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Assistant Professor,
Department of Aeronautical Engineering,
Adhiyamaan college of Engineering (Autonomous),
Rocket, self-propelled device that
carries its own fuel.
Rocket engine is the most powerful
engine for its weight.
Rockets can operate in space,
because they carry their own oxygen.
Rockets are presently the only
vehicles that can launch into and move
around in space.
How Rocket works.?

Action and Reaction

Thrust and Efficiency

Action and Reaction
Rockets produces the force that
moves them forward by burning
their fuel inside a chamber.

Rocket, like the balloon, has an

opening called a nozzle from which
the exhaust gases exit.
Thrust and Efficiency
Thrust is a measurement of the
force of a rocket, or the amount of
push exerted backward to move a
rocket forward.

Specific impulse measures the

efficiency and power of rocket
engines and propellants.
In some rockets that use stages, the
first stage has additional rockets
attached to the outside, acting as
boosters to further increase the thrust.
The first and most powerful stage lifts
the launch vehicle into the upper
The second stage carries less weight
than the first stage, because the first
stage has dropped off of the rocket.
Many spacecraft use small
rockets called thrusters to move
around in space.

Thrusters can change the

speed and direction of a
Rocket Propulsion
Classification of Rocket
Based on gas acceleration mechanism


Hall Thruster

MPD ( Magneto-plasma
Electromagnetic Dynamics)
PPT (Pulsed-plasma thrusters)
Chemical Propellants
Solid Propellants Liquid Propellants Hybrid

Black powder or gun powder Monopropellant

Homogeneous Bipropellant
Single Base
Double Base Petroleum Cryogenic Hypergolic
Triple Base
Heterogeneous (composite)
Composite/double base
Solid Propellants:
Black powder or gun powder is a low explosive, composed essentially
of a mixture of potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate, charcoal, and
sulphur. It is hygroscopic and subject to rapid deterioration when
exposed to moisture. It is also one of the most dangerous explosives
to handle because of the ease with which it is ignited by heat, friction,
or spark. The use of black powder as a propellant has ceased except
for fireworks.
Homogeneous propellants are either simple base or double base. A
simple base propellant consists of a single compound, usually nitrocellulose,
which has both an oxidation capacity and a reduction capacity. Double base
propellants usually consist of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine, to which a
plasticiser is added. Homogeneous propellants do not usually have specific
impulses greater than about 210 seconds under normal conditions. Their
main asset is that they do not produce traceable fumes and are, therefore,
commonly used in tactical weapons. They are also often used to perform
subsidiary functions such as jettisoning spent parts or separating one stage
from another. Triple-base propellants: Same as double-base propellants,
but with nitroguanidine added.
Heterogeneous (or composite) propellants which consist of a separate fuel and
oxidizer. Ordinary composite propellants generally consist of an organic fuel
that also serves as a binder and a solid oxidizer. High-energetic composite
propellants also include combustible metal particles which on combustion
increase the energy available for propulsive purposes. The organic fuel is
usually a hydrocarbon polymer, which initially is in a liquid state. The
oxidizer and metallic fuel are then added in the form of small particles which
are a few to a couple of hundred microns in diameter. After mixing with the
liquid organic fuel, the mixture is cured to allow the binder to solidify. Modern
composite propellants are heterogeneous powders (mixtures) that use a
crystallized or finely ground mineral salt as an oxidizer, often ammonium
perchlorate, which constitutes between 60% and 90% of the mass of the
propellant. The fuel itself is generally aluminium. The propellant is held
together by a polymeric binder, usually polyurethane or polybutadienes,
which is also consumed as fuel. Additional compounds are sometimes
included, such as a catalyst to help increase the burning rate, or other agents
to make the powder easier to manufacture. Composite propellants are often
identified by the type of polymeric binder used. The two most common
binders are polybutadiene acrylic acid acrylonitrile (PBAN) and hydroxyl-
terminator polybutadiene (HTPB). PBAN formulations give a slightly higher
specific impulse, density, and burn rate than equivalent formulations using
Composite/double base: Combinations of composite and double-base
Liquid Propellant:
Petroleum fuels are those refined from crude oil and are a mixture of
complex hydrocarbons, i.e. organic compounds containing only carbon and
hydrogen. The petroleum used as rocket fuel is a type of highly refined
kerosene, called RP-1 in the United States.
Petroleum fuels are usually used in combination with liquid oxygen as the
Kerosene delivers a specific impulse considerably less than cryogenic fuels,
but it is generally better than hypergolic propellants.
Liquid oxygen and RP-1 are used as the propellant in the first-stage boosters of
the Atlas and Delta II launch vehicles. It also powered the first-stages of the
Saturn 1B and Saturn V rockets.
Cryogenic propellants are liquefied gases stored at very low temperatures,
most frequently liquid hydrogen (LH2) as the fuel and liquid oxygen (LO2 or
LOX) as the oxidizer. Hydrogen remains liquid at temperatures of -253 o C (-
423 o F) and oxygen remains in a liquid state at temperatures of -183 o C (-
297 o F).
Because of the low temperatures of cryogenic propellants, they are difficult to
store over long periods of time. For this reason, they are less desirable for
use in military rockets that must be kept launch ready for months at a time.
Furthermore, liquid hydrogen has a very low density (0.071 g/ml) and,
therefore, requires a storage volume many times greater than other fuels.
Despite these drawbacks, the high efficiency of liquid oxygen/liquid
hydrogen makes these problems worth coping with when reaction time and
storability are not too critical. Liquid hydrogen delivers a specific impulse
about 30%-40% higher than most other rocket fuels.
Another cryogenic fuel with desirable properties for space
propulsion systems is liquid methane (-162 o C). When burned
with liquid oxygen, methane is higher performing than state-of-
the-art storable propellants but without the volume increase
common with LOX/LH2 systems, which results in an overall
lower vehicle mass as compared to common hypergolic
propellants. LOX/methane is also clean burning and non-toxic.
Future missions to Mars will likely use methane fuel because it
can be manufactured partly from Martian in-situ resources.
Liquid fluorine (-188 o C) burning engines have also been
developed and fired successfully. Fluorine is not only
extremely toxic; it is a super-oxidizer that reacts, usually
violently, with almost everything except nitrogen, the lighter
noble gases, and substances that have already been
fluorinated. Despite these drawbacks, fluorine produces very
impressive engine performance. It can also be mixed with
liquid oxygen to improve the performance of LOX-burning
engines; the resulting mixture is called FLOX. Because of
fluorine's high toxicity, it has been largely abandoned by most
space-faring nations.
Some fluorine containing compounds, such as chlorine
pentafluoride, have also been considered for use as an
'oxidizer' in deep-space applications.
Hypergolic propellants are fuels and oxidizers that ignite spontaneously on contact with each
other and require no ignition source. The easy start and restart capability of hypergols
make them ideal for spacecraft maneuvering systems. Also, since hypergols remain liquid
at normal temperatures, they do not pose the storage problems of cryogenic propellants.
Hypergols are highly toxic and must be handled with extreme care.
Hypergolic fuels commonly include hydrazine, monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and
unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH). Hydrazine gives the best performance as a
rocket fuel, but it has a high freezing point and is too unstable for use as a coolant. MMH
is more stable and gives the best performance when freezing point is an issue, such as
spacecraft propulsion applications. UDMH has the lowest freezing point and has enough
thermal stability to be used in large regeneratively cooled engines. Consequently, UDMH
is often used in launch vehicle applications even though it is the least efficient of the
hydrazine derivatives. Also commonly used are blended fuels, such as Aerozine 50, which
is a mixture of 50% UDMH and 50% hydrazine. Aerozine 50 is almost as stable as UDMH
and provides better performance.
Hydrazine is also frequently used as a monopropellant in catalytic decomposition engines. In
these engines, a liquid fuel decomposes into hot gas in the presence of a catalyst. The
decomposition of hydrazine produces temperatures up to about 1,100 o C (2,000 o F) and a
specific impulse of about 230 or 240 seconds. Hydrazine decomposes to either hydrogen
and nitrogen, or ammonia and nitrogen.
The oxidizer is usually nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) or nitric acid. In the United States, the nitric
acid formulation most commonly used is type III-A, called inhibited red-fuming nitric acid
(IRFNA), which consists of HNO3 + 14% N2O4 + 1.5-2.5% H2O + 0.6% HF (added as a
corrosion inhibitor). Nitrogen tetroxide is less corrosive than nitric acid and provides
better performance, but it has a higher freezing point.
Hybrid Propellant:
Hybrid propellant engines represent an intermediate group
between solid and liquid propellant engines. One of the
substances is solid, usually the fuel, while the other, usually the
oxidizer, is liquid. The liquid is injected into the solid, whose fuel
reservoir also serves as the combustion chamber. The main
advantage of such engines is that they have high performance,
similar to that of solid propellants, but the combustion can be
moderated, stopped, or even restarted. It is difficult to make use
of this concept for vary large thrusts, and thus, hybrid propellant
engines are rarely built.
A hybrid engine burning nitrous oxide as the liquid oxidizer
and HTPB rubber as the solid fuel powered the vehicle.
A flying weapon that
has its own engine so that it
can travel a long distance
before exploding at the place that it has
been aimed at Missiles have four
system components: targeting and/or
guidance, flight system, propulsion
system and warhead. 17
The word missile comes from the Latin verb mittere, literally meaning
"to send".

They are basically rockets which are meant for destructive purposes

Missiles differ from rockets by virtue of a guidance system that steers

them towards a pre-selected target.

Missiles are often used in warfare as a means of delivering

destructive force (usually in the form of an explosive warhead) upon
a target.

Aside from explosives, other possible types of destructive missile

payloads are various forms of chemical or biological agents, nuclear
warheads, or simple kinetic energy (where the missile destroys the
target by the force of striking it at high speed).

Rockets were invented in medieval China (1044 AD) but its first
practical use for serious purpose took place in 1232 AD by the
Chinese against the Mongols.

There after Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan (Sultan of Mysore in south
India) perfected the rocket's use for military purposes, very effectively
using it in war against British colonial armies.

At the Battle of Seringapatanam in 1792, Indian soldiers launched a

huge barrage of rockets against British troops, followed by a huge
massacre of British forces.

Portrait of Tipu Sultan
Sultan of Mysore, present day

Unlike contemporary rockets whose

combustion chamber was made of wood
(bamboo), Tipu's rockets (weighing between
2.2 to 5.5 kg) used iron cylinder casings that
allowed greater pressure, thrust and range
(1.5 to 2.5 Km). The British were greatly
impressed by the Mysorean rockets using iron

After regaining independence in
1947, India focused all its energy in
nation building, primarily on
economic and industrial
development fully understanding
the key role of science and

Indian rocketry was reborn, thanks

to the farsighted technological
vision of Prime Minister Pundit
Jawaharlal Nehru.

Professor Vikram Sarabhai took

the challenge of realizing this

Hon. President of India Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam played a key engineering role in
realizing both the Indian SLV-3 space launcher as well as the Prithvi and Agni
Initial missile programs like Project Devil (a theatre ballistic missile) and Project
Valiant (an intercontinental ballistic missile) were scattered and stymied by many
issues. But the success of all our missile programs including BRAHMOS makes
up for the shelved old projects.

Agni missile.

Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

Guided missiles are made up of a series of subassemblies. The major
sections are carefully joined and connected to each other. They form the
complete missile assembly.

The major components of a missile are:






A warhead is an explosive device used in military conflicts, used to destroy
enemy vehicles or buildings.
Typically, a warhead is delivered by a missile or rocket . It consists of the
explosive material, and a detonator.

Types of warhead :-
Explosive: An explosive charge is used to disintegrate the target, and
damage surrounding areas with a shockwave.

Chemical: A toxic chemical, such as nerve gas is dispersed, which is

designed to injure or kill human beings.

Biological: An infectious agent, such as anthrax is dispersed, which is

designed to sicken and kill humans.

Nuclear: A runaway nuclear fission or fusion reaction causes immense

energy release.

Fragmentation: Metal fragments are projected at high velocity to cause
damage or injury.

Shaped Charge: The effect of the explosive charge is focused onto a

specially shaped metal liner to project a hypervelocity jet of metal, to
perforate heavy armour.


It includes those devices and arrangements that cause the missile's payload
to function in proper relation to the target.
There are two general types of fuzes used
in guided missiles
proximity fuzes and contact fuzes.

Some common methods of fusing are:-

Radio frequency sensing

The shell contains a micro transmitter which uses the shell body as
an antenna and emits a continuous wave of roughly 180220 MHz .

As the shell approaches a reflecting object, an interference pattern is


This causes a small oscillation of the radiated power and consequently

the oscillator supply current of about 200800 Hz, the Doppler frequency.
This signal is sent through a band pass filter , amplified, and triggers the
detonation when it exceeds a given amplitude.
Optical sensing
Based on the use of petoscope which is an optoelectronic device for
detecting small, distant objects such as flying aircraft.

modern air-to-air missiles use lasers. They project narrow beams of laser
light perpendicular to the flight of the missile.

Magnetic sensing can only be applied to detect huge masses

of iron such as ships. It is used in mines and torpedoes. Fuzes of this type
can be defeated by degaussing, using non-metal hulls for ships
(especially minesweepers) or by magnetic induction loops fitted to aircraft
or towed buoys.

Acoustic sensing
used a microphone in a missile.

The characteristic frequency of an aircraft engine is filtered and triggers

the detonation.

Naval mines can also use acoustic sensing, with modern versions able
to be programmed to "listen" for the signature of a specific ship.

Pressure wave sensing

Some naval mines are able to detect the pressure wave of a ship passing


Missiles may be targeted in a number of ways. The

most common method is to use some form
of radiation , such as infrared , lasers or radio waves
, to guide the missile onto its target.

There are two types of guidance system

i. fire-and-forget
ii. Another method is to use a TV camerausing
either visible light or infra-redin order to see the

Some methods of target detection are:-

Laser Guidance - A laser designator device calculates relative position to a

highlighted target. Most are familiar with the military uses of the technology
on Laser-guided bomb. The space shuttle crew leverages a hand held device to feed
information into rendezvous planning. The primary limitation on this device is that it
requires a line of sight between the target and the designator.

Terrain contour matching
(TERCOM)- This method uses a
ground scanning radar to "match"
topography against digital map data to
fix current position. Used by cruise
missiles such as the BGM-109

Infrared homing : This form of

guidance is used exclusively for
military munitions, specifically air-to-
air and surface-to-air missiles. The
missiles seeker head homes in on
the infrared (heat) signature from the
targets engines (hence the term
heat-seeking missile). 32
Long-range Navigation (LORAN) : This was the
predecessor of GPS and was (and to an extent still is) used primarily in
commercial sea transportation. The system works by triangulating the ship's
position based on directional reference to known transmitters.

Wire-Guidance -A wire-guided missile is a missile guided by

signals sent to it via thin wires reeled out during flight.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
GPS was designed by the US military. GPS transmits 2 signal types: military
and a commercial. GPS is a system of 24 satellites orbiting in unique planes
10.9-14.4 Nautical miles above the earth. The Satellites are in well defined
orbits and transmit highly accurate time information which can be used to
triangulate position.

Guided missiles use some form of jet power for propulsion.

are three types of atmospheric jet propulsion systemsthe turbojet, pulsejet,
and ramjet engines. Of these three systems, only the turbojet engine is
currently being used in Navy air-launched missiles.

The various methods are as follows:-

The turbojet is the oldest kind of general-purpose air breathing jet engine.

Compared to turbofans, turbojets are quite inefficient if flown below about

Mach 2 and are very noisy.

As a result, most modern aircraft use turbofans instead for economic

reasons, although turbojets are still common in medium range cruise
missiles, due to their high exhaust speed, low frontal area, and relative


Fig.-RAMJET 37

A ramjet uses the engine's forward motion to compress incoming air,

without a rotary compressor.

Ramjets cannot produce thrust at zero airspeed, thus they cannot move
an aircraft from a standstill .

Ramjets work most efficiently at supersonic speeds around Mach 3. This

type of engine can operate up to speeds of Mach 6.

Ramjets can be particularly useful in applications requiring a small and

simple mechanism for high-speed use, such as missiles or artillery shells.

They have also been used successfully, though not efficiently, as tip
jets on the end of helicopter rotors.

Ramjets employ a continuous combustion process.

PULSEJET - A pulse jet engine (or pulsejet) is a type of jet engine in which
combustion occurs in pulses. Pulsejet engines can be made with few or
no moving parts , and are capable of running statically. Pulse jet engines are
a lightweight form of jet propulsion, but usually have a poor compression
ratio , and hence give a low specific impulse. One notable line of research of
pulsejet engines includes the pulse detonation engine which involves
repeated detonations in the engine, and which can potentially give high
compression and good efficiency.

ROCKET Thermal jets include solid propellant, liquid propellant, and combined
propellant systems.

Liquid Propellant - Liquid fuel is used in space vehicles and satellites and
that this fuel is put into the tanks of the space vehicles immediately before
launching. A missile cannot wait to be fueled when it is needed for defense
or offense-it must be ready. That is one of the reasons why solid propellants
have replaced liquid propellants in most of our missiles.

Solid Propellant Engines- The combustion chamber of a solid propellant
rocket contains the charge of solid propellant. Solid propellant charges are
of two basic types: restricted burning and unrestricted burning.

A hybrid engine combines the use of liquid and solid propellants.
The liquid is the oxidizer and the solid is the propellant.
Ignition is usually hypergolic, that is, spontaneous ignition takes place
upon contact of the oxidizer with the propellant.
The combustion chamber is within the solid grain, as in a solid-fuel
rocket; the liquid portion is in a tank with pumping equipment as in a
liquid-fuel rocket.
Combustion takes place on the inside surface of the solid fuel, after the
liquid fuel is injected, and the combustion products are exhausted
through the nozzle to produce the thrust as in other rockets

Liquid Propellant + Solid Propellant Engines = HYBRID PROPULSION

To target the missile by knowing the location of
the target, and using a guidance system such
as inertial navigation
system (INS), TERCOM or GPS.
This job can also be performed somewhat
crudely by a human operator who can see the
target and the missile, and guides it using either
cable or radio based remote-control, or by
an automatic system that can simultaneously
track the target and the missile.

GUIDANCE It involves guiding the missile to the target

The working of a missile is based on the Newtons Third Law i.e. Action
and reaction are equal and opposite
The propulsion of a missile is achieved with the help of a rocket engine.
It produces thrust by ejecting very hot gaseous matter, called propellant.
The hot gases are produced in the combustion chamber of the rocket
engine by chemical reactions.
The propellant is exhausted through a nozzle at a high speed. This
exhaust causes the rocket to move in the opposite direction (Newton's
third law).

MISSILE AERODYNAMICS - Guided missiles launched from surface ships

have their flight paths within the earth's atmosphere, so it is important that
you understand some basic aerodynamic principles. Aerodynamics may be
defined as the science that deals with the motion of air and other gases,
and with the forces acting on bodies moving through these gases.

Guided missiles are classified according to their range, speed, and launch
environment, mission, and vehicle type.

Long-range guided missiles are usually capable of traveling a distance of at
least 100 miles. Short-range guided missiles often do not exceed the range
capabilities of long-range guns.

The speed capability of guided missiles is expressed in Mach numbers. A
Mach number is the ratio of the speed of an object to the speed of sound in
the medium through which the object is moving. Under standard
atmospheric conditions, sonic speed is about 766 miles per hour (Mach
1.0). Guided missiles are classified according to their speed as shown
SubsonicUp to Mach 0.8
TransonicMach 0.8 to Mach 1.2
SupersonicMach 1.2 to Mach 5.0
HypersonicAbove Mach 5.0 46
The Department of Defense established a missile and rocket designation
sequence. The basic designation of every guided missile are letters, which
are in sequence. The sequence indicates the following:
1. The environment from which the vehicle is launched

2. The primary mission of the missile

3. The type of vehicle

Examples of guided missile designators common to the Aviation Ordnance

man are as follows:
Designator Meaning
AGM Air-launched, surface-attack, guided missile

AIM Air-launched, intercept-aerial, guided missile

ATM Air-launched, training guided missile

RIM Ship-launched, intercept-aerial, guided missile

A design number follows the basic designator. In turn, the number may be
followed by consecutive letters, which show a modification. For example,
the designation of AGM-88C means the missile is an air-launched (A),
surface-attack (G), missile (M),eighty-eighty missile design (88), third
modification (C). In addition, most guided missiles are given popular
names, such as Sparrow, Sidewinder, and Harpoon. These names are
retained regardless of subsequent modifications to the original missile.

The external surfaces of all Navy guided missiles , except random and
antenna surfaces, are painted white. The color white has no identification
color-coding significance when used on guided missiles. There are three
significant color codes used on guided missiles and their components
yellow, brown, and blue. These color codes indicate the explosive hazard in
the missile component. If components are painted blue on a practice missile
and have a yellow or brown band painted on them, the component has an
explosive component that doesn't have a comparable part in a service


An air-to-air missile (AAM) is a missile fired from an aircraft for the purpose
of destroying another aircraft.

Astra missile of Indian army

F-22A Raptor ,.

An air-to-surface missile (ASM) or air-to-ground missile (AGM or ATGM) is
a missile designed to be launched from military aircraft (bombers , attack
aircraft, fighter aircraft or other kinds) and strike ground targets on land, at
sea, or both.

Silkworm , US .

Storm Shadow by France

An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic
missiles. Ballistic missiles are used to
deliver nuclear, chemical, biological or conventional warheads in
a ballistic flight trajectory. The term "anti-ballistic missile" describes any
antimissile system designed to counter ballistic missiles. However, the term
is used more commonly for systems designed to counter intercontinental
ballistic missiles (ICBMs).

A Standard Missile
Three (SM-3)
,U.S. Navy ballistic
missile flight test.

the Prithvi Air Defence(PAD)
Anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) are designed to incapacitate or
destroy satellites for strategic military purposes. Currently, only the United
States, the former Soviet Union, and the People's Republic of China are
known to have developed these weapons.

Standard Missile - 3 (SM-3)

Anti-ship missiles are guided missiles that are designed for use against
ships and large boats. Most anti-ship missiles are of the sea
skimming variety, and many use a combination of inertial
guidance and radar homing.

RGM-84 surface
Harpoon missile.

An anti-submarine missile is a standoff weapon including
a rocket designed to rapidly deliver an explosive warhead or
homing torpedo from the launch platform to the vicinity of a submarine.

Ikara dummy missile onboard HMAS

Stuart(DE-48) off the New South Wales
coast. The ship in the distance is a
Japanese Guided Missile Destroyer,
visiting for Australia's Bicentennial Naval
Salute/Bicentennial Naval Review in
September/October 1988.

An anti-tank missile (ATM), anti-tank guided missile (ATGM), anti-tank
guided weapon (ATGW) or anti-armor guided weapon, is
a guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy heavily-
armored military vehicles.

Nag missile and

the Nag missile
Carrier Vehicle
tank Guided
missile developed
by DRDO.

A land-attack missile is a naval surface-to-surface missile that is capable
of effectively attacking targets ashore, unlike specialized anti-ship missiles,
which are optimized for striking other ships. Some dual-role missiles are
suitable for both missions.

Cruise missile
BrahMos shown on
IMDS-2007, owned
By India

A surface-to-air missile (SAM), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM), is
a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other
missiles. It is one type of anti-aircraft system; in modern armed forces missiles
have replaced most other forms of dedicated anti-aircraft weaponry, with
the anti-aircraft cannon pushed into niche roles.

Two SA-2 Guideline

(S-75 Dvina)
in the National
Museum of Military
History in Sofia

A surface-to-surface missile (SSM) or ground-to-ground missile (GGM)
is a missile designed to be launched from the ground or the sea and strike
targets on land or at sea. They may be fired from hand-held or vehicle
mounted devices, from fixed installations, or from a ship.

BGM-71 TOW , variant M220,

RPG-7 with warhead
SABER. U.S. Army

A wire-guided missile is a missile that is guided by signals sent to it via thin
wires connected between the missile and its guidance mechanism, which is
located somewhere near the launch site.

A Stryker vehicle
crew belonging to
4th Brigade, 2nd
Infantry Division,
fires a TOW missile
during the brigade's
rotation through
Fort Polk's, Joint
Readiness Training

A ballistic missile is a missile that follows a ballistic flight path with the
objective of delivering one or more warheads to a predetermined target.
Shorter range ballistic missiles stay within the Earth's atmosphere, while
longer range ones are designed to spend some of their flight time above the
atmosphere and are thus considered sub-orbital.

United States Trident II (D-5) missile

underwater launch.

A cruise missile is a guided missile, the major portion of whose flight path to
its target (a land-based or sea-based target) is conducted at approximately
constant velocity; that relies on the dynamic reaction of air for lift, and upon
propulsion forces to balance drag.

Shaurya missile (left) and Brahmos-

II(model) (top) by Government of India.

Reference :-

GUIDED MISSILES , by - T V Karthikeyan & A K Kapoor ,

Scientists Defense Research &- Development Laboratory,
Hyderabad , Defense Scientific Information & Documentation
Centre (DESIDOC) , Ministry of Defense, DRDO



,Prepared and produced by the U. S. Navy Training Publications
Center under direction of the Bureau of Naval Personnel

Solid Rocket
Solid Rocket Motors
A solid rocket motor is a system that uses solid
propellants to produce thrust
High thrust
High density
Low Isp (compared to liquids)
Complex throttling
Difficult to stop and restart
Solid Rocket Motors

Solid rocket motors are used for

Launch vehicles
High thrust (high F/W ratio)
High storage density
Ballistic Missiles
Propellant storability
Excellent aging
Quick response
high F/W ratio)
Solid Rocket Motor Components
Thermal Insulation
Design involves:
Analysis of combustion chamber environment
Stagnation temperature
Stagnation pressure
Propellant gases (material compatibility)
Selection of insulation material
Material thickness determination for various
areas of the motor case
For the cylindrical part of the case, the walls are
only exposed to hot combustion gases at the
end of the burn
The Nozzle
The design of the nozzle follows similar
steps as for other thermodynamic
Throat area determined by desired stagnation
pressure and thrust level
Expansion ratio determined by ambient pressure
or pressure range to allow maximum efficiency
Major difference for solid propellant
nozzles is the technique used for
Fiber reinforced material used in and near the
nozzle throat (carbon, graphite, silica,
Re-entry speed of 10 - 20 km/sec
Extreme heating in the atmosphere
Ablation and internal energy modes cooled the
meteorite through its fall
Ablation gas cloud
Internal energy deposition

Stony-Iron Classification
(95% of all meteorites)
Ignition System
Large solid motors typically use a three-stage
ignition system
Initiator: Pyrotechnic element that converts electrical
impulse into a chemical reaction (primer)
Booster charge
Main charge: A charge (usually a small solid motor) that
ignites the propellant grain. Burns for tenths of a second
with a mass flow about 1/10 of the initial propellant grain
mass flow.
Propellant Grain
Two main catagories
Double Base: A homogeneous propellant grain,
usually nitrocellulose dissolved in
nitroglycerin. Both ingredients are explosive
and act as a combined fuel, oxidizer and
Composite: A heterogeneous propellant grain
with oxidizer crystals and powdered fuel held
together in a matrix of synthetic rubber binder.
Less hazardous to manufacture and handle
Conventional Composite
5-22% Powdered Aluminum
65-70% Ammonium Perchlorate (NH4ClO4 or
8-14% Hydroxyl-
Polybutadiene (HTPB)
Aluminum (Al)
Molecular Weight: 26.98 kg/kmol
Density: 2700 kg/m3
Most commonly used
Magnesium (Mg)
Molecular Weight: 24.32 kg/kmol
Density: 1750 kg/m3
Clean burning (green)
Beryllium (Be)
Molecular Weight: 9.01 kg/kmol
Density: 2300 kg/m3
Most energetic, but extremely toxic exhaust products
Ammonium Perchlorate (AP)
Most commonly used
Cl combining with H can form HCl
Depletion of ozone
Ammonium Nitrate (AN)
Next most commonly used
Less expensive than AP
Less energetic
No hazardous exhaust products
Hydroxyl Terminated
Polybutadiene (HTPB)
Most commonly used
Consistency of tire rubber
Polybutadiene Acrylonitrile
Nitrocellulose (PNC)
Double base agent

Used to promote
Enhanced burn rate (HMX)
Reduced radiation through
the grain (darkening)
Satisfactory aging
Reduced cracking
The types of igniters which are
commonly used are,
Gaseous Igniter
Liquid igniter
Solid igniter
It is the old and primitive type of igniter
which is not used now. In this type of
igniter the reactive gaseous mixtures
are held in a very thin tube with high
pressure. It is hazardous in nature and
reliable. Directional control can be
done by using burst dampers.
Example for gaseous igniters is shock
Liquid igniter is of two types.
Liquid- Liquid type , which is known
as hypergolic igniter
Liquid Solid type, which is known as
hybrid igniter
Hypergolic liquids have a very high bulk
Ignition delay for these types of liquids
should be less than 50 milliseconds.
These liquids are chemically instable.
They must be work well together with some
of selected polymers and resins.
Their viscosity should be less than 10
They should have a very low vapour
They should have a very good heat transfer

The factors which affect the ignition delay are,

Purity of materials
Initial temperature and pressure.
t = A/
t = Time
A= Minimum possible ignition delay
E = Temperature coefficient
R = Universal Gas constant
The data to be considered while
designing an igniterare,
The pyrotechnic material data
Propellant ignitability data
Rocket motor data
Back up data (previous test firing
The ignitability bomb is a device
used to determine the relative
ignitability of the propellants at
various pressures under the
direct fire of ignition materials.
An injector or ejector is a system of
admitting the fuel into the combustion
engine. Its function issimilar to a
In an injector the fuel injection atomizes the
fuel by forcibly pumping it through a small
nozzle under high pressure while a
carburetor relies on suction created by
intake air rushing through a venture to draw
the fuel into the airstream.
The injectors are mainly used to
meter the flow of the liquid propellant
to the combustion chamber which
causes the liquids to be broken into
small droplets. This process is known
as atomization. It also helps to
distribute and mix the propellant in a
correctly proportionate mixture of fuel
and oxidizer, which results in uniform
propellant mass flow.
The types of impinging stream
pattern are ,
Doublet impinging stream pattern
Triplet impinging stream pattern
Self impinging stream pattern
Sheet (or) spray type injectors give
cylindrical, conical or other types of spray
sheets , these sprays generally intersect
and there by promote mixing and
atomization .
By varying the width of the sheet (through
an axially movable sleeve) it is possible to
throttle the flow over a wide range without
excessive reduction in the pressure drop.
This type of variable area concentric tube
injector was used on the descent engine of
the lunar excursion module.
The coaxial hollow post injector has been used
for liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen
It works well when the liquid hydrogen has
absorbed heat from cooling jackets and has
been gasified. This gasified hydrogen flows at a
high speed of 330m/s.
The liquid oxygen flows far slowly at a speed of
33m/s ,and the differential velocity cause a
shear action which helps to break up the
oxygen stream into small droplets
The coaxial hollow post injector is not used with
liquid storable bipropellants in part because the
pressure drop to achieve high velocity would
become too high.
Combustion chamber which is also known
as thrust chamber, where the combustion
or burning of propellants take place. The
combustion temperature is much higher
than the melting points of most chamber
wall materials. Therefore it is necessary to
cool these walls or to stop rocket
operation before the critical wall areas
become too hot. If the heat transfer is too
high and thus the wall temperatures
become locally too high, then the thrust
chamber will fail.
The volume and shape of a combustion chamber are
selected after evaluating various parameters.
Some of them are as follows,
1. The volume has to be large enough for adequate
mixing, evaporation and complete combustion of
2. Chamber volume varies for different propellants
with the time delay necessary to vaporize and
activate the propellants and with the speed of the
propellant combination.
3. When the chamber volume is too small,
combustion is incomplete and the performance is
4. With higher chamber pressure or with highly
reactive propellants and with injectors that give
improved mixing, a smaller chamber volume is
usually permissible.
5. The chamber volume and diameter can
influence the cooling requirements. If the
chamber volume and diameter are large, the
heat transfer rates to the wall will be reduced,
the area exposed to heat will be large, and the
walls are somewhat thicker.
6. All inert components should have a minimum
mass. The thrust chamber mass is a function of
the chamber dimensions, chamber pressure,
and nozzle area ratio, and the method of
7. Manufacturing consideration favor
simple chamber geometry, such as a
cylinder with a double cone bow tie
shaped nozzle, low cost materials and
simple fabrication process.
8. In some applications the length of the
chamber and the nozzle relate directly
to the overall length of the vehicle. A
large diameter but short chamber can
allow a somewhat shorter vehicle with
a lower structural inert vehicle mass.
9.The gas pressure drop for accelerating the
combustion products within the chamber
should be a minimum; any pressure
reduction at the nozzle inlet reduces the
exhaust velocity and the performance of the
vehicle. These losses become appreciable
when the chamber volume less than three
times the throat area.
10.For the same thrust the combustion volume
and the nozzle throat area become smaller as
the operating chamber pressure is increased.
This means that the chamber length and the
nozzle length also decrease with increasing
chamber pressure, the performance will go
up with chamber pressure
Problem Associated With
Liquid Propulsion Thrust
Propellant hammer is nothing
but a pressure surging
present in the liquid
propellant feed line.
Basically the feed lines are
very thin. On sudden
closure of valve, a pressure
pulse is generated at the
neighborhood of the valve.
It travels back to the tank at
some velocity and keeps
the liquid static pressure
Before designing the tank outlet
the designer have to solve
three main problems. They are,
1. Cavitation
2. Dropout
3. Vortexing
Cavitation is the phenomenon which occurs
when the static pressure drops below the
vapour pressure of the propellant. This may be
due to the increased flow velocity in the tank
It can be also defined as the boiling of liquid at
low pressures and the release of dissolved gas
from the liquid. Small gas bubbles grow in the
liquid and then collapse within a few
milliseconds. This is accompanied by high
temperature rises up to 10,000K and the
pressure rises up to 400MPa.
Cavitation is an
undesirable phenomenon
because there will be
increased losses in the
Cavitation occurs in the
converging duct of the outlet
where the fluid velocity
increases and there is
acorresponding decrease in
static pressure.
Cavitation problem can be avoided by
contouring the outlet, so that the static
pressure is constant throughout the
outlet. Cavitation can also suppress by
avoiding high flow velocities or by
using high fluid pressures or by
combination of both. The high fluid
pressures in the turbo pumps are
achieved by high tank pressures,
possibly in combination with booster
Liquid drop out is an
undesirable phenomenon in
case of liquid rocket
engines. Liquid dropout is
basically a depression in the
liquid surface at center of
the flow lines, which occurs
in higher vertical velocity
along the center line of the
outlet than along the wall
How to avoid LIQUID DROP OUT

Liquid dropout will not occur when the

liquid surface remains stationary.

This problem can be avoided by contouring

the outlet so that the axial component of
velocity along a stream line adjacent to the
wall of outlet is equal to the average velocity
which is obtained by dividing the flow rate
by the cross sectional area.
Vortexing is a phenomenon which is
similar to the coriolisforce effects in
bath tubs being emptied and can be
augmented if the vehicle spins or
rotates during flight.
Typically a series of internal baffles
is often used to reduce the
magnitude of vortexing in
propellant tanks with modest side
acceleration. vortexing can greatly
increase the unavailable or residual
propellant , and thus cause a
reduction in vehicle performance .

The amount of liquid oxidizer or

propellant present in the tank
at the time of completing the
operation of vehicle is called as
an outage.

The term geysering is applied to the

phenomenon which occurs in a liquid
propellant system, a column of liquid in long
vertical lines is expelled by the release of
If the bubbles will swarm causing the creation
of slow moving mass or a single large bubbles
travels at faster velocity causing more and
more bubble formation and decrease the
column static pressure rapidly.
The pressure surging
produced due to geysering
can be large and damage
the fluid lines, wall
supports and the line
Geysering can be also
results from the action of
the release of super heat
and reduced pressure
boiling in a saturated or
superheated liquid
Propellant slosh
ude rigid ring baffles (Of various
geometries and orientation), cruciform
baffles, deflectors, flexible flat ring baffle,
floating can, positive expulsion bags and
diaphragms. Gel, packed fibers, and
foams have been employed in non space
applications, but are not now being used
for space vehicles.

1. Gas pressure feed system

2. Turbo pump feed system
Classification of Valves Used in
Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines
1. Fluid valve:
For carrying fuel, oxidizer, cold pressurized gas,
and hot turbine gas this type of valve is used.

2. Application or Use:
The valves which are mainly used for propellant
control are Thrust chamber valve (dual or
single),bleed valve, drain valve, filling valves,
by-pass valve, preliminary stage flow valve,
pilot valve, safety valve; overboard dump
valve, regulato valve, gas generator control
valve, sequence control valve.
3. Mode of Actuation:
The valves are operated by different means
of actuation. The different modes are,
Automatically operated (by solenoid, pilot
valve, trip mechanism, pyrotechnic, etc.)
Manually operated
Pressure-operated by air, gas, propellant, or
hydraulic fluid (e.g., check valve, tank
vent valve, pressure regulator, relief valve)

4. The flow magnitude determines the size of

the valve.
5. Valve Types
Normally open,
normally closed, normally
partly open, two-way, three-
way, with/without valve position
feedback, ball valve, gate valve,
butterfly type, spring loaded
The various fluids in a rocket engine
are conveyed by pipes or lines, usually
made of metal and are joined by
fittings or welds.
Their design must provide thermal
expansion and provide support to
minimize vibration effects.
For gimballed thrust chambers it is
necessary to provide flexibility in the
piping to allow the thrust axis tube
rotated through a small angle, typically
+3 to 10 .
The primary objective of cooling is to
prevent the chamber and nozzle walls
from becoming too hot, so they will no
longer able to withstand the imposed
loads and stresses, thus causing the
chamber or nozzle to fail. Most
materials lose strength and become
weaker as temperature is increased.
Cooling thus reduces the wall
temperatures to an acceptable limit.
Methods of Cooling of Thrust
Nose or Fore body
Midsection or Main body
The aft or Boat tail section

It is the first and foremost component of a

missile which experiences air while travelling
through the atmosphere. Several types of nose
sections were used in various types of
missiles. Some of the types are,
Conical fore body
Ogival fore body
Hemispherical fore body
cylindrical shape. The shape is advantageous from the stand
points of drag, ease of manufacturing, and the load
carrying capability. The zero-lift drag of a cylindrical body
is caused by skin friction force only. At low angle of attack,
a very small amount of normal force is developed on the
body, this results from the carryover from the nose
The tapered portion of the aft section of a body is called
the boat tail. The purpose of boat tail is to decrease the
drag of a body which has a squared off base. The mid
section has relatively large base pressure and
consequently high drag values because of large base area.
By boat tailing the rear portion of the body, the base area
is reduced and thus the base drag is reduced. However, the
decrease in base drag may be partially nullified by the boat
The purpose of putting fins on the
rocket is to provide stability,
provide lift and control the flight
path of the missile. The plan form
of fins of a rocket is of different
types. They are of clipped tip delta,
rectangular, triangular, trapezoidal
The various supersonic wings
cross sectional shapes are,

1. Double wedge
2. Modified double wedge and
3. Biconvex

Aerodynamic control is the connecting link between
the guidance system and the flight path of the missile.
Effective control of flight path requires smooth and
exact operation of the control surfaces of the missile.
They must have the best possible design configuration
for the intended speed of the missile.
The control surface must move with enough force to
produce the necessary change of direction. The
adjustments they make must maintain the balance and
centre of gravity of the missile.
The control surface must also be positioned to meet
variations in lift and drag at different flight speeds. All
these conditions contribute to the flight stability of the
The types of aerodynamic
controls of a missile are,

1. Canard control
2. Wing control
3. Tail control
4. Unconventional control