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www.conferenceie.ase.ro

INEQUALITY ON GROWTH. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCES FOR

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

DICE, Bucharest University of Economics, Bucharest, Romania

ana.andrei@csie.ase.ro

Angela GALUPA

DICE, Bucharest University of Economics, Bucharest, Romania

angela.galupa@csie.ase.ro

Irina GEORGESCU

DICE, Bucharest University of Economics, Bucharest, Romania

irina.georgescu@csie.ase.ro

Abstract. The objective of this work is the study of social and economic inequality in the

space of Central and Eastern Europe and its impact on economic growth.

Our study includes a three-stage methodology: 1) application of a clustering method based

on neural network (Self-Organizing Maps), to the series of panel data in order to divide

countries into clusters, corresponding to the degree of economic and social inequality; 2)

computing a composed index of economic and social inequality, using Principal Component

Analysis and an extension of the method provided by OECD for computing composite

indicators and 3) constructing an econometric model to establish the impact of social and

economic inequality on economic growth.

The twenty four Eastern and Central European countries have been grouped in five clusters,

according to eleven attributes. In the results obtained, the third cluster comprises countries

with the most equitable income distribution: Czech Republic, Croatia, Hungary, Slovak

Republic and Slovenia. To the opposite side is the fifth cluster with the deepest inequality,

including only one country, namely Georgia.

The second and third steps of our methodology, was applied only for the extreme clusters

namely, the clusters with the highest (C5) and lowest (C3) inequality respectively.

Keywords: economic growth, economic inequality, Gini coefficient, income distribution,

Principal Component Analysis, Self-Organizing Maps.

JEL classification: D63, C88

1. Introduction

In the economic theory, the economic inequality is defined as the discrepancy between poor

and rich in terms of: income distribution, distribution of wealth, access to education,

employment rate, life satisfaction and happiness and so on. The inequality could manifest

within a country, between countries and geographical areas.

Historical causes of economic disparities in economic history are numerous such as: the

processes of industrialization and urbanization which have resulted in a gap in the

distribution of income between village and city, between workers in the industry and

agriculture; inflation that deepened the income inequality in all zones; fiscal policies as cause

of economic inequality; globalization and technical progress that were sustained especially

by low and medium sized-income groups; the factor productivity differences between

developed and poor countries, as a cause of economic inequalities between countries.

Proceedings of the IE 2017 International Conference

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UNCTAD (2012) studies reveal that the social inequality affects social cohesion, the

functioning of the markets and the economy as a whole and that the concentration of income

was one of the factors of the recent global crisis.

Regarding the sense of the impact of inequality on economic growth,the studies could be

divided in four categories: some studies found a negative relationship, others found a positive

relationship, someother studies found a nonlinear relationship with changing sign and finally,

some found no relationship between inequality and growth as well.

So, negative relationship have found [1], [2], [3]. The supporters of positive and nonlinear

relationship are: Robert Barro [4] as the main supporter, Pagano [5] reached a nonlinear

relationship but with contrary effects (a positive relation for rich countries and a negative one

for poor countries).

The objective of the paper is the empirical study of the inequality in 24 European countries

and the impact on the economic growth.

Our contribution to the theoretical field is the methodology of study of the inequality by

geographical areas, the computing method of the composite index of social and economc

inequality, adapting the inequality-growth relationship models found in the literature to

correspond to our issue and, the empirical work.

For our study, we developed a three-step methodology that will be exposed further.

I. The first stage consists of the application of an unsupervised neural network algorithm to

divide the European countries in some clusters according to various economic and social

inequality levels.

The data base used consists of a panel data of attributes by country and period, indicating the

economic and social inequality, for 24 countries from Central and Eastern Europe during

2010-2015 in clusters, using SOM clustering software. The countries considered are: Czech

Republic, Croatia, Georgia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Montenegro, Poland, Romania,

Russian Federation, Turkey, Ukraine, Albania, Armenia, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina,

Bulgaria, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Macedonia, Serbia, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia.

II. The second stage consists of computing a composite index of social and economic

inequality. The computation of the composed index is imposed by the fact that the

international statistics present a great number of indicators reflecting inequality, the use of all

of them in the model being difficult. We computed these mixed indicators for the limit

clusters, high inequality and low inequality clusters, respectively. The algorithm of

computing the mixed indicator of economic and social inequality ( ESI t ) is based on Principal

Component and includes two steps: a) in this step we used the scree plot in order to select the

principal components that explain together most of the variability. The composite principal

component is computed as a weighted sum of the principal components selected according to

the scree plot criterion. The weights equal the corresponding proportion of the variance

explained by each component in their total variance ([6], [7]). b) the composite index ESIt is

computed in the second step and is expressed as a sum of products between the elements of

the mixed PC index, computed in the previous step multiplied by vectors of observed

attributes.

III. The third step consists of the growth inequality relationship modelling, inspired from

some notable models in the economic literature on this topic namely [1], [4], [8].

Proceedings of the IE 2017 International Conference

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In our model, the dependent variable the growth rate of income per capita and independent

variables being investments rate, INVt , economic and social inequality index ESIt , human

development index HDI t , government expenditures rate GEt , and total population rate PTt ,

t error term: GRRt a1 INVt , a2 ESI t a3 HDI t a4GEt a5 PTt t .

As the first stage of analysis, we started our empirical study by grouping the 24 countries

from Central and Eastern Europe during 2010-2015 in clusters, using SOM clustering

software. The attributes considered are: Human development Index (HDI), Poverty headcount

ratio at $1.25 a day (PPP) (% of population), GINI index, Income share held by highest 20%,

Income share held by lowest 20%, Rates of: Number of poor at $1.25 a day (PPP) (millions),

Minimum yearly wage (Nominal US$), Average monthly wage (US$), Midclass (third and

fourth quintiles of income classes), Primary school enrolment (million persons), GDP per

capita (PPP -current international dollars). Most data was extracted mainly from the World

Bank Statistics, and the missing data are completed from different national documents and

statistics. We have chosen the number of clusters so that each country is included in a single

cluster for all the periods. The structure of the clusters is the following:

The first cluster (C1) includes seven countries: Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Turkey, Bulgaria,

Estonia, Greece; the second cluster (C2) includes nine countries: Belarus, Bosnia and

Herzegovina, Ukraine, Albania, Moldova, Romania, Armenia, Serbia, Montenegro; the third

cluster (C3) includes five countries: Czech Republic, Croatia, Hungary, Slovak Republic,

Slovenia; the fourth cluster (C4) includes two countries: Macedonia and Russian Federation;

and finally, the fifth cluster (C5) includes only one country, namely, Georgia.

The third cluster comprises indicators that reflect the most equitable income distribution, to

the opposite side is cluster number 5 that is considered having the deepest inequality.

To the opposite side is cluster number 5 that is considered having the deepest inequality.

Between the two limits there are clusters C2, C1, C4, in this order, starting with the lowest

inequality. Romania is situated in the cluster C2, the next after the lowest inequality cluster,

C3. The map of the five clusters can be seen in Figure 1.

Figure 1: The SOM grid: the clusters in the increasing Figure 2: Scree plot for C3

order of inequality (yellow for C3, red for C2, blue for C1,

green for C4, magenta for C5)

The largest area is occupied by C2 and C1 so, the most of the countries in the space

considered have a level of inequality between the highest and the lowest. As could be seen

the highest inequality (magenta colour) corresponds to a lower surface than the lowest

inequality (yellow colour).

In the second stage of our study, we continued our study with the approximation of the

composite indicator for the limit clusters.

We used the Principal Component Analysis, first for cluster 3, in order to do that.

The scree plot is used as a criterion for determining the number of chosen principal

components.

Proceedings of the IE 2017 International Conference

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According to the scree plot, Figure 2, we retain only the first three principal components

which explain together 95.95 % of the variance in the dataset.

The first principal component accounts for the most variability (0.4435), the second for 0.352

of variability and the third accounts for 0.1658 of variability.

Using the three PC selected, we computed a mixed PC index whose coefficients are the

weights equal to the corresponding proportion of the variance explained by each component

in their total variance.

The compound PC for C3 obtained is (see Table 2):

0.4435 0.3502 0.1658

PC PC1 PC 2 PC 3 0.4622199 PC1 0.36498 PC 2 0.17298PC 3

0.9595 0.9595 0.9595

Where composed PC is a vector, whose elements are the values of the attributes computed as

the weighted sum of the first three principal components, with the weights:

(0.4622199, 0.36498, 0.17298) , respectively.

The composite indicator of the inequality ESI t is computed then, for each period t, as a

weighted sum between the elements of the composite PC vector and corresponding observed

values of the attributes, computed as rates.

For C3, the composite indicator ESI t - Economic and Social Inequality in the period t is:

ESI t 0.267273 Average wage ratet 0.11175HDI t 0.144734 Income share of highest 20% t

0.08021Income share of lowest 20% t 0.007424 Midclass t

0.243946Minimum yearly wage ratet 0.275321Number of poor ratet

0.121487 Poverty headcount ratio at 1.25$ / day 0.00089 Pr imary school enrollment t

0.12615GINI t 0.277627GDP per capita ratet

The graph of the composite index ESI t for C3, could be seen in Figure 3.

ESI-C3

ESI t Figure 4: Observed (red line) and

for the cluster C3. Computed (blue line) for C3

With some exceptions (Hungary 2013Q4 with the value higher than 6, Latvia 2010Q3 with a

value less than 4), the values for the countries with the lowest inequality are concentrated

between 4 and 6, proving the homogenity between countries and periods form the view point

of economic and social inequality.

The ESI t indicator is then used, together with the statistical series of INVt (total investments

rate), HDI t (Human Development Index), GEt (Government Expenditures Rate), PTt (Total

Population Rate), to measure their influence on the growth rate in the following regression

equation: GRRt a1 INVt a2 ESI t a3 HDI t a4GEt a5 PTt t

Where GRRt is the growth rate and t is the error term.

From the regression statistics in the table above, we conclude that, the model fits well the

data and the parameters could be considered good estimators for the model.

Proceedings of the IE 2017 International Conference

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GRRt 16.24948 1.134859 INVt 0.78341ESI t 4.291676 HDI t 1.343872GEt 1.522196 PTt t

First we notice a negative relationship between inequality and growth, meaning that as ESI t

increases one unit, GRRt decreases 0.78341.

From Figure 4 and from the regression statistics, we can observe that the model is well

specified, fits good the data, though under estimate the data for Czech Republic during 2010,

2011 the fourth month, 2013 the second month, Croatia 2012 the first month, Hungary during

2010 the fourth month-2013 the third month, Slovak Republic during the first and the fourth

month of 2010.

We applied the same methodology for the fifth cluster, C5, comprising a single country,

Georgia. First we apply the PC analysis. According to the scree plot from Figure 5, we retain

only the first two principal components which explain 68.54% of the variance in the dataset.

ESI-C5

0.1

0.05

0

ESI t

Figure 5 : Scree plot for C5 Figure 6: The indicator for C5

The methodology for computing the compound PC is explained above.

The composite index of social and economic inequality ESI t for C5, computed as a weighted

sum of the PC elements and observed attributes vectors is:

ESI t 0.289614 Average wage ratet 0.27238 HDI t 0.160096 Income share of highest 20% t

0.28782 Income share of lowest 20% t 0.00885Midclass t

0.289614Minimum yearly wage ratet 0.115054 Number of poor ratet

0.150678Poverty headcount ratio at 1.25$ / day 0.18324 Pr imary school enrollment t

0.188313GINI t 0.287986GDPpercapitaratet

For Georgia, we can see a certain homogenity with respect to the value of the composite

indicator ESI t . Except the periods 89-105, the inequality has a slightly decreasing tendency,

from 0.07 to 0.06 and in the last 30 periods, it drops from 0.06 to 0.04.

The estimated GRR econometric model is:

GRRt 572.0521 0.200241INVt 0.00000249 ESI t 0.105839 HDI t 0.314257GEt

0.090108PTt t

From the regression statistics we conclude that the model fits well the data and the

parameters could be considered good estimators for the model.

The influences of INV, HDI, GE, PT on the GRR are expected in the sense that the increase

in their values implies the increase of the GRR. The highest influence is obtained by GE

(0.314257), followed by INV (0.200241), HDI (0.105839), and PT (0.090108). ESI has also a

positive but weak influence (0.00000249). We can conclude that the relationship ESI t - GRRt

is positive for C5, but very week.

Proceedings of the IE 2017 International Conference

www.conferenceie.ase.ro

10.00

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00

F

GRRt for C5

igure 7: Observed and computed

It could be seen in the Figure 7, that the observed and computed values of GRRt are close,

which reveals that the model is well specified. From the period 113, the GRRt (observed and

computed) begins to decrease, showing the fact that Georgia registered an economic decrease

of growth rate simultaneously with the weakly decrease of the inequality.

For the year 2016 we made the forecast and we see in figure 7, that the results preserve the

decreasing tendency of GRRt .

4. Conclusions and Further Research

We developed a three-stage method and applied it in the study of inequality for 24 countries

of Central and Eastern Europe during 2010-2016. The first stage is the grouping of the

countries in inequality classes; the second stage is the principal component analysis for

determining the composite inequality indicators for limit clusters: C3 with low inequality and

C5 with high inequality; the third stage is the estimation of the influence of some indicators,

including the composite inequality index, on the growth rate for limit clusters resulted.

From the 24 countries selected, 12 countries are members of the EU space: Czech Republic,

Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Latvia,

Lithuania, Croatia. From these EU countries, Czech Republic, Croatia, Hungary, Slovak

Republic and Slovenia; are comprised in the more equitable cluster, C3.

The next equitable cluster C2 includes as the EU countries only Romania. The third cluster in

the order of decreasing equity/ increasing inequality is the cluster C1, with the following EU

countries: Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria, Estonia, and Greece. The cluster C4 is the

penultimate from the viewpoint of fairness and does not include some EU countries, the same

for the cluster C5, the highest inequality cluster.

Regarding correlation inequality growth, we find that it differs depending on the degree of

inequality of each group of countries. So, for the deepest inequality, C5, ESI has a positive

but weak influence (0.00000249). Instead, for countries with low inequality, C3, the influence

on growth is negative and significant.

Our present study reflects the deepness of inequality in the European space mentioned, and

its impact on economic growth. The research will be continued with the study of the

economic politics, specific to each cluster, meant both to reduce inequality as a measure of

social policy in all countries, and to reduce the negative impact of inequality on growth.

References

[1] A Alesina and R. Perotti, Income, political instability and investment, NBER Working

Papers 4486, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc., 1993, available at

Proceedings of the IE 2017 International Conference

www.conferenceie.ase.ro

http://www.nber.org/papers/w4486.pdf

[2] R. Perotti, Redistribution and non-consumption smoothing in an open economy, Review

of Economic Studies, 63(3), 1996, pp. 411-33.

[3] T. Person and G. Tabellini G, Is Inequality Harmful for Growth?, American Economic

Review, vol. 84(3), 1994, pp. 600-621.

[4] R. J. Barro, Inequality and growth in a panel of countries, Journal of Economic Growth,

5, 2000, pp. 5-32.

[5] M. Pagano, The European bond markets under EMU, Oxford Review of Economic Policy,

Oxford University Press, vol. 20(4), 2004, pp. 531-554.

[6] Handbook on Constructing Composite Indicators, Methodology and User Guide, OECD

2008

http://www.oecd.org/std/leading-indicators/42495745.pdf

[7] A. A. Davidescu, A. M. Vass Paul, R. M. Gogonea, M. Zaharia, Evaluating Romanian

eco-innovation performances in European context, Sustainability, 7, 2015, pp. 12723-12757.

[8] A. Ortega Diaz, Channels to which income inequality influences growth: Fiscal and

Sociopolitical Instability Approaches, 2007, available at

http://sitios.itesm.mx/egap/que_es_egap/inv_pub/EGAP_EC_09_07.pdf

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