, performance and in-service behaviour

Johan Grövik johan.grovik@nynas.com

Phone: + 46 70 658 68 35

johan.grovik@nynas.com

Johan Grövik, Nynas AB

06.06.2013

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