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COMPASSION FATIGUE AMONG THE NURSES

OF BAGUIO GENERAL HOSPITAL

AND MEDICAL CENTER

____________________

A Dissertation Proposal

Presented to the Faculty

of the Graduate School

Baguio Central University

Baguio City

____________________

In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION

____________________

FERNANDO M. CALION JR.

May 2016
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APPROVAL SHEET

This dissertation proposal entitled, COMPASSION FATIGUE AMONG

THE NURSES OF BAGUIO GENERAL HOSPITAL AND MEDICAL

CENTER, prepared and submitted by FERNANDO M. CALION JR., in partial

fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN

ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION (PHAS), has been reviewed and

examined and is hereby endorsed for acceptance and approval for proposal defense.

MARILOU A. DELA PEA, Ph.D.


Professor 400A

PROPOSAL EXAMINATION COMMITTEE

MARILOU A. DELA PEA, Ph.D.


Chairman

JOSE R. BALCANAO, Ph.D. GINA L. CASI, Ph.D.


Member Member
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

With heartfelt gratitude, the researcher wishes to convey his deep

appreciation and thanks to those who contributed to the completion of this humble

dissertation proposal, without them, this piece will never have been realized.

The Good Lord, for bringing him into this world with a life equipped with

wisdom and overflowing opportunities to experience wonderful things in life.

His family for all the support, understanding and unconditional love;

Members of the proposal committee, Dr. Marilou A. Dela Pea, Dr. Jose R.

Balcanao, and Dr. Gina L. Casi, for their comments and suggestions that helped the

researcher to continually enhance and develop the study to be more comprehensive;

His other relatives and friends for their utmost support and words of

encouragement;

And to all those who, in one way or another, contributed in the completion

of this manuscript.

To God be the glory!

F.M.C.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page No.

TITLE PAGE i

APPROVAL SHEET .. ii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT .. iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS .... iv

FIGURE USED ... vi

CHAPTER

1 THE PROBLEM

Background of the Study . 1

Conceptual Framework of the Study .. 7

Paradigm of the Study . 9

Statement of the Problem .... 11

Hypotheses of the Study ... 11

Scope and Delimitation of the Study .. 12

Definition of Terms 12

Significance of the Study . 13

2 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

Research Design .. 15

Locale and Population ... 15

Data Gathering Tool ..... 16


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Reliability and Validity of the Research Instrument ... 16

Data Gathering Procedure ...... 17

Statistical Treatment of the Data .... 17

REFERENCES ...... 19

APPENDICES

A. Letter to the Respondents ... 20

B. Questionnaire ....... 21

CURRICULUM VITAE........ 24
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FIGURE USED

Figure Page No.

1 Paradigm of the Study .......... 10

Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM
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Background of the Study

Nurses being a part of the healthcare industry act different roles in giving

care and nurture to patients and clients who need medical and healthcare attention.

Faced with multiple tasks at a time under pressure to provide services satisfactorily

and at a given time limit increases the likelihood of building hazards to the well

being of healthcare providers. As nurses, empathy and compassion are just among

the most important values in this kind of job. However, nurses like any other

humans also experience exhaustion, tiredness, anger, sadness and even emptiness in

certain context related to their work setting especially in giving critical care. The

continuous exposure to patient's suffering, patient's family grievances and other

patient related painful episodes takes a toll in the emotional, spiritual, social and

even physical well being of nurses. Due to a study done exploring burnout in

1992 by Joinson, the term compassion fatigue was first reflected as experienced by

emergency room nurses. In the said research, the author cited that some nurses

seemed to have lost their ability to nurture. On the other, Kotula, Keshia (2015)

noted in his paper the 3 main core issues in compassion fatigue as according to

Joinson. The first, is that caregivers provide themselves as a product to those they

help which can be taxing. Second, Caregivers may feel as though they can always

do a little bit more. Finally, caregivers fill many roles which can require a

significant amount of energy. This phenomenon was further described by Figley in

1995 (ANA, Online Journals of Issues of Nursing), as the natural consequent


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behaviors and emotions resulting from knowing a traumatizing event experienced

by a significant other the stress resulting from helping or wanting to help, a

traumatized or suffering person. Compassion Fatigue has been described as the

cost of caring" for others in emotional and physical pain. It is characterized by

deep physical and emotional exhaustion and a pronounced change in the helpers

ability to feel empathy for their patients, their loved ones and their co-workers. It is

marked by increased cynicism at work, loss of passion, and eventually can lead into

depression, and secondary traumatic stress and stress-related illnesses. Compassion

fatigue affects the very core of nursing empathy and compassion to others

values that are most important in building a therapeutic relationship between a

nurse and a patient.

Dr Charles Figley in his study of compassion fatigue did not focus on

nurses alone but rather on different healthcare related jobs that require nurturing

and care to patient or clients in general. Note that secondary traumatic stress is

the original phrase used to describe compassion fatigue and it is used

interchangeably in other literature.

Going further, it is significant to point out in this study that burnout is

different from compassion fatigue. The two may show similar symptoms and one

may affect the other but researches show that these two differ in onset and effect on

the caregivers. Though Figley, commented that the presence of burnout can lead to

the development of compassion fatigue. In burnout, the onset is gradual while


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compassion fatigue can be more acute in onset. While burnout arises from

environmental factors (long working hours, no breaks, poor pay) and accumulation

of multifactoral stressors in life Compassion fatigue comes from repeated

exposure to traumatic events with patients or patient's families like end of life

situations and result of caring to suffering people. Burnout can occur in any

profession but compassion fatigue is specific to helping and caregiving professions.

Furthermore, burnout can lead to generalized dissatisfaction with one's work. On

the other hand, compassion fatigue may result to loss of nurture and holistically

care for patients. Sabo (2006) cited the difference between compassion fatigue and

burnout by stating that compassion fatigue is the consequence of caring for

suffering people rather than a response to the work environment. Nevertheless,

Todaro-Franceschi (2013) added that compassion fatigue is being related to our

connection with others and bearing witness to their suffering, whereas burnout is a

more generalized dissatisfaction with work resulting from things like salary,

workload, benefits, and organizational culture.

In addition, a study conducted by Meadors, Lamson, Swanson, White, and

Sira (Kotula, K. 2015) examining the relationship between burnout, compassion

fatigue, and secondary traumatic stress found that participants who indicated high

levels of burnout also indicated high levels of compassion fatigue . But no other

studies were found to support Figley's statement that burnout is the cause of

compassion fatigue. Psychologically and Physiologically, compassion fatigue


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create a great impact on nurses and other healthcare providers. The warning signs

and symptoms may vary from each individual. Emergency Nurses Association

(ENA)named several manifestations like anxiety, avoidance, depression,

hyperarousal, memory problems, poor concentration, poor judgment, restlessness,

mood swings, intrusive thoughts and lack of compassion or numbness.

Physiological symptoms include fatigue, gastrointestinal problems, muscle tension,

headache, cardiac symptoms and sleep disturbances. All of these will contribute

and eventually lead to workplace signs and symptoms like high absenteeism,

frequent use of sick days, lack of joy and lack of empathy, decreased productivity,

increased turnover and avoidance in working with specific groups of patients.

Some factors that contribute in the development of compassion fatigue is a high

level of empathy, caring for patients with chronic diseases, witnessing painful

procedures, sadness and death with the emotional burdens of families and

becoming overly involved with the patient's situation. In the qualitative study by

Wenzel et al in 2011, the nurses interviewed indicated that deterioration of patient's

health and death were difficult to deal with and they did not feel adequate support

to cope with the personal, physical and psychological demands of the situation

the limited time to process the event exacerbate negative feelings. The study

conducted by Abendroth and Flannery in 2006 concluded that close to 80% of the

hospice nurses they surveyed (N=216) were at moderate to high risk for

compassion fatigue. Eighty-three percent of the nurses in the high risk for
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compassion fatigue category indicated that they self-sacrificed for others needs.

Also,unhealthy levels of empathy, trauma, anxiety, and life demands were key

factors determining the risk for compassion fatigue. Yoders (2010) study of

hospital and home care nurses found that compassion fatigue risk was significantly

higher for nurses who worked eight hour shifts versus nurses who worked twelve

hour shifts. The study also identified three categories of trigger situations for

compassion fatigue and burnout. The three categories of triggers included caring

for patients (patient condition/status, challenging behavior, futile care), system

issues (high census, heavy patient assignments, high acuity of patients, overtime,

extra work hours), and personal issues (inexperience, lack of energy, feelings of

inadequacy). Moreover, according to the research done by Potter et al. in 2010,

there is no significant findings on the trend for increased risk for burnout and

compassion fatigue among nurses with higher levels of education. The study also

showed that staff nurses 11-20 years of experience were found to have the highest

percentage of high-risk compassion fatigue scores. However, this finding was

contradicted by Burtson and Stichler's findings in same year, where nurses younger

and less experienced (less than 10 years) are found to be likely to develop

compassion fatigue than that of the more experienced ones.

Presently, there are several tools already available to measure the presence

and levels of compassion fatigue, as well as compassion satisfaction and burnout.

The Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL) by Stamm, is a 30 item free-


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report tool with a self-core document to provide interpretation. The Green Cross

Academy of Traumatology website provides Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale

(STS) and the Compassion fatigue Self-Test for Helpers (CFST) - both utilize self-

report likert items to determine scores related to compassion fatigue, compassion

satisfaction, and burnout levels or risks.

Continuous study regarding compassion fatigue and its prevention is very

important not only for nurses or caregivers personally as care providers but also

significant to the well-being of the community and the institution where they are

employed or assigned. The toll of compassion fatigue in the performance of nurses

can result to malpractice and negligence on providing treatments and services.

Individuals who provides life-saving measures should be well in different aspects

(emotional, spiritual, physical, social, mental) inorder to provide a safe, effective,

efficient and fast interventions.

According to Medical News Today (2010) account, the impact of

compassion fatigue may cause stress-related symptoms and job dissatisfaction and

decreased productivity and job turn over within the healthcare system. As nurses

and other caregivers perform at their best for the patients, it is also a responsibility

of the organizations to exercise and implement measures inorder to give adequate

support and disseminate awareness on how to manage such situations that can lead

to compassion fatigue. Participation of nurses and caregivers are also important in

the success of managements and support systems offered inorder to increase


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compassion satisfaction. Overall, nurses and care providers must maintain a sense

of self inorder to provide quality care and safe practice deliverance even when

repeatedly encountering painful events and sufferings of patients in their respective

works.

Conceptual Framework of the Study

In this study, two theories are considered to better understand the

development, prevention and management of compassion fatigue among nurses.

As stated earlier, compassion fatigue targets the two most important attributes

needed in nursing which are empathy and compassion. Thus, Erik Eriksons Theory

on Generativity versus Stagnation and the Buddhist Perspective on Compassion are

taken into account.

Erik Erikson, who is a well-known psychologist and psychoanalyst for his

Psychosocial Developmental Stages, stated that generativity and stagnation

approximately occur in the later stages of life middle adulthood. Where,

Generativity refers to "making your mark" on the world through caring for others

as well as creating and accomplishing things that make the world a better place and

Stagnation refers to the failure to find a way to contribute. These individuals may

feel disconnected or uninvolved with their community and with society as a whole.

According to some accounts, younger nurses tend to suffer more with compassion

fatigue compared to older middle aged nurses. Looking further, the maturity level

of these nurses might contribute to their inability to cope up with suffering and
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painful events of caregiving practice. Cited from the study of Adkinson, L. (2005-

Florida State University), the stage in question is Maturity with the age ranges from

25-60 years. There are also numerous factors that can influence feelings of

generativity versus feelings of stagnation at this point in life. People who have

positive relationships with others, good quality health and a sense of control over

their lives will feel more productive and satisfied. With regard to nurses repeated

exposure to sufferings and traumatic events, inability to cope with the stress and

have a sense of control in showing empathic behaviours and having the feeling of

having the ability to do more for the patient may put the healthcare provider at risk

of losing ones self in the situation. Those who suffer from poor health, poor

relationships and feel that they have no control over their fate are more likely to

experience feelings of stagnation.

As compassion fatigue is much related to suffering and the mindset of

nurses, the principles of Buddhism has been selected to better appreciate the said

phenomenon. Buddhism is claimed to be a religion, a philosophy and a lifestyle at

the same time. The center of it is suffering, may it be related to death, illness,

frustration and disappointment. There are two kinds of suffering according to

Buddhism. First, are sufferings which we have no control like death, natural

disasters, sickness and loss of loved ones. Second, are sufferings which are self-

generated. According to Buddhism, most of us develop mental chaos due to

constructing reality from misconceptions about the self and what is life all about.
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To connect this with compassion fatigue, nurses tends involve themselves too much

unknowingly developing unhealthy misperception of doing more to alleviate the

pain experienced by their patients. The continuous feeling of not doing enough for

their patients generates psychological stress that might affect their compassion and

empathy. One of the Four Noble truths taught in Buddhism says that, Life is full

of suffering or dukkha this states that acceptance of this human condition can

lead to peace of mind. To truly accept that certain pain and trauma cannot be

eliminated or avoided, nurses can balance and embrace their feelings toward such

situations as they are aware that these kinds of events are normal and are part of

human life.

Paradigm of the Study

Figure 1 illustrates the direction of the study.

The independent variables of the study are the experiences of compassion

satisfaction, compassion fatigue and burnout among the nurses and also the work-

related components contributory to the development of compassion fatigue. On the

other hand, the dependent variables are the prevalence of compassion satisfaction,

compassion fatigue, and burnout among the nurses and the extent of contribution of

work-related components to the development of compassion fatigue nurses.

1. Independent variables
Compassion satisfaction, Dependent
1. Prevalence variables
of compassion
compassion fatigue, and satisfaction, compassion
burnout among the nurses fatigue, and burnout among
the nurses
2. Work-related components
contributory to the 2. Extent of contribution of
experience of compassion work-related components
fatigue among the nurses to the experience of
compassion fatigue among
the nurses
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Moderating variables

Profile of the nurses


1.
a. Age
b. Educational attainment
c. Length of Service
d. Position

Figure 1

Paradigm of the study

In addition, the demographic profile of the nurses in terms of age, educational

attainment, years of experience, and position, and years of experience will serve as

the moderating variables of the study.


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Statement of the Problem

The aim of this study is to look into the experience of compassion fatigue

among the nurses of Baguio General Hospital and Medical Center.

Specifically, it seeks answers to the following questions:

1. What is the prevalence of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and

burnout among the nurses of BGH-MC?

2. What is the demographic profile of the nurses of BGH-MC in terms of age,

educational attainment, years of experience, and position?

3. What is the extent of contribution of work-related components to the

experience of compassion fatigue among the nurses of BGH-MC?

Null Hypotheses

The following hypotheses will be tested:

1. There is no significant relationship between the profile of the nurses and

their experience of compassion fatigue?

2. There is no significant relationship between the experience of

compassion fatigue and work related components?

Scope and Delimitation


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The study will be delimited in assessing the prevalence of compassion

fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and burnout among the nurses as influenced by

their demographic profile and work-related components.

The respondents will include the 313 nurses from Baguio General Hospital

and Medical Center.

Definition of Terms

In order to have a common point of reference, some terms used in this study

were defined operationally and conceptually.

Burnout. It is a term that has been used since the early 1980s describe the

physical and emotional exhaustion that workers can experience when they have low

job satisfaction and feel powerless and overwhelmed at work.

Compassion fatigue. It refers to the profound emotional and physical

erosion that takes place when nurses are unable to refuel and regenerate.

Staff nurses They are the personnel employed in the different areas of a

care facility, in this study the Baguio General Hospital and Medical Center. They

finished a four-year course of nursing and passed the nursing regulatory exam

given by the nursing board in the Philippines. Other term used interchangeably with

this is REGISTERED NURSE.

Tertiary government hospitals It refers to a hospital which is fully

departmentalized and equipped with the service capabilities needed to support

certified medical specialists and other licensed physicians rendering services in the
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field of medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, surgery, their sub

-specialties, and ancillary services. This hospital are managed and financed by the

government. The two tertiary government hospitals in Baguio-Benguet are Baguio

General Hospital and Medical Center and Benguet General Hospital.

Significance of the Study

The following are expected to benefit from this study:

To the Researcher. This study aims to enhance the researchers

understanding on compassion fatigue and its interrelated phenomenon like

compassion satisfaction and burnout. Moreover, as a nurse herself, the researcher

will increase her level of self-awareness regarding having healthy defense

mechanisms on dealing with traumatic events that may occur in the workplace.

To the Nursing Administration. Nursing administrators as higher

personnel accountable for their staffs wellness and safety can have a glance on the

condition of their nurses through the data collected for them to be able to provide

the appropriate approach on how to implement a support system needed by their

staff nurses in various areas.

To the Institution. Data and information from this research will provide a

review on how their employees perform in the area including their capability to

face healthcare related crisis. By this review, the institution or organization will get

provide further support for the implementation of projects or program necessary for
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the well being and motivation of their workers. Having healthy employees will

contribute to the growth and development of the organization itself.

To the Nurses. For other nurses, this will help increase their awareness on

compassion fatigues different preventions and managements measure. Likewise,

they will be informed on the importance of self-evaluation on matters where they

needed support and help from the organization and other healthcare staff to achieve

holistic healthy physique to provide a safe quality service.

To the Patients. For the patients, the sole beneficiary of this research, in

order to receive a safe quality healthcare service, their healthcare providers should

be holistically well. The safety of each patient depends on the judgments and the

critical decisions made by the medical personnel involve in his/her care.

To the Other Researcher Enthusiast. This paper can be used as a future

reference for further studies to be conducted in the future. The data collection can

be a set of comparison for any kinds of beneficial modifications that can be done

and recommended to address the presented problem.

Chapter 2

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY


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This chapter includes discussion of the research design, locale and

population, data gathering procedure, data gathering tool, validity and reliability of

the research instrument and the statistical treatment to be used in the study.

Research Design

The descriptive-correlational method of research will be used in this study.

The descriptive method involves the description, recording, analysis, and

interpretation of the present nature, composition or process of phenomena. The

focus is on prevailing conditions, or how a person, group, or thing behaves or

functions in the present. It often involves some type of comparison or contrast

(Shuttleworth, 2008). Hence this design was utilized in this study for it aims to

assess the experience of compassion fatigue among the nurses. It is also

correlational since it determines the influence of the nurses profile and work-

related components their experience of compassion fatigue.

Locale and Population of the Study

The subjects of the study will come from the currently employed nurses of

different positions from the various wards or areas of Baguio General Hospital and

Medical Center. Total enumeration will be employed where all the 313 nurses will

serve as participants of this study.

Data Gathering Tool


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In gathering the data needed in the study, the questionnaire will be the main

instrument used. A questionnaire is a form prepared and distributed to secure

responses to certain questions. A general rule is that these questions are factual and

intended to obtain information about condition or practices of which the

respondents are presumed to have knowledge.

The first part of the questionnaire was a letter to the respondents followed

by queries on the following topics: prevalence of compassion satisfaction,

compassion fatigue and burnout among the nurses; Demographic profile of the

nurses in terms of educational attainment, civil status, age, gender, position, and

years of experience; and, extent of contribution of work-related components to the

experience of compassion fatigue.

Reliability and Validity of the Research Instrument

The questionnaire on the professional quality of life scale (PROQOL)

version 5 was adopted from the previous related researches which is already proven

to be valid and reliable. However, for the work component, it was based on

previous related literatures that will be shown to the researchers adviser to

establish its reliability. Its reliability, on the other hand, will be determined through

the use of the Kuder Richarson Formula 21 (Subong, 2006) after a pretest to 10

nurses from Benguet General Hospital.

Data Gathering Procedure


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Before floating the questionnaire, letter of request to administer

questionnaire will be secured from the Dean of the Graduate School. Afterwards,

permission will be obtained from the ethics committee. With the assistance of the

researchers colleagues and friends, the copies of the questionnaire will be

administered to the target respondents.

Statistical Treatment of the Data

The data to be gathered in the study will be tallied, classified, tabulated and

subjected to the weighted mean, percentages and ranking.

f
WM =
N

Where:
WM = Weighted mean
= summation
f = frequency
N = total number of cases

For part one on Professional Quality of Life Scale (PROQOL) version 5

(2009), the five point scale will be employed as shown below:

NUMERICAL
DESCRIPTIVE EQUIVALENT SYMBOL
VALUE
5 Very Often VO
4 Often O
3 Sometimes S
2 Rarely R
1 Never N
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In conclusion, for the relationship between the experience of compassion

fatigue among the nurse and their profile and work-related components, Chi-square

will be employed with the formula of:

X = ( fo -fe )

fe

Where:

X = the Chi-Square value


fo = the actually observed frequencies
fe = the expected frequencies
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REFERENCES

Abendroth, M. & Flannery, J. (2006). Predicting the risk for compassion fatigue.
Retrieved May 14, 2016 http://www.compassionstrengths.com/uploads/
Compassion_fatigue_nursing.pdf

Adkinson, L. (2005). Compassion fatigue in middle aged public health nurse


working on disaster relief teams. Retrieved April 24, 2016
http://diginole.lib.fsu.edu/islandora/object/fsu:168085/datastream/PDF/view

Braunschneider, H. (2013). Preventing and managing compassion


fatigue and burnout in nursing. Retrieved May 14, 2016
http://dc.cod.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1442&context=essai

Mathieu, F. (2007). Running on empty: Compassion fatigue in health professionals.


Retrieved May 14, 2016 file:///D:/My%20Documents/Nursing_on_Empty_
Compassion_Fatigue_Signs,.8.pdf

Philippine Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities. (2012). Attachment theory


as a framework for understanding compassion fatigue among humanitarian
relief workers. Retrieved April 25, 2016 https://www.researchgate.net/
publication/297713183_Attachment_Theory_as_a_Framework_for_Underst
anding_Compassion_Fatigue_Among_Humanitarian_Relief_Workers

Professional Quality of Life Scale (PROQOL) Version 5. (2009). Retrieved May 4,


2016 http://www.proqol.org/uploads/ProQOL_5_English_Self-Score_3-
2012.pdf

Shuttleworth, M. (2008). Descriptive research design. Retrieved


from Explorable.com:https://explorable.com/descriptive-research-design

Subong, P. (2006). Statistics for Research: Applications in Research Thesis and


Dissertation Writing, and Statistical Data Management Using SPSS
Software.Manila, Philippines: Rex Book Store.
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APPENDIX A

BAGUIO CENTRAL UNIVERSITY

#18 Bonifacio St., Baguio City

Graduate Program

Dear Respondent,

The undersigned is conducting a study entitled COMPASSION

FATIGUE AMONG THE NURSES OF BAGUIO GENERAL HOSPITAL

AND MEDICAL CENTER. In this connection, he earnestly requests your

cooperation in answering the herein attached questionnaire. Rest assured that all

data gathered through the questionnaire will be treated with strict confidentiality.

Your cooperation and kind consideration of this request is highly

appreciated.

Very truly yours,

Fernando M. Calion Jr.


Researcher
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APPENDIX B

QUESTIONNAIRE

PART I: Please provide the following information

Name: ______________ (optional) Gender: ____________ Age:


_______
Civil Status: ________________ Religion: ____________________
Years of experience: ____________ Ward/Area: ______________________
Position: ________________________
Highest Educational Attainment: __________________________

PART II: PROFESSIONAL QUALITY OF LIFE SCALE (PROQOL)


COMPASSION SATISFACTION AND COMPASSION FATIGUE
(PROQOL) VERSION 5 (2009)

When you [help] people you have direct contact with their lives. As you
may have found, your compassion for those you [help] can affect you in positive
and negative ways. Below are some questions about your experiences, both positive
and negative, as a [helper]. Consider each of the following questions about you and
your current work situation. Select the number that honestly reflects how frequently
you experienced these things in the last 30 days.

1=Never 2=Rarely 3=Sometimes 4=Often 5=Very Often

_____1. I am happy.
_____2. I am preoccupied with more than one person I [help].
_____3. I get satisfaction from being able to [help] people.
_____4. I feel connected to others.
_____5. I jump or am startled by unexpected sounds.
_____6. I feel invigorated after working with those I [help].
_____7. I find it difficult to separate my personal life from my life as a [helper].
_____8. I am not as productive at work because I am losing sleep over traumatic
experiences of a person I [help].
_____9. I think that I might have been affected by the traumatic stress of
those I [help].
_____10. I feel trapped by my job as a [helper].
_____11. Because of my [helping], I have felt "on edge" about various things.
_____12. I like my work as a [helper].
_____13. I feel depressed because of the traumatic experiences of the
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people I [help].
_____14. I feel as though I am experiencing the trauma of someone
I have [helped].
_____15. I have beliefs that sustain me.
_____16. I am pleased with how I am able to keep up with [helping] techniques
and protocols.
_____17. I am the person I always wanted to be.
_____18. My work makes me feel satisfied.
_____19. I feel worn out because of my work as a [helper].
_____20. I have happy thoughts and feelings about those I [help] and
how I could help them.
_____21. I feel overwhelmed because my case [work] load seems endless.
_____22. I believe I can make a difference through my work.
_____23. I avoid certain activities or situations because they remind me of
frightening experiences of the people I [help].
_____24. I am proud of what I can do to [help].
_____25. As a result of my [helping], I have intrusive, frightening thoughts.
_____26. I feel "bogged down" by the system.
_____27. I have thoughts that I am a "success" as a [helper].
_____28. I can't recall important parts of my work with trauma victims.
_____29. I am a very caring person.
_____30. I am happy that I chose to do this work.

PART III. WORK-RELATED COMPONENTS

4 Very Highly Contribution VHC


3 High Contribution HC
2 Moderately Contribution MC
1 Less Contribution LC

4 3 2 1
WORK-RELATED COMPONENTS (VHC) (HC) (MC) (LC)
1. Minimal superior support
2. Excessive patient volume resulting to
unproportional nurse to patient ratio
3. Uncollaborative work environment
4. Non-existence of support group of bereavement
interventions for the nurses
5. Job satisfaction
6. Insufficient fringe benefits
7. Inadequate salary
8. Poor work values
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9. Professional growth
10. Untimely and poor quality supervision
11. Lack of training on the development of mental
health
12. Lack of training on the development of
spiritual health
13. Personality of the nurse in conflict with
institutional policies
14. Hours worked
15. Weak emotional intelligence
16. Personal belief and practices of the nurse
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CURRICULUM VITAE

PERSONAL INFORMATION

Name: FERNANDO M. CALION JR.

Birthdate: February 9, 1975

Birthplace: Baguio City

Age: 41 years old

Civil Status: Single (Annulled)

Children: Justice Lourdes

Michelle Erin

David Kairo

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:

Graduate: Doctor of Philosophy in Administration and Supervision


Baguio Central University
Baguio City
Ongoing

Master of Arts in Nursing


Baguio Central University
Baguio City
2011

Master in Public Administration (6 units)


Benguet State University
La Trinidad Benguet

College: Bachelor of Science in Education (15 units)


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Benguet State University


June 1997 October 1997

Bachelor of Science in Nursing


Virgen Milagrosa University Foundation
1991 - 1995

Secondary: San Jose High School


Poblacion, La Trinidad, Benguet
1987 - 1991

Elementary: Buguias Central Elementary School


Buguias Central, Buguias, Benguet
1981 - 1987

ELIGIBILITIES:

Nursing Boar Passer


PO1 Entrance Exam Civil Service Commission

WORK EXPERIENCES: Please include the inclusive dates

Nurse III
Baguio General Hospital and Medical Center
April 2015 to present

Nurse II
Baguio General Hospital and Medical Center
January 2013 to April 2015

Nurse I
Baguio General Hospital and Medical Center
September 2005 to January 2013

Clinical Instructor
University of the Cordilleras
College of Nursing
June 2008 to April 2011

Police Officer/Investigator/Detective
32

Philippine National Police


Criminal Investigation and Detection Group
CAR-CIDG
September 1998 to September 2005

General Duty Nurse


PNP, Health Service-Police Regional Office CAR
June 1996 to September 1998

Nurse Fellow
Baguio General Hospital and Medical Center
April to July 2003

MEMBERSHIP IN ASSOCIATION/ORGANIZATION:

A. Philippine Nurses Association, Inc. (PNA)


B. 911 on Call
C. BB-PICAG
D. National League of Government Nurses

TRAININGS/SEMINARS/WORKSHOPS:

TITLE CONDUCTED BY INCLUSIV


E DATES
Department of Obstetrics and
Gynecology, Baguio General
1st Post Graduate Course Womens May 29-30,
Hospital and Medical Center and
Health Issues: Old and New 2008
Philippine Obstetrical and
Gynecological Society Region 1
ITRMC-ANSAP and Philippine
IV Therapy Training Program February
Nurses Association, Baguio City
for Nurses 7,8,9 2008
Chapter, Philippines
Thoracic & Cardiovascular Philippine Nurses Association,
Surgery: An overview & its Baguio City Chapter, Philippines February 24,
implications 2006
to Nursing
Facing Challenges in Nursing Philippine Nurses Association, February 24,
Patients with Cardiac Conditions Baguio City Chapter, Philippines 2006
Baguio General Hospital and February 20,
Advanced Cardiac Life Support
Medical Center, Baguio City, 21, & 22,
Provider Course
Philippines 2006
Basic Life Support-CPR Training Baguio General Hospital and October 13
33

Medical Center, Baguio City,


for Health Care Providers & 14, 2005
Philippines