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Deadly

Diseases
Exploration Of Harm In The Human Body

Your Name: Joseph Pineda


4.29.2017
11th Grade Biology
Table of Contents
1.Coronary artery disease:
a. Epidemiology
..2
b. Transmission and
Causes...3
c. Signs and
symptoms4
d. Diagnosis
...5
e. Cure and
Prevention...6
f. Prescription
.7
g. References
(CAD)........................................................................9
2.Ebola:
a. Epidemiology
.10
b. Transmission and
Causes..11
c. Signs and
symptoms..15
d. Diagnosis
...16
e. Cure and
Prevention.17

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Coronary Artery
Disease(CAD)

Epidemiology

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In 2015 CAD affected 110 million people and resulted in 8.9 million deaths. It makes up 15.9% of all
deaths makes it the most common cause of death globally. The risk of death from CAD for a given
age has decreased between 1980 and 2010 especially in developed countries.The number of cases
of CAD for a given age has also decreased between 1990 and 2010. In the United States in 2010
about 20% of those over 65 had CAD, while it was present in 7% of those 45 to 64, and 1.3% of
those 18 to 45. Rates are higher among men than women of a given age. (Lancet,2015)

Picture link 1

Transmission/Causes
Coronary artery disease is thought to begin with damage or injury to the inner layer of a
coronary artery, sometimes as early as childhood. The damage may be caused by various
factors, including: (Mayo 2015)

Smoking
High blood pressure
High cholesterol
Diabetes or insulin resistance
Sedentary lifestyle

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CAD is caused by plaque buildup in the walls of the arteries that supply blood to the heart
(called coronary arteries) and other parts of the body. Plaque is made up of deposits of
cholesterol and other substances in the artery. Plaque buildup causes the inside of the arteries
to narrow over time, which could partially or totally block the blood flow. This process is called
atherosclerosis.

Too much plaque buildup and narrowed artery walls can make it harder for blood to flow through
your body. When your heart muscle doesnt get enough blood, you may have chest pain or
discomfort, called angina. Angina is the most common symptom of CAD.

Over time, CAD can weaken the heart muscle. This may lead to heart failure, a serious
condition where the heart cant pump blood the way that it should. An irregular heartbeat, or
arrhythmia, also can develop. (Mayo 2015) Picture link 2

Signs and Symptoms


If your coronary arteries narrow, they can't supply enough oxygen-rich blood to your heart
especially when it's beating hard, such as during exercise. At first, the decreased blood flow
may not cause any coronary artery disease symptoms. As plaque continues to build up in your
coronary arteries, however, you may develop coronary artery disease signs and symptoms,
including: (Mayo 2015)

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Chest pain (angina). You may feel pressure or tightness in your chest, as if
someone were standing on your chest. This pain, referred to as angina, usually
occurs on the middle or left side of the chest. Angina is generally triggered by
physical or emotional stress.
The pain usually goes away within minutes after stopping the stressful activity. In
some people, especially women, this pain may be fleeting or sharp and felt in the
neck, arm or back.
Shortness of breath. If your heart can't pump enough blood to meet your body's
needs, you may develop shortness of breath or extreme fatigue with exertion.
Heart attack. A completely blocked coronary artery may cause a heart attack. The
classic signs and symptoms of a heart attack include crushing pressure in your
chest and pain in your shoulder or arm, sometimes with shortness of breath and
sweating.
Women are somewhat more likely than men are to experience less typical signs
and symptoms of a heart attack, such as neck or jaw pain. Sometimes a heart
attack occurs without any apparent signs or symptoms. (Mayo 2015)

Diagnosis

To find out your risk for CAD, your health care team may measure your blood pressure, cholesterol, and

sugar levels. Being overweight, physical inactivity, unhealthy eating, and smoking tobacco are risk

factors for CAD. A family history of heart disease also increases your risk for CAD. If youre at high risk

for heart disease or already have symptoms, your doctor can use several tests to diagnose CAD.

(HHS 2015)

Test What it Does

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ECD or EKG Measures the electrical activity, rate, and regularity of your heartbeat.
(electrocardio
gram)

Echocardiogra Uses ultrasound (special sound wave) to create a picture of the heart.
m

Exercise Measures your heart rate while you walk on a treadmill. This helps to determine how
stress test well your heart is working when it has to pump more blood.

Chest X-ray Uses x-rays to create a picture of the heart, lungs, and other organs in the chest.

Cardiac Checks the inside of your arteries for blockage by inserting a thin, flexible tube through
catheterizatio an artery in the groin, arm, or neck to reach the heart. Health care professionals can
n measure blood pressure within the heart and the strength of blood flow through the
hearts chambers as well as collect blood samples from the heart or inject dye into the
arteries of the heart (coronary arteries). (HHS 2015)

Coronary Monitors blockage and flow of blood through the coronary arteries. Uses X-rays to
angiogram detect dye injected via cardiac

Cures & prevention


Preventing coronary artery disease is largely about controlling the risk factors. Ideally, prevention habits
start early, but they remain important all through life, Bill McEvoy, MBBCh, of the Johns Hopkins
Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease says. Its never too late to effect change, though the
earlier in life you do so, the greater the advantage. Smart steps to take:(Martin 2013)

Quit smokingor better yet, never start. Smoking is considered one of the key risk factors for
heart attack. Also steer clear of secondhand smoke. If a household member is a smoker, help him
or her find ways to quit, such as calling your states free 800-QUIT-NOW line, suggests Martin.
Eat less of the foods that add to heart problems, and more of the foods that protect the
heart. Aim for an eating plan thats low in saturated fats and trans fats, higher in
monounsaturated and polyunsaturated the fats found in olive oil and fish, high in fiber (found in
plant foods), and low in salt and sugar. Get practical ideas to eat for heart health in Eat Smart.

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(Martin 2013)
Become more active, and stay active, all through life. A good goal is at least 150 minutes (2.5
hours) of moderate exercise each week, or 75 minutes (1.25 hours) of vigorous aerobic exercise
each week. Or aim to be active for 30 minutes a day, most days of the week. Check with your
doctor before you launch a new workout program if youve never worked out before. Learn how
implementing an exercise routine helps your heart in Move More.(Martin 2013)
Keep your weight within the normal range on a Body Mass Index (BMI) chart. If youre
overweight, losing just 5 percent to 10 percent of your current weight will lower your risk of
developing coronary artery disease.(Martin 2013)
Find healthy outlets for your stress. Some stress is unavoidable in life. But it tends to push us
toward not-so-great habits (overeating, drinking, sitting too much). Youll be more heart-healthy if
you can offload stress in ways you enjoy and that are good for you, such as exercise, meditation
and relaxing with friends, says McEvoy. A stress-management program can help.(Martin 2013)

Prescription
Various drugs can be used to treat coronary artery disease, including: (Martin 2013)

Cholesterol-modifying medications. By decreasing the amount of


cholesterol in the blood, especially low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or the
"bad") cholesterol, these drugs decrease the primary material that deposits
on the coronary arteries. Your doctor can choose from a range of
medications, including statins, niacin, fibrates and bile acid sequestrants.
(Martin 2013)
Aspirin. Your doctor may recommend taking a daily aspirin or other blood
thinner. This can reduce the tendency of your blood to clot, which may help
prevent obstruction of your coronary arteries. (Martin 2013)
If you've had a heart attack, aspirin can help prevent future attacks. There
are some cases where aspirin isn't appropriate, such as if you have a
bleeding disorder or you're already taking another blood thinner, so ask your
doctor before starting to take aspirin.(Martin 2013)
Beta blockers. These drugs slow your heart rate and decrease your blood

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pressure, which decreases your heart's demand for oxygen. If you've had a
heart attack, beta blockers reduce the risk of future attacks. (Martin 2013)
Nitroglycerin. Nitroglycerin tablets, sprays and patches can control chest
pain by temporarily dilating your coronary arteries and reducing your heart's
demand for blood.(Martin 2013)
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II
receptor blockers (ARBs). These similar drugs decrease blood pressure
and may help prevent progression of coronary artery disease. (Martin 2013)
Procedures to restore and improve blood flow

Coronary artery stent

Sometimes more aggressive treatment is needed. Here are some options: (Martin 2013)

Angioplasty and stent placement (percutaneous coronary


revascularization). Your doctor inserts a long, thin tube (catheter) into the
narrowed part of your artery. A wire with a deflated balloon is passed
through the catheter to the narrowed area. The balloon is then inflated,
compressing the deposits against your artery walls.
A stent is often left in the artery to help keep the artery open. Some stents
slowly release medication to help keep the artery open.
Coronary artery bypass surgery. A surgeon creates a graft to bypass
blocked coronary arteries using a vessel from another part of your body.
This allows blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed coronary artery.
Because this requires open-heart surgery, it's most often reserved for cases
of multiple narrowed coronary arteries.(Martin 2013)

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Image 3

References
Epidemiology sites:
(1) GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016).
"Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310
diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study
2015.". Lancet
GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). 2015.". Lancet
(London, England). 388 (10053): 14591544. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMID
27733281 (Lancet,2015)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronary_artery_disease#Signs_and_symptoms

Picture:
(1)Picture 1
(2)Picture 2
(3)Picture 3
Transmission:

By Mayo Clinic Staff Dec. 11, 2015. Mayo Clinic (Mayo 2015)
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronary-artery-disease/symptoms-causes/dxc-20165314

https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/coronary_ad.htm

Signs and sypm:


By Mayo Clinic Staff Dec. 11, 2015. Mayo Clinic (Mayo 2015)
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronary-artery-disease/symptoms-causes/dxc-20165314

Diagnosis:
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov August 10, 2015 (HHS 2015)
https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/coronary_ad.htm

Cures:
Seth Martin, M.D., M.H.S., of the Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease. The Johns
Hopkins University October, 2013 (Martin 2013)
http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/healthy_heart/diseases_and_conditions/coronary-artery-disease-
prevention-treatment-and-research

Prescription:

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Seth Martin, M.D., M.H.S., of the Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease. The Johns
Hopkins University October, 2013 (Martin 2013)
http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/healthy_heart/diseases_and_conditions/coronary-artery-disease-
prevention-treatment-and-research

Ebola(EHF)

Epidemiology

.The Ebola outbreak in West Africa was first reported in March 2014, and rapidly
became the deadliest occurrence of the disease since its discovery in 1976.

In fact, the epidemic killed five times more than all other known Ebola outbreaks
combined.

More than 21 months on from the first confirmed case recorded on 23 March 2014,

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11,315 people have been reported as having died from the disease in six countries;
Liberia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, the US and Mali.

The total number of reported cases is about 28,637. But on 13 January, 2016, the World
Health Organisation declared the last of the countries affected, Liberia, to be Ebola-free

Transmission

What are body fluids?


Ebola virus has been detected in blood and many body fluids. Body fluids include saliva,
mucus, vomit, feces, sweat, tears, breast milk, urine, semen, and vaginal fluids.
(DOH,2016)

What does direct contact mean?


Direct contact means that body fluids (including but not limited to blood, saliva, mucus,
vomit, urine, or feces) from an infected person (alive or dead) have touched someones
eyes, nose, or mouth or an open cut, wound, or abrasion.

Can Ebola be spread by coughing or sneezing?


There is no evidence indicating that Ebola virus is spread by coughing or sneezing.
Ebola virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected blood or body fluids; the
virus is not transmitted through the air (like measles virus). However, droplets (e.g.,
splashes or sprays) of respiratory or other secretions from a person who is sick with
Ebola could be infectious, and therefore certain precautions (called standard, contact,
and droplet precautions) are recommended for use in healthcare settings to prevent the
transmission of Ebola virus from patients sick with Ebola to healthcare personnel and
other patients or family members.(DOH,2016)

How long does Ebola live outside the body?


Ebola is killed with hospital-grade disinfectants (such as household bleach). Ebola on
dry surfaces, such as doorknobs and countertops, can survive for several hours;
however, virus in body fluids (such as blood) can survive up to several days at room
temperature.(DOH,2016)

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Are patients who recover from Ebola immune for life? Can they get it again - the
same or a different strain?
Recovery from Ebola depends on good supportive care and the patients immune
response. Evidence from previous Ebola outbreaks shows that people who survived the
disease had antibodies to the virus that could still be detected 10 years after recovery.
We dont know if people who recover are immune for life or if they can become infected
with a different species of Ebola.
Some viruses, including Ebola, can linger for some time after recovery in parts of the
body (for example, testes, eyes, spinal column fluid) not easily reached by the immune
system. CDC and other researchers continue to study this issue and will share
information as it becomes available.(DOH,2016)

Can Ebola stay in body fluids even after someone recovers?


Scientists know that Ebola virus can stay in some body fluids even after recovery. Ebola
has been found in the semen of some men who have recovered from Ebola, and Ebola
virus can stay in breast milk for some time after recovery. Ebola virus has also been
isolated from the ocular fluid of a recovered Ebola patient.
It is not known how long the virus might be found in these fluids, but CDC and partners
are working together to study how long the virus persists in various body fluids among
Ebola survivors. They are also conducting viability testing to determine if the disease
can be transmitted through these fluids.
The number of survivors from this Ebola outbreak is greater than previous outbreaks.
This gives us the chance to understand how the disease affects people who have
recovered, and how to advise survivors on ways to protect themselves and their
communities. As CDC learns more about Ebola, we will continue to update our
guidance.

If someone survives Ebola, can he or she still spread the virus?


Some viruses, including Ebola, can linger for some time after recovery in parts of the
body (for example, testes, eyes, spinal column fluid) not easily reached by the immune
system. It is possible that Ebola could be spread through sex or other contact with
semen. Because it is not known how long Ebola might be found in the semen of male
survivors, they should abstain or use a condom for all sexual activity.

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There is no known risk of getting Ebola through casual contact with an Ebola survivor.
We do not yet know if those who have the virus in certain parts of the body (such as the
eyes or spinal column) pose any risk of spreading the virus to others, including
healthcare providers, through invasive surgical procedures. CDC and other researchers
continue to study this issue and will share information as it becomes available.

Did CDC know that Ebola could reappear in survivors?


Many viruses have long-term effects; some are similar and some differ from the original
disease. A large body of research exists for many viruses and other pathogens that
cause illness, but not Ebola. Because there are now many more Ebola survivors than
ever before, we can learn more about the longer term effects of Ebola. We are aware of
the possible risk of sustained presence of Ebola virus in body fluids after recovery,
which we are thoroughly investigating. Ebola virus has been found in the semen of
some men who have recovered from Ebola, and scientists know the Ebola virus can be
found in breast milk even after recovery. Ebola virus also has been isolated from the
ocular (eye) fluid of a recovered Ebola patient, and it is possible that the virus can linger
in the spinal column fluid.

What is the virus persistence study for Ebola?


The Sierra Leone Ministry of Health, CDC, and the World Health Organization are
working together to determine how long Ebola virus persists or stays in various body
fluids of Ebola survivors. We are conducting a Virus Persistence Study, which
includes testing of body fluids in male and female Ebola survivors to determine how
long the virus stays in specific fluids after recovery from the disease. The study is also
conducting viability testing to determine if the disease can be transmitted through
specific body fluids.
The pilot phase of this study is testing the persistence of Ebola virus in the semen of
100 male Ebola survivors in Freetown, Sierra Leone. So far, the study found that Ebola
can remain in the semen for up to at least 9 months. Previous studies had detected
Ebola virus in semen for up to 6 months. CDC is conducting further tests to determine if
the virus is live and potentially infectious this long after recovery. The study also shows
that the virus in semen reduces over time.
Because of the possible risk of sexual transmission, CDC advises male Ebola survivors
to abstain or use condoms unless they know their semen is negative for Ebola.

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Can Ebola be spread through mosquitoes?
There is no evidence that mosquitoes or other insects can transmit Ebola virus. Only
mammals (for example, humans, bats, monkeys and apes) have shown the ability to
spread and become infected with Ebola virus.

Can Ebola be spread through blood transfusions?


Some people in the United States who rely on blood and blood products to maintain
their health have raised concerns about blood safety related to Ebola. CDC has
systems in place to monitor blood
safety(http://www.cdc.gov/bloodsafety/monitoring/blood-safety.html).
Scientific evidence indicates that the virus can be passed to others from infected
patients only after they start to show symptoms.
To date, there have been no reports of transfusion-transmitted Ebola in countries
experiencing widespread outbreaks. However, these countries do not have systems to
monitor the safety of blood products. In the United States, the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) has policies in place for whole blood donations that would result in
deferral of potential donors from countries in Africa experiencing the Ebola outbreak due
to the risk of malaria. In addition, plasma derived products have viral clearance steps
that have been demonstrated to be effective for lipid-enveloped viruses. It is likely that
Ebola virus would be inactivated by such methods used in the manufacture of plasma
derivatives because it is a lipid-enveloped virus.

FDA is considering issuing guidance for blood establishments related to this issue. CDC
has no recommendations at this time.

What does Ebola do to the immune system?

Once the virus enters the body, it targets several types of immune cells that
represent the first line of defense against invasion. It infects dendritic cells, which
normally display signals of an infection on their surfaces to activate T lymphocytes
the white blood cells that could destroy other infected cells before the virus
replicates further. With defective dendritic cells failing to give the right signal, the T
cells dont respond to infection, and neither do the antibodies that depend on them
for activation. The virus can start replicating immediately and very quickly.

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Ebola, like many viruses, works in part by inhibiting interferona type of molecule
that cells use to hinder further viral reproduction. In a new study published today in
Cell Host & Microbe, researchers found that one of Ebolas proteins, called VP24,
binds to and blocks a transport protein on the surface of immune cells that plays an
important role in the interferon pathway.

Curiously, lymphocytes themselves dont become infected with the virus, but a series of
other factorsa lack of stimulation from some cells and toxic signals from others
prevent these primary immune cells from putting up a fight.

Signs & Symptoms Of Ebola


Symptoms of Ebola include
Fever
Severe headache
Muscle pain
Weakness
Fatigue
Diarrhea
Vomiting
Abdominal (stomach) pain
Unexplained hemorrhage (bleeding or bruising)

Symptoms may appear anywhere from 2 to 21 days after exposure to Ebola, but the
average is 8 to 10 days.

Signs include:Recovery from Ebola depends on


good supportive clinical care and the patients immune
response. People who recover from Ebola infection
develop antibodies that last for at least 10 years

Diagnosis: Ebola
Diagnosing Ebola in a person who has been infected
for only a few days is difficult because the early
symptoms, such as fever, are nonspecific to Ebola infection and often are seen in
patients with more common diseases, such as malaria and typhoid fever.

However, a person should be isolated and public health authorities notified if they have

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the early symptoms of Ebola and have had contact with

blood or body fluids from a person sick with or who has died from Ebola,
objects that have been contaminated with the blood or body fluids of a person
sick with or who has died from Ebola,
infected fruit bats and primates (apes and monkeys), or
semen from a man who has recovered from Ebola

Samples from the patient can then be collected and tested to confirm infection.

Ebola virus is detected in blood only after onset of symptoms, most notably fever, which
accompany the rise in circulating virus within
the patient's body. It may take up to three
days after symptoms start for the virus to
reach detectable levels. Laboratory tests used
in diagnosis include:

Cures & Prevention For Ebola


Vaccines in development

Three potential immunisations are frontrunners, having been rushed from promising
animal studies into human trials.

One is produced by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and the National Institutes of Health in the
US, another is being developed by the Public Health Agency of Canada in collaboration

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with Merck.

And the third to enter human testing is made by Johnson and Johnson together with the
company Bavarian Nordic.

The plan is for the different vaccines to be tested in several separate trials across the
three worst affected countries in the next few months.

GSK's version uses a chimpanzee common cold virus to carry a single Ebola protein.
The vaccine cannot trigger either disease but the hope is it will prompt the production of
protective antibodies against Ebola.

Trials in Liberia started in February 2015.

They have three separate parts. Scientists hope to recruit 10,000 people to be given the
GSK vaccine, 10,000 to receive the Merck jab and a further 10,000 to get a dummy,
placebo vaccine.

So far the GSK and Merck vaccines have been deemed safe in some 600 volunteers.
Further testing is underway to see whether the immunizations actually offer protection
against the disease.

The Merck vaccine used in the Liberian trial is based on a livestock virus, carrying a
single Ebola gene.

It is also being trialled in a separate study in Guinea. Here it is being given to anyone
who has recently come into contacted with an infected person.

Johnson and Johnson announced the start of their vaccine trial at the beginning of
2015. This uses a different approach still - two separate jabs will be given in the hope
the second one boosts the effectiveness of the first.

Vaccine company Novavax has recently announced the start of an Australian trial
designed to investigate another potential immunization on healthy human volunteers.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is also evaluating developments in Russia and
Japan. (Servick,2014)

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Prevention
The best way to avoid catching the disease is by not traveling to areas where the virus
is found.(Servick,2014)

References:
http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/about.html February 18, 2016,U.S. Department of Health & Human
Services(DoH, 2016)

http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2014/08/what-does-ebola-actually-do

Kelly Servick Aug. 13, 2014 (Servick,2014)

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Pneumonia

Epidemiology

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Pneumonia affects approximately 450 million people globally (7% of the population) and results in
about 4 million deaths per year. Pneumonia was regarded by William Osler in the 19th century as
"the captain of the men of death". With the introduction of antibiotics and vaccines in the 20th
century, survival improved.Nevertheless, in developing countries, and among the very old, the very
young, and the chronically ill, pneumonia remains a leading cause of death. Pneumonia often
shortens suffering among those already close to death and has thus been called "the old man's
friend".(Murdoch,2011)

http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/86/5/07-048769-F2.jpg

Transmission and Causes

A person who is sick with M. pneumoniae infection has these bacteria in their nose, throat, windpipe,

and lungs. M. pneumoniae is transmitted (spread) from person-to-person when small droplets of water

that contain the bacteria get into the air and people breathe them in. People who are sick with M.

pneumoniae infection usually spread the disease by coughing or sneezing while in close contact with

others, who then breathe in the bacteria.(McMahan,2016)

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Most people who are exposed for a short amount of time to someone with M. pneumoniae infection do

not become ill. M. pneumoniae infections are known to have long incubation periods (the time between

first catching the bacteria from an ill person and development of symptoms). However, it is common for

this illness to spread between family members who live together. The incubation period is usually

between 1 to 4 weeks.(McMahan,2016)

Outbreaks occur mostly in crowded settings like schools, college dormitories, military barracks,

nursing homes, and hospitals. Transmission of M. pneumoniae to the community has been seen during

school-based outbreaks, with most community cases thought to be family members of ill school

children. (McMahan,2016) Picture

Many germs can cause pneumonia. The most common are bacteria and viruses in the air we
breathe. Your body usually prevents these germs from infecting your lungs. But sometimes
these germs can overpower your immune system, even if your health is generally good.

Pneumonia is classified according to the types of germs that cause it and where you got the
infection.

Community-acquired pneumonia

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Community-acquired pneumonia is the most common type of pneumonia. It occurs outside of
hospitals or other health care facilities. It may be caused by:

Bacteria. The most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in the U.S. is


Streptococcus pneumoniae. This type of pneumonia can occur on its own or after
you've had a cold or the flu. It may affect one part (lobe) of the lung, a condition
called lobar pneumonia.
Bacteria-like organisms. Mycoplasma pneumoniae also can cause pneumonia. It
typically produces milder symptoms than do other types of pneumonia. Walking
pneumonia is an informal name given to this type of pneumonia, which typically
isn't severe enough to require bed rest.
Fungi. This type of pneumonia is most common in people with chronic health
problems or weakened immune systems, and in people who have inhaled large
doses of the organisms. The fungi that cause it can be found in soil or bird
droppings and vary depending upon geographic location.
Viruses. Some of the viruses that cause colds and the flu can cause pneumonia.
Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in children younger than 5
years. Viral pneumonia is usually mild. But in some cases it can become very
serious.
Hospital-acquired pneumonia

Some people catch pneumonia during a hospital stay for another illness. Hospital-acquired
pneumonia can be serious because the bacteria causing it may be more resistant to antibiotics
and because the people who get it are already sick. People who are on breathing machines
(ventilators), often used in intensive care units, are at higher risk of this type of pneumonia.

Health care-acquired pneumonia

Health care-acquired pneumonia is a bacterial infection that occurs in people who live in long-
term care facilities or who receive care in outpatient clinics, including kidney dialysis centers.
Like hospital-acquired pneumonia, health care-acquired pneumonia can be caused by bacteria
that are more resistant to antibiotics.

Aspiration pneumonia

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Aspiration pneumonia occurs when you inhale food, drink, vomit or saliva into your lungs.
Aspiration is more likely if something disturbs your normal gag reflex, such as a brain injury or
swallowing problem, or excessive use of alcohol or drugs.

Signs and Symptoms


The signs and symptoms of pneumonia vary from mild to severe, depending on factors such as
the type of germ causing the infection, and your age and overall health. Mild signs and
symptoms often are similar to those of a cold or flu, but they last longer.

Signs and symptoms of pneumonia may include:

Chest pain when you breathe or cough


Confusion or changes in mental awareness (in adults age 65 and older)
Cough, which may produce phlegm
Fatigue
Fever, sweating and shaking chills
Lower than normal body temperature (in adults older than age 65 and people with
weak immune systems)
Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea
Shortness of breath

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Newborns and infants may not show any sign of the infection. Or they may vomit, have a fever
and cough, appear restless or tired and without energy, or have difficulty breathing and eating.

When to see a doctor

See your doctor if you have difficulty breathing, chest pain, persistent fever of 102 F (39 C) or
higher, or persistent cough, especially if you're coughing up pus.

It's especially important that people in these high-risk groups see a doctor:

Adults older than age 65


Children younger than age 2 with signs and symptoms
People with an underlying health condition or weakened immune system
People receiving chemotherapy or taking medication that suppresses the immune
system
For some older adults and people with heart failure or chronic lung problems, pneumonia can
quickly become a life-threatening condition.

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