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Mathematical models were developed to gain a better understanding of many biological processes. The basic aim of present study was to establish a new technique in order to solve problems in the field of mathematical modeling. A mathematical model for hemodialysis with some modification was reviewed in this study. Different mathematical techniques, Laplace Transforms, Eigenvalue, and integrating factor for linear differential equations of the model were used, in all cases unique solution were obtained for dialytic interval.

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5(4), 390-398

DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/3823

RESEARCH ARTICLE

A COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT SOLUTION APPROACHES FOR A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF

HEMODIALYSIS.

1. Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST), Mirpur-10250(AJK ), Pakistan.

2. Government Postgraduate College No 1, Abbottabad, Pakistan.

....

Manuscript Info Abstract

.

Manuscript History Mathematical models were developed to gain a better understanding of

many biological processes. The basic aim of present study was to

Received: 04 February 2017 establish a new technique in order to solve problems in the field of

Final Accepted: 08 March 2017 mathematical modeling. A mathematical model for hemodialysis with

Published: April 2017

some modification was reviewed in this study. Different mathematical

Key words:- techniques, Laplace Transforms, Eigenvalue, and integrating factor for

Mathematical Model, Hemodialysis, linear differential equations of the model were used, in all cases unique

Laplace Transform, Eigen values. solution were obtained for dialytic interval.

....

Introduction:-

Kidney is the major organ to clean blood by removing excess fluid, minerals and wastes. Moreover, it produces a

hormone that keeps the bones strong. When the kidney fails harmful wastes build up in the body, due to which blood

pressure may rise and the body may retain excess fluid which has to be removed. Hemodialysis is the most common

method used to treat advanced and permanent kidney failure. In hemodialysis blood is allowed to flow through a

special filter that removes wastes and extra fluids. The clean blood is then returned back to the body.

Mathematical modeling for dialysis has not long history, first bi-compartmental model of a typical profiled

heomodialysis session for setting suitable sodium profiles was proposed in 2000 (Stephen et al., 2000) . In the same

year another model known as one- and two-compartment model for hemodialysis with aim to analyze the course of

treatment and to predict the effect of dialysis procedures was also published (Ziolkoet al., 2000). But the results on

modeling of uric acid concentrations have not been published till 2007. Present study is based on the Mathematical

model for solute kinetics in hemodialysis patients proposed by Cronin-Fine in 2007 including the modeling of uric

acid concentration.

The motivation for this research was to modify the model equations presented by previous researchers in the field of

mathematical modeling for hemodialysis and present different solution approaches for Mathematical model of

hemodialysis.

The mathematical model for hemodialysis used in this study is a three compartment model, Organ Mass OM,

Muscle Mass and Adipose Tissue Compartment MMAT, and Extracellular Compartment E (Cronin Fine et al.,

2007). Block diagram of the model was presented in Fig-1.

390

Address:- Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST), Mirpur-10250(AJK ), Pakistan.

ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(4), 390-398

Set of three 1st order differential equations of the model were Equations 1-3. Equation no 4 and 5 were for dialytic

interval whereas equation no 6 and 7 were for inter-dialytic interval. Solution of the model was presented by three

different approaches Laplace transform, Eigenvalue and integrating factor of linear differential equations.

VOM =G-KOM(COM-CE) (1)

VMMAT = KMMAT (CE - CMMAT) (2)

VE = KOM (COM- CE) - KMMAT (CE - CMMAT) KdCE (3) .

To make the solution more manageable, Organ Mass (OM) was assumed to be at a steady-state, d(COM)/dt=0.

So KOM (COM - CE) = G,

which was used in Equation (3), yielding equation (4) and eliminating equation (1). The resultant equations were

for dialytic interval with manageable solutions (Eq. 4 and Eq.5).

VMMAT = KMMAT(CE-CMMAT) (4)

VE G-KMMAT(CE-CMMAT)KdCE (5)

The dialysis clearance term (KdCE) in equation (5) was eliminated to modified the equations for interdialytic

interval, yeilding equation (6). It was still impossible to find an explicit solution for the pair of equations (4 and 5)

because these equations could be combined as one equation with two variables, which was by definination

unsolvable. Therefore an additional equation (7a) was developed, which described the solute mass-balance for the

interdialytic interval. This additional Equation resulted in a pair of equations (6 and 7a) for the inter-dialytic interval

with manageable solutions as given below.

VE G-KMMAT(CE-CMMAT) (6)

(7a)

This equation was found to be inadequate and need modification. Equation (7a) was corrected to a new version of

equation (7b) and given below:

. (7 b)

This studys focus was to determine whether modeling could provide an explanation for the level of toxin

concentration in extracellular compartment during dialysis and in between dialysis treatment. So in this section the

different solution procedures for dialytic and inter-dialtic intervals were presented in detail to comprehend the

mathematical model of hemodialysis which is as under:

Consider equations (4) and (5)

( ) (8)

391

ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(4), 390-398

(9)

Multiplying (8) by and (9) by ( )

( )( )

( ) ( )

( )

By solving the above equation we got

(A) .

Now multiply (8) by and (9) by and adding we got

392

ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(4), 390-398

(B)

Thus the solutions of the systems were given by (A) and (B) for some choice of constants r 1, r2, k1, k2.

And

Putting the value of k1 and k2 in (B) we got final solution for dialytic interval which was exactly the same as in

(Cronin Fine et al., 2007)

(10)

Where

Equation (10) is the explicit solution for dialytic interval where r 1 and r2 were constants of integration. Obtained

solution indicates how concentration of toxins in extracellular compartment C E variedover time. The constant of

integrations were obtained by assuming CE at t=0 was equal to CMMAT due to steady state kinetics.

Eq

(11)

Eq (7b) became

(12)

Here integrating factor was , then by multiplying above equation by integrating factor as follows:

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ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(4), 390-398

(13)

Equation (13) represented the explicit solution in case of the inter-dialytic interval, where c was constant. The

constant was obtained by assuming CE at t = o and was denoted by CE0.

Consider

s

(14)

]

s

(15)

Multiplying (14) by and (15) by then adding resultant was

Where

Where

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ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(4), 390-398

.

.

=

.

After simplifying the obtained results were

Where

. (D)

Thus the solution of the system must be of the forms given by (C) and (D) for some choice of constants r 1, r2, k1, k2.

The determinant of operational coefficients of the system was

Putting (C) and (D) in (15) after simplification obtained results were

And

(16)

Where

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ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(4), 390-398

Consider

(17)

(18)

(19)

Equation (4 and 5) was written as:

Matrix form

det

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ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(4), 390-398

By substituting the value for In the above equation and the result obtained were in term of :

Substituting the value of in the above equation and after simplification obtained results for in terms of

were

. (20)

Here were eigenvectors, substituting the values in the

above equation.

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ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(4), 390-398

Solutions for dialytic and inter-dialytic interval were evaluated by three different methods and final results were

represented by equations 10, 16, 19 and 20 all results were exactly the same as were presented by Cronin Fine in

2007. Comparisons of different solution approaches for mathematical model of hemodialysis were presented in

Table-1.

Laplace Transforms

Eigen Value

Integrating Factor

Conclusion:-

The comparative study of three different solution approaches for modified model of hemodialysis were presented

with an aim that in all three cases unique solutions were obtained and were exactly the same results as were

published in previous study, that the extracellular solute (toxin concentration) increases more rapidly in case of

inter-dialytic interval. This study can be extended further for stability analysis of the model.

References:-

1. Agar, JW., K. Mahadevan, R. Knight, ML. Antonis, and CA. Somerville. (2005). Flexible or Lifestyle Dialysis:

Is this the Way Forward. Nephrology. 10(5): 525-529.doi:10.1111/j.1440-1797.2005.00473.x

2. Beddhu, S., LM.Pappas, N. Ramkumar, and M. Samore (2003).Effects of Body Size and Body Composition on

Survival in Hemodialysis Patients. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 14: 2366-2372.

3. doi:10.1097/01.ASN.0000083905.72794.E6

4. Boer, P (1984). Estimated Lean Body Mass as an Index for Normalization of Body Fluid Volumes in

Humans.Am. J .Physiol. Cell Physiol. 247(4): 632-636.

5. Conway, B., and A. Rene (2004). Obesity as a Disease: No Lightweight Matter. Obesity Reviews .5(3): 145-

151.

6. CroninFine, D., F. Gotch, N. Levin, P. Kotanko, and M. Lysaght (2007).A Mathematical Model Comparing

Solute Kinetics in Low- and High-BMI Hemodialysis Patients. Int. J. Art. Org. 30(11): 1000-1007.

7. Port, FK., VB. Ashby, RK. Dhingra, EC. Roys, and RA. Wolfe (2002). Dialysis Dose and Body Mass Index are

Strongly Associated with Survival in Hemodialysis Patients.J. Am. Soc. Nephrol .13(4): 1061-1066.

8. Sarkar, SR., MK. Kuhlmann, P. Kotanko , F. Zhu , SB. Heymsfield, J. Wang, IS., Meisels, FA. Gotch, GA.

Kaysen, and MW. Levin (2006).Metabolic Consequences of Body Composition in Hemodialysis Patients.

Kidney Int. 70(10): 1832-1839.

9. Schneditz, D., and J. T. Daugridas (2001). Compartment Effect in hemodialysis.Semin Dial.14( 4): 271-277.

10. Stephen, B., R. Unwin, and C. C. Yengc (2000). Mathematical Modelling of Profiled Haemodialysis: A

Simplified Approach. J. Theor. Med. 3: 143-160.

11. Wolfe, RA., Vb. Ashby, JT. Daugridas, LY. Agodoa, CA. Jones, and FK.Port (2000).Body Sizes, Dose of

Hemodialysis, and Mortality. J. Kidn. Dis.35(1): 80-88

12. Ziolko, M., J. A. Pietrzyk, and J. Grabska, Chrzastowaska (2000). Accuracy of Hemodialysis Modeling.

Kidney Int. 57( 3): 1152-1163.

398

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