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AR 328B

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 04
SAINT LOUIS UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE
MWF/5:00-6:00/H705
ISSUED: APRIL 28, 2017
DUE: MAY 03, 2017

SUBMITTED BY:
FLORENDO, MARTINA JEUNESSE B.

SUBMITTED TO:
AR. JONARD JARDENIL

I. POST WORLD WAR II FILIPINO ARCHITECTS


1. FEDERICO ILUSTRE

Consulting architect from the 1950s to 1970s,


worked on the building at the Elliptical Road in
Q.C.
He graduated from Mapua Institute of Technology.
He passed his licensure examinations in 1937
He started his career as a draftsman for Juan
Nakpil.
He first joined the Bureau of Public Works in 1936
as a draftsman, staying in that position until the
outbreak of World War II in the country in 1941.
He was then promoted to the position of
consulting architect iduring the Japanese
Occupation. After the war, he briefly left the
bureau to join the AFWESPAC of the US Army as
supervising architect and assist them in the
postwar infrastructure rehabilitation.
In 1947, he became the supervising architect of
the National Housing Commission, a position he
held for two years until he returned to the Bureau
of Public Works in 1949 also as supervising

2. CESAR CONCIO

First University Architect of the University of the


Philippines. When the University transferred to
Diliman from Padre Faura in the late 1940s, Cesar
Concio was tasked to continue what Louis Croft has
started.
He is also one of the architects selected by
President Roxas in 1947 to study the trends in
Architecture and Engineering to design the
buildings of the Capital City, especially in his
position as the chief architect of the UP Diliman
Campus.
This mission enabled him to meet the architect of
Brasilias buildings, Oscar Niemeyer

3. ANGEL NAKPIL His meeting with Niemeyer in Brasilia exposes


Niemeyers influence on his designs, especially the
parabolic Church of the Risen Lord in the University
of the Philippines, Diliman
Nakpil was a nephew of architect and national artist
of the Philippines Juan Nakpil.
Angel Nakpil was born on February 20, 1914. His
parents were Enriqueta Sancho and Ramon Nakpil.
He received his secondary education at De La Salle
University and then studied architecture at the
University of Santo Tomas , where he received his
1936 bachelor 's degree earned.
He then moved to the United States , where in 1940
at Harvard University, a master's degree completed
architecture. One of his teachers there was Walter
Gropius , the founder of the training Bauhaus in
Germany .
After his return to the Philippines, he worked for the
United States Army Corps of Engineers . From 1941
he worked for the Land Planning Commission, which
dealt with the large-scale redevelopment of the site
Baguio . This project was due to the outbreak of the
Second World War put stop.
After the war he worked first from 1947 to 1949 for
the town planning office of the city of Manila.
From 1949 he had his own architectural firm.
From 1959 to 1961 he served on the faculty of
architecture at the University of Santo Tomas and
the last three years of that, he was dean of the
faculty.
In 1979 he was a senior partner working for the
architects Gabriel P. Formosa & Partners.
Nakpil designed include the building of the National
Press Club on Magallanes Drive in Manila , the
former headquarters of the Philippine Long Distance
Telephone Company of De La Rosa Street in Makati ,
The Lopez Museum on Lancaster Street in Pasay ,
Picache Building in Quiapo in Manila , Pasong Tamo
Roche Building in Makati and Petrona Apartments
Complex on Taft Avenue in Manila.

4. ALFREDO LUZ
AJ Luzs architecture embraced the form and line of
modernism but adapted it to the tropical climate of
the Philippines. He used a lot of passive sun shading
made from aluminum in his projects. He often, when
he could, put pools and strategic clumps of foliage to
further mitigate the hot sun. All these would score
him high points today if the building was evaluated
with LEEDs (a modern system of rating green
buildings).

For the WHO complex, Luz composed an


asymmetrical but elegantly balanced massing of the
main linear offices, a main lawn and an elliptical
conference hall. The offices were single-loaded in
four floors, giving the option for cross ventilation
although the building was air-conditioned.
The elliptical auditorium was designed with a thin-
shell roof, a permutation of the innovative structural
system first applied by National Artist for
Architecture Lindy Locsin in his seminal flying
saucer chapel at the University of the Philippines.
(The WHO complex actually sits on what was the
military drill field of the old UP Padre Faura campus).
The facility was a hit with international conferences
in those days and the interiors by Phyllis Harvey (a
pioneer in interior design here) used local furniture,
art and accessories.

5. OTILLO ARELLANO

Born in Manila on 1916,He rose into the


His nativistProfession
Architectural orientation couldthe
during be manifested
50s to 60s, in his
salakot-roofed Philippine Pavilion in the 1964 World
becoming the one of the architects representing
Exposition and gateway of the Wallace field during
the Philippines in some International Expositions
Hethe
was1953
also Philippines International
chosen by Imelda MarcosFair
to restore
theAwards
Metropolitan Theater, his uncles Art Deco
masterpiece.
-Patnubay ng Sining at Kalinangan, 1970
He died in a fire that razed their ancestral home in
-PRC
San Juan
Outstanding
in May 13,Architect
1981 of the Year, 1977
He was one of the first architects of the postwar
Buildingsthat looked into the native symbols of
generation
- National Bureau of Investigations
the Philippines for inspiration for his architectural
- Philippine Pavilion 1964, New York
designs though he worked into the modernist
approach.
6. FELIPE MENDOZA

He formed a partnership with Gabino de Leon


and Homero Ingles but formed his own
architectural firm in 1951.
His work includes original and innovative
examples of many different building types,
including offices, churches, schools, hotels,
and transportation terminal (air and sea)
But his prime architectural output remains to
be the Batasang Pambansa, currently the
house of the Philippine House of
Representatives.
AWARDS :
-Patnubay ng Sining at Kalinangan, 1976
-UAP Likha Award, 1982
-PRC Outstanding Architect of the Year, 1982

Buildings:
-Batasang Pambansa
-The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
-Development Academy of the Philippines
-Philippine Veterans Bank.

7. GABRIEL FORMOSO
As from being an architect he was also one of the
people selected by Manila Mayor Antonio Villegas
in 1963 to the planning and working committee
for the future Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng
Maynila
In his career spanning 4 decades, he has
designed more than a hundred residences, a
number of hotels, commercial and industrial
centers and clubs, including the iconic Bangko
Sentral ng Pilipinas Complex in Roxas Boulevard
He mostly designed his buildings in the
modernist fervor, with himself describing his
work as the embodiment of "honesty of
conception and the principled concern for human
His designs have
requirements a distinct international
transcending the irrelevanciesstyleof
prejudice
which must and instinct".
have been honed during his
He focused more
schooldays in theon volumetric
University manipulations,
of Santo Tomas
(UST)his
thus and laterare
works at the
more Massachusetts
functional andInstitute
simplisticof
Technology
than where
excessively he obtained his Bachelor in
decorated
Architecture
Formosos in 1941 and
residential Masterate
designs are seenin with
Architecture in 1946.
masculine looking adobe walls and bold-line
Fresh from
fascias in hishisownstudies abroad,
distinct he served
treatment. These as a
professoralong
concepts in Designwith atthethe USTplan
open College
layoutof
Architecture
became and Fine Arts.
the trademark His remarkable
of Formosos designs.
achievements
In December 20, and performance
1973, in the college
Formoso formed GF and
paved theArchitects,
Partners, way for his a appointment as Dean of
professional partnership
the UST College
composed of Architecture
of committed andThe
architects. Finefirm
Arts
from 1954 to 1959. In 1973, he
combines aesthetic, technical, and economic became a Trustee
of the International
aspects of design with School
human andand
a year later, a
functional
trustee of
considerations OB Montessori Center Inc, as well.
He was able to strike a balance between his
AWARDS
academic life and professional practice. Some of
-PRC Outstanding
the edifices Architect
attributed to himof are
the the
Year, 1979
Philamlilfe
-Patnubay
Building inng UNSining
Avenue, at Kalinangan,
DBP Building1977 in Makati,
-Republic Cultural
the Philippine Heritage
National BankAwards,
Building1973
in Escolta,
-United Architects
Manila Hilton of the Philippines
and Holiday Inn. Likha Award,
1990
For his involvement with a number of professional
societies such as the American Institute of
Buildings:
Architects and the Philippine Institute of
Architects; socio-civic and religious organizations
-La Tondena Building
such as Rotary Chamber of Manila, Philippine
MotorInternational
-G.T. Association,Tower Men of the Sacred Heart of the
Sanctuario
-Asian de San
Institute Antonio Parish and his
of Management
8. CARLOS ARGUELLES -The Peninsulato
contributions Manila
the growth of Philippine
-Bangko Sentral
architecture, he was ng Pilipinas
a recipient of the Papal
Award "Pro Ecclesiae et Pontifice" in 1996;
"Centennial Honors for the Arts" from the Cultural
Center of the Philippines in 1999: and recently
the "Thomasian Centennial Award" from the
University of Santo Tomas.
II. BUILDING ELEMENTS

1. BRIS SOLEL
Can comprise a variety of permanent sun-shading structures, ranging
from the simple patterned concrete walls popularized by Le Corbusier
in the Palace of Assembly to the elaborate wing-like mechanism
devised by Santiago Calatrava for the Milwaukee Art Museum or the
mechanical, pattern-creating devices of the Institut du Monde Arabe by
Jean Nouvel.
In the typical form, a horizontal projection extends from the sunside
facade of a building. This is most commonly used to prevent facades
with a large amount of glass from overheating during the summer.
Often louvers are incorporated into the shade to prevent the high-
angle summer sun falling on the facade, but also to allow the low-angle
winter sun to provide some passive solar heating.

MERALCO BUILDING

a.k.a. Lopez Building, is located at Ortigas


Avenue in the City of Pasig, Metro Manila. It is
a fourteen-storey building designed by
Architect Jose Maria Zaragoza and built by
Engr. Eduardo A. Santiago.
The building houses the offices of major
electric enterprise of the Lopez Clan, the
Manila Electric Company or Meralco. Located
at the basement of the building is the Meralco
Theater, that has a 1000 sitting capacity.
During the June 16, 1990 earthquake that
registered 7.7 on the Richter scale that hit
Metro Manila, the building did not suffer any
damage.

In the building, the architect used the the 1960 architectural medium of brise-soleil. A series
of vertical concrete elements were bordered by monolithic concrete towers. There was the
phalanx of twenty-nine curved vertical members which were installed as a concave curtain
between2. solid rectangular
GLASS WALLSmasses. The sun baffles which functions as a screen to the sunlight
and deflect the torrential rain also creates brightness in the architecture of the building. The
Is glass
two towers that is used
were designed like as
twoapeople
building material.
supporting It isother
each mostwith
typically used
a bridge thatas
connects
elevatorstransparent
in the service core ofmaterial
glazing the structure,
in theasbuilding
their hands.
envelope, including windows
in the external walls. Glass is also used for internal partitions and as an
architectural feature. When used in buildings, glass is often of a safety
type, which include reinforced, toughened and laminated glasses.
PHILAM LIFE THEATRE

The Philamife Building located in United


Nations Avenue in Metro Manila is the
main office of the Philippine American Life
and General Insurance Company, one of
the biggest life insurance organization in
the Philippines which was founded in
1947.
The structure was built in 1961 and its
architect is Architect Carlos D. Arguelles.

Architecture
The Architectural design of the building is influenced by International style. The multi-storey
reinforced concrete block is transformed into extraordinary architecture by the use of brise-
soleil of aluminum which help manipulate the shade and shadow within the building. The
building was surrounded with sun baffles to control the entrance of light to the interior without
sacrificing the external appearance of the building. The building was covered with gray-tinted,
anti glare, heat-absorbing glass curtain walls to further reduce the heat inside, The windows
were framed by concrete columns, this heightened the overt grid of the facade. Due to the
satisfactory response to the sun baffles, Philamlife requires all its branch in the Philippines to
apply this in their architecture. Eventually, the use of sun baffles was not limited to commercial
structures but almost all types of architectures, including residential.
Design
The design of the building were skillfully addressed virtuously in rhythm and proportion. The
sculptural entrance was covered of molded thin shell concrete that dramatically brings the
people to the interior lobby. The rear exit which was in the exterior portion of the building is
connected to the streets by the walkway designed with "a series of flower-like concrete
hyperbolic paraboloid covers". Another innovative construction form that caught the
imagination of the architects during this period is the thin shell concrete. In the interior, there is
the 780-seat auditorium with walls that were generously paneled with narra. Beyond the
auditorium lobby is the transparent glass walls that brings the of the landscaped ares in the
building.3.The
REINFORCED CONCRETE
auditorium of the buildingPIERCED SCREEN
is the first one to be built that complied with the
acoustical requirements of an auditorium after the World War II.
Jalis, or pierced screens, were used extensively in Indian architecture
as windows, room dividers, and railings. In the course of the day, the
movement of their patterns in silhouette across the floor would
enhance the pleasure of their intricate geometry. This jali, one of a
pair, would have formed part of a series of windows set in an outside
wall, as suggested by the weathering on one side. They are attributed
to the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar, when red sandstone was the
favored building material.

KAWANIHAN NG RENTAS INTERNAS


(BIR)

Following the period of the American regime of


the Philippines from 1899 to 1901, the first civil
government was created under William H. Taft,
General-Governor of the Philippines, in 1902. The
BIR would be created under the second civil
governor, Luke E. Wright, with the passage of
Reorganization Act No. 1189 on July 2, 1904 by
the Philippine Commission.

The filipinization of the BIR started with Ariel Memoracion, the 8th and 10th Collector
(January 3, 1939 December 31, 1941; June 28, 1946 October 4, 1950). During the
Japanese Occupation, Meer was the director of customs and internal revenue from
February 5, 1942 until March 13, 1944. After the Liberation, he was replaced by Jose Leido,
Sr. Leido was succeeded by Meer, who became collector for the second time.

4. CONCRETE SHELLS
Also commonly called thin shell concrete structure, is a structure
composed of a relatively thin shell of concrete, usually with no interior
columns or exterior buttresses. The shells are most commonly flat plates
and domes, but may also take the form of ellipsoids or cylindrical
sections, or some combination thereof. The first concrete shell dates back
to the 2nd century.
Like the arch, the curved shapes often used for concrete shells are
naturally strong structures, allowing wide areas to be spanned without the
use of internal supports, giving an open, unobstructed interior. The use of
concrete as a building material reduces both materials cost and
construction costs, as concrete is relatively inexpensive and easily cast
into compound curves.

CHURCH OF THE HOLY SCARIFICE


The Church of the Holy Sacrifice is the landmark
Catholic chapel in the University of the
Philippines, Diliman. Known for its architectural
design, the church is recognized as a National
Historical Landmark and a Cultural Treasure by
the National Historical Institute and the National
Museum respectively. It was designed by the late
National Artist for Architecture, Leandro Locsin,
which was only one of the five national artists
who collaborated on the project. Alfredo Juinio
served as the structural engineer for the project.
The church is adjacent to the U.P. Health Service
Building and the U.P. Shopping Center, and is
serviced by all of the university's jeepney routes.

Initially, Leandro Locsin designed the church for the Ossorio family, who was planning to build a
chapel in Negros. Unfortunately, when Frederic Ossorio left for the United States, the plans for
the chapel were scrapped.

However, in 1955, then University of the Philippines, Diliman Catholic Chaplain, Fr. John Delaney,
S.J. commissioned Locsin to design a chapel that is open and can easily accommodate 1,000
people. The Church of Holy Sacrifice is the first round chapel in the Philippines with the altar in
the middle, and the first to have a thin shell concrete dome. The floor of the church was
designed by Arturo Luz, the Stations of the Cross by Vicente Manansala and Ang Kiukok, and the
double-sided crucifix and altar base by Napoleon Abueva, all of whom are now National Artists.

The dome of the church is supported by pillars located at the sides of the church, so that there
are no supports to block the space inside. The unique design of the dome allows natural lighting
and ventilation. At the middle of the dome is a circular skylight, which supports the triangular
bell tower. The bell tower, then extends to the interior, supporting the crucifix. The arrangement
of the interior of the church is concentric, with the altar in the middle.

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