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Its End Is
Near! 3-12
M illions of people,
especially women and
children, live as virtual


slaves. How will this
slavery end?

COVER: C lo ck w ise fro m to p right: UN PHOTO

1 4 8 0 0 0 /J e a n P ierre Laffon t; U NITE D N A TIO N S /
J.P. LAFFONT; J.R . R ip p e r/R F 2 ; J.R. R ip p e r/R F 2 ;
UN PHOTO 1 5 2 2 2 7 by John Is a a c

Athens Famous A Well-Kept Secret 3

Past and Chal
Who Are Slaves Today? 5
lenging Future 13
Ancient Athens is known Modern Slavery Its End Is Near! 9
as the cradle of democracy
Spiderweb Lace Paraguays
and Greek philosophy.
Fascinating Handicraft 18
Today the sprawling
metropolis faces unique Will Greater Freedom of Conscience
challenges. Be Allowed in Mexico? 20

True Faith Noah-He Walked With God

How the Video Was Made 22
What Is It? 26
Credulity is a willingness to Watching the World 28
believe too readily. Faith
From Our Readers 30
should be based on reliable
evidence. Which does An Unusual Cemetery 31
the Bible promote?
r a w in g s o f A lb r e c h t D u r e r /
My Trust Needs to Be in God 32
over P u b lic a tio n s , Inc.

2 Awake! March 8, 2000

A Well-Kept Secret
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude: slavery and
the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
U n iv e r s a l D e c l a r a t io n o f H u m a n R ig h t s .

H E next time you put sugar in your declared abolished in m ost countries. L oath

T coffee, think of Prevot, a H aitian who

was promised a good job in another
Caribbean country. Instead, he was sold for
eight dollars.
ing for slavery is strongly professed every
where. N ational laws ban slavery, and its
abolition is enshrined in international in
strum ents notably A rticle 4 o f the 1948
Prevot shared the lot o f thousands of his Universal D eclaration o f H um an Rights, cit
enslaved countrym en who are forced to cut ed above.
sugarcane for six or seven m onths for lit Yet, slavery is alive and flourishingeven
tle or no money. These captives are held in though to some it is a well-kept secret. From
crowded, filthy conditions. A fter their be Phnom Penh to Paris, from M um bai to Bra
longings are taken, they are h an d ed m a silia, millions o f our fellow hum ansmen,
chetes. To obtain food, they m ust work. If women, and childrenare forced to live and
they attem pt to escape, they may be beaten. w ork as slaves or in slavelike conditions.
Consider the case of Lin-Lin, a girl from London-based Anti-Slavery International,
Southeast Asia. She was 13 when her m oth the worlds oldest m onitor o f forced labor,
er died. A job placem ent agency bought her puts the num ber of people in bondage in the
from her father for $480, promising her a hundreds of millions. Indeed, there may be
good job. The price paid for her was termed more slaves in the world today than ever be
an advance on her earningsa sure way to fore!
keep her tied to her new owners for good. In G ran ted , the fam iliar im ages o f shack
stead of being given a decent job, Lin-Lin les, whips, and auctions are not typical of
was taken to a brothel, where clients pay the m odern-day slavery. Forced labor, servile
owner $4 an hour for her. Lin-Lin is virtual marriage, debt bondage, child labor, and of
ly a prisoner, for she cannot leave until her ten prostitution are just some of the more
debt is paid. This includes her cost to the pronounced contem porary forms o f slavery.
brothel owner in addition to interest and ex Slaves might be concubines, camel jockeys,
penses. If Lin-Lin refuses to com ply with cane cutters, carpet weavers, or builders of
her employers wishes, she might be beaten roads. True, the vast m ajority are not sold at
or tortured. Worse still, if she tries to escape, a public auction, but they are really no bet
she might be killed. ter off than were their predecessors. In some
L ib erty fo r A ll? cases their lives are even m ore tragic.
M ost people think that slavery no longer W ho become slaves? How do they becom e
exists. Indeed, after num erous conventions, slaves? W hat is being done to help them ?
declarations, and acts, it has been officially Is the total abolition o f slavery in sight?

Awake! March 8, 2000 3

R ica rd o Funari
This is a q u e s tio n th a t even th e U nited N ations has d iffic u lty a n s w e rin g a fte r years o f e ffo rt.
One d e fin itio n o f sla ve ry is th a t fo rm u la te d by th e 1 9 2 6 S lavery C onvention, w h ich s ta te d : S lav
ery is th e s ta tu s or c o n d itio n o f a person over w hom any or all o f th e pow ers a tta c h in g to th e
rig h t o f o w n e rs h ip are e xe rc is e d . S till, th e te rm is open to in te rp re ta tio n . A cco rd in g to jo u rn a l
is t B a rb a ra C rossette, sla ve ry is a label a p p lied to low-wage w o rke rs in th e g a rm e n t a nd s p o rts
w e a r in d u s trie s abroad and s w e a tsh o p s in A m erican citie s. It is invoked to co n d e m n th e sex in
d u s try and priso n la b o r.
M ike D ottridge, th e d ire c to r o f A n ti-S lavery In te rn a tio n a l, believes th a t as sla v e ry se e m s to
ta k e new fo rm s or as th e w ord is a p p lie d to m ore c o n d itio n s th e re is a d a n g e r th a t its m e a n
ing w ill be d ilu te d o r even d im in is h e d . He fe e ls th a t sla ve ry is id e n tifie d by an e le m e n t o f o w n
e rs h ip or co n tro l over a n o th e rs life . It in clu d e s coercion and re s tric tio n o f m o v e m e n tth e fa c t
th a t s o m e o n e is n o t fre e to leave, to change an em ployer.
A. M. R ose nthal, w ritin g in The New York Times, notes: The slaves live slave live s m u rd e ro u s
labor, rape, hunger, to rtu re , th e to ta lity o f d e g ra d a tio n . He a d d e d : F ifty d o lla rs buys a slave,
so it really does n o t m a tte r [to th e o w ners] how long th e y su rv ive before th e ir b odies are th ro w n
in to so m e rive r.

-------------------------------------------------------------- - Awake! .....................................................

W hy Awake! Is Published Awake! is for the enlightenment of the entire family. It shows how to cope with
todays problems. It reports the news, tells about people in many lands, examines religion and science. But it does more.
It probes beneath the surface and points to the real meaning behind current events, yet it always stays politically neutral
and does not exalt one race above another. Most important, this magazine builds confidence in the Creators promise of
a peaceful and secure new world that is about to replace the present wicked, lawless system of things.
Unless otherwise indicated, New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures With References is used.

j4 n a to /(IS S N 0 0 0 5 -2 3 7 X ) is published sem im onthly by W atchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc.; Milton G. Henschel, President; Lyman
A. Swingle, Secretary-Treasurer; 25 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, NY 11201-2483. Periodicals Postage Paid at Brooklyn, N.Y., and at additional m ail
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Vol. 81, No. 5 Printed in U.S.A. 2 0 0 0 Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. All rights reserved. Sem im onthly ENGLISH

4 Awake! March 8, 2000

Who Are Slaves Today?
...... _ ...........
UST think o f the num bers. It is esti Yes, at this very m om ent, m illions o f our

J m ated that betw een 200 and 250 mil

lion children under the age o f 15 spend
m ost of their waking hours at work. A quar
ter of a m illion children, some as young as
fellow hum ans are hopeless slaves. Why and
how do all these people becom e slaves? Into
what form s o f slavery are they thrown?

seven, were drawn into arm ed com bat dur M e rc h a n ts of Flesh

ing 1995 and 1996 alone, some o f them thus The to u rist brochure circulating in the
becoming war slaves. The num ber o f wom U nited States could not be m ore straight
en and children sold as slaves each year is es forward: Sex tours to Thailand. Real girls.
tim ated to be m ore th an a million. Real sex. Real c h e a p .. . . Did you know you
But cold num bers cannot possibly reveal can actually buy a virgin girl for as little
the desperation o f these in as $200? W hat the brochure
dividuals. F or exam ple, in did not tell is th at these vir
a northern African country, gins have likely been kid
w rite r E lin o r B u rk e tt m et napped or forcibly sold into
Fatma, a young wom an who b ro th e ls, w h ere they av er
m anaged to e sca p e h e r age som e 10 to 20 custom
cruel m aster. How ever, a f ers a day. If they do not pro
ter speaking w ith her, Bur vide sexual services, they are
k ett re a liz e d th a t F a tm a b e a te n . W hen a fire broke
will be a slave forever, in out in a brothel on Phuket
her own m ind. Can Fatm a Island, a resort in southern
even dream o f a b e tte r fu T h a ila n d , five p r o s titu te s
ture? She cannot project be burned to death. Why? Be
yond the daw n, says B ur c a u se th e ir o w n ers had
kett. The fu tu re is one o f chained them to their beds
the m any abstract concepts to keep them from escaping
she lacks. their bondage.

Would you welcome more information? Write Watch Tower at the appropriate address.
Publication of Awake! is part of a worldwide Bible educational work supported by voluntary donations.
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* Audiocassettes also available. St. Catherine Avondale

Awake! March 8, 2000 5

W here do th e s e young w om en co m e
from? Reportedly, this sector o f the sex in
dustry is being filled by millions o f girls and
wom en around the world who have been
kidnapped, coerced, and sold into p rostitu
tion. The international sex trade flourishes
because of a com bination of poverty in de
veloping c o u n trie s , affluence in w e a lth y
countries, and laws th at wink at internation
al trafficking and indentured servitude.
Womens organizations in Southeast Asia
have estim ated th at from the mid-1970s to
the early 1990s, 30 m illion wom en were sold
T .

worldwide. Traffickers in flesh scour train

stations, p o o r villages, and urb an streets
looking for young girls and women who ap
p ear vulnerable. U sually the victim s are
uneducated, orphaned, abandoned, or desti
tute. They are given fraudulent prom ises of
WORKING FOR SOLUTIONS work, transported across borders, and then
Various official agencies, such as th e Unit sold into brothels.
ed N a tio n s C h ild re n s Fund a n d th e In te r Since th e b re a k u p o f th e C o m m u n is t
n a tio n a l L a b o r O rg a n iz a tio n , a re d ilig e n t bloc in 1991, a w hole new p o p u latio n o f
ly in s titu tin g a n d im p le m e n tin g s tra te g ie s im poverished girls and w om en has been
fo r th e e lim in a tio n o f m odern slavery. In ad
created. D eregulation, priv atizatio n , and
d itio n , a h o st o f n o n g o ve rn m e n ta l organiza
tio n s, such as Anti-Slavery In te rn a tio n a l and
growing class inequality have resulted in in
H um an R ights W atch, have p u t fo rth an e f creased crime, poverty, and unem ploym ent.
fo rt to increase p ublic aw areness o f m odern M any Russian and Eastern E uropean w om
slavery and to e m a n cip a te its victim s. Som e en and girls have now becom e grist for the
o f th e s e o rg a n iz a tio n s a re p u rs u in g th e in mill of international organized prostitution.
tro d u c tio n o f sp e cia l la b e ls th a t w ould in d i There are less risks when you traffic in hu
cate th a t ite m s are p ro d u ce d w ith o u t slave man beings than when you traffic drugs,
o r ch ild labor. So th a t people engaging in sex said form er E uropean Justice Com m ission
w ith c h ild re n can be p ro se cu te d upon th e ir
er A nita G radin.
retu rn to th e ir hom e country, o th e r agencies
are ca llin g fo r le g isla tio n in co u n trie s w here C hildh ood Lost
sex to u rs " orig in a te . S o m e hum an rights ac In one small carpet factory in Asia, chil
tiv is ts have gone so fa r as to pay slave tra d dren as young as five are w ork in g from
ers and m a ste rs large su m s o f m oney in or
4 oclock in the m orning until 11 oclock at
d e r to redeem as m any slaves as th e y can.
T h is h a s c a u s e d s o m e c o n tro v e rs y , s in c e night w ithout pay. In m any cases child la
such p ractices may create a lucrative m arket borers like these face grave health hazards:
fo r slaves and inflate th e ir price. unsafe m achinery, long hours in a poorly
lit and poorly ventilated environm ent, and

6 Awake! March 8, 2000

exposure to dangerous chem icals used in To add to th e ir m isery, dom estic child
manufacturing.* workers are particularly vulnerable to sex
Why are children so keenly sought as la ual and p h y sic a l ab u se. M a n y c h ild re n
borers? Because child labor is cheap and are kidnapped, held in rem ote cam ps, and
because by nature children are docile, easy chained at night to prevent their escape. By
to discipline, and too frightened to com day, they may be p u t to work building roads
plain. Their small physique and nim ble fin and quarrying stone.
gers are seen by unscrupulous employers as A n o th e r way th a t c h ild h o o d is lo st is
assets for doing certain kinds o f work, such through servile m arriage. Anti-Slavery In
as carpet weaving. Often such children are te rn a tio n a l ex p la in s a ty p ic a l case: A
given jobs, while their parents sit at home, 12-year-old girl is told th at her fam ily has
unemployed. arranged her m arriage to a 60-year-old m an.
* See Child LaborIts End in Sight! in the May 22,
Ostensibly she has the right to refuse, but
1999, issue of Awake! in practice she has no o p p o rtu n ity to exer
cise th at right and is unaw are th at she can
do so.
S la v es o f D e b t
H undreds o f thousands o f laborers are
held in bondage to th e ir em ployers and
places of em ploym ent because o f loans that
they or their parents have been given. Tradi
tionally, bonded labor occurs m ainly in ag
ricultural areas, where laborers work as gen
eral servants or as farm ers. In some cases,
debts are passed on from one generation to
the next, ensuring th at m em bers o f a fam i
ly rem ain in perm anent bondage. In other
cases, employers who are owed money sell
the debt to a new employer. In extreme
cases, b o n d ed lab o re rs receive no
paym ent at all for the work they do.
Or they may be bound by relative

ly small advances on their wages,

w hich are endlessly rep eated ,
so th at they becom e bonded to
their employer.
R itu a l S la v e ry
Binti, from West Africa, is
12 years old and is one o f thou
sands o f girls who serve as tro-
cosi, m ea n in g in th e Ewe la n
guage slaves of the gods. She has
been forced into a life o f slavery and

Food line for bonded slaves

o f law has effectively been suspend

ed, rep o rts Anti-Slavery In te rn a
tional, and soldiers or arm ed m ili
tia are able to force people to work
for them unpaid . . . w ithout fear
o f retribution; such practices have
been reported chiefly in areas con
R icardo Funari

trolled by arm ed groups which have

n o t achieved in te rn a tio n a l rec o g
nition. However, according to the
same organization, there have also
redem ption for a crim e she did not com m it been recent reports o f governm ent soldiers
the rape th at led to her own birth! Pres forcing civilians to work as slaves, outside
en tly h er re sp o n sib ilitie s are lim ited to any legal fram ew ork. Soldiers and m ilitias
household chores for a local fetish priest. have also been reported to engage in the
Later Bintis duties will broaden to include slave trade, selling those they have captured
providing sexual services to the priest, who to work for others.
is her owner. Then by middle age Binti will Sadly, the curse o f slavery still haunts hu
be replacedthe priest will find other ap m anity in m any form s and disguises. Stop
pealing girls to serve him as trocosi. and think again o f the num bers involved
Like Binti, thousands who are victims of the m illions o f people suffering as slaves
ritual slavery are offered by their families to aro u n d the globe. T h en th in k o f one or
work as virtual slaves in an effort to atone tw o o f the m o d ern slaves w hose sto ries
for an act interpreted as a sin or an offense you read in these pages perhaps Lin-Lin
against holy decree. In several parts of the or Binti. D o you w ant to see
world, girls or women are obliged to per the crim e o f m odern slav
form religious duties and to provide sexual ery stopped? Will the ab
services to priests or otherson the pretext olition o f slavery ever be
th at such women are m arried to a deity. In come a reality? Before
m any cases the women perform other un this can occur, radi
paid services. They are not free to change cal changes have to
their place of residence or work and often take place. Please
rem ain in servitude for m any years. read about them
in the following
T ra d itio n a l C h a tte l S lavery article.

A lthough m ost countries claim to have

legally ab o lish ed slavery, in som e areas
there has been a recent resurgence o f tra
ditional chattel slavery. This usually takes Sometimes young
place in regions torn by civil strife or arm ed children are forced
into military service
conflict. In the areas o f conflict the rule

Awake! March 8, 2000

M o d ern S la v e ry
- I t s End Is N ear!
One mans freedom is part and parcel of universal freedom.
You cannot touch one without at the same time
jeopardizing the other.
V i c t o r S c h o e l c h e r , F r e n c h J o u r n a l i s t a n d P o l i t i c i a n , 1848.

rHAT is this dark side of man cannot be made straight, and th at which is

W th at has always led him to de wanting cannot possibly be counted, to use

spise, subjugate and debase the words o f an ancient statesm an nam ed
his fellows? ask the editors o f The UNESCO Solomon. Ecclesiastes 1:15.
Courier. And how is it th at such a crim e
against hum anity has rem ained unpunished A C h an g e of M in d
even since the inception o f H um an Rights? D oes this m ean th a t nothing can or will
The answer is complex. G reed is the m oti be done to pu t a p erm anent end to slavery
vation for the use of cheap child labor and either in its traditional m anifestations or
for the phenom enon of debt bondage. Pov in its m ore recent form s? N ot at all!
erty and lack of education are blam ed when T h e U N Office o f th e H ig h C o m m is
girls are sold into prostitution s io n e r fo r H u m a n R ig h ts
and servile marriage. Religious Everyone is entitled to (O H C H R ) states th at slavery
dignity and freedom is a sta te o f m in d , adding:
norm s and cu ltu ral concepts
lie behind ritual slavery. And Even w hen ab o lish ed , slav
in the case of males who vis ery leaves traces. It can persist
it Bangkok or M anila to find as a state o f m indam ong its
young AIDS-free boys or girls, victims and their descendants
the m otive is o u trig h t sexu and am ong the in h erito rs o f
al perversion and im m orality. those w ho practised it long
All of this is p art of a world a fte r it h as fo rm a lly d isa p
w here p e o p le are lovers o f peared.
them selves, lovers o f money, So one way to abolish slav
. . . having no n a tu ra l affec ery would be to effect a change
tion, . . . w ithout self-control, o f th in k in g a c h a n g e o f
fierce, in th e w ords o f th e hearton a worldwide scale.
ap o stle P aul, a first-c e n tu ry A nd th a t involves a change
student o f law. (2 Tim othy 3: o f e d u c a tio n teaching p e o
1-5) It is p a rt o f a world where ple to love one another and re
th at which is m ade crooked spect one an o th ers dignity. It

Awake! March 8, 2000 9

A family Bible study
In Benin


Blue Nile falls
a foregleam of a
A FUTURE NEW WORLD restored paradise
m eans helping people to root greed out o f inspired by the C reato r o f m an. It is a book
their hearts and abide by high m oral stan th a t u p h o ld s h u m an d ig n ity . P eople in
dards. W ho can provide such education? structed in the Bible through the education
The O H C H R says th at everyone has a con al program o f Jeh o v ah s W itnesses learn
tribution to make to a world order which no th at our C reator, Jehovah, is him self a G od
longer tolerates inhum ane exploitation. o f dignity. (1 C hronicles 16:27) He confers
C onsider an ed u catio n al program th at dignity up o n all his creation. This includes
has b een c a rrie d o u t w o rld w id e by th e both men and women, from all races, so
Christian com m unity o f Jehovahs W itness cial backgrounds, and econom ic conditions.
es. This program has successfully taught See the box H um an Freedom and D igni
honesthearted individuals not to tolerate or tyFrom W hat Source?
condone inhum ane exploitation. T hrough E q u a lity an d R e s p e c t fo r D ig n ity
it, millions o f people in m ore th an 230 lands The Bible teaches th a t G od has made
have been taught to treat all their fellow- out o f one m an every nation o f men, to dwell
men with dignity. W hy is this program suc upon the entire surface o f the earth . (Acts
cessful? 17:26) Thus, no one can claim eith er su
Because it is based on the Bible, a book prem acy over any o f his fellow hum ans or


-FROM WHAT SOURCE?_________________
We are all born w ith an in h e re n t need and desire fo r dignity and
freedom . Kofi Annan, UN secretary-general, echoed feelings th a t
are universal w hen he asked: W ho can deny th a t we all seek
lives fre e o f fear, to rtu re and d iscrim in a tio n ? . . . W hen have you
heard a fre e voice d e m a n d an end to fre e d o m ? W here have you
heard a slave argue fo r slavery?
Such ideas are h ardly new. D ism issin g th e notion th a t som e
are born to be slaves, first-ce n tu ry Roman philosopher Seneca, in
his Letters to Lucilius, w rote: Please re fle ct th a t th e m an you call
your slave was born o f th e sam e seed, has th e sam e good sky above
him , breathes as you do, lives as you do, dies as you d o !
Im am 'AIT, revered as th e fo u rth calip h a fte r M uham m ad, said th a t all m en are equals in cre
a tio n . Sa'di, a 1 3 th -ce n tu ry Persian poet, declared: The children o f Adam are lim bs o f one a noth
er and in th e ir creation com e fro m one substance. W hen th e w orld gives pain to one m em ber, th e
o th e r m em bers fin d no re st.
The divin ely inspired historical record found in th e Bible highlights th e d ignity o f all hum ans. For
exam ple, G enesis 1 :27 describes m ans creation, saying: God proceeded to create th e m an in his
image, in G ods im age he created him ; m ale and fe m ale he created th e m ." Our C reator is a God o f
freedo m . "W here th e s p irit o f Jehovah is, th e re is freedo m ," said th e apostle Paul. (2 C orinthians 3:
17) In cre a tin g m an in his im age and likeness, Jehovah bestow ed upon hum ans a m easure o f w or
thiness, self-respect, and dignity. By fre e in g his creation from e n slavem ent to co rru p tio n , he w ill
also ensure th a t people w ill enjoy such freedo m and dignity fo re v e rRom ans 8 :2 1 .

Awake! March 8, 2000 11

the right to oppress or exploit others. Peo a power able to ensure universal freedom .
ple who are willing to learn come to appre Boutros Boutros-G hali, form er secretary-
ciate the fact th at G od is not partial, but general of the U N , said th at the real prob
in every nation the m an th a t fears him and lems afflicting o u r planet m ust be solved
works righteousness is acceptable to him. on a global level. But not everyone is so
(Acts 10:34,35) They realize th at G ods love sure th at this could ever happen. Past expe
is all-encompassing, since the privilege o f a rience shows th at m any people in pow er are
close relationship with him is open to all too selfish and self-centered in their in ter
people. In fact, G od loved the world so ests and goals to achieve such international
m uch th at he gave his only-begotten Son, in cooperation.
order th at everyone exercising faith in him However, the Biblethe same book that
m ight not be destroyed but have everlasting has taught millions to respect the dignity o f
life.John 3:16. their fellow hum ansshows th at G od p u r
T h is Bible-based e d u c atio n has a pro poses to establish such a world governm ent.
found effect on personalities. T hrough it In the Bible you will find m any prom ises o f
peoples hearts and m inds can be made a new world o f righteousness. (Isaiah 65:17;
com pletely new. (E phesians 4:22-24, To 2 Peter 3:13) It is G o d s purpose to clear the
d a ys English Version) It m o tiv ates them earth of any who do not love G od and neigh
to treat their fellow hum ans with dignity bor. G od has revealed his p urpose to set up
and respect. They are determ ined to work a worldwide governm ent over m ankind to
w hat is good tow ard all. (G alatians 6:10) rule the earth in righteousness. Jesus told us
N o one can be a true C hristian and share to pray for th at governm ent in w hat is com
in the inhum ane exploitation and oppres monly called the Lords Prayer, or the O ur
sion o f any o f his fellow hum ans. Jehovahs Father. M atthew 6:9,10.
W itnesses are happy to be a C hristian com H um an exploitation and every form of
m unity like the C hristian congregation o f slavery will disappear under the rule o f this
the first century, in which there was neither governm ent because C hrist the King will
Jew nor G reek, and there was neither slave reign by m eans o f justice and by m eans o f
nor freem an. All were one person in union righteousness. (Isaiah 9:7) O ppressed ones
w ith C hrist Jesus.G alatians 3:28. will find release under his ju st rule, for the
A C h an g e of G o v e rn m e n t Bible says: He will deliver the poor one cry
However, for there to be a perm anent end ing for help, also the afflicted one and w ho
to all form s of slavery, a drastic change in ever has no helper. He will feel sorry for the
hum an society is required. The Internation lowly one and the poor one, and the souls
al Labor O rganization says th at to end hu of the poor ones he will save. From oppres
m an exploitation, there is a need to change sion and from violence he will redeem their
the environm ent which perm its and con soul. Psalm 72:12-14.
dones such practices. International actions, If you yearn to see the end of slaveryall
international cooperation, and a com m it form s o f enslavem ent we invite you to
m ent of the world com m unity are among learn m ore about G ods purpose to estab
further suggestions made by that agency. lish this liberating world government. Jeho
This would logically require a power able vahs W itnesses in your area will be happy
to exercise broad control over our planet, to help you to do this.

12 Awake! March 8, 2000

A thens
Famous Past
and Challenging Future
141^ ^ ij i tfj If; If j t-?[ t-q Ur

HE plane takes a final turn be or comedy on the very stages where S opho

fore touching down at the Ath cles and A ristophanes directed their plays.
ens International A irport. A fter Athens was one o f the first G reek city-
two years away, I return to the states and enjoyed its m ost glorious days, its
place that I called home for two golden age, in the fifth century B.C.E. D u r
decades. From history books, I know that
ing th at period a dem ocratic A thens played
the city below is considered by m any to be a m ajor role in the G reek victories over
the place where dem ocracy was founded. Persia and becam e the literary and artistic
On the ground, I find that beyond the his center o f Greece. A num ber o f its fam ous
tory, the art, and the m onum ents, G reeces architectural m onum ents were also erect
famous and gritty capital is bursting at the ed about th at tim e the m agnificent Par
seams with an energetic and optim istic pop thenon being the best known.
ulation. I also realize th at its friendly and A lthough the A thenians escaped the yoke
smiling residents are working hard to make o f th e Persians, they late r fell to the on
their city workand this is especially so be slaughts o f a long-tim e enem y clo ser to
* cause it is being groom ed to host the 2004 h o m e S p a rta . In th e c e n tu r ie s th a t
Olympic Games. followed, A thens was a
A Fam ous P a st
subjugated city, ruled
, in tu rn by M acedonia,
A th e n s tra c e s its
o rig in s back to th e Rome, B yzantine em
20th c e n tu ry b e fo re p e ro rs a t C o n s ta n ti
C h ris t and is n a m e d nople, Frankish dukes
a fte r th e G re e k g o d o f th e C ru sa d e s, and
dess Athena. Here you th e T urks. W h e n th e
c a n still w alk th e A hns G re e k s g a in e d th e ir
streets where Socrates independence in 1829,
walked, take a stroll in A th e n s h a d d e c lin e d
the school where A ris to a sm all p ro v in c ial
totle taught, or enjoy a tow n inhabited by only
soul-searching tragedy a few thousand people.
T h e Parthenon, an ancient pagan temple, has served as a church and a mosque

M o d e rn R e a litie s Like m any o th er m odern m etropolises,

Since 1834, when Athens becam e the cap Athens suffers from smog. A smog cloud
ital o f G reece, the city has grown at a rapid called nefos by localsform s a few feet
pace. It now covers some 170 square miles, above the forest of television antennas. The
spreading over the Attic plain. Its fingers smog is eating away the ancient m onum ents
th rust into the distance along the slopes of so rapidly th at archaeologists once consid
M ounts Parnes, Pendelikon, and Hymettus. ered erecting a glass bubble over the A crop
The m etropolis shelters m ore than four and olis. Pollution warnings are comm on. W hen
a half million peoplenearly 45 percent of weather conditions trap the smog inside the
the population of Greece. It was built large m ountains surrounding Athens, nefos can
ly w ithout planning or regulation. By one be deadly to hum ans. On such days, private
estim ate, m ore than a third of the housing cars are banned from the city center, fac
went up illegally, and today ju st a small por tories cut fuel consum ption, the elderly are
tion o f Athens is not covered by concrete. advised to stay indoors, and Athenians are
M ost of A thens m odern neighborhoods asked to leave their cars at home.
are o f the boxy, poured-concrete style of ar A thenians vacate the city en m asse on
chitecture. The city seems to squat in the weekends. Jum p into your car, says Vas-
sun, w ith an ancient colum n p rotruding silisa seasoned A thenianas he enjoys a
here or there, dusted with gray fallout from honey-sweet, nut-crusted baklava and a cup
industry and m otor vehicles. of bitter coffee at one of the cafes. In ju st

Awake! March 8, 2000

t H i f i tiili ii
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a few hours, you will be in the m ountains chief organizer o f the gam es, notes: We L
or at the sea. The im plication o f this re have to [present] the G am es well. But in o u r HT* w
m ark is that you can hop into your car and own vision, we are guided by the day after.
then sit in bum per-to-bum per traffic for a . . . We need to do things th a t we know will
couple of hours before the city gives way to last.
the country. The fact th at A thens will host the 2004
C le a n in g and T id yin g Up Olympics has touched off a wave o f unprec
However, A thens says th a t it is serious edented activity and developm ent. Every
about cleaning up, and it has a convinc where, m achines are breaking ground to im
ing record to prove it. For example, a large prove the infrastructure and to build roads
section o f the citys com m ercial center is and venues for the games. A new, ten-mile
closed to traffic. Before they were closed, extension to th e m etro system is alm ost
these shopping streets were som e o f the complete. If all goes according to schedule,
m ost congested. C ars m oved at an aver in M arch 2001 the first aircraft will land
age o f th ree m iles p e r hour, the pace o f at the new international a irp o rt o f Athens,
a leisurely stroll. N ow tre e s in p la n te rs an airp o rt th at has been dubbed the m ost
have replaced nose-to-tail traffic, and bird m odern in Europe.
songs have replaced the usual background M oreover, by the year 2001, a to ta l o f
sounds o f grinding gears and whining m o 45 m iles o f new freew ays w ill be ready.
tor scooters. T he city has
even challenged the tra Athens is the home of more than four and a half million people
ditional M e d iterran ean
life-style, asking w o rk
ers to stop heading hom e
for a siestaa habit th at
effectively ad d e d tw o
m ore rush hours.
R eserv ed o p tim is m
fills the air in the office
of Nikos Yatrakos, depu
ty m ayor o f A th en s.
W hen I m e n tio n th a t
it to o k m e tw o g r u e l
ing hours to reach his of
fice, he nods in com pas
sion. But dont forget,
he is quick to stress, the
2004 O ly m p ic G a m e s
are coming. We are com
m itted to im proving the
city, and we will do it.
C o n s ta n tin e B ak o u ris,

w M
jfM lH n ifttO r
These will divert traffic outside the center ways rem ain a villagespontaneous ra th
of Athens, and this will encourage the use of er than disciplined, fragm ented rath er than
public transportation. It is hoped that this ordered. The village side o f A thens can be
will reduce the num ber o f cars in the city found in those parts o f the city where hous
center by m ore than 250,000 per day and cut es still have tile roofs and balconies w ith
atm ospheric pollution by 35 percent. The iron grillwork and pots o f geranium s.
new biological treatm ent program for the To find that Athens, I visit Plaka, the old
wastewater of the greater Athens area prom est neighborhood o f the city, hugging the
ises to improve the m aritim e environm ent northern slopes o f the Acropolis. There I
around the capital. The am bitious goal is, find a w arren o f narrow and tilted winding
w ithin a few years, to transform Athens into streets, sagging houses, wine shops, stray
a new city, w ith an im proved tran sp o rta cats and dogs, tavernas, and pushcarts. T he
tion system, m ore pockets of greenery, and a area retains the raucous, carnival charac
cleaner environm ent. ter o f the past, w hich draw s in the to u r
A C o rner of Old A th e n s ists. Tables th at som etim es have one leg too
To many, despite new office towers, ren short line the sidewalks, along w ith under
o vated bou lev ard s and fo u n ta in s, sm art sized chairs. The waiters, with m enus held
shops, and lively street life, Athens will al open, try to snag custom ers.

A taverna In Plaka, the oldest neighborhood in Athens

I. B u rg e s s /H . A rm s tro n g R o b e rts
mmmg x

U K ' 11.
w H m jg Awake! March 8, 2000
tliO A O r A Mmumtir**
AKP 2471336
T IC K E T |
I. S u tto n /H . A rm s tro n g R o b e rts

the trees. We have bought upper-tier

tickets, so we clim b up the m arble 2Z'm
steps and then enter through a Ro
m an p o rtal into the am phitheater.
We take a m inute to savor the m o
m en t a black velvet sky, a n e a r
full m oon behind a wisp o f cirrus
clouds, and floodlights, which tu rn
the interior o f the steep h alf cone
into a brilliant scene. H undreds of
people looking sm all and faraway
in the vast ness o f this theater, which
can seat 5,000move along concen
tric rows o f w hite m arb le to find
their places. The stone seats are still
warm from the sun, the same stones
th at have echoed dram a and music
and laughter and applause for m il
lennium s.
Also not to be m issed are the n u
Balconies characterize some souvenir shops m erous m useum s o f the city. M ost
prom inent am ong them is the N a
The put-put o f m otorbikes drow ns o ut tional Archaeological M useum , with its im
the music o f the organ-grinder. W hole rows pressive and thorough overview o f G reek
o f freshly tan n ed leath er purses hang in art through the centuries. O ther m useum s
front o f souvenir shops. A rm ies o f m ar w orth visiting are the M useum o f Cyclad-
ble chessm en m ade in the images o f G reek ic A rt and the Byzantine M useum . Since
gods stand in battle form ation, m arionettes 1991 the M egaron A thens C oncert H alla
do folk dances, ceram ic windm ills turn. It is m ajestic m arble building with exceptional
evident th at this corner o f the city fiercely acoustics has offered a year-round venue
resists any attem pts at m odernization. for opera, ballet, and classical m usic per
form ances. And, o f course, you can enjoy
A th e n s by N ig h tS ig h ts and Sounds
G reek folk m usic in m any o f the traditional
A visit to A thens would be seriously lack
ing w ith o u t a sa m p lin g o f th e c u ltu ra l
w ealth o f the city. Tonight, I decide to a t You A re W e lc o m e !
tend a sym phony with my wife at the re M o d e rn A th e n s w ith its fam o u s p a s t
stored R om an am p h ith eater o f Herod, lo faces the pressures o f a challenging future.
cated on the south slope o f the Acropolis. But its people have learned to adjust as best
The pedestrian approach to the theater is a they can with good hum or, ingenuity, and
hushed, softly lit walkway under dark sil philotimo literally, a love for self-respect.
houettes o f pines. The illum inated facade To m ost tourists, A thens rem ains a fascinat
of ocher stones loom s theatrically through ing and culturally rich city.
Paraguay's Fascinating Handicraft

A S U N C IO N , PARAGUAY. O u r bags are their mothers at an early age and then

/ \ being unloaded, so we have a few min- teach it to their children.
/ I utes to look around. My wife suddenly The orb weaver spider takes only
/ % pulls me over to a wall display. Isnt two or three hours to spin a web. It
M m th at gorgeous! she exclaims, pointing takes from tw o to th re e m onths to
to a beautiful lace tablecloth with a very intricate make a tablecloth with eight settings
design. Im m ediately she wonders how it was made. when coarse thread is used. To make
Spiderweb lace originated in Arabia. According the same tablecloth from fine thread
to the book Paraguay, Touristic a n d General Infor takes about six to eight m onths, said
mation, it was taken to the C anary Islands and to our hostess. The finer the thread, the
Spain, and betw een the 17th and 18th centuries, it more beautiful the result.
s ?
was brought to Paraguay, where the so-called sun As she holds up a white lace doi
lace from Tenerife took the nam e Paraguayan lace, ly, she explains: It has a center de 5;S*
or nanduti. In Paraguay this delicate lace took on sign of the guava tree flower, and these
the lace m akers personal touch, and the character threads have to be counted as it is be
ing made. This design is the most dif
istics o f local vegetation and anim als were incor
ficult to make, and it takes two weeks
porated into the design. A lthough the lace is not
to make with fine thread. Originally
a local invention, Paraguayans did enhance their
lace makers only used fine thread and
lace with new stitches. Lace weaving has becom e
all the lace was very expensive. There
the livelihood o f m any natives.
fore, many lace makers began to use
How do they m anufacture this intricate lace that coarse thread in order to make items
resem bles a spiderweb? To help us learn the an faster and to make them less costly.
swer, our guide took us 18 miles east o f A suncion M ulticolored and white place mats,
to the small town o f Itaugua. He told us th at m uch tablecloths, doilies, coasters, and oth
of Paraguays spiderweb lace is produced in this er household items were on display.
area. Indeed, m any woven articles are on display in W hen we asked a b o u t clothes, o u r
stores along the m ain street. hostess quickly brought out a typical
The owner of one store greeted us warmly and dress, belonging to her daughter, of
showed us some attractive items. She explained: which she was obviously very proud.
Handmade lace is classified according to the way it It was a beautiful rainbow-hued, full
is made. Spiderweb lace is a needlepoint lace. Most dress. In other stores, we found some
Paraguayan lace makers m em orize their designs, well-made postcards containing fine
though others use patterns. They all use a piece of lace. It is no w onder th at spiderweb
cotton cloth in a wooden frame and make the lace lace is considered Paraguays m ost fa
with needle and thread. They learn this craft from mous handicraft.
Awake! March 8, 2000
Will Greater Freedom of Conscience
Be Allowed in Mexico?

E L IG IO U S freedom in M exico is Investigations, spoke on the topic M exi

R gu aran teed by law. N evertheless, can Experience on the Subject. We m ust

_ the law still contains som e restric point o u t th a t the M exican Law o f Reli
tions on freedom o f w orship. F or exam gious A sso c ia tio n s a n d P u b lic W o rsh ip
ple, the concept o f conscientious objection p rac tic a lly fo rb id s c o n sc ie n tio u s o b je c
to m ilitary service is relatively unknow n in tion, he said, referring to the F irst A rti
this country. T h a t is why the Institute of cle, which states: In no case do religious
Legal Investigations, o f the N ational Au convictions exem pt anyone from com ply
tonom ous U niversity o f M exico (U N A M ), ing with the laws o f this country. N o one
decided to hold an in tern atio n al sym po will be able to invoke religious reasons in
sium entitled C onscientious Objection in order to avoid the responsibilities and d u
M exico and the W orld. U N A M s In sti ties prescribed by the laws. In conclusion,
tu te o f Legal Investigations is accountable Dr. Soberanes said: We believe th a t it is u r
to the governm ent, b u t its p u rp o se is to gent to legislate on the m atter o f conscien
investigate the established laws and their tious objection in M exico.
application. Jehovahs W itnesses in Mexi He referred to th e fact th a t each year
co were invited to send a representative to hundreds o f W itness children in M exico
give a talk on the subject Jehovahs W it confront problem s related to their educa
nesses and C onscientious O bjection. tion because o f th eir Bible-based refusal
to salute th e flag. Som e W itness children
P ro fesso rs S p e a k O ut
are not allowed even to register for school.
T h e p re s e n ta tio n C o n sc ie n tio u s O b
However, by m eans o f appeals thro u g h the
je c tio n in I n te r n a tio n a l Law , m ade
H um an Rights Com m ission, m any o f them
by D r. Ja v ie r M a rtin e z T o rro n , p ro fe s
have been given back their right to an edu
sor at the G ran ad a U niversity o f Law, in
cation. Som e education officials have tak
Spain, p o in ted o u t th a t freedom o f con
en steps to prevent c h ild ren from being
science and the right to object to the appli
expelled from school, bu t som e teachers ig
cation o f some laws or obligations because n o re such efforts. T h e a u th o ritie s have
o f conscience is already internationally rec been tolerant tow ard the W itnesses posi
ognized. He m entioned the situation o f Je tion, but there has not been a standard th a t
hovahs W itnesses in Spain and the Kokki- schools in M exico can follow.
nakis case in G reece*
The sym posium also covered conscien
Dr. Jose Luis S oberanes F ernandez, a tious objections presen ted by o th e r reli
professor at U N A M s In stitu te o f Legal gions, such as being forced to w ork on days
* See the articles European High Court Upholds Right to considered holy, being required to dress at
Preach in Greece and Legally Protecting the Good News, work in a way th a t violates their religious
in the September 1, 1993, and December 1, 1998, issues of
The Watch tower. beliefs, and so on. O bjections to m ilitary
20 Awake! March 8, 2000
service and to certain m edical treatm ents serows, a fam ily th at stood firm in their be
were also covered. liefs during the N azi regim e*
Jehovahs Witnesses and Caesar The S criptural basis for Jehovahs Wit-1
A m em ber o f the staff o f the branch office nesses refusal to accept blood transfusions
of Jehovahs W itnesses in M exico present was then given. (Genesis 9:3, 4; Acts 15:28,
ed a sum m ary o f their basic beliefs. He ex 29) The arrangem ent for H ospital Liaison
plained their adherence to such Bible prin C om m ittees worldwide was explained. In
ciples as the one expressed at Luke 20:25, addition, the accom plishm ents o f coopera
which tells C hristians to pay back C aesars tive doctors in perform ing bloodless su r
things to Caesar. He also referred to Ro gery on Je h o v a h s W itnesses w ere h ig h
m ans 13:1, which says th at C hristians m ust
resp ect se cu la r a u th o ritie s . He stre sse d Each day som e 100 people attended the
that Jehovahs W itnesses are norm al, law- sym posium , m any o f w hom were lawyers.
abiding citizens w ho striv e to pay th e ir Representatives o f the Office o f Religious
taxes, live orderly lives, keep their hom es Affairs in M exico were also in attendance. I
clean, and send their children to school. All those present were able to listen to the
view point o f experts regarding respect for
He then highlighted a S criptural basis for
conscientious objections. This concept is
the W itnesses refusal to salu te th e flag,
new to legislators in M exico, although it is
which can be found in the Ten C om m and
widely accepted in m any dem ocratic coun
m ents, at E xodus 20:3-5: You m ust not
tries, such as France, Portugal, Spain, and
have any other gods against my face. You
the U nited States as well as in some form er
m ust not m ake for yourself a carved im C om m unist countries, such as Czechia and
age or a form like anything th at is in the Slovakia.
heavens above or th at is on the earth u n
derneath or th at is in the w aters under the * See The Watchtower of September 1, 1985, My Familys
Love for God Despite Prison and Death. See also the issue
earth. You m ust not bow down to them nor of January 15, 1994, page 5.
be induced to serve them .
J e h o v a h s W itn esses w o r
sh ip G o d alo n e, an d in no
case do they w orship an im Jehovahs Witnesses In
age. However, they will never Mexico treasure their
com m it any disrespectful act freedom to preach
against a national em blem or
speak disrespectfully o f it.
In order to stress Jehovahs
W itnesses p o in t o f view on
this question, the video Purple
Triangles was presented. This
video shows the firm position
Jeh o v ah s W itnesses took in
N azi G e rm a n y (1933-45). It
presents the story o f the Kus-
NOAH How the Video Was Made
U \ I E GETS up in th e m orning ta lk in g about it. sands o f years ago. W h a t w ould be th e next s te p in
He w a tch e s it th re e o r fo u r tim e s d u rin g th e production?
M M th e day and again before he goes to bed at A cast was chosen to represent Noah and his fa m i
n ig h t. W h a t is th is C alifornia m o th e r ta lk in g about? ly. T h e ir c o s tu m e s w e re d e s ig n e d , a n d th e c o lo r
Her tw o-ye a r-o ld son and his love o f th e video Noah sc h e m e s fo r each s c e n e w ere d e c id e d upon. All o f
He Walked With God* S he a d d s: W hen he plays th is w as necessary because th e a rtis ts could not draw
outside, he ta lk s ab o u t bu ild in g a lifesaving ark, w ith and paint Noah and his w ife and sons and daughters-
his h a m m e r in h and. in-law u n til th e y k n e w w h a t th e a c to rs lo o k e d lik e
A n other m o th e r wrote: I m u st give a big thank-you in th e ir c o s tu m e s . T he p a in tin g s had to be c o n s is
fo r all th e effo rt, tim e , and love th a t was put into th e te n t w ith th e real-life scenes. B ut w here w ould th e se
Noah video. I have a three-yea r-old w ho has m em o scenes be film ed?
rized p ra c tic a lly th e w h o le video, even th e sound ef D enm ark w as chosen, since th e branch office o f th e
fe c ts ! It is h is fa v o rite v id e o , a n d he a s k s to see it W atch Tower Society in th a t c ountry had skille d prop
every day, tw o or th re e tim e s a day. builders and sufficien t factory space available fo r th e
One little girl, D anielle, wrote: I like it, and I w a n t to necessary indoor scenes. A film crew w e n t fro m th e
follow th e th in g s th a t Noah did. I hope you m ake more A udio/V ideo Services D e p a rtm e n t o f th e W atchtow er
videos fo r kid s. Educational C enter a t Patterson, New York, to do th e
Of course, Bible videos ta k e tim e to m ake. Why is film ing, w hich also involved D anish personnel. The sto
th a t? ry is to ld th ro u g h n a rra tio n . This has m a d e it m uch
easier to produce th e program in o th e r languages be
How W as th e Noah V id eo M a d e ? cause it e lim ina tes th e d iffic u lt step o f dubbing, th a t is,
Long b e fo re any s e q u e n c e w as film e d o r any pic in se rtin g a synchronized tra n s la tio n o f dialogue. But
tures painted, a scrip tw rite r d ra fte d a story line based how was th e difficu lt a rtw ork prepared?
on th e Bible account. This w ould eventually becom e a
storyboard and th e n a script. A storyboard is a series A rt and a S p e c ia l C a m e ra
o f s m a ll, rough d ra w in g s th a t h e lp a rtis ts e sta b lis h A rtis ts prepared hundre ds o f w atercolor p a in tin g s
th e sequence and design o f a story. Several individu based on th e storyboard th a t th e creative team had
als, in clu d in g th e a rtists, discussed how th e history of prepared. These w ere not necessarily square or rect
Noah could be illu s tra te d w hich p o rtio n s would use a n g u la r p a in tin g s . S o m e tim e s th e y w ere cu rv e d or
actors and w hich w ould best be represented by paint oval-shaped, depend ing on th e cam era angle th a t was
ings. Enacted sequences help to establish th e reality going to be used. N one o f th e p a in tin g s w ere larger
o f an account in a c h ild s m ind. They show th a t th e Bi than 2 2 inches by 3 0 inches, and m ost w ere as sm all
ble sp e a ks o f real people w ho served Jehovah thou- as 11 inches by 15 inches.
A special m otion-control cam era was needed to film
* This video was released in 1997 and has been translat th e paintings. In order to give a three-dim ensional e f
ed into Albanian, Chinese, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch,
Finnish, French, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Ko
fe c t, th e a rtw o rk w as s e t up in th re e la y e rs fo r e
rean, Latvian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Serbian, Slovak, ground, m iddle distance, and background. In th is way
Spanish, Swedish, and Thai. More languages are planned. views could be shot through trees, through th e legs o f
22 Awake! March 8, 2000
can be learned fro m N oah's exam ple. F u rth e rm o re ,
th e quiz on th e video sleeve helps parents review th e
m ain points o f th e story w ith th e ir children.
O ther special effects, such as th e increasing dow n
pour a t th e tim e o f th e Flood, w ere achieved by com
puter technology. It is easy to see th a t m uch tim e and
an elephant, or throug h w hatever else was needed to
creative e ffo rt w e n t into th e p ro d u c tio n o f th e Noah
give th e effe ct o f depth. The cam era was controlled by video.
a com puter and could pan over a scene or zoom in to
S in c e B ib le a c c o u n ts do n o t c h a n g e , th e v id e o
create a special e ffe c t This can give th e im pression
NoahHe Walked With God w ill always be current and
th a t th e scene is m oving w hen, in fa ct, it is only th e
can help te a c h each new g e n e ra tio n o f youngsters.
cam era th a t is doing so.
C h ild re n and p a re n ts have w ritte n h u n d re d s o f le t
Since th e W atch Tower S o ciety does not have th e ters o f appreciation asking fo r m ore videos. One per
s k ills or th e resources to do g e n u in e a n im a tio n , th e so n w ro te : I am 5 0 y e a rs o ld
m ixed-m edia approa ch o f usin g ena cte d se q u e n ce s and raised my children long ago.
along w ith paintings serves as a viable com prom ise. But I th in k it would be an invalu
Children in th e 3- to 12-year-old age-group, fo r w hom able tool today fo r parents w ith
the video was d e sig n e d , have enjoyed th is m eth o d . young children to have a video
And th e vid e o c le a rly p o in ts o u t m any le sso n s th a t library o f Bible stories."

M ost enacted sequences were filmed in Denmark

M l ,f:* 4 W ....

24 Awake! March 8, 2000
The m o tio n -co n tro l
cam era films
fc w hile m oving,
W g ivin g life to
the a rtw o rk

Computer editing,
special effects, narration, ... n mmmmmmm
music, and sound
completed the video

True FaithWhat Is It?


HAT is faith? Som e explain faith as a h ope and conviction based on solid, de
W religious belief in G o d w ithout solid
p ro o f o f his existence. A m erican journalist
pendable evidence.
F a ith or C re d u lity?
H. L. M encken defined faith as an illogi M uch o f w hat passes for faith today is
cal belief in the occurrence o f the im prob in reality credulity a readiness to believe
able. Is this tru e faith as described in the w ithout a valid basis or reason. C redulity is
Bible? It is vital to have a clear understand
often built on the shifting sands o f em otion
ing of w hat faith is because, as quoted
and su p e rstitio n . T h is is n o t well-
above, w ithout faith it is im possi
founded faith because it has no
ble to please G o d .
reliable basis for belief.
T he Bible says: Faith is being
C redulity could cause
sure o f the things we h ope for.
one to ju m p to con
(H eb rew s 11:1, T h e New Testa
clusions th a t m ay
m ent in the Language o f Today)
Therefore, faith is founded on ac
curate knowledge, facts on which
right decisions can be based. It re
quires not only belief b u t a rea
son for believing.
D r a w in g s o f
To illustrate: Perhaps you have A lb r e c h t D u re r /D o v e r
P u b lic a tio n s , Inc.
a friend o f w hom you can say: I
tru st th a t m an. I can c o u n t on him
to keep his word. I know th a t if I
have a problem , he will com e to my
aid. It is not likely th at you would
say th a t a b o u t so m eo n e you have
know n for only a day or two, is it?
He would have to be som eone who
h ad pro v ed his d e p e n d a b ility tim e
and again. It should be the same w ith
religious faith, which should produce

be ou t o f h arm ony w ith Bible tru th . Ac deep into your heart. F aith grows and b e
c o rd in g ly , th e B ible w a rn s a g a in s t u n com es stronger as you are m otivated to act
founded faith: A nyone inexperienced puts on G o d s prom ises and as you see the evi
fa ith in ev ery w o rd , b u t th e sh rew d dence o f his blessing.2 Thessalonians 1:3.
one considers his steps. (Proverbs 14:15) W hat a precious possession true faith is!
T he apostle Paul wrote: M ake sure o f all We benefit by being able to face difficult
things; hold fast to w hat is fine. (1 Thessa- conditions w ith confidence in G od, tru st
lonians 5:21) T he Bible does not prom ote ing in his ability to guide o u r steps and in
credulity. It does encourage faith based on his willingness to care for o u r needs. In ad
evidence. dition, G o d s Son, Jesus C hrist, pointed to
Being able to discern tru e faith from cre one long-term benefit o f faith: G o d loved
dulity is a serious m atter. A n individual the world so m uch th a t he gave his only-
can be religious and yet no t have true faith. begotten Son, in o rder th a t everyone exer
Paul noted: F aith is no t a possession o f all cising faith in him m ight not be destroyed
people. (2 T hessalonians 3:2) But Bible- but have everlasting life. (John 3:16) Ever
based faith isthe possession o f lasting
some peo lifew hat a m arvelous gift to those
ple, and it does affect their lives. having faith!
True F a ith B inds M a n to God Faith in G o d s prom ise to rew ard his ser
vants gives one a fresh perspective on life.
Faith can be likened to a chain w ith links
Hebrews 11:6 says th a t tru e faith involves
o f confidence and tru st th at bind m an to
b elief in G o d s a b ility to rew ard th o se
G od. But this kind o f faith is som ething
e a rn e s tly se ek in g h im . C le a rly , th e n ,
th at is cultivated; it is not som ething th at
true faith is not credulity, and it is m uch
we are b o rn with. H ow can you develop
m ore than ju st believing th a t G od exists.
true faith? T he Bible explains: Faith fol
It involves an acceptance o f G o d s abili
lows th e th in g h e a rd . In tu rn th e th in g
ty to act as a rew arder o f those earnestly
heard is th ro u g h the w ord a b o u t C hrist.
seeking him. D o you really and sincerely
R om ans 10:17.
w ant to know G o d ? I f you do, th e n ac
Therefore, you need to take tim e to get to quire accurate know ledge from his W ord,
know G od and the teachings o f his Son, Je the Bible, and your faith will be rewarded.
sus Christ. T his know ledge is not acquired Colossians 1:9,10.
w ithout effort. (Proverbs 2:1-9) You m ust
exert yourself to find o u t w hat the Bible
says so as to be convinced o f its reliability.
True faith, however, involves m ore th an
ju st possessing knowledge o r believing th at
som ething is true. It also involves the heart
th e seat o f m o tiv atio n . R om ans 10:10
says: W ith the heart one exercises faith.
W hat does this m ean? As you m editate on
godly things, building u p appreciation for
them , you allow the Bibles m essage to sink

Awake! March 8, 2000 27

Exotic Meats for Sale ic, unconscious response that A Just War?

In spite of international laws kicks in and takes you out The war in Yugoslavia has
that outlaw its trade and its use side of a stressful situation. Ac raised real divisions in church
as food in Europe, bat meat cording to experts, you can es, based on the interpretation
is being sold illegally in Brit learn to interrupt and eventual of the traditional notion of a
ish shops and restaurants. It ly stop the habit by replace just war, notes the French
is a real worry that protect ment therapythat is, concen newspaper L e M on de. The idea
ed bat species are being killed trate on another object when of a just war (j u s a d h e liu m )
and imported undetected, not goes back to Augustine, who
you notice yourself fidgeting, lived in the fifth century. Ac
to mention the danger to pub says the G lobe. cording to L e M on de, the mor
lic health of eating uninspected al justifications as formalized
meat, notes Richard Barnwell, Hooked on Cola?
by a later Catholic philoso
of the World Wide Fund for Na pher, Thomas Aquinas, for
ture. In parts of Africa, fruit such a war include the fol
bats have long been an impor lowing: There must be a just
tant food source, and in Malay cause, the war should be a
sia and Indonesia, the number last resort, the one waging
of some of the rarest species of war must have legitimate au
fruit bats has declined dramat thority, and the use of arms
ically because of the trade in [should] not lead to more harm
their meat. Also, in the Sey and disorder than the ill to
chelles, bat curry is considered be removed. A further condi
a luxury. T h e S u n d a y T im es of Mexicans drink an average tion added in the 17th century
London reports, however, that of 40 gallons of cola drinks is chance of success. While
bats are not the only endan per person per year, reports most churches now reject the
gered animals in demand in Eu the M ex ica n A sso c ia tio n o f S tu d idea of a holy war, they con
rope. Restaurants in Brussels, ie s f o r C o n su m e r D efen se. An tinue to debate what is consid
the capital of Belgium, are serv nually, more money is spent ered a just war.
ing chimpanzee meat. on cola drinks than on the ten Brazils Sexually Active Youths
most basic foods put togeth
Do You Fidget? In Brazil, 33% of the girls
er. High consumption of these
About 15 percent of the gen soft drinks is said by some to and 64% of the young men
eral population have nervous be one of the principal caus have their first sexual relation
m annerism s, says C anadas ship between 14 and 19 years
es of malnutrition in Mexico. of age, reports 0 E s ta d o d e
G lo b e a n d M a il newspaper. Re Some of colas ingredients can S. P a u lo . Additionally, the num
searchers note that some fidget impede the absorption of cal
by hair-twirling, foot-tapping, ber of Brazilian girls aged 15
cium and iron. Problems that to 19 who begin sexual activi
leg-jiggling, fingernail-picking are also thought to be linked ty before marriage has dou
and the like. Why do people bled in just ten years. Accord
with cola consumption include
fidget? Peggy Richter, a psychi ing to demographer Elizabeth
atrist at Torontos Centre for a greater likelihood of kidney
stones, cavities, obesity, and Ferraz, there has been a sig
Addiction and Mental Health, nificant change in attitude re
believes that such ritualistic hypertension as well as insom
garding sexuality. For exam
movements provide a feeling of nia, gastric ulcers, and anxiety. ple, another study shows that
comfort. On the other hand, We used to be corn people, 18 percent of Brazilian adoles
clinical psychologist Paul Kel says C o n s u m e r s G u id e M a g a cents have already had at least
ly says that fidgeting is due zin e , but now you could say we one child or are now expecting
to tension and is an automat are cola people. a child.

28 Awake! March 8, 2000

How Safe Is Your Hospital? ishment imposed externally by Early Warning
Patients have more than a God, says Pope John Paul II, The world may be in store
one-in-10 chance of picking up but a development of premis for a decade of super-
infections in an Irish hospital, es already set by people in this disasters, reports W o rld P re ss
reports T h e Irish T im es. Hos life. So reports L V s s e r v a to r e R eview , based on an article in
pital acquired infection (HAI), R o m a n o . Rather than a place,
Londons F in a n c ia l T im es. Cit
as it is called, requires extra the pontiff says, hell indicates ing such natural disasters as cy
treatment and a longer stay in the state of those who freely
clones and earthquakes, the In
the hospital. On average, a sin and definitively separate them
ternational Federation of Red
gle episode of HAI can cost selves from God, the source Cross and Red Crescent So
$2,200 per patient and require of all life and joy. He adds
cieties warns that large pop
an extra 11 days in the hospi that eternal damnation is not
ulations are vulnerable to ca
tal if it is a bloodstream infec Gods work; rather, it is the
tastrophe. Of the worlds 50
tion. Especially worrisome are creature who closes himself to
fastest-growing cities, 40 are
super-bug infections, which [Gods] love.
in earthquake zones, and half
are increasingly resistant to a
wide range of antibiotics, says Walking for Health the worlds population lives in
the paper. Those most vulner coastal regions, exposed to ris
able to HAI are the elderly, the ing sea levels, the magazine
very young, those who spend says. Another ominous sign is
long periods in hospital, [and] that while disasters are increas
those with underlying chronic ing, government funding for
conditions such as heart condi emergency aid has dropped in
tions or chronic bronchitis. many nations.

Gene Estimate Increased A Long Night

Researchers have recently re Majestic darkness. That is

In addition to helping you to how the Norwegian polar ex
vised the estimated number of lose weight and relieve stress,
genes in each human cell to be plorer F ridtjof N ansen de
walking helps reduce blood scribed the Morketid, or the
140,000, reports T h e N e w York pressure and your risk of suf
T im es. Past estimates ranged time when the sun does not
fering a heart attack, says
from 50,000 to 100,000 human rise at all in northern Norway.
T h e G lo b e a n d M ail, of Toron
genes. This means that the hu to. Staying healthy requires a For two months, only a gray-
man organism is considerably time commitment. How much? red twilight glow is visible for
more complex than previous According to C a n a d a s P h y s i a few hours at noontime. But
ly thought. Genes instruct the c a l A c tiv ity G u id e to H e a lth y A c
not everyone welcomes this
bodys cells to put amino acids tive L ivin g, if youre walking at
dark period. According to the
in the right sequence in order a moderate pace, you need to newspaper I b b e n b u r e n e r Volks-
to build proteins. The sharp up work toward logging a total of ze itu n g , 21.2 percent of Norwe
ward revision points up how 60 minutes a dayin periods gians living beyond the polar
much there is still to learn of at least 10 minutes each. circle suffer from winter de
about human genetic program Brisk walking or biking for 30 pression. The cause may be a
ming, says the paper. to 60 minutes a day or jog deficiency of melatonin, a hor
ging for 20 to 30 minutes dai mone produced in the brain.
Changed View of Hell The only remedy is light. An
ly may also keep you healthy.
For centuries the Catholic The G lo b e recommends wear increasing number of tourists,
Church has taught that hell ing lightweight footwear that however, are enticed to the po
is a place where the souls of breathes and that has flexi lar circle by the flickering au
wicked people suffer eternal ble soles, good arch supports, rora, the glistening of the snow
torment. Apparently, that has cushioned insoles, and com in the moonlight, and the cozy
changed. Hell is not a pun fortable toe room. light of scattered villages.

Awake! March 8, 2000 29


Theology of Prosperity I found the Watch how Francisco Coana learned the tru th and
ing the World item Theology of Prosperi made serving Jehovah a priority in his life.
ty (June 22, 1999) to be very misleading, to Reading about the trials my Christian
put it politely. Pentecostal and charismatic brothers went through in M ozambique was
churches everywhere encourage giving based truly faith strengthening.
on sound Biblical principles. The article was J. H., U nited States
written with a judgmental attitude.
C. B., United States Sick Parents I was moved by the article
Young People Ask . . . Why Is Mom So
Ouritem accurately and objectively quoted Sick? (July 22, 1999) I did not think that
the words o f Lutheran theologian Wanda Dei- there were so many other youths who, like
felt as they appeared in the ENI Bulletin, the me, have the privilege of caring for a sick
newsletter o f the World Council o f Churches. As loved one. My grandm other stays with us,
was stated, the article in that newsletter was not and she has been bedridden for four
about Pentecostal and charismatic churches in months. I was beginning to feel burdened
general but was specifically about certain ones in down and tired of caring for her. I got
Latin America.ED. much-needed strength from reading the ar
ticle. It made me feel confident of Jehovahs
Vinland I would like to thank you for the support.
article Where Is the Legendary Vinland? J. P, Philippines
(July 8, 1999) I have been interested in the
Vikings for a long time and have hoped The article was of great comfort to me, and
that you would discuss this subject. At last it gave me the strength to support my mother,
my wish has been granted. who suffers from depression. I was able to use
S. S., Japan the suggestions that the article made to see
the situation more realistically and to show
Your articles are educational. However, I more empathy, understanding, and tact.
feel the need to clarify one point. Many his
torians use the popular term Vikings only G .L., Italy
for the Norse pirates who raided the Euro The article came at exactly the right time. I
pean coast. have cancer, and my son lives with me. My
J. S., United States son was suffering so terribly that I no lon
ger knew how to comfort him. The article ac
Awake! consulted several respected histori curately described his feelings. These articles
ans in Norway and Greenland on this matter. are not for young people only. They are about
The consensus is that while there may be some life itself.
disagreement among historians regarding the
use o f the term Viking,the terms Vikingsand R. Z., Germany
Norsemen are virtually synonymous in the This article helped me to realize how im
English-speaking world.ED. portant it is to remain spiritually active. I be
Prison Survivor I want to thank you from came aware that you can only help a sick per
the bottom of my heart for the article God son when you keep your own life focused on
Has Been O ur Helper. (June 22, 1999) It G ods Kingdom.
brought tears of joy to my eyes as I read of P. E., Austria

30 Awake! March 8, 2000


N T H E town o f Ibarra, north o f Ec

uadors capital city, Quito, there is a
unique cem etery el de los
pobres (the Cem etery of the Poor). W hat
makes it unusual? The paintings on the
outside wall are enlarged versions of illus
trations taken directly from publications
of the W atch Tower Society!* The picture
in the center is a depiction of the apos
tle John, taken from page 7 of the book
Revelation Its Grand C lim ax A t Hand!
Above John, in Spanish, is the text: The
K ingdom o f G o d m eans righteousness
and peace and joy. R om ans 14:17. To
the left are the words of M atthew 11:28:
Com e to me, all you who are toil
ing and loaded down, and I will
refresh you, from the New World
Translation. Doubtless this ceme
tery wall serves to direct people
to G o d s Word.
*To fulfill legal requirements, permission
must be obtained before reproducing articles
or artwork from Watch Tower literature, and
these should be attributed to the Watch Tow
er Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania.

My Trust Needs
to Be in God
The Secret of
The following letter was left at a K ingdom
FAMILY Hall of Jehovahs Witnesses in Edm onton, Al
berta, Canada.
happiness Dear Messenger:
I am writing to thank the person that prob
ably unknowingly created a miracle in my life.
A couple o f weeks ago, my husband and I
were in a heated argum ent. I had ju st said the
words, This is so big that I really dont know if
I can get over it. Right then the doorbell rang.
Now I had one of Jehovahs W itnesses at my
door, and it was too late to hide.
When I opened the door, I was really too dis
tracted to hear what was being said. I do remem
ber the words children and family. The man
pulled out a book called The Secret o f Family
Happiness. When I saw the title, I just started to
cry and couldnt stop. He looked up, and then
he apologized for disturbing me, handed me the
book, and left.
The miracle? The reminder that when I dont know what to
do, its OK because God knows. My trust needs to be in God. He even sends a
messenger. Thank you.
The book The Secret o f Family Happiness can benefit every m ember of the
family. Among its instructive chapters are Protect Your Family From D e
structive Influences, Maintain Peace in Your Household, and You Can
Overcome Problems That Damage a Family.

gOO-E 3 / 8