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Secrets of the PMP Exam

Success Study Guide


Project Management
Professional (PMP)
Certification Readiness and Success
Guide
Eighth Edition

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PMI, PMP and PMBOK are all registered marks of the Project Management Institute
Secrets of the PMP Exam Success Study Guide
Copyright 2013 by TenStep, Inc.
Technical Reviewers: Tom Mochal and Tim Peek
Secrets of the PMP Exam Success Study Guide / TenStep, Inc.
ISBN 0-9763147-7-0
1. Project management. I. TenStep, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
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PMI , PMP , PMBOK are registered trademarks of the Project Management Institute.
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Table of Contents
Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 13
How to use this Study Guide...................................................................................................... 13
Develop a Study Strategy....................................................................................................... 13
Learning Techniques ..................................................................................................................... 15
Active vs. Passive Learning ....................................................................................................... 15
Accelerated Learning ................................................................................................................. 16
Memorization Cards ................................................................................................................... 18
Study Tips .................................................................................................................................. 18
Flash Carding System ............................................................................................................ 18
Rehearsal, Studying, or Memorizing ...................................................................................... 19
Chunking Information ............................................................................................................. 20
Motivation ............................................................................................................................... 22
The ReadySetPass System ....................................................................................................... 23
Other Methods and Resources .................................................................................................. 28
Exam Overview.............................................................................................................................. 29
About the PMP Exam ................................................................................................................. 29
What to expect on the PMP Exam ............................................................................................. 30
The Project Management Framework ........................................................................................... 32
Focus Areas ............................................................................................................................... 32
Chapter 1 - Introduction ................................................................................................................. 34
Projects ...................................................................................................................................... 34
Portfolios, Programs and Projects ............................................................................................. 35
Project Management .................................................................................................................. 35
Project Manager ......................................................................................................................... 36
Relationships among Portfolio Management, Program Management, Project Management, and
Organizational Project Management ......................................................................................... 36
Project Management Office (PMO) ............................................................................................ 38
Relationships between Project Management, Operations Management, and Organizational
Strategy ...................................................................................................................................... 39
Business Value .......................................................................................................................... 39
Project Manager Role ................................................................................................................ 40
Chapter 2 - Organizational Influences and Project Life Cycle ....................................................... 41
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Focus Areas ............................................................................................................................... 41
Organizational Influences on Project Management ................................................................... 41
Organizational Cultures and Styles ........................................................................................ 41
Organizational Communications ............................................................................................ 42
Organizational Structures ....................................................................................................... 42
Functional ............................................................................................................................... 42
Projectized .............................................................................................................................. 43
Matrix ...................................................................................................................................... 44
Composite .............................................................................................................................. 46
Organizational Process Assets .............................................................................................. 47
Enterprise Environmental Factors .......................................................................................... 47
Project Stakeholders and Governance ...................................................................................... 48
Project Stakeholders .............................................................................................................. 48
Project Governance................................................................................................................ 49
Project Success ...................................................................................................................... 49
Project Team .............................................................................................................................. 50
Composition of Project Teams ............................................................................................... 50
Phase-to-Phase Relationships ............................................................................................... 52
Predictive Life Cycles ............................................................................................................. 53
Iterative and Incremental Life Cycles ..................................................................................... 53
Adaptive Life Cycles ............................................................................................................... 53
Chapter 3 - Project Management Processes ................................................................................ 55
Focus Areas ............................................................................................................................... 55
The Process Groups .................................................................................................................. 56
Initiating Process Group............................................................................................................. 58
Planning Process Group ............................................................................................................ 59
Executing Process Group .......................................................................................................... 61
Monitor and Control Process Group .......................................................................................... 63
Closing Process Group .............................................................................................................. 65
Project Information ................................................................................................................. 66
Role of the Knowledge Areas ................................................................................................. 67
Chapter 4 - Project Integration Management ................................................................................ 68
Project Integration Management Focus Areas .......................................................................... 69
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Develop Project Charter............................................................................................................. 70
Develop Project Management Plan ........................................................................................... 72
Monitor and Control Project Work .............................................................................................. 77
Perform Integrated Change Control ........................................................................................... 78
Configuration Control ............................................................................................................. 78
Close Project or Phase .............................................................................................................. 80
Project Integration Management ................................................................................................ 81
Inputs, Tools/Techniques, and Outputs ..................................................................................... 81
Develop Project Charter ......................................................................................................... 81
Develop Project Management Plan ........................................................................................ 81
Direct and Manage Project Work ........................................................................................... 81
Monitor and Control Project Work .......................................................................................... 82
Perform Integrated Change Control ....................................................................................... 82
Close Project or Phase........................................................................................................... 82
Chapter 5 - Project Scope Management ....................................................................................... 83
Project Scope Management Focus Areas ................................................................................. 84
Plan Scope Management........................................................................................................... 85
Scope Management Plan ....................................................................................................... 85
Requirements Management Plan ........................................................................................... 85
Collect Requirements................................................................................................................. 86
Requirements Gathering Techniques .................................................................................... 86
Group Creativity Techniques .................................................................................................. 86
Group Decision-making techniques ....................................................................................... 86
Context Diagrams ................................................................................................................... 86
Requirements Documentation ................................................................................................ 86
Requirements Traceability Matrix ........................................................................................... 87
Define Scope.............................................................................................................................. 88
Project Scope Statement........................................................................................................ 88
Create WBS ............................................................................................................................... 90
The WBS: ............................................................................................................................... 90
Decomposition ........................................................................................................................ 91
Expert Judgment .................................................................................................................... 91
WBS Dictionary ...................................................................................................................... 91
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Validate Scope ........................................................................................................................... 92
Control Scope ............................................................................................................................ 93
Scope Creep........................................................................................................................... 93
Integrated Change Control ..................................................................................................... 93
Learning Project Scope Management Inputs, Tools/Techniques, Outputs ............................... 94
Plan Scope Mangement ......................................................................................................... 94
Collect Requirements ............................................................................................................. 94
Define Scope .......................................................................................................................... 95
Create WBS............................................................................................................................ 95
Validate Scope ....................................................................................................................... 95
Control Scope ......................................................................................................................... 96
Chapter 6 - Project Time Management ......................................................................................... 97
Project Time Management Focus Areas ................................................................................... 98
Define Activities ....................................................................................................................... 100
Sequence Activities .................................................................................................................. 101
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) ........................................................................... 101
Estimate Activity Resources .................................................................................................... 103
Estimate Activity Durations ...................................................................................................... 104
Expert Judgment .................................................................................................................. 104
Analogous Estimates ............................................................................................................ 104
Parametric Estimating .......................................................................................................... 104
Three Points estimating........................................................................................................ 104
Group Decision Making Techniques .................................................................................... 105
Reserve Analysis .................................................................................................................. 105
Develop Schedule .................................................................................................................... 107
Critical Path .......................................................................................................................... 107
Determining the Critical Path................................................................................................ 108
Forward Pass ....................................................................................................................... 108
Backward Pass ..................................................................................................................... 109
PERT/CPM: Differences....................................................................................................... 113
Critical Chain Method ........................................................................................................... 115
Resource Optimization Techniques ..................................................................................... 115
Schedule Compression ........................................................................................................ 117
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Approach to Crashing a Schedule ....................................................................................... 117
Modeling Techniques ........................................................................................................... 117
Schedule Compression ........................................................................................................ 117
Fast-tracking ......................................................................................................................... 118
Bar chart (Gantt Chart) ......................................................................................................... 119
Milestone Chart .................................................................................................................... 119
Project schedule network diagrams ..................................................................................... 119
Project Time Calculations..................................................................................................... 120
Control Schedule ..................................................................................................................... 126
Time Inputs, Tools/Techniques, Outputs ................................................................................. 127
Plan Schedule Management ................................................................................................ 127
Define Activities .................................................................................................................... 127
Sequence Activities .............................................................................................................. 127
Estimate Activity Resources ................................................................................................. 128
Estimate Activity Durations................................................................................................... 129
Develop Schedule ................................................................................................................ 129
Control Schedule .................................................................................................................. 130
Chapter 7 - Project Cost Management ........................................................................................ 131
Project Cost Focus Areas ........................................................................................................ 132
Plan Cost Management ........................................................................................................ 134
Estimate Costs ......................................................................................................................... 135
Cost Estimating Approaches.................................................................................................... 136
Determine Budget .................................................................................................................... 137
Control Costs ........................................................................................................................... 138
Earned Value Management.................................................................................................. 139
Forecasts .............................................................................................................................. 141
To-Complete Performance Index ......................................................................................... 143
Additional Tools and Techniques ......................................................................................... 143
Earned Value Exercise ......................................................................................................... 145
Earned Value Exercise - Part A............................................................................................ 147
Earned Value Exercise - Part B............................................................................................ 147
Project Cost Management ....................................................................................................... 150
Inputs, Tools/Techniques, Outputs .......................................................................................... 150
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Plan Cost Management ........................................................................................................ 150
Estimate Costs ..................................................................................................................... 150
Determine Budget ................................................................................................................ 151
Control Costs ........................................................................................................................ 151
Chapter 8 - Project Quality Management .................................................................................... 152
Project Quality Focus Areas .................................................................................................... 154
Kaizen................................................................................................................................... 156
Just-in-time (JIT) .................................................................................................................. 156
Checklists ............................................................................................................................. 156
Standards and Regulations .................................................................................................. 157
Quality Pioneers ................................................................................................................... 157
Plan Quality Management........................................................................................................ 159
Cost-Benefit Analysis ........................................................................................................... 159
Cost of Quality ...................................................................................................................... 159
Benchmarking ...................................................................................................................... 159
Design of Experiments ......................................................................................................... 159
Statistical Sampling .............................................................................................................. 160
Perform Quality Assurance ...................................................................................................... 161
Control Quality ...................................................................................................................... 162
Seven Basic Quality Tools: .................................................................................................. 162
Project Quality Management Inputs, Tools/Techniques, and Outputs .................................... 168
Plan Quality Management .................................................................................................... 168
Perform Quality Assurance .................................................................................................. 168
Control Quality ...................................................................................................................... 169
Chapter 9 - Project Human Resource Management................................................................ 169
What is Project Human Resources Management? .............................................................. 169
Project Human Resource Management Focus Areas ............................................................. 171
Plan Human Resource Management ....................................................................................... 172
Roles and Responsibilities ................................................................................................... 172
Matrix-Based: Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) ...................................................... 178
Text-Oriented........................................................................................................................ 178
Acquire Project Team .............................................................................................................. 179
Develop Project Team ............................................................................................................. 181
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Types of Power .................................................................................................................... 182
Leadership Styles ................................................................................................................. 183
Team-Building: Tuckman Model........................................................................................... 183
Motivation Theories .............................................................................................................. 184
Personnel Assessment Tools ............................................................................................... 184
Manage Project Team .............................................................................................................. 188
Conflict Management ........................................................................................................... 188
Interpersonal Skills ............................................................................................................... 189
Project Human Resource Management................................................................................... 191
Inputs, Tools/Techniques, and Outputs ................................................................................... 191
Plan Human Resource Management .................................................................................. 191
Acquire Project Team ........................................................................................................... 191
Develop Project Team .......................................................................................................... 191
Manage Project Team .......................................................................................................... 192
Chapter 10 - Project Communications Management .................................................................. 193
Project Communications Management Focus Areas .............................................................. 194
Types of Project Communication ......................................................................................... 195
Plan Communications Management ........................................................................................ 196
Communication Requirements Analysis .............................................................................. 197
Communication Models ........................................................................................................ 197
Manage Communications ........................................................................................................ 199
Communication Technology ................................................................................................. 200
Communication Models ........................................................................................................ 200
Communication Methods...................................................................................................... 200
Information Management Systems ...................................................................................... 200
Performance Reporting ........................................................................................................ 201
Control Communications.......................................................................................................... 202
Project Communication Management ...................................................................................... 203
Inputs, Tools/Techniques, and Outputs ................................................................................... 203
Plan Communications Management .................................................................................... 203
Manage Communications..................................................................................................... 203
Control Communications ...................................................................................................... 204
Chapter 11 Project Risk Management ..................................................................................... 205
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Knowns and Unknowns ........................................................................................................ 205
Project Risk Focus Areas......................................................................................................... 207
Plan Risk Management ............................................................................................................ 208
Risk Management Plan ........................................................................................................ 208
Risk Breakdown Structure (RBS) ......................................................................................... 208
Risk Factors.......................................................................................................................... 208
Probability and Impact Matrix ............................................................................................... 209
Identify Risks ............................................................................................................................ 210
Risk Tools and Techniques .................................................................................................. 210
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis ............................................................................................ 212
Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis ......................................................................................... 213
Probability Distributions ........................................................................................................ 213
Expected Monetary Value .................................................................................................... 213
Decision-Tree Analysis......................................................................................................... 214
Modeling / Simulation ........................................................................................................... 215
Monte Carlo Analysis ........................................................................................................... 215
Plan Risk Responses ............................................................................................................... 216
Negative Risk Response Strategies ..................................................................................... 216
Positive Risk or Opportunities Response Strategies............................................................ 216
Contingent Response Strategies ......................................................................................... 216
Control Risks ............................................................................................................................ 217
Work Performance ............................................................................................................... 217
Plan Risk Management ........................................................................................................ 218
Identify Risks ........................................................................................................................ 218
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis ........................................................................................ 219
Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis ...................................................................................... 219
Plan Risk Responses ........................................................................................................... 219
Control Risk .......................................................................................................................... 220
Chapter 12 - Project Procurement Management......................................................................... 221
Agreements .......................................................................................................................... 221
Project Procurement Management Focus Areas ..................................................................... 224
Plan Procurement Management .............................................................................................. 225
Make-or-Buy Analysis .......................................................................................................... 227
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Contract Types and Risks .................................................................................................... 228
Cost Plus Fixed Fee (CPFF) ................................................................................................ 229
Cost Plus Incentive Fee (CPIF) ............................................................................................ 229
Cost Plus Award Fee (CPAF)............................................................................................... 230
Cost Reimbursable Example: ............................................................................................... 230
Fixed Price Plus Incentive Fee (FPIF) ................................................................................. 230
Firm Fixed Price (FFP) ......................................................................................................... 230
Firm Price with Economic Adjustment (FP-EPA) ................................................................. 231
Fixed Price Plus Incentive Fee Example:............................................................................. 231
Point of Total Assumption .................................................................................................... 231
Non-competitive procurements ............................................................................................ 232
Tools and Techniques .......................................................................................................... 234
Control Procurements .............................................................................................................. 235
Organizing for Contract Management .................................................................................. 237
Close Procurements ................................................................................................................ 239
Project Procurement Management .......................................................................................... 240
Inputs, Tools/Techniques, and Outputs ................................................................................... 240
Plan Procurement Management........................................................................................... 240
Conduct Procurements......................................................................................................... 240
Control Procurements .......................................................................................................... 241
Close Procurements ............................................................................................................. 241
Chapter 13 - Project Stakeholder Management .......................................................................... 242
Project Stakeholder Management Focus Areas ...................................................................... 243
Identify Stakeholders ............................................................................................................... 244
Plan Stakeholder Management................................................................................................ 247
Key Output............................................................................................................................ 247
Tools and Techniques .......................................................................................................... 247
Manage Stakeholder Engagement .......................................................................................... 249
Key Inputs............................................................................................................................. 249
Communication Methods...................................................................................................... 249
Interpersonal Skills ............................................................................................................... 249
Management Skills ............................................................................................................... 250
Control Stakeholder Engagement ............................................................................................ 251
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Project Stakeholder Management............................................................................................ 252
Inputs, Tools/Techniques, and Outputs ................................................................................... 252
Identify Stakeholders ............................................................................................................ 252
Plan Stakeholder Management ............................................................................................ 252
Manage Stakeholder Engagement ....................................................................................... 252
Control Stakeholder Engagement ........................................................................................ 253
Key Formulas and Calculations ................................................................................................... 254
Practicing what you have learned................................................................................................ 257
What to Bring to the Exam........................................................................................................... 258

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Introduction
How to use this Study Guide
To help you in your studies, several learning theories have been incorporated into the PMP
Success Guide. Those theories include Active and Passive Learning Techniques, Accelerated
Learning Techniques, Memorization, Motivation and Information Chunking Techniques.
Develop a Study Strategy
Pre-Test. Use the exam simulator at www.readysetpass.com to gauge your learning efforts.
By knowing what your scores are, you can focus on the areas you need the most work on.
Answering questions before and after a knowledge area helps to focus studies on weaker or
questionable areas. This also teaches you to read the questions carefully Sometimes you
see a common or re-occurring theme.
If you are a visual learner write things down as you study. Writing the terms; glossaries and
definitions helps to reinforce these items and will help to remember things
Create flashcards with important project management processes, terms and equations. On
one side of the card put the term and on the other side write the equation. When you have
some time, thumb through the cards. It was not important to memorize all the terms, since the
test is multiple-choice. However, you must be prepared to recognize the definition, or a
variant of the definition, as well as how and when you might apply it.
Understand what is required to pass the PMP test. You may have techniques and processes
that work better than the PMI way, but for the purposes of passing the test, it is the PMI way
that matters.
The more experience you have as a veteran project manager the more difficult you will find
the exam. The reason is best answer. Experience or personal best practices tell you one
thing, where the PMI approach may be slightly different. This doesnt mean youre not a
qualified PM, but it can skew your exam scores. Always answer the PMP Exam questions
from PMIs perspective.
Do not be afraid, the exam is not that hard if you know the material from the PMI perspective!
Bottom line, the exam is not impossible, just detail oriented. You must also forget some of
your project management
Begin with the end in mind: Estimate the amount of time you need to prepare for the exam
and schedule the PMP Certification Test. If you need 8 weeks to prepare, schedule your
exam for 8 weeks from today and work to meet your deadline. This helps ensure your focus.
Figure out how many hours per day you can dedicate to preparing for the PMP Exam, and
stick with it. Allocate blocks of time for studying on the weekends.
Form study groups: Learning in teams can be beneficial for everyone, if it is focused study.
Learn in Chunks or Sections; dont try to capture it all at once.
Learn to Mind Map: The human mind makes a connection each time your pen and paper
meet. In conjunction with this, the visual makings of a mind map will help keep information
fresh in your minds eye.

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Brain Dumps: When you arrive at the testing center, before you take the actual PMP Exam,
perform a brain dump. This is an activity where you use the scratch paper provided to write
out all of the exam notes youve committed to memory. In order to do this at the testing
center, you must practice it daily. A recommendation is to focus on the calculations and
formulas. Then all you will need to do is refer to them during the exam instead of having to
remember the formula, then answer the question.
Practice Exams at the end of each chapter or section. In the last few weeks before the exam,
do a set 50-200 questions after a chapter. The following day review weak areas. You will find
that the more questions and answers you do, the better prepared and more comfortable you
will be.
Cramming before test day: Take some time off before taking the exam to review and cram for
the exam It was slow getting into a study mode but once you apply yourself, it can pay off.

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Learning Techniques
Active vs. Passive Learning
Active Learning, as the name suggests, is a process whereby learners are actively engaged in
the learning process, rather than "passively" absorbing lectures. Active learning involves reading,
writing, discussion, and engagement in solving problems, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
Active learning often involves team-based learning, also known as cooperative learning, wherein
partners or group members work together to solve problems. This ensures that students really
understand the concepts being covered. Team learning is especially beneficial in that "weaker"
students are presented with the material from a source other than the professor (i.e. their
partner/group mates) and "stronger" students reinforce their knowledge by explaining the material
to others.
Passive Learning is learning in which the learner does not take an active part. For example, the
passive learner may do no more than simply read material.
Assuming an active strategy towards your education can enable you to achieve academic
success, consider the following pairs of active vs. passive strategies and, whenever possible,
choose the active approach.

Active Passive

Come to lectures prepared, pay attention, take Just sit in lectures because you have to be
notes, and ask questions. there

Buy new books and do the underlining Buy used books that already have the
yourself. important points underlined.

Take your own lecture notes. Borrow and use lecture notes from someone
who has already taken the class.

Skim assignments first, make up a list of Read assignments just to get them over with.
questions that you would like to answer, and
then read the assignments to answer the
questions.

Study returned tests carefully so that you don't Pay attention only to the grades you earned
make the same mistakes again. on tests when they are returned.

Volunteer to help someone in your class who Don't work any harder than you have to in any
is having a tough time. class.

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Accelerated Learning
In terms of the teaching and learning, accelerated learning can really come into its own. It has
been and is being put to good use by teachers across the world. An accelerated learning lesson
could vary from the traditional lesson in a number of ways:
(1) The learning environment may be seen as being of prime importance - a great deal of
attention will be focused on the use of color, the temperature in the room(s), the positioning of
furniture, background music, smells, textures and so on. Also, posters and displays may have
been carefully selected with the aim of helping students to absorb vocabulary and ideas
subconsciously. Posters containing vocabulary for a unit which may not be introduced for a few
weeks may be present in order to gradually familiarize students with the vocabulary in advance.
(2) State setting may be important - this is done partly through the learning environment (see
number 1), but also through the use of body language by the teacher, the type of music used
throughout the lesson - this might change depending on the mood/atmosphere the teacher
wishes to create at any given time, the tone of voice employed at any given time by the teacher,
the use of color in presentational materials and so on. The emphasis is likely to be on making the
student feel comfortable, relaxed and free from anxiety and stress.
(3) Mnemonics may be frequently used to help students retain and recall lists of vocabulary -
Instead of relying on vocabulary lists, flash cards and repetition drills, the accelerated learning
teacher will often employ these creative techniques when first introducing a new topic. Students
may be encouraged to use their imaginations to link items of vocabulary to parts of their body or
to locations in the classroom (Loci). This injects a sense of fun and usually promotes a more
relaxed and free-flowing learning environment.
(4) Over-stimulation - whereas in many language classrooms, the teacher is wary of throwing too
much at the student at once, the accelerated learning teacher may bombard the student with
material knowing that the human brain can often assimilate around 80% more information than
we assume. Using longer texts, dramatizations and the like allows students of varying levels of
ability to take what is useful for them at that stage of their learning.
(5) Pattern spotting and learning in broad strokes - often accelerated learning teachers will
introduce broad concepts to their students, enabling them to learn a great deal in a short amount
of time.
(6) Theory of multiple intelligences application - MI Theory (proposed by Howard Gardener)
asserts that there are 8 types of intelligence: interpersonal, intrapersonal, logical-mathematical,
verbal-linguistic, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical-rhythmic and naturalist. In the traditional
classroom environment, the verbal-linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligences are often over
represented. Accelerated learning attempts to redress this imbalance by including activities which
allow for the activation of the other intelligences such as: games which involve movement, use of
color on worksheets/mind maps etc, use of songs, raps and music, manipulation of objects (word
cards, etc.) and so on.

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(7) The use of Chunking (psychology) - chunking lessons into shorter periods takes full
advantage of the attention cycle of the human brain. We are most likely to retain information
presented at the beginning and end of a session; therefore if a lesson is divided into smaller
chunks, we are creating more beginnings and endings and so increasing the amount of
information retained.
(8) Objective setting - this practice is very wide-spread in education now and is also a vital aspect
of any accelerated learning lesson. The student must understand clearly what he/she is going to
learn in any particular lesson and how this is going to happen. There is then a predefined goal to
work towards and a higher sense of achievement at the end of the lesson (particularly if the
lesson objectives are listed on the board and can be ticked off as the lesson proceeds). What's In
It For Me (W.I.I.F.M) is a key phrase to remind teachers that students want to know how what
they are going to learn is relevant to them and their day-to-day experiences.

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Memorization Cards
This is the most common method of memorizing information. In your own words list the most
important facts along with key words -- either on the front or the back of the flash card -- that will
trigger recall without needing a full written explanation.

The idea when using flash cards to study is to use a deck of cards with a question and answer on
opposite sides. You pick up the card from the top, look at the question, and think to yourself: "The
answer is...". Then you turn the card over to see the correct answer. Here's how you do it:

Put the card in one of two decks on the table: The ones you knew, or the ones you didn't
know (or alternatively, if your answer was incorrect you may also put the card right back
to the bottom of the deck you are holding).
When your hand is empty, you pick up the deck with the questions you didn't know, and
start over.
For each time you do that, the "did know" pile on the table will be a little bit bigger.
Finally, when your hand is completely empty, you may simply start all over again. You will
be surprised to see how quickly you learn.

Study Tips
Flash Carding System
Convert summary ruled notes and questions to index cards, question on one side of card,
answer on the other.
Do the same for any "chapter objectives" or "learning objectives" or lecture notes
Encoding - put information into a form you can process easily and at one glance - so keep it
short and precise!
Use pictures/imagery to represent ideas as often as is possible. Pictures are easier to
remember than either words or numbers!
Review all flash cards 5-10 minutes each day. One of the biggest stumbling blocks to
memorization success is failure to do sufficient rehearsal after you first understand a concept.
Essentially, you must commit to memory what you understand so you can recognize, recall,
or apply the information you've studied.
Carry your flash cards with you and study whenever you have the opportunity. Review your
flash card at stoplights; waiting in line at the bank, the grocery store, and the post office...just
anywhere you have some "down" time. You can get in some extra study time this way when
you've got nothing to do but wait in line.
"Chunk" material to be learned. Make sure all material practiced at any one time is concerned
with the same topic. Don't learn lists of "miscellaneous" facts, as they don't have relationships
to each other. Each "chunk" of study material should have its relationships well connected as
in an outline.

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Rehearsal, Studying, or Memorizing
Use as many senses as you can while studying ("Shotgun" method). The use of more senses
than sight and thinking helps you store the information in a variety of additional sections of
your brain. This will later make it easier to recall or recognize information that you have
stored.

o Look at and read your notes.


o Speak your notes out loud.
o Listen to yourself while speaking out loud.
o Touch the questions and answers on the paper/cards.
o Walking or pacing the floor as you review is sometimes helpful, also.

Use the method of logic wherever possible. This is sometimes called the "Method of Places."
Separate your pages of notes into smaller sub-sets and place each sub-set in a particular
location around your house or apartment. Try to visualize or picture the notes lying on the
dining room chair and what they contain. Another set is on top of the TV, etc...just all around.
The main idea is to distribute the information physically in a variety of locations and then on
the test you just mentally "walk-through" your house, "picking up the notes" in each location in
sequence. It organizes a series of notes, chains them together in a logical sequence, and
uses imagery (the easiest type of information review). Spend a moment to choose the places
to put them: parts of the arm on a list laid on the armchair, a list of head muscles placed on a
pillow on the bed, back muscles and vertebrae taped to the back of a chair, etc.
Remember to use mnemonics. Mnemonics are memory "tricks", such as rhyme schemes to
help organize information before you attempt to store them in your long-term memory system.
For example, take the first letter of each of several terms to learn and make a word out of
these letters. This will make remembering all the individual terms a snap!
Memorize all flash cards so well that you can recite your entire list of cards perfectly at least
twice. (Three times is even better.) If you merely learn the material so you can repeat the
answer one time, it may be the last time. Further rehearsal is good insurance against "pulling
blanks" on a test.
Keep reviewing mentally as you drive from home to the test. If there's time, review flash cards
before the test. It's okay to review one last time before the test, but keep in mind: "If you don't
know it now, you'll never know it", so don't wait to study till the last minute!
"Primacy and Recency" effects - The first and last items on a list to be memorized are learned
first. The bigger the overall list, the bigger the mid-section becomes and the longer it takes to
learn them. So, break big lists into smaller ones and there will be less of the "middle" of each
list, especially if you restrict your lists to the "Magic 7" rule: 5-9 items long only.

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Chunking Information

Chunking is a principle that applies to the effective communication of information between human
beings. It is particularly useful in the domain of written communication. It was first put forward in
the 1950s by a Harvard psychologist named George A. Miller. He published a landmark journal
article entitled "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two". Miller studied the short term
memory. For example, how many numbers people could be reliably expected to remember a few
minutes after having been told these numbers only once. The answer was: "The Magical Number
Seven, Plus or Minus Two".

Millers concept goes beyond numbers. For example, most of us can remember about seven
recently learned chunks of similarly classified data.

Principle All information should be presented in small digestible units.


Digestible unit defined A digestible unit of information contains no more than nine separate items of
information.
Rationale Research suggests that human beings can understand and remember no
more than seven plus or minus two items of information at a time. This
phenomenon is called the "chunking limit". Further, as the complexity of the
information increases the chunking limit decreases.
Lessons learned All information intended for human consumption should be presented in units
that do not exceed the chunking limit. This principle can be applied to:

Written documents
Object, data, functional and dynamic models
Computer programs

Benefits By chunking information the author improves the reader's comprehension and
ability to access and retrieve the information.
Examples No more than nine bullet points on a slide
No more than nine bullet points on a bulleted list - classify the information
into smaller logically related groups and introduce a subheading
No more than nine bubbles on a single data flow diagram - consider
reducing this further if the functions are complex
No more than nine classes in an object model module - consider creation
of more super-classes or a more granular partitioning
No more than nine states in a single state transition diagram - consider
creation of super-states
This principle statement is chunked into 7 units of information. No unit has
more than 6 thoughts or sub-chunks.

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PMI, PMP and PMBOK are all registered marks of the Project Management Institute
Non-example The following bulleted list has too many chunks presented at once:
System Concepts
Describe:
The missions, features, capabilities and functions of the system
Major system components and interactions
Operational environment including manual procedures required
Operational modes such as production, backup and maintenance
Interfaces with other systems
Required performance characteristics such as response time, throughput
and data volumes
Quality attributes such as availability, reliability and usability
Other considerations such as security, audit, safety and failure modes in
emergency situations
Deployment considerations such as acquisition of business data to
support the system including data cleansing and loading
The classes of users that will interact with the system
Requirements for support of the system such as maintenance
organization and help desk

The chunking principle requires you to classify the items into groups to
reduce the information overload as follows:

System Concepts
Describe:
Functional Requirements
The missions, features, capabilities and functions of the system
Major system components and interactions
Operational environment including manual procedures required
Operational modes such as production, backup and maintenance
Interfaces with other systems

Non-functional Requirements
Required performance characteristics such as response time, throughput
and data volumes
Quality attributes such as availability, reliability and usability
Other considerations such as security, audit, safety and failure modes in
emergency situations

Deployment and Operational Requirements


Deployment considerations such as acquisition of business data to
support the system including data cleansing and loading
The classes of users that will interact with the system
Requirements for support of the system such as maintenance
organization and help desk

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PMI, PMP and PMBOK are all registered marks of the Project Management Institute
Motivation
Motivation: It is probably one of the hardest things to keep and maintain when studying for a
certification - particularly when trying to juggle the demands of everyday life. Some exam preps
can be long and arduous, and trying to find the time and the inclination to keep hitting the books
can tax even the most determined person; but motivation can also be one of the most powerful
tools that you have at your disposal. If you are determined to succeed, chances are you will. You
will spend roughly 100,000 hours of your life working in some capacity, and this based only on a
40-hour a week schedule. For many others in the workforce this number will be much higher.
Because of this fact, it's vital that you love what you do and do what you love.
Learn from others who have been there: Read discussion groups and feed off the success of
others who have gone before you. Don't dwell on those posters in the groups who have failed and
just complain all the time. Focus on those who passed and succeeded.
Take Ownership: Before positive changes can take place, you must take responsibility for your
position in life. You are in control of your future and are the only one who can guarantee a better
life. DO NOT play the role of a victim; if you give up control and ownership of your life, you will
never enjoy the amazing opportunities that life offers to all of us. Take this opportunity to convince
yourself that the PMP Exam will not beat you!
Write it Down: The simple act of writing your goals down on a sheet of paper will bring them one
step closer to reality. Saying something is one thing, but when you actually see the words written
down it becomes a living, breathing thing. On THREE separate sheets of paper or post-it notes,
write down THREE reasons you want PMP Credentials. Put one of these on you Computer
Monitor, one on your bathroom mirror and use one as your bookmark in the PMBOK or in this
guide. This is your motivation! Examples:

I want PMP credentials for better earning potential.


I want PMP credentials to get a better job.
I want PMP credentials to get a promotion.
I want PMP credentials to be a better Project Manager.

Remember Success: Recalling past success is just as important as learning from and
overcoming past failures. It doesn't matter who you are, you have succeeded at something at
sometime in your past. Don't gloss over these moments. Use them to remind you that you can in
fact achieve your goals.
The Moment: Remember a time when everything seemed to be going just right? When nothing
could get you down? When you thought to yourself, 'This moment, right now, is what life is all
about.' We all have moments in life when we feel we are at our best, but most people don't utilize
them. Use the special moments in your life to bring to light goals and desires that are sure to fulfill
your needs. Learning from and building on these times will help you create magic moments on a
daily basis for the rest of your life.
Realize the Possibilities: It's possible. Accept the fact that you can create a better life. This will
serve as the springboard of belief you need to succeed.
Get excited about what's to come: You are on your way to getting a passing score on the PMP
Exam! Now is the time to get excited and inspired about what your future holds. Imagine your life
as a certified PMP - now make it happen!

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PMI, PMP and PMBOK are all registered marks of the Project Management Institute
The ReadySetPass System
In this document, you will be shown an extremely effective way to study for the PMP Exam: By
leveraging Mind Mapping, Memorization techniques, Chunking, Accelerated, Active and Passive
Learning Techniques and much more.
1. Schedule Your Exam: Set a time frame for taking the PMP Exam. You should think 4 8
weeks ahead, schedule your exam date and then begin studying. Now youve got a deadline to
meet. This will eliminate any procrastination and help ensure you stay focused.
2. Baseline Exam 1: Before doing anything else, Access the PMP Exam Simulator and take the
baseline exam. This will serve as your starting point and give you the opportunity to measure your
learning success. Its important that you have an understanding of your current level of
knowledge as it pertains to the PMP Exam.
3. Read the PMBOK : Now that you have your exam scheduled and taken the first baseline
exam, pick up your PMBOK Guide 5th Edition and read through it cover to cover. Its ok if you
dont understand it all the first time through. Well clarify things you need to know in this
document.
4. Read this study guide: Once youve completely read the PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, read
through this document and take the quizzes. Try to score at least 70% on these quizzes. If you
don't score well, read the sections again and re-take the quizzes. These are meant to reinforce
the material and it's alright if you have to take them a couple of times. However, if you get to the
point where you know the "right answer" rather than knowing the material stop taking the quiz and
move on to the next section. Dont take notes yet. Spend a little extra time memorizing the key
formulas and calculations
5. Highlight: Now that youve read the PMBOK Guide and the PMP Success Guide from cover
to cover, go back through the PMBOK with your highlighter and note key terms and concepts.
6 Baseline Exam 2: Youve accomplished quite a bit to get to this point. Youve scheduled your
exam, taken a simulated test and the quizzes, read the entire PMBOK cover to cover and read
through the PMP Success Guide in its entirety. Its time to see if youre retaining any of this
information. Take baseline exam 2 in the PMP Exam Simulator and see if your scores increase.
You should see some increase at this point, but dont expect anything major.

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PMI, PMP and PMBOK are all registered marks of the Project Management Institute
7. Mind Map the PMBOK : Mind Mapping is an extremely powerful study method. Mind Maps
provide an extremely effective method of taking notes. They show not only facts, but also the
overall structure of a subject and the relative importance of individual parts of it. Mind Maps help
you to associate ideas and make connections that might not otherwise make. If you do any form
of research or note taking, try experimenting with Mind Maps. You will find them surprisingly
effective. To begin make notes on the PMBOK using a Mind Map, draw it in the following way:
Write the word PMP in the center of the page, and draw a circle around it.
For the 5 major Process Areas (Initiating, Planning, Executing, Monitor & control and Close),
draw lines out from this circle. Label these lines with the subheadings.
For the 9 knowledge areas, draw these and link them to the Process Area lines.
Finally, for individual facts or ideas, draw lines out from the appropriate heading line and label
them.
Do this for each knowledge area and for all of your ITTOs (inputs, tools & techniques and
outputs) from each process group.
I recommend the old pencil and paper method as shown in image 1 below. A great deal of
subconscious learning happens as the mind connects the pencil to the paper.

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PMI, PMP and PMBOK are all registered marks of the Project Management Institute
Mind Mapping Image 1

** Mind Mapping is a concept created by Tony Buzan


Some people prefer to work on their computers, as opposed to with pencil and paper. Another
tool is mindmapping software which you can download FREE at Freemind
(http://freemind.sourceforge.net/wiki/index.php/Download). Software output is shown below
Mind Mapping Image 2

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PMI, PMP and PMBOK are all registered marks of the Project Management Institute
8. Memorization Cards: The next step in learning the PMBOK is to create memorization cards.
This is the most common method of memorizing information. In your own words list the most
important facts along with key words -- either on the front or the back of the flash card -- that will
trigger recall without needing a full written explanation. The idea when using flash cards to study
is to use a deck of cards with a question and answer on opposite sides. You pick up the card from
the top, look at the question, and think to yourself: "The answer is... Then you turn the card over
to see the correct answer. Put the card in one of two decks on the table: The ones you knew or
the ones you didn't know (or alternatively, if your answer was incorrect you may also put the card
right back to the bottom of the deck you are holding). When your hand is empty, you pick up the
deck with the questions you didn't know, and start over. For each time you do that the "did know"
pile on the table will be a little bit bigger. Finally, when your hand is completely empty, you may
simply start all over again. You will be surprised to see how quickly you learn.
9. Exam Taking Strategy: Become familiar with the test that you are about to take and have a
mental plan for how you will spend your time most productively during the examination. If you
follow a positive plan of action as you take the test, you will be less likely to feel helpless or to be
preoccupied with anxious thoughts. Here are some useful test-taking tips:
Listen carefully to directions. Make a point to listen closely to any test directions that are read
aloud. Read through written directions at least twice before starting on a test section to ensure
that you do not misinterpret them. Hint: If you are confused or unsure of the test directions, ask
the teacher or test proctor to explain or clarify them. It is better to seek help to clear up any
confusion that you may have than to run the risk of misunderstanding the directions and
completing test items incorrectly.
Perform a brain dump. At the start of the test, write down on a sheet of scrap paper any facts or
key information that you are afraid that you might forget. This brain dump will help you to feel
less anxious about forgetting important content. Plus, you can consult this sheet of information
as a convenient reference during the test.
Test Time Management. Think about the total amount of time that you have to complete the
test. Budget your total time wisely so that you dont spend too much time on particular test
questions. The simple math is; 200 questions over 4 hours is approximately 1 minute 20 seconds
per question.
Multiple-choice: Dont get sidetracked looking for patterns of answers. Some people claim that
students can do better on multiple-choice tests if they look for patterns in the answers. For
example, the advice is often given that, on questions with four possible answers, teachers most
frequently choose C as the correct response. In rare cases, such patterns may actually exist--
but it is never a reliable strategy to count on tricks and short cuts to do well on a test. Instead,
your best bet is to study hard and rely on your own knowledge of the subject to do well.
Dont rush. On multiple-choice items, force yourself to read each possible choice carefully before
selecting an answer. Remember, some choices appear correct at first glance but turn out to be
wrong when you take a closer look. The PMP Exam was written to give more than one correct
answer for questions. Your job is to pick the Most Correct answer.
When in doubt guess! If the test does not penalize guessing, be sure that you write in a
response for each test item, even if you dont know the answer.
Skip difficult items until last. On timed tests, you should avoid getting bogged down on difficult
items that can cause you to use up all of your time. Instead, when you find yourself stumped on a
tough test item, skip it and go on to other problems. After you have finished all of the easiest test
items, you can return to any skipped questions and try to answer them.
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PMI, PMP and PMBOK are all registered marks of the Project Management Institute
Use leftover time to check answers. If you finish a test early, use the remaining time to check
your answers. On multiple choice items, check to see that you answered all questions. Reread
each response to make sure that it makes sense, and is the best answer to the question.
Positive Self Statements. The way we see ourselves, and the way we think/talk to ourselves
controls the way we will respond in stressful situations. Each time you start thinking or saying
something negative such as "I failed last time, Ill probably fail again this time," challenge this
attitude with a strong logical, forceful self-statement: "OK, so I failed last time but that doesn't
mean I'm going to fail again this time. Im better prepared and Ive got a new approach to my
work". Change your paralyzing stress to motivating stress. Reward yourself whenever you
succeed; if you manage to halt a negative thought and turn it into a positive one, tell yourself so, if
you managed to concentrate in class or get through a difficult piece of work, congratulate
yourself. Youll get to feeling good about yourself and your self-confidence will improve.
10. Baseline Exam 3: Youve accomplished a lot to get to this point. Youve scheduled your
exam, taken a simulated test, read the entire PMBOK cover to cover and read through the PMP
Success Guide in its entirety, highlighted key concepts, performed Mind Mapping and
memorization techniques. Its time to see how much your PMP Exam Score has improved. Take
baseline exam 3 in the PMP Exam Simulator and see if your scores increase. You should see a
significant increase at this point, as compared to your baseline exam 1.
11. Review and Final Exam: Take time to review all of your notes, mind maps, memory cards,
etc. For areas that you are weak in, re-read those sections and take the quiz at the end of the
section. Then attempt the Final Exam in the PMP Exam Simulator. Remember you need to score
at least 62% or higher.

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PMI, PMP and PMBOK are all registered marks of the Project Management Institute
Other Methods and Resources
There are many methods for you to prepare for the grueling 4 hour PMP Exam. One sure fire way
is an Instructor-Led PMP Exam Preparation class. These cram session courses are specifically
designed to fill your mind with the knowledge required to pass the test. Typically a more
expensive route, but very effective at helping you beat the PMP Exam. We recommend TenStep
PMP Exam Prep Classes through TenStep Academy. These great classes provide you with an
intensive study of the PMBOK and definitely prepare you for the PMP Exam. There are 3 and 4
day versions, depending on what would fit your schedule better.
Since TenStep, Inc. is a PMI Registered Education Provider all of these courses qualify for
contact hours which can be used on your application with PMI.
Visit http://www.training-pm.com/ for more on a PMP Exam Prep Classes. DISCOUNTS
AVAILABLE!

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PMI, PMP and PMBOK are all registered marks of the Project Management Institute
Exam Overview
About the PMP Exam
PMI conducts a certification program in project management. The Project Management
Professional (PMP) credential is the project management profession's most globally recognized
and respected certification credential. To obtain PMP certification an individual must satisfy
education and experience requirements, agree to and adhere to the Code of Ethics, and pass the
PMP Certification Examination. The Project Management Body of Knowledge is a wealth of
information relevant to the project management profession and what will be covered in the PMP
exam. The PMP Exam has been established to test your working knowledge of the PMBOK
Guide, which is produced by PMI. You will be presented with scenarios that will test your
knowledge of the PMBOK Guide and not necessarily your project management abilities.
Specifically, you'll need to know how the PMBOK Guide describes the ways you should work
through the project processes. The newest version of the PMBOK , the PMBOK Guide 5th
Edition, was released to PMI members in January 2013. The passing score for the exam is 61%.
The exam taker must answer 106 questions out of 175 correct. 25 additional questions will be
asked on the exam for a total of 200 possible questions. The 25 - pretest items will continue to be
part of the exam. PMI uses these questions to understand the performance of the questions prior
to counting the questions towards a candidates score. The exam taker will not know which 25 are
not applied to the pass/fail score.
Out of the score able 175 questions, approximately 19 will come from Initiation, 40 from planning,
47 from execution, 37 from monitor and control, 16 from closing and 16 from Professional
responsibility.
Applicants must satisfy certain education requirements:
Bachelor's Degree - 4500 Hours project experience
No Bachelor's Degree - 7500 Hours project experience
This 4500 or 7500 hour of project time is to be non-overlapping and based on time spent on the
project itself, not the overall project duration.
You must have at least 35 hours of formal Project Management Education. A training certificate of
at least 35 contact hours of Project Management training (Contact Hours) is required to register
for the exam. Our PMP Readiness course provides you with the required Contact Hours! You can
submit your application prior to completing your training, as long as the contact hours are
completed prior to sitting for the exam. We'll provide you a certificate denoting 35 contact hours
upon completion of our course.

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PMI, PMP and PMBOK are all registered marks of the Project Management Institute
What to expect on the PMP Exam
The Project Management Professional exam is a computer-based exam hosted by the Sylvan-
Prometric Testing center. It is composed of 200 multiple-choice questions based on the Project
Management Body of Knowledge or PMBOK . Test questions are randomly selected from a
database of over 2000 possible questions. The test taker has a total of 4 hours to complete the
exam. The intent of the test is to ensure a thorough understanding of project management
knowledge as set forth by the Project Management Institute.
The newest version of the PMBOK , the PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, was released to PMI
members in January 2013. The passing score for the exam is 61%. The exam taker must answer
106 questions out of 175 correct. 25 additional questions will be asked on the exam for a total of
200 possible questions. The 25 - pretest items will continue to be part of the exam. PMI uses
these questions to understand the performance of the questions prior to counting the questions
towards a candidates score. The exam taker will not know which 25 are not applied to the
pass/fail score. Out of the score able 175 questions, approximately 19 will come from Initiation,
40 from planning, 47 from execution, 37 from monitor and control, 16 from closing and 16 from
Professional responsibility.
Questions are designed to check both key understanding and the ability to practically apply
concepts. The types of question and formats you may encounter are; Situational questions
which require you to rely on your knowledge, PMI (PMBOK ) experience and judgment in order
to answer them correctly and Conceptual in which you must apply concepts to a new situation by
using more than simple memorization. (All questions are multiple choices with four possible
answers). Test questions will intentionally use different terminology or alternate versions of similar
questions for the same concepts to test your understanding of the topic rather than your ability to
recall a term. You may encounter:
Time-consuming questions that cause you, the test taker, to feel disoriented or overwhelmed. Its
particularly stressful if you encounter these types of questions early on in the exam. (Our program
is designed to reduce the chance of this happening by including many exam-like questions in
our practice material.)
Questions that require you to Fill-in-the-blank and other factual-type questions. These questions
simply require the test taker to recall the definition or context of a word or set of words. (Likely
worded identically as in the PMBOK Guide.)
Questions in which you need to select the exception from the four possible answers. If 3 correct
answers are present look for the Odd man out.
Some questions will be long drawn out short stories. Much of the text of is not essential in
answering the question. The test taker will need to weed out the non-essential data. More often
than not the essential data is the last sentence in the paragraph. It may benefit you to read the
last sentence first.
Questions that require you to perform calculations and/or draw simple diagrams. These are
typically questions about earned value, cost, network diagrams, and schedules. In our estimation,
around 75% of the exam questions come directly from the PMBOK Guide. The remaining
questions are derived from other reference materials and real-world situations. Solid common
project sense should help you in answering these. Some key exam topics you wont find in the
PMBOK but should understand are: Conflict-resolution techniques, Organizational theories,
Problem-solving techniques and Theories of motivation.

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PMI, PMP and PMBOK are all registered marks of the Project Management Institute
You will encounter questions that will be difficult to answer with confidence. Commonly these
types of questions seemed to potentially have more than one correct answer. Two or more of the
answers are reasonable responses. However, there is always one best response, as
determined by PMI. You should track these questions and revisit them at the end of the exam
before it is submitted.
Be alert about answers that reflect common project management errors and unapproved
practices. Its important to remember that the answer should reflect PMIs views. Remembering
this should help you rule out any common sense answers that dont coincide with the PMBOK .
The test taker must sift through answers that are factually correct but are not the correct response
to the question
As a rule of thumb, answers that are a generalization (that is, always, never, and so on) can
generally be tossed out.
As a Test Taker, it is important to develop a Strategy. Anticipate that many questions will have
multiple correct answers. It is your challenge to pick the best answer based on how PMI outlines
the situation should be handled. Remember to answer questions from PMIs perspective, not from
your real-life experience. Think, What does PMI say I should I do? rather than Whats worked in
the past? The actual exam allows you to mark any question for later review. Plan on making
several passes through all 200 questions of the exam. (Double-check yourself on questions that
you are unsure of your answer). On the initial pass through the exam, mark any question that
you are not 100% sure of the answer. On the second pass, review all the marked questions.
You may discover that the answer to a given question is detailed out in another question or
answer throughout the exam. During the exam, as the test taker, you will need to manage your
exam time. 200 questions in four hours (240 minutes) = 1.2 minutes per question. Some
questions will be as easy as 15 seconds; others may take 3 4 minutes. You are not required to
immediately take the exam when you sit down at the computer terminal. Use this time to gather
your thoughts and prepare your reference sheet. Write down all formulas, diagrams, and
information that will assist you with the exam. This allows you to clear your thoughts and focus
better as you begin the exam. When you begin the exam process, you will initially be provided a
tutorial of how to use the terminal and how to take the exam. If you feel comfortable with the
information, you can pass over this tutorial quickly and begin the exam. Pace yourself and be
sure to read all four answers completely. Do not just choose the first potentially correct answer
you see, there may be a More right / Most right answer available. Take breaks throughout the
exam. You have 4 hours for the exam, you need to complete at least 50 questions per hour and
allot for periodic breaks to allow yourself to regain focus and rest.

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The Project Management Framework
To fully understand project framework, review the first three chapters of the PMBOK Guide
extensively. You will want to invest plenty of time there. It is where a lot of the important
information is found there and its where a good portion of the exam answers can be derived.
Pay particular attention to section 1.7 Role of the Project Manager since there is an emphasis
on the importance of interpersonal skills of a project manager in managing projects. There is also
a reference to Appendix X3, Interpersonal Skills that addresses specific interpersonal skills for
project managers:
Leadership Political and cultural awareness
Team Building Negotiation
Motivation Trust Building
Communication Conflict Management
Influencing Coaching
Decision Making
Also review Annex A1, The Standard for Project Management of a Project. Although some of this
material is covered in the first three chapters of the PMBOK Guide, it goes into a lot more detail
about the interaction of the processes within each process group. Understanding this will help
answer questions like, what happens next? or what happened prior to this process? It will also
help in understanding the inter-relationships of these processes.
On the PMP certification exam, the Project Framework questions address critical project
management functions that ensure coordination of the various elements of the project.
The Project Framework questions are relatively straightforward. Most people find them to be fairly
easy. But because they cover so much material, you need to study them carefully to become
familiar with PMIs terminology and perspectives.

Focus Areas
The following is a list of key concepts that you should understand for the PMP Exam. Refer
back to this list as you highlight key facts, terms, and concepts in the PMBOK Guide 5th Edition.
Understand the PMBOK Guide definition of what a Project is.
Know that projects are temporary, unique, and create a product or service.
Understand the relationships among Portfolios, Programs and Projects.
Be able to define progressive elaboration (as defined by the PMBOK Guide).
Understand what a project deliverable is.
Understand the PMBOK Guide definition of what Project Management is.
Be able to distinguish between Project Work and Operational Work.
Understand the difference between a Program and a Project.
Understand which Stakeholders determine priorities, requirements, constraints, and
assumptions.
Understand how Environment affects a Project.
Know that Projects must operate with the organization structure.
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PMI, PMP and PMBOK are all registered marks of the Project Management Institute
Understand what a PMO is and does.
Know that the project moves through phases to reach completion.
Know the five process groups and how they interrelate throughout the life cycle.
Understand how data and information is collected, analyzed, transformed, and distributed in
the various processes
Know that the project manager oversees the project work as it moves through phases.
Know that the collection of the project phases is referred to as the project life cycle.
Project life cycles define the beginning, middle, and end of a project.
Know when Projects have a greater risk and uncertainty.
Know when the project is most susceptible to change, failure, and stakeholder influences.
Understand project constraints: scope, quality, schedule, budget, resources, and risks.
Be able to define the ten knowledge areas.
Exam Note:
1. On the exam you won't need to make subjective decisions like which process is the most
important, but rather which activity should the project manager complete next.
2. The PMP exam will focus very little on product-orientated processes and more directly on
project management processes. Focus on the project management processes. Know the five
process groups (IPECC) and how the processes among the groups are interrelated.
3. It will benefit you to memorize Table 3-1, Project Management Process Group and
Knowledge Area Mapping, in the PMBOK Guide, to understand the relationship between
the Process Groups and the Knowledge Areas. .

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Chapter 1 - Introduction
Refer to PMBOK Guide pp 1-18
Chapter 1 focuses on the introduction of basic terms and concepts. These terms are generally not
hard, but you can be sure there will be questions on many of these concepts.

Projects
Several definitions exist for project. According to the PMBOK Guide A project is a temporary
endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.
1. Temporary endeavor
It has a definite start and end date
The outcomeof a project may last for a long time, but the project itself ultimately
has an end date
Not something you do on an ongoing basis, even though a project may be long
2. Unique product, service or result
Result is unique even though it may be similar to the results of other projects
The outcome of the project (product, service, or result) could be tangible or
intangible
The uniqueness is one reason it is hard to plan and manage projects. You do not
have prior experience on a project exactly like this one. Whichever specific
definition you choose, nearly every project you manage will have many of the
same characteristics. Lets examine some of the most important ones.
At the most basic level, a project is actually the response to a need, the solution to a problem.
Further, its a solution that promises a benefit.
By definition, a project is temporary in nature; that means that it has a specific start and finish. A
project consists of a well-defined collection of work (tasks) and ordinarily culminates in the
creation of an end product or products (deliverables). There will be a preferred sequence of
execution for the projects tasks (the schedule). A project is a unique, one-time undertaking; it will
never again be done exactly the same way, by the same people, and within the same
environment. Youll have to launch your project with limited information or, worse yet,
misinformation. There will always be some uncertainty associated with your project. This
uncertainty represents riskan ever-present threat to your ability to make definitive plans and
predict outcomes with high levels of confidence. All projects consume resourcesresources in
the form of time, money, materials, and labor. One of the primary missions of a project manager
is to serve as the overall steward of these resourcesto apply them as sparingly and as
effectively as possible.
Some examples of projects include:
Developing a new product (or service)
Constructing a building
Implementing a computer application

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Launching a new business
Restructuring an organization
Marketing campaign
Building a highway
Modernization of an existing water system
Organizing a cultural event
Relocating a business
In contrast, the following activities are not projects: operating a manufacturing facility, supervising
a work group, and running a retail business. These activities are ongoing.

Portfolios, Programs and Projects


There is a significant relationship between portfolios, programs, and projects. Portfolios are a
collection of many organizational activities managed as a group to support strategic objectives.
These activities can include projects, programs, subportfolios, and operations to achieve these
strategic objectives.
Programs are a collection of subprograms, projects, or other work that is managed in a
coordinated way in support of the portfolio. This does not necessarily mean that projects and
programs within a portfolio are related or interdependent but they can be. However, they all are
intended to support and are linked to the organizations strategic plan.
This is graphically represented in Figure 1-1. Portfolio, Program and Project Management
Interactions.

Project Management
The PMBOK Guide defines project management as . . . the application of knowledge, skills,
tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements. Although this definition
may sound pretty straightforward, you will find that the skillful application of those skills, tools, and
techniques will come only after youve had a significant amount of education and on-the-job
experience.
Managing a project (as is stated in 1.3. What is Project Management?) includes:
Identifying requirements
Addressing the various needs, concerns, and expectations of the various stakeholders
Setting up, maintaining, and carrying out communications among stakeholders that are
active, effective, and collaborative in nature
Managing stakeholders toward meeting project requirements and creating project
deliverables
Balancing the competing demands for quality, scope, resources, risk, schedule, and
budget
Problems, needs, and opportunities continually arise in every organization. Problems like low
operational efficiency, needs like additional office space, and opportunities like penetrating a new
product market are just a few of a nearly endless number of situations that management must
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address in the process of operating an organization or company. These problems, needs, and
opportunities give rise to the identification of solutions. Executing those solutions entails a change
for the organization. Projects are generally established to carry out this change and theres
always someone responsible for the successful completion of each project. As the project
manager, you are the primary change agent, and your guide for carrying out the change is the
project management process.
The idea of progressive elaboration is introduced in this section. Progressive elaboration means
that you are continually improving and detailing your plans as more specific and accurate
information becomes available during the project.

Project Manager
The project manager is the person assigned to achieve the project objectives. The role of the
project manager may vary depending on the type of organization that exists in your company
(matrix, projectized, functional explained later). Many of the skills and techniques that a project
manager needs to be successful are specific to the domain of project management. However, the
project manager also needs many general business skills and knowledge of the subject matter of
the project.
Exam Note: The project manager is a professional in PMIs eyes. That means that the project
manager has a responsibility to have a good education, a good understanding of the practice,
and experience in the respective field. The PM will play a series of roles: project manager,
integrator, communicator, team leader, decision maker, etc.

Relationships among Portfolio Management, Program


Management, Project Management, and Organizational Project
Management
All of these disciplines are aligned with or directed by strategies of the organization. Each of
these contributes in some way to the achievement of strategic goals. These disciplines have
similarities and differences but it is important to understand that they all relate to organizational
project management (OPM).
All of these disciplines are used to achieve organizational strategies but they differ in how they
contribute to achieve the strategic goals. For example, portfolio management is expected to
select the right mix of programs and projects, prioritize them, and provide the resources to
successfully complete them. Program management coordinates the program and project work
components to realize the benefits. Project management develops and implements specific plans
to achieve the agreed to scope in support of the portfolio and/or program goals.
Organizational Project Management (OPM) links all of these disciplines together along with other
enablers (e.g. structural, cultural, human resource practices) to also support these goals. It is also
responsible for making the improvements necessary to achieve organizational best practices and
allowing the organization to operate to its full potential.
Table 1-1. Comparative Overview of Project, Program, and Portfolio Management demonstrates
the inter-relationships of these disciplines within the framework of OPM.
Programs and Program Management - Program management is the coordinated management
of multiple projects to achieve the programs strategic benefits and objectives. The projects in a
program are always related, and that is a primary difference between a program and a portfolio.

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A programs purpose is to manage all of the projects in a coordinated way to obtain the benefits
and control that couldnt be achieved if the projects were managed individually.
Subprojects - A subproject is a smaller portion of a project that is subdivided into a more
manageable component. It still exists under the parent project, but follows its own schedule to
completion. Subprojects may be outsourced, assigned to other project managers, or managed by
the parent project manager but with a different project team.
Portfolio and Portfolio Management Portfolios are the highest organizational level for a
collection of projects. Projects are combined into portfolios to facilitate effective management of
the work to meet the strategic business objectives. The specific projects may or may not be
related (and this is one of the main ways that portfolios are different than programs). Project
Portfolio Management is the centralized management of one or more portfolios, which includes
identifying, prioritizing, authorizing, managing, and controlling the work within the portfolio.
Portfolios are organizational entities, like a department, that may exist long-term.

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Project Management Office (PMO)
A PMO is a management structure that is created to standardize the governance of project-
related processes and share these resources for the organization
There are three different types of PMO structures:
Supportive: This represents a PMO with a low degree of control. Its role in an
organization is consultative and serves as a project repository. Its responsibility is to
supply project management tools like templates, best practices and information from
other projects.
Controlling: This is a PMO that has more authority than the Supportive PMO and it has a
moderate degree of control. It has all of the elements of a Supportive PMO but is also
responsible for ensuring compliance to project management methodologies and
framework.
Directive: This PMO has the highest degree of control and takes on the role of directly
managing projects. An example of this is when the project managers in an organization
report directly into the PMO.
The primary function of any PMO is to support a project manager in all aspects of a project. Some
of these support activities are (as documented in section 1.4.4. Project Management Office):
Managing shared resources across all PMO administered projects
Identifying and developing project management methodology, best practices and
standards
Coaching, mentoring, training, and oversight
Monitoring compliance with project management standards, policies, procedures, and
templates by means of project audits
Developing and managing project policies, procedures, and other shared documentation
(organizational process assets)
Coordinating communication across projects
Although project managers and PMOs pursue different objectives, they both are aligned to the
organizations strategy. Some of these differences are:
Project Manager Project Management Office
Focuses on specified project objectives Manages major program scope changes as a
potential opportunity for better achievement of
business objectives
Controls assigned project resources to best Optimizes the use of shared resources across
meet project objectives all projects
Manages constraints (e.g. schedule, cost) of Manages the methodologies, standards, overall
individual project risks/opportunities, metrics, etc. among
projects at the enterprise level

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Relationships between Project Management, Operations
Management, and Organizational Strategy
Operations management is the activities performed to sustain the business (i.e. overseeing,
directing and controlling business operations) and is very tactical in nature. There is a conjunction
with projects when the outcomes change operations, products, or systems through strategic
business initiatives.
Operations and project management can intersect at several points in a product lifecycle such as
at each project closeout phase. This may include developing a product, improving operations, or
imporving the product development process.. These intersections are where deliverables and
knowledge are transferred from the project to operations where they will achieve the business
goals.
As in project management, operations management also has stakeholders which require their
needs to be addressed to successfully conduct business operations. Some examples of these
stakeholders are:
Maintenance workers
Plant operators
Telephone sales personnel
Manufacturing line supervisors
Call center personnel
Help desk staff
Retail workers
Production system support analysts
Line managers
Customer service representatives
Training officers
Salespersons

Organizations utilize governance as a means to determine strategies and how to measure


progress to determine when or if they accomplish their business objectives. Since projects are
aligned with the business pursuits of the organization, project management activities should also
be re-aligned to meet the new business objectives.
The governance of projects is subject to organizational governance since the project success is
measured to how well the project outcomes support the formal governance processes and
procedures. It is important for the project manager to know about these policies and procedures
to ensure the project processes follows them.

Business Value
Business value is unique to each organization and includes both tangible and intangible
elements. Tangible value could include assets, equity, and fixtures. Intangible elements could
include brand recognition, trademarks, and goodwill. The business value is derived from tangible
and intangible elements and reflects how the business operates. This includes the management
of portfolios, programs, projects, and operations. Ensuring these activities align with strategic
objectives, and investing in effective management of these activities, provides a means for the
organization to attain business value realization.

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Project Manager Role
In 2011, PMI released the results of a role delineation study that addressed specific
responsibilities and competencies of the project manager. In general, the project manager must
possess competencies for:
Knowledge: Specifically in project management
Performance: What can be accomplished by applying the project management
knowledge
Personal: This includes behaviors for guiding the team effectively (i.e. attitudes, core
personality characteristics, leadership) to achieve objectives and balancing within
constraints
The interpersonal skills of a project manager are critical to successfully accomplish the work of
the project and require a balance of ethical, interpersonal, and conceptual skills. These skills
allow the project manager to perform analysis during the project and interact appropriately.
Refer to Appendix X3 on Interpersonal Skills to gain a better understanding of the importance of
these skills and how to effectively manage a project utilizing these skills.
Exam Note:

1. Progressive elaboration means that you keep creating, modifying, and building up the
necessary components of your project in an organized way in order to achieve the
project's specific outcome/deliverable.
2. You should be familiar with the difference between a project, program, and portfolio.
Programs are larger in scope than projects and comprise several interrelated projects.
Also, programs usually last longer than projects and often have a much less definite end
point in mind. Portfolio refers to a collection of projects or programs and other work that
are grouped together.
3. Know the relationships between portfolio management, program management, project
management and organizational management and the role of the PMO. It is also
important to know the different types of PMOs and their degree of control.
4. Be familiar with what business value is and how it is derived in an organization, especially
with how projects align with the business strategies, objectives, and direction.
5. Understand the responsibilities and competencies of the project manager and the skills
needed to effectively manage a project. Although not detailed in this section, be familiar
with Appendix X3 and the Interpersonal Skills of a Project Manager. Take particular
notice of the sections on Trust Building, Conflict Management, and Coaching.

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Chapter 2 - Organizational Influences and Project Life
Cycle
Refer to pages 19 through 46 in the PMBOK Guide
A project has two fundamental aspects project management and project life cycle. Project
management is the focus of the PMBOK Guide. However, the purpose of the project is not to do
project management. The purpose of the project is to create outcomes in the forms of products,
services, or results. The work required to build these outcomes is referred to as the life cycle.
There can be a common framework to manage all projects, but there are many life cycles
depending on the project.
Each project also is executed within the context of an overall organization. This chapter also
looks at different organizational types in terms of how they organize and structure projects and
how the culture, style, and structure influences how the project work is performed.

Focus Areas
The following is a list of key concepts that you should understand for the PMP Exam. Refer
back to this list as you highlight key facts, terms, and concepts as you read through the PMBOK
Guide Edition.
Know the difference between project management and life cycle frameworks
Know the difference between projects and operations
Understand how the different cultures and styles in the organizations environment influence
the project
Understand who stakeholders are, and some of the common ones that are associated with a
project
Understand the three basic organization structures and how they impact project execution.
Be familiar with the different project life cycles and when they can be applied

Organizational Influences on Project Management


The organizational culture, style, and structure will all influence how projects are performed.
Projects should support and add value to the host organization and its purpose. The project
manager should know that projects follow the culture and practices of the organization hosting the
project.
Organizational Cultures and Styles
This addresses specifically how the environment of the organization (i.e. cultures, styles) directly
influences the project work and the ability of the project team to meet its objectives. This culture is
derived by shared visions and beliefs, policies, rewards, tolerance to risk, etc. The culture is an
element of the Enterprise Environmental Factors, a common input/output to many processes.
The important thing to understand is that the project manager must take this into account when
making decisions on the project. Recognizing the organizational culture and understanding this
influence is a critical success factor of the project manager on a project.

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Organizational Communications
Effective communication is also a critical success factor of a project manager. Knowing the
different means to communicate within the organization and how best to utilize them will improve
the chances of project success. In a world where the project management profession is becoming
more globalized, communicating the projects progress is essential for managing stakeholder
expectations.
Organizational Structures
Projects, of course, are not operated in a vacuum. They are parts, or subsystems, of much bigger
organizations with much larger goals. Each project has or uses elements such as processes,
participants, policies, procedures, and requirements, some of which are dependent upon and
interact with related elements in the larger business system. By taking a systematic approach the
project manager can see how all the elements interact. The project manager can then assess the
impact on the individual project. Organizations are categorized into one of four models:
Functional

This traditional structure groups people by specialization (for example, marketing, contracting,
accounting, and so on). The project manager has no formal authority over project resources and
must rely on the informal power structure and his or her own interpersonal skills to obtain
resource commitments from functional managers. Conflicts tend to develop over the relative
priorities of various projects competing for limited resources.

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Projectized

In a projectized organization, a separate, vertical structure is established for each project.


Personnel are assigned to particular projects on a full-time basis. The project manager has total
authority over the project, subject only to the time, cost, and performance constraints specified in
the project targets.

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Matrix
The matrix organization is a blend of projectized and functional organizations. A matrix
organization maintains vertical functional lines of authority while establishing a relatively
permanent horizontal structure containing the managers for various projects. The project
managers interact with all functional units supporting their projects.
Organizational structures control how the project manager can obtain resources, the level of
authority the project manager can expect, and the participation of the project team. The way you
can tell the type of matrix organization you are in is to determine where the resources and the
reporting come from. If all resources and reports are generated by the project and are respected
as being from the project, then it is a strong matrix. If the functional organizations have authority
over the budget, then it is a weak matrix.

There are three versions of the matrix organization depending on the relative power between the
functional managers and the project manager.
Weak Matrix
In a weak matrix, the balance of power leans toward the functional manager rather than the
project manager. That is workers administrative relationships, physical proximity, and relative
time expenditures favor the functional manager. It is harder for a project manager to work in this
structure since he has less formal power. The project manager in this structure is generally more
of a project coordinator.

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Balanced Matrix
A balanced matrix structure has many of the same attributes as a weak matrix, but the project
manager has more time and power regarding the project. A balanced matrix still has time
accountability issues for all the project team members since their functional managers will want
reports on their time within the project. In a balanced matrix the project manager has a full-time
role as a project manager with a reasonable level of authority and has a primarily part-time
project team
Strong Matrix
In the strong matrix organization the balance of power favors the project manager rather than the
functional manager. The project manager has medium to high formal authority.
These are the functional organizations; project expeditor, which is little more than a functionary
who helps support the concept of project management but not really the practice; the project
coordinator is a step up from that. Then a weak matrix is where you actually have the project
manager getting resources from the functional organizations; a strong matrix is where the
balance of power is shifted to the project manager.

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Composite
Some organizations have a blended organization that could utilize any or all of these structures.
This type of project organization is created as a result of the characteristics of the project. Some
of the factors that make this necessary are:
Strategic importance
Stakeholders ability to influence the project
Project management maturity level
Project management systems
Communications capabilities of the organization

For example, if a functional organization initiates a project that would be executed more efficiently
if the project organization was more matrix-based or projectized then the solution would be to
staff it accordingly. The project manager would then interact at all levels of the organization (i.e.
strategic, middle and operational) to execute the project work.
This structure can also be characterized in an organization where there is a strong PMO
(Directive). Ultimately the project characteristics demand interaction across many levels. Some of
these characteristics are, but not limited to:
Project manager level of authority

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Resource availability/management
Entity controlling the budget
Role of the project manager
Composition of the project team
Organizational Process Assets
These are the collective sets of organizational project assets used by the performing organization
for project work. This includes plans, procedures, knowledge bases, etc. to perform the work on
the project and to govern it during the project life cycle. This is a common input and output of
many processes and can be updated during the project as additional information and insights are
uncovered during the project. These assets are used to house Lessons Learned from the project
and are grouped into two categories:
Processes and procedures
Corporate Knowledge Base
Within the processes and procedures category these assets are further categorized within the five
process groups. This is detailed in section 2.1.4 and is helpful to understand how they are used
during the project work and to comprehend the types of changes that can occur,
Enterprise Environmental Factors
This is a catch-all term and refers to anything outside the project that can impact or influence it.
These may be internal to the company or external. There is a list of enterprise environmental
factors listed in the PMBOK on page 29. Examples include:
Organization culture, structure, and processes
Standards
Human resources
Marketplace
Political climate
Communications channels
Etc.
It is not important to memorize this list of factors, and even if you did, they are just examples. It is
important to read the list to get a sense for how things outside the project can have an impact.

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Project Stakeholders and Governance
A stakeholder is an individual, group, or organization who has some vested interested in the
project. They may be affected by the outcome of the project or by the decisions or activities of the
project. It is important to understand who the stakeholders are with a project, their level of interest
and whether their influence can either be positive or negative.
Project governance allows the project work to be aligned with the stakeholders needs or
objectives as it pertains to the project. Governance provides a framework to consistently manage
projects and maximize the benefits to satisfy both stakeholder and organization objectives and
meet their expectations.
The importance of the stakeholder for a project is the primary reason the Knowledge Area:
Project Stakeholder Management was developed. The processes in this Knowledge Area across
the Process Groups are specifically designed to address all aspects of the stakeholders
involvement in the project and to appropriately plan for them.
Project Stakeholders
Stakeholders are persons or organizations who are actively involved in a project and whose
interests are positively or negatively influenced by the project. The stakeholders may exert
influence on project (positive or negative).
The project team must:
Identify stakeholders
Determine their requirements and expectations
Assess their knowledge and skills
Manage their expectation and their influence to the requirements
Conflicting expectations should be resolved in favor of customer
You should recognize the importance of involving stakeholders in the development of the project
management plan. It is the responsibility of the project manager and the project team to create an
environment in which all stakeholders can contribute as appropriate, but recognize that who
contributes and the level of the contribution will vary by stakeholder. The key stakeholders in
most projects are:
Customer / User. Person or organization that will use the result of the project. Customer and
Users may be different entities
Performing organization. The enterprise whose employees are most directly involved in
performing the work of the project
Project team members. People that are performing the work
Project management team . Members of the project team who are directly involved in
project management activities
Sponsor. The person or group that provides financial resources for the project
Influencers. People or groups that can influence, positively or negatively, the course of the
project
PMO. The PMO can be a stakeholder if it has responsibility for the outcome of the project
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Portfolio managers/portfolio review board. Responsible for governing the project within
the portfolio. Review the projects return on investment, value, alignment, etc.
Program managers. Responsible for managing related projects in a coordinated manner to
obtain benefits. Provide guidance and support to the project managers within their program
Functional managers. May provide subject matter expertise to the project
Operations management. Involved in the handoff of the project deliverables to ongoing
operations
Sellers / business partners. Have a contractual arrangement to provide a service related to
the project
Project Governance
Governance framework includes the set of processes, decision-making models and tools that are
used to successfully manage and control an organization or project. Project governance must be
aligned with the organizations governance model and is critical to the success of complex and/or
risky projects.
The PMO can also provide a decisive role in the management of projects.
Some of the elements that are included in the governance framework are repeatable project
practices, definition of roles and responsibilities, and the effectiveness of a project manager.
Examples include:
Project success and deliverable acceptance criteria
Project organization chart that identifies project roles
Guidelines for aligning project governance and organizational strategy
Project life cycle approach
Process for review and approval for changes (e.g. budget, scope, quality)
Although these elements define the necessary framework to govern the project, it is the project
manager and project teams responsibility to determine the most appropriate method for
executing the project work. The framework is the set of guidelines to perform the work but the
project team is still responsible for planning, executing, controlling, and closing the project.
Project Success
Although the project manager is responsible for setting and maintaining baselines (i.e. realistic
and achievable boundaries) for the project and accomplishing the project work to meet the
baselines, these should be agreed upon with senior management.
Project success is a measure against the last baselines approved by authorized stakeholders.

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Project Team
This is the group that works together to perform the project work to achieve the objectives. It
includes the project manager, project management staff, and project team members who may or
may not be involved with managing the project. Each member of the team brings unique subject
matter expertise and skills to the team to complete the project work. Although the structure of the
project team can vary widely (see Organizational Structures), the project manager is the leader of
the team regardless of the authority they may have over the team members (see Table 2-1.
Influence or Organizational Structures on Projects).
Some of the roles are:

Project management staff Sellers

Project staff Business partner members

Supporting experts Business partners

User or Customer representatives


Composition of Project Teams
Depending on the organizational culture, scope and location, the composition of the team can
vary widely. These compositions can be mixed depending on the availability and skills required
for the project:
Dedicated: These are full-time resources that are assigned to only perform the project
work. They can either be virtual (be physically located away from the project manager
and a majority of the project team members) or be co-located (in the same physical
location). This is the simplest and the lines of authority for the project work are clear.
Part-time: These resources are responsible for other work within the overall
organization. This could include both project and operational work. The project manager
may also be part-time and could be managing multiple projects. The lines of authority can
become unclear if other work takes a higher precedence.
These exist in any type of organizational structure, although dedicated project teams are typically
in projectized organizations. Part-time project teams are usually performing work in functional
organizations and matrix organizations typically have both. Project Life Cycle
As projects progress, they move through identifiable phases and each phase has a unique set of
challenges for the project manager. The combination of project phases comprise the project life
cycle. There is no one best project life cycle, but there may be a typical life cycle model for a
particular type of project. For instance a Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC) may consist of
analysis, design, code, test, implement. A construction life cycle might include feasibility,
planning, design, build, walk-through, completion.

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Example of phases

Life cycles are usually divided into project phases. Phases improve control and link the project
with the ongoing operations. Each project phase completion is marked by one or more
deliverables and their review. A project may consist of one phase although typically a project
consists of all of the phases required to start and complete the project. At the end of each phase
is an end-of-phase review to validate:
Acceptance of the work previously completed
Determination if there is any extra work required to close the prior phase
A validation to either move to the next project phase or to cancel the project.
Usually, deliverables of a phase (outputs) are used as inputs to the next phase.

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Phase-to-Phase Relationships
It is possible that a project only has one phase. If the project has multiple phases, there are a
number of ways that the phases of a project can inter-relate.
Sequential phase relationship the next phase starts when the prior phase has completed
Overlapping relationship the next phase starts before the prior phase is completed.
Iterative relationship - the next phase is planned during the current phase

Cost of staffing a project generally reaches the peak of the way to completion.

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The influence of project stakeholders is greatest at the beginning of a project and decreases
over time.
Risk and uncertainty at their greatest at the beginning of a project and decrease over time
The cost of change is low when the project starts but gets higher as the project progresses.
Predictive Life Cycles
This is also known as fully plan-driven where the product to be delivered is well understood. The
project scope, time and cost are determined early in the project life cycle. The project team
proceeds through the project in sequential or overlapping phases. An example of this is Waterfall
life cycle.
Iterative and Incremental Life Cycles
Project phases in this type have phases that often repeat as the teams understanding of the
outcomes increases. In this life cycle, the iterations can be performed sequentially or overlapping
and in each iteration the activities from all Process Groups will be performed. The projects
product is developed both incrementally and iteratively.
Typically, a high-level understanding or vision is defined and the scope is enhanced during each
iteration. This approach is utilized when the organization needs to manage changing objectives
and scope.
Adaptive Life Cycles
These are also known as change-driven life-cycles and are performed when there is a high-level
of stakeholder involvement and change. Agile methodologies are examples of this type of an
approach and are characterized by many iterations that are time-bound (2 4 weeks).
Basically, the overall scope is decomposed into a set of requirements and work to be performed.
This is referred to a product backlog and the team determines how many requirements can be
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performed in the next iteration. These are prioritized and the iteration begins. This method is
usually performed in a rapidly changing environment where small incremental work will deliver
value to the stakeholders.

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Chapter 3 - Project Management Processes
Refer to pages 47 through 61 in the PMBOK Guide
According to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK ) Guide as defined by the
Project Management Institute all project management work is accomplished within five process
groups. The project manager applies all of the skills, knowledge, tools and techniques gained in
the practice of project management and utilizes all of the processes segregated in these process
groups.
As you study for the exam, it will be important to know the five process groups and the processes
that make up each of these process groups. As you become familiar with the ten (10) Knowledge
Areas it will also be important to know how these processes associated with the Knowledge
Areas map back to the Process Groups.
The processes should be applied based on what is appropriate for the project. For a given
project, the project manager may apply more of the processes than on other projects. The degree
and rigor that the processes are applied are also based on the specific project being managed.
The purpose of this section is to walk through each of the five process groups and understand the
types of processes that are performed in each one. Each process group is described briefly.
You should also study Annex 1 The Standard for Project Management which covers the
processes in each process group and how they interact and inter-relate. The Data Flow Diagrams
depicted in this section graphically show the processes and major inputs and outputs passed
between them. This will give you a good idea of how these processes work within the process
groups.
Remember that each of these processes is explored much more fully later in the PMBOK
Guide. However, when you see the processes in the rest of the PMBOK Guide, the processes
will be associated with the Knowledge Areas. This section along with Annex 1 provides the best
opportunity to be familiar with the processes as they relate to the process groups.

Focus Areas
The following is a list of key concepts that you should understand for the PMP Exam. Refer back
to this list as you highlight key facts, terms and concepts as you read through the PMBOK
Guide.
You should be able to look at each process group and identify the processes used in each
group. Many people think it is important to memorize this relationship (as well as the process
Knowledge Area relationship). The question is one of priority. There will probably be some
questions where it is important to know the relationships between processes/process
groups/Knowledge Areas. If you do not memorize the relationships you will probably still get
many of these right. If you can memorize the relationship you have a better chance to get
more of them right.
The process groups are not project phases. Process groups are a way to categorize the
project management processes. Phases are ways to decompose the work in the project life
cycle.
The process groups do not occur sequentially, although generally initiation comes first,
followed by planning, with closing comes at the end. However, the Planning process group,

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Executing process group and the Monitoring and Controlling process group will occur
iteratively throughout the project.
In the PMBOK Guide, there is more emphasis on projects and phases. This recognizes that
for large projects a phase can be thought of as a unique project. For instance, the Initiate
Process group is now executed at the beginning of a new project or the start of a new phase
within a project.
Understand how project information is collected, transformed, and distributed and understand
the terminology used as this information flows across the various processes used to manage
the project.

The Process Groups


Process Group Processes

4.1 Develop Project Charter


Initiating
13.1 Identify Stakeholders

4.2 Develop Project Management Plan


5.1 Plan Scope Management
5.2 Collect requirements
5.3 Define Scope
5.4 Create WBS
6.1 Plan Schedule Management
Planning 6.2 Define Activities
6.3 Sequence Activities
6.4 Estimate Activity Resources
6.5 Estimate Activity Durations
6.6 Develop Schedule
7.1 Plan Cost Management
7.2 Estimate Costs

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7.3 Determine Budget
8.1 Plan Quality Management
9.1 Plan Human ResourceManagement
10.1 Plan Communications Management
11.1 Plan Risk Management
11.2 Identify Risks
11.3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
11.4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
11.5 Plan Risk Responses
12.1 Plan Procurement Management
13.2 Plan Stakeholder Management
4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work
8.2 Perform Quality Assurance
9.2 Acquire Project Team
Executing 9.3 Develop Project Team
9.4 Manage Project Team
10.2 Manage Communications
12.2 Conduct Procurements
13.3 Manage Stakeholder Engagement
4.4 Monitor and Control Project Work
4.5 Perform Integrated Change Control
5.5 Validate Scope
5.6 Control Scope
6.7 Control Schedule
Monitoring and Controlling 7.4 Control Costs
8.3 Control Quality10.3 Control Communications
11.6 Control Risks
12.3 Control Procurements
13.4 Control Stakeholder Engagement

4.6 Close Project or Phase


Closing
12.4 Close Procurements

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Initiating Process Group

The Initiating Process Group includes those processes necessary for formally authorizing the
beginning of a new project, or to start a new phase of an existing project. The processes for
developing the Project Charter and initial project scope statement occur in the Initiating Process
Group.

As you study the Initiate Process Group, you will notice that the subject matter is specific in what
occurs and what is not included:

The business case assessment, approval and funding are handled external to the project
boundaries. Project boundaries are the point in time that a project or project phase has
been authorized to complete.
Initial scope is defined and initial financial resources are committed.
The project manager is selected and the project management team can help write the
project charter.
Stakeholders are identified and their expectations are aligned to the purpose of the
project and give them visibility of the scope and objectives. They should also be involved
to create this shared understanding.
The Initiating process can occur at both the beginning of a project or the beginning of a
phase.
Initiating processes can be performed at any level (i.e. organization, program, or portfolio)
and would be outside of the projects control.

The major project document from the Initiating process group is the project charter. The charter
is the initial document that describes the project at a high level and formally authorizes the
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project. PMI requires that a Project Charter be created and accepted before a project is
considered official. It is important to know that the project manager is assigned or selected in
Initiating. and can actually create the project charter.

Planning Process Group

The Planning Process Group includes those processes that establish the total scope of effort,
define and refine project objectives, and develop the course of action to attain them. All
Knowledge Areas have processes to create individual plans that are included in the Project
Management Plan, and identify and schedule the project activities.
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As you study the Planning Process Group, you will notice that the subject matter is specific in
helping you reach these determinations:

Refine project requirements, assumptions, and constraints through communication with


stakeholders and/or by reviewing project documents to baseline the scope of work and
enable development of the execution plan.
Determine project management process outputs by applying appropriate practices, tools,
and methodologies to ensure required product/service delivery.
Document project constraints through coordination with stakeholders and review of
policies and procedures to ensure compliance.
Document assumptions by determining information that must be validated or situations to
be controlled during the project in order to facilitate the project planning process.
Create the Work Breakdown Structure using the scope of work, other project documents,
and decomposition techniques to facilitate detailed project planning and the executing,
controlling, and closing process.
Develop the resource management plan (Human Resources, Procurement, etc.) by
identifying resource requirements and obtaining commitments from internal, external, and
procured sources to complete all project activities.
Refine project time and cost estimates by applying estimating tools and techniques to all
WBS tasks in order to determine project baseline, schedule, and budget.
Establish project controls by defining the required correct processes, measures and
controls to manage project change, communications, procurement, risk, quality, and
human resources to facilitate project executing and controlling processes, and to ensure
compliance with generally accepted industry standards.
Develop a formal and comprehensive project plan by integrating and documenting project
deliverables, acceptance criteria, processes, procedures, risks and tasks to facilitate
project executing, controlling and closing processes.
Obtain project plan approval by reviewing the plan with the client and other required
stakeholders to confirm project baselines prior to proceeding with project executing
processes.

The main purpose of planning is to provide a framework to gather information to produce a


project management plan. The majority of activities in the planning group center around
developing the supporting documents that comprise the final project management plan.
Planning is an iterative group of processes as well. As the project progresses it often becomes
necessary to modify the plan due to any number of reasons. Unexpected results, delays, outside
factors, and internal factors can all require additional planning. Any scope changes will also likely
require one or more planning processes to be revisited. Don't assume that planning is only
accomplished once. The exam requires that you understand how planning is iterative throughout
a project.

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Executing Process Group

The Executing Process Group consists of those processes necessary for completing the work
outlined in the Project Management Plan to satisfy the project specifications. The process for
directing and managing project work, which ensures that the Project Management Plan is
implemented properly, occurs in the Executing Process Group.
As you study the Executing Process Group, you will notice that the subject matter is specific in
helping you reach these determinations:

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Implement the project plan by authorizing the execution of project activities and tasks to
produce project deliverables.
Acquire project team members and commit project resources in accordance with the
project plan to ensure that all activities are performed.
Manage project progress by ensuring that activities are executed as planned in order to
achieve the project objectives.
Disposition of project information according to the communication plan that includes
project reports to provide timely and accurate project status and decision support
information to stakeholders.
Implement quality assurance procedures by performing project control activities to meet
project objectives.
Request Seller Responses and selection of sellers will occur

The Executing Process Groups function is to coordinate people and resources to complete
project work as outlined in the Project Management Plan and to meet project objectives.
According to the PMBOK, the executing process group contains processes performed to
complete the work defined in the Project Management Plan to accomplish the projects objectives
in the Project Scope Statement.

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Monitor and Control Process Group

The Monitoring and Controlling Process Group includes the processes for tracking and reviewing
progress and coordinating the progress and performance of the project. In essence, it monitors
the project work and controls changes along with recommending corrective or preventive action
to either bring the project back into compliance with the project plan or to circumvent problems
These processes provide a means to monitor project health and also point out areas that require
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more investigation. The processes for monitoring and controlling project work and implementing
integrated change control occur in the Monitor and Control Process Group.
As you study the Monitor and Control Process Group, you will notice that the subject matter is
specific in helping you reach these determinations:

Measure project performance continually by comparing results to the baseline in order to


identify project trends and variances.
Refine control limits on performance measures by applying established policy in order to
identify needs for corrective action.
Take timely corrective action by addressing the root causes in the problem areas in order
to eliminate or minimize negative impact.
Evaluate the effectiveness of the corrective actions by measuring the subsequent
performance in order to determine the need for further actions.
Ensure compliance with the change management plan by monitoring response to change
initiatives in order to manage scope.
Reassess project control plans by scheduling periodic reviews in order to ensure their
effectiveness and currency.
Respond to risk event triggers in accordance with the risk management plan in order to
properly manage project outcomes.
Monitor project activity by performing periodic inspections to ensure that authorized
approaches and processes are followed or to identify the need for corrective action.

Project control refers to all the activities and processes available to successfully manage project
risks. In essence, project control is all the effective activities that the project manager performs to
keep project performance and resource utilization at optimal levels. The magnitude and frequency
of these activities are dictated by the size and organizational impact of the project.

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Closing Process Group

The Closing Process group consists of those processes necessary for officially ending project
activities and handing off the completed product to others. This also includes closing a project
that has been canceled. In the PMBOK Guide, this closing process also covers end of phase
activities as well.
As you study the Closing Process Group, you will notice that the subject matter is specific in
helping you reach these determinations:

Obtain final acceptance of deliverables by obtaining formal approval from appropriate


stakeholders to achieve closeout.
Document lessons learned by surveying project team members and other relevant
stakeholders to use for the benefit of future projects.
Facilitate administrative and financial closure in accordance with the project plan in order
to comply with organization and stakeholder requirements.
Preserve essential project records and required tools by archiving them for future use to
adhere to legal and other requirements.
Release project resources by following appropriate organizational procedures in order to
optimize resource utilization.

Project closing is where you officially end a project phase or the project itself; release all the
resources that were assigned to your project, and build reference material for new projects.

Exam Note: Project processes are

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Linked by the results they producethe result or outcome of one becomes an input to
another
Overlapping activities, not discrete one-time events
Executed for the project as a whole, and for each phase within the project life cycle
Concerned with describing and organizing the work of the project. Product-oriented
processes are concerned with specifying and creating the project product and are defined
by the project life cycle

Project Information
This section focuses on how project data and information changes throughout the lifecycle of the
project and terms and definitions. This aligns with the DIKW (Data, Information, Knowledge and
Wisdom) model used in the field of Knowledge Management. You will notice that there are three
distinct inputs and outputs used in the processes. They each serve a different purpose depending
on the Process Group in which they are collected:
Work performance data: This is the raw data identified when project activities are
performed. This data has not undergone any changes and is collected in the Execution
processes. For example: percent of work completed, performance measures, change
requests.
Work performance information: This includes any performance information collected
and analyzed in the Controlling processes. Some of this information is used to provide
awareness of project work. For example: status of deliverables,change requests and,
forecasts.
Work performance reports: This includes any representation of how work is being
performed. It can take the form of physical reports or electronic representation of reports.
This information is used to make decisions, raise issues or take actions For example:
status reports, memos or, dashboards.
It is important to know how project information flows across the various processes within the
process groups. Figure 3-5 depicts the flow of information and how it aligns in the DIKW model:

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Role of the Knowledge Areas
It is recommended that you know Table 3-1. Project Management Process Group and Knowledge
Area Mapping. This chart shows how the processes are mapped to both the Process Groups and
Knowledge Areas. This will help in knowing where you are to determine which are the best
answers to a question on the PMP Exam. Most questions will have more than one likely
answer. Understanding what process is being addressed and which Process Group and
Knowledge Area the process is in will help to determine a correct answer.
These processes are also considered common processes and are used on most projects most of
the time. Knowing the project work these processes represent can provide the governance and
discipline for projects to have a better chance of success.
Also, each of the processes has a data flow diagram at the beginning of the section in the
PMBOK. These will show how other processes integrate and major inputs and outputs that are
passed between them. They also demonstrate some of the iterative nature of these processes
and can help connect the dots as you become more familiar with the material.

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Chapter 4 - Project Integration Management
Refer to pages 63 through 104 in the PMBOK Guide
Project Integration Management is the collection of processes required to ensure that the various
elements of the projects are properly coordinated. It looks at the big picture of the project. It is
made up of the day-to-day processes used to ensure that all of the parts of the project work
together. It recognizes that a change in one process may cause a change in another process. If
integration management were a clock, it would be the way all the clock gears work together to tell
the time. This is often the most difficult topic on the PMP exam.
Project Integration Management involves making tradeoffs among competing objectives and
alternatives to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations. The PMBOK Guide defines
Project Integration Management as: the processes and activities needed to identify, define,
combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within
the Project Management Process Groups. It also includes managing the interdependencies
among the Knowledge Areas.
According to the PMBOK Guide, the main areas of focus in Project Integration Management:
Develop Project Charter developing a document that formally authorizes that the
project exists and gives the project manager the authority to apply resources to perform
the project work
Develop Project Management Plan documenting the actions to define, prepare,
integrate, and coordinate all subsidiary plans
Direct and Manage Project Work leading and performing the work defined in the project
management plan and implementing any changes to achieve the projects objectives
Monitor and Control Project Work tracking, reviewing, and regulating the project
progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan
Perform Integrated Change Control reviewing and approving all change requests to
deliverables and all other project artifacts (e.g. organizational process assets, project
management plan) and communicating their outcomes
Close Project or Phase finalizing all activities across all process Groups to formally
complete the project or phase
Refer to PMBOK Guide Pgs 63 64
Some of the project management team duties in Integration are:
1. Develop, review, analyze and understand the project and product scope
2. Synthesize all project information to create a project management plan Perform activities
to produce project deliverables
3. Measure and monitor all aspects of the projects progress and take appropriate action to
meet project objectives
Exam Note: The project management plan guides the project manager. The purpose of the
project management plan is to communicate to the project team, stakeholders, and management
how the project will be executed, monitored and controlled, and closed.

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Project Integration Management Focus Areas
The following is a list of key concepts that you should understand for the PMP Exam. Refer
back to this list as you highlight key facts, terms and concepts as you read through the PMBOK
Guide.
Be familiar with Project Integration Management.
Know the processes of Project Integration.
Understand the Integration Management process flow.
Know the Input, Tools and Techniques, and Output for each phase.
Know key definitions (Refer to the PMBOK Guide glossary).
Know what a Project Charter is and the reasons for it.
Know how the project management plan is used.
The primary output of any planning is a project management plan or an update to an existing
project management plan.
You should know all of the components of the project management plan and how it is put
together.
Know that the project management plan is a formal, approved document.
Understand that the Configuration Management system is a component of Enterprise
Environmental Factors (i.e. Project Management Information System) and configuration
management knowledgebase is an element of Organizational Process Assets.
Know what each of the subsidiary project management plans are used for, where they are
created, how they can be updated, and their objectives.
Historical information is a key area of the exam. Historical information allows the project
manager to rely on what has been proven, what has been accomplished, and what has been
archived for reference.
Assumptions and constraints are present on every project. Assumptions are beliefs held to
be true, but not proven to be true. Assumptions should be documented in the project charter.
Constraints are restrictions the project must operate within (e.g. scope, quality, schedule,
budget).
Integrated Change Control requires evaluation of change requests and coordinating and
communicating approved changes across the project.
Closure activities include finalizing all work and allows resources to be released for other
organizational work
Know the value of historical information and lessons learned.

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Develop Project Charter
To begin the project, a project charter is needed. The project charter is a formal document that
brings the project into existence. The Charter formally authorizes the project to begin and names
the project manager. It is recommended that the project manager participate in the creation of the
project charter, since the charter provides the project manager with the authority to apply
resources to project activities. It will also contain a brief business case showing the justification
for the project.
The project charter is authorized by someone external to the project (Sponsor, PMO, Portfolio
steering committee). The project initiator or sponsor should fund the project. They could create
the charter or delegate it to the project manager, however their signature authorizes the project.
Key Inputs
Project Statement of Work - A narrative description of products or services to be supplied
by the project. It references a business need, product scope description (requirements
and characteristics), and strategic plan.
Business Case - provides information from a business perspective to determine whether
to invest in the project. The Business Case is created as a result of the following, which
are why projects get initiated and chartered:
o Market demand
o Organizational need
o Customer request
o Technological advance
o Legal requirement
o Ecological impacts
o Social need
Agreement defines intentions for a project and include contracts, memos of
understanding (MOU), Service Level Agreements (SLA), or other written agreements.
This is typically used as if the project is being done for an external customer
Enterprise Environmental Factors a common input and output to many processes.
Refer to PMBOK Guide Pg 29
Organizational Process Assets - a common input and output to many processes. Refer
to PMBOK Guide Pgs 27-28
Key Outputs
Project Charter - The Project Charter should address:
o Project purpose or justification
o Measureable project objectives and success criteria
o High level requirements
o Assumptions and constraints
o High level project description and boundaries
o High level risks
o Summary milestone schedule
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o Summary budget
o Stakeholder list
o Project approval requirements
o PM assigned, responsibility and authority level
o Name and authority of sponsor or other person(s) authorizing the project charter
o Business need
o Understanding of customers needs

(Refer to section 4.1.3 in the PMBOK Guide Pgs 71 72)

Exam Note: Know the components of the Project Charter noted above. Additionally, know the
following key points:
It is the document that formally authorizes a project
Provides authority to the project manager
It is created and signed by a sponsor or initiator with the authority to authorize and fund
the project

Project Manager Role

Prior to the Project Manager being assigned to a project, the sponsor or initiator justifies the
project by creating a business case which includes business need (e.g. market demand,
customer request, legal requirement) and project selection method(s). The project selection
method(s) could be in some form of a cost-benefit analysis. It should also align with the
organizations strategy.

Once the project manager is assigned to the project, one of the first things that should be done is
to perform an assessment on current environment with the sponsor, customer and other subject
matter experts. This review is intended to validate the business case along with identifying and
documenting high-level risks, assumptions, and constraints. This will help in the evaluation of the
feasibility of products, services or results within these aspects of the project. It will also provide
the project manager with the ability to identify limitations of the project and propose an
implementation approach.

The project manager can also be assigned to actually create the Project Charter if the sponsor or
initiator delegates this work to them.

The major deliverable of this process is, of course, Project Charter and it is a cornerstone of the
project. It identifies the product, service or result, documents the business need and contains
some high level measurements (e.g. objectives, success criteria).

The approval of the Project Charter, signified by the Initiators signature, formally authorizes the
project and, most importantly, assigns authority to the project manager. This provides the project
manager with the ability to begin utilizing resources on the project to create the product, service
or result.

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Develop Project Management Plan
The Develop Project Management Plan process includes the actions necessary to define,
prepare, integrate, and coordinate all subsidiary plans. The project management plan content will
vary depending upon the application area and complexity of the project.
All Knowledge Areas have processes that create subsidiary plans to be included in the Project
Management Plan. Once baselined, these plans can be progressively elaborated by changes
during the execution of the project work. However these changes must be controlled and
approved through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.
Key Outputs
Project Management Plan. Key points for the Project Management Plan:
o It should have input from stakeholders and executive management
o It documents the collection of the plans from the planning processes in the Planning
Process Group
o It also includes the baselines from the Planning Process Group such as cost,
schedule, and scope
o Project Management Plan includes:
Project management processes to use and level of implementation
Tools and techniques
How changes will be monitored and controlled
Description of how project work will be executed to accomplish project objectives
Methods for maintaining the integrity of the performance measurement baseline
Communication needs and techniques
The selected project life cycle and associated phases
Key management reviews
Other management plans (scope, schedule, cost, quality, staffing, comm., risk,
procurement)
o Subsidiary plans in the Project Management Plan include(but not limited to):
Scope management plan
Requirements management plan
Schedule management plan
Cost management plan
Quality management plan
Process improvement plan
Human resource management plan
Communications management plan
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Risk management plan
Procurement management plan
Stakeholder management plan
Other components: Baselines from the planning process such as scope,
schedule, cost
There are several baselines established and documented in the Project Management Plan. This
provides a basis for measuring work performed during the project against what was planned to be
accomplished. For example, a cost baseline is created during planning based on project scope
utilizing estimating techniques. This cost baseline is a budget plan, or what is planned to be spent
for the project. Once the project work is being executed, actuals are gathered and then compared
against the plan in order to manage project cost.
Exam Note: Be familiar with the project management plan, how it is used, and its subsidiary
plans.
Exam Note: Project Management Plan vs. Project Documents the PMBOK Guide calls out
the distinction between what is contained within the Project Management Plan and other project
documents that are used within a project.
Refer to PMBOK Guide, Table 4-1 on page 78
Project Management Plan: subsidiary plans and baselines
Project Documents: Assist in managing the project but not part of the Project Management Plan

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Direct and Manage Project Work
Direct and Manage Project Work is the process of leading and performing the work defined in the
project management plan and implementing any approved changes in order to achieve the
projects objectives. The project manager along with the project management team directs the
project activities, and manages the various technical and organizational interfaces within the
project.
Defect repair, corrective and preventive actions are required components in the PMBOK
Guides definition of Direct and Manage Project Work. Refer to section 4.3 in the PMBOK
Guide. The Direct and Manage Project Work process is the process in which approved changes,
defect repairs, corrective actions, and preventive actions are implemented.
Directing and managing the execution of project work includes but is not limited to:
Perform project activities to accomplish project objectives
Create project deliverables for the planned project work
Provide, manage and train, assigned team members
Obtain manage and use resources
Implement planned methods, standards, etc.
Establish and manage project communication channels
Generate work performance data (cost, schedule, technical, quality) to facilitate
forecasting
Issue change requests and implement approved changes
Manage risks and implement risk responses
Manage sellers and suppliers
Collect & document lessons learned and implement approved process improvements
Key Outputs
Deliverables - Unique and verifiable product, result or capability to perform a service
Project Document Updates - Updates to various project documents, which can include
requirements documentation, issue log, risk register, stakeholder register, etc
Project Management Plan Updates - Updates to various individual management plans or
baselines
Change requests - Changes requested to expand or reduce scope, modify policies,
procedures, elements of the plan, which are identified while project work is performed.
Change requests can be internal, external, optional, contractual, legally mandatory.
Change requests also include:
o Corrective action - Documented direction for bringing expected performance into
conformance with the plan
o Preventive action - Documented direction to perform an activity to reduce the
probability of negative impact associated with project risks

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o Defect repair - Documented request to repair a defect in a project component
Work Performance Data - Raw data identified during the performance of activities. These
are observations and measurements that represent the lowest level of detail. This data is
gathered during execution and passed to controlling processes for further analysis. It
includes, but is not limited to:
o Key performance indicators
o Technical performance measures
o Start/End dates of schedule activities
o Number of change requests and defects
o Actuals (e.g. costs, durations)
o
Project Management Information System (PMIS)
The PMIS is a part of the Enterprise Environmental Factors and provides access to automated
tools to assist in directing and managing the project work. It can include tools such as
configuration management, scheduling software, and interfaces to other automated systems.
Exam Notes:
As with all processes in the PMBOK Guide, Direct and Manage Project Work will have
the inputs, the tools and techniques, and the outputs listed. When reviewing the
PMBOK Guide, one of the things to be aware of is what the inputs versus the outputs
are. In many cases, on the PMP exam, a question will be raised to select which is not
an input to a particular process, and the answer will list three inputs and then the fourth
option, which happens to be an output from the very same process. Be sure to study and
know inputs and outputs.

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Monitor and Control Project Work
The Monitor and Control Project Work process tracks, reviews, and regulates progress to meet
the performance objectives defined in the project management plan.
Monitoring focuses on collecting and measuring information and assessing the measurements
and trends. Continuous monitoring focuses on the health of the project and any areas that may
require special attention. Control focuses on identifying corrective or preventive actions to get
back in alignment with the project management plan. Key words or phrases that apply to the
Monitor and Control process are:
Collecting
Comparing
Assessing
Analyzing
Measuring
Documenting
Forecasting
Key activities in this process include but are not limited to:
Collecting, measuring and disseminating performance information, identifying areas that
require special attention
Comparing actual performance against the plan
Determining the need to take preventive or corrective actions
Analyzing, tracking and monitoring project risks
Maintaining an accurate information base about the product of the project (and
associated documentation)
Providing info for status reporting, progress measurement and forecasting
Forecasting about schedule and cost
Monitoring approved changes
Exam Note: Work performance information is transformed into work performance data collected
from controlling processes. Since the raw data cannot be used in making decisions, it is used to
create work performance information which can be used to make project decisions. The work
performance information is then used to create work performance reports which are an output of
this process. Refer to the Project Information section in the PMBOK Guide on pages 58 59
and review the relationship of the Execution, Controlling and Overall Project Control to the flow of
project information.

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Perform Integrated Change Control
Refer to section 4.5 in the PMBOK Guide. The purpose of integrated change control is to
influence factors that create change so the change is beneficial, determine when a change has
occurred, and manage actual changes when they do occur. This process is concerned with
coordinating changes across the entire project and is performed from project inception through
completion.. The Project Manager uses the Perform Integrated Change Control process to:
Identify that a change needs to occur or has occurred
Evaluate change requests
Influence circumventing factors, so that only approved changes are implemented
Review and approving requested changes, documenting the impact
Manage approved changes, when and as they occur
Provide oversight of the methods for managing changes
Review and approve all recommended corrective and preventive actions
Provide updates concerning changes to the project management plan and baselines. Any
changes to scope, cost, time, risk, and scheduling along with any other attributes of the
project management plan must be revised and documented. In addition to having the
project management plan updated, any supporting detail used in the decision to include
the change should be included in the project planning supporting detail.
Maintain product configuration
Integrated change control captures the essence of change. The Project Manager takes the
project management plan, work performance reports and change requests and puts them through
the change control system. The Project Manager gets change requests updates (approved or
rejected), project management plan updates (based on the approved changes), and change log
updates.
The change control system is a collection of formal documented procedures that define how
project deliverables and documentation are controlled, changed, and approved. The change
control system is a subsystem of the configuration management system. It is often a subset of the
configuration management system.
Many times, the integrated change control process includes a change control board (CCB)
responsible for approving and rejecting the requested changes. It is defined as a formally
constituted group of stakeholders responsible for reviewing, evaluating, approving, delaying, or
rejecting changes to the project, with all decisions and recommendations being recorded and
communicated.
Exam Note: A change control system consists of a collection of formal, documented procedures,
tracking systems, management practices and approval levels for authorizing project changes.
Configuration Control
Refer to PMBOK Guide Pgs 96-97
Configuration control is different than change control since it is focused on specifications of both
deliverables and processes. Change control is focused only on changes to project documents,
deliverables or baselines.
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Configuration management activities included in the Integrated Change Control process are
described in PMBOK Guide section 4.5, Pgs. 96 - 97:
Configuration Identification - Providing the basis from which the configuration of products
is defined and verified, products and documents are labeled, changes are managed, and
accountability is maintained.
Configuration Status Accounting - Capturing, storing, and accessing configuration
information needed to manage products and product information effectively.
Configuration Verification and Audit - Establishing that the performance and functional
requirements defined in the configuration documentation have been met.
When it comes to configuration management, think about what is involved in documenting every
single component of a system deliverable and making sure that there are no changes to that
deliverable, or if there are changes, that they are thoroughly documented. Configuration
management is traceable. For the exam, know that all change must be screened, tracked,
accepted, approved, and the development process updated thereafter.

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Close Project or Phase
(Refer to Section 4.6 in the PMBOK Guide, pp. 100 - 104)
In multi-phase projects, the Close Project or Phase process closes out the portion of the project
scope and associated activities applicable to a given phase. The Project Manager reviews all
information to ensure that all project work is complete and that the project has met its objectives.
The project scope is measured against the project management plan to ensure completion.
Close Project or Phase also addresses projects terminated before completion. It is the process
where the termination is investigated and the reasons for termination are documented.
Lastly, it includes the administrative closure of the project:
Activities necessary to satisfy phase-gate or project exit criteria
Activities necessary to transfer the projects deliverables to the next phase, production, or
operations
Activities needed to collect project records, analyze project success or failure, gather lessons
learned, and archive project information for future use by the organization.
Key Outputs
Final Product, Service, or Result Transition
o Transition of the project deliverable that the project was authorized to produce
Organizational process assets (updates)
o Formal acceptance documentation. The formal proof that customer or sponsor
has received and officially accepted the projects product or service.
o Project files - Documentation resulted from project activities, plans, baselines,
calendars, risk registers, planned risk response actions, other project documents.
o Project or phase closure documents - Formal documentation indicating the
completion of the project or phase and transfer the deliverables.
o Historical information - Any information that might be useful in future projects.

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Project Integration Management
Inputs, Tools/Techniques, and Outputs
Develop Project Charter

Develop Project Management Plan

Direct and Manage Project Work

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Monitor and Control Project Work

Perform Integrated Change Control

Close Project or Phase

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Chapter 5 - Project Scope Management
Refer to pages 105 through 140 in the PMBOK Guide
To work through Scope management effectively, you are going to need to invest some time in the
first four chapters of the Guide to the PMBOK Guide. The key is to study the other areas of the
PMBOK Guide and relate them back to their impact on scope.
Project scope management, according to the PMBOK Guide, constitutes 'the processes to
ensure that the project includes all of the work required, and only the work required, to complete
the project successfully. There are six processes of Project Scope Management:
Plan Scope Management
Collect Requirements
Define Scope
Create WBS
Validate Scope
Control Scope
Exam Notes - In project context, the term scope can refer to:
1. Product Scope - Features and functions that characterize a product, service or result
2. Project Scope - The work that needs to be accomplished to deliver a product, service or
result with the specified features and functions
3. Project Scope Management is the ability to get the required work done, and only the
required work, to complete the project.
4. Project Scope Management is measured against the Project Management Plan, Scope
Statement, the WBS and WBS Dictionary.
5. Product Scope is measured against the product requirements. The customer generally
provides this information.

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Project Scope Management Focus Areas
The following is a list of key concepts that you should understand for the PMP Exam. Refer
back to this list as you highlight key facts, terms and concepts as you read through the PMBOK
Guide.
Understand the Project Scope Management processes
There are two key themes in this chapter you'll encounter on the exam: Scope and the WBS
Know the Input, Tools and Techniques, and Output for each phase
Know the difference between project and product scope
Unless the exam is talking about features and characteristics of the project deliverables, it will
be referring to the project scope
Know what a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is and how it is used
Know what a work package is and how it relates to the WBS
The WBS is the one of the most important outputs from this process. The WBS is used as
input into seven other processes and is an element of the Scope baseline
Know that WBS templates can come from previous projects and/or the project management
office if the organization has one
There are bound to be questions on Validate Scope. Know that Validate Scope is the process
of formalizing acceptance of completed project deliverables. By contrast, Control Quality is
interested in making sure the deliverable is correct and that the deliverable meets the quality
criteria. Know the difference between these two processes.
Know what Control Scope is and how it is used
Be familiar with Scope Creep and that it is managed through the Control Scope process
Be familiar with the Scope Management process flow and how the deliverables in Project
Scope Management flow to Project Time Management to create the full schedule.

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Plan Scope Management
This process creates the plan that documents the processes that will be used to manage the
scope and requirements of the project. The primary purpose of these plans is to reduce the
probability of scope creep thereby preventing risk to the project constraints (i.e. time, cost,
resources). Scope creep is defined as the uncontrolled expansion of product or project
scope . without adjustments to these constraints.
The two outputs from this process are the plans for managing both scope and requirements and
are components of the Project Management Plan.
Scope Management Plan
This plan contains all of the processes to define, develop, monitor, control, and verify the project
and product scope. It is a major input to the Develop Project management Plan and three other
scope management processes: Collect Requirements, Define Scope, and Create WBS. and the
Scope Management Plan also details the processes used for creating the outputs from these
three processes.
Requirements Management Plan
The phase to phase relationship in the project life cycle (described in section 2.4.2.1) has a
significant influence in the creation of this plan. It takes into account the type of life cycle that will
be utilized in the project work (e.g. Iterative, predictive adaptive) and is documented in this plan. It
also can include how the requirements will be tracked and reported along with the planning
approach, how they will be prioritized, any configuration management activities and how they will
be measured to determine progress against the schedule.
Traceability structures may also be described (i.e. requirements traceability matrix) and how they
would be utilized to ensure all requirements are included in the project deliverables.

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Collect Requirements
Be familiar with the description for project requirements (project management concerns, delivery
requirements, etc.) and product requirements (technical specifications, security, performance,
etc.). Also remember that the PMBOK Guide is not stating that all requirements should be
gathered at once or that they all must be gathered in the early Planning Process Group. The
requirements are gathered in enough detail to understand the deliverables and to build the WBS.
However, the detailed requirements can be gathered later or iteratively once the project begins
execution.
Requirements Gathering Techniques
Be aware of the techniques available to gather requirements, including interviews, focus groups,
facilitated workshops, group creativity, group decision-making techniques, questionnaires,
observations, prototypes, benchmarking, context diagrams, and document analysis. Some of
these are highlighted below:
Group Creativity Techniques
The section also describes a number of group creativity techniques
Brainstorming
Nominal group
Idea/mind mapping
Affinity diagram
Multicriteria decisions analysis
Group Decision-making techniques
Unanimity
Majority
Plurality
Dictatorship
Whenever the PMBOK describes a list of techniques in this way, it is possible that there could
be questions on the exam.
Context Diagrams
This is a visual representation of the scope in a model that can show a business system and how
people and systems interact with it. It can show the inputs and how the actors (system or people)
can provide input, how the outputs are produced and the actors actually receiving the output. This
technique can provide a means to present the proposed solution in a more graphical way to
visualize how the scope will be developed.
Requirements Documentation
This can be a very simple list of all the requirements or more sophisticated containing detailed
descriptions of the requirements, an executive summary and attachments. Some of these
components can include a number of sections:

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Business requirements:
o Business/project objectives for traceability
o Business rules (performing organization)
o Guiding principles
Stakeholder requirements:
o Impacts to other organizational areas/ entities (internal and external)
o Stakeholder communication/reporting requirements
Solution requirements
o Functional/non-functional requirements
o Compliance requirements (Technology/Standards)
o Support/Training requirements
o Quality requirements
o Reporting requirements
Project requirements
o Service level (i.e. performance, safety, compliance)
o Acceptance criteria
Transition requirements
Requirements assumptions, dependencies, and constraints
Requirements Traceability Matrix
It is important that you are able to track your requirements through the project. This ensures all of
the approved requirements are in the final solution, and it also ensures that no requirements are
added that are not a part of the approved requirements. This helps with the main purpose of
scope management which is to ensure all of the approved work gets done, but only the approved
work.
The Requirements Management Plan and Requirements Traceability Matrix are key outputs of
this process and both will help ensure that only the approved requirements are in the final
solution.

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Define Scope
Define scope takes the Project Charter and develops a more detailed description of the project
and the product.
Project Scope Statement
The major deliverable of this process, the Project Scope Statement, is used as input into the next
process of Create WBS, but it is used as input into four other processes as well in this Knowledge
Area and in the Project Time Management Knowledge Area. This document contains items such
as
Product scope description
Acceptance criteria
Deliverable
Project exclusions
Project constraints
Assumptions
It is extremely important for the PM to identify the influence and interests of the various
stakeholders and document their needs, wants, and expectations.
The project scope statement goes into more detail about the project than the project charter. Here
is a short comparison of the two documents.

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Exam Notes:
The project scope statement contains detailed description of both project and product
scope elements. The project charter contains high level information that is used in the
Define Scope process to develop this detail.
The project scope statement contains both project and product scope and the work to be
performed to create the major deliverables to fulfill this scope.
Be sure to thoroughly review the different sections of the Project Scope Statements. This
is one of the most important deliverables coming out of the Planning Process Group.

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Create WBS
The WBS is a hierarchical decomposition of the work required to complete the project. WBS
elements are usually numbered, and the numbering system may be arranged in various ways.
Creation of the WBS also generates a companion document called the WBS Dictionary that has
additional details to further explain and describe each component. (See WBS Dictionary
below.) The primary purpose of the WBS is to develop or create small manageable chunks of
work called work packages.
The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a central point of the project planning effort. No realistic
overall project plan is possible without first developing a WBS that is detailed enough to provide
meaningful identification of all project tasks that must be accomplished. The process of creating
the WBS is very important, because during the process of breaking down the project, the project
manager, the staff, and all involved functional managers are forced to think through all aspects of
the project.
In Create WBS, the focus of the WBS is to identify all of the deliverables and work packages.
Work packages are groupings of activities, which are distinct, assignable work that is performed
that result in work products or deliverables.
The Project Scope Statement, WBS and WBS Dictionary are elements of the Scope Baseline.
This Scope Baseline is an input to seven other processes in the Project Scope Management,
Project Time Management, Project Cost Management and Project Quality Management
Knowledge Areas.
The WBS:
Identifies the deliverables and the smaller work packages that make up each deliverable.
When the deliverable and work packages are identified, the WBS is completed.
Is one of the most important project management tools
Serves as the foundation for planning, estimating, and project control
Visualizes the entire project
Notes that work NOT included in the WBS is NOT part of the project
Builds team buy-in to the project
The project managers ability to plan, manage, and control the project is enhanced when
the work is decomposed at a greater level of detail
Although greater detail is optimal, excessive decomposition can actually be non-
productive since this may prohibit efficient use of resources and the ability to aggregate
over different levels of the WBS
Allows for more accurate cost and time estimates
Serves as deterrent to scope creep
Includes project management work as well

These smallest tasks, called work packages, must be identified as manageable units that can be
planned, budgeted, scheduled, and controlled. The WBS indicates the relationship of the
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organizational structure to the project objectives and tasks, and so provides a firm basis for
planning and controlling the project.
WBS should not be confused with:
Organizational breakdown structure
Bill of Materials
Risk breakdown structure
Resource breakdown structure
Decomposition
Decomposition is the process of breaking the deliverables into smaller, more manageable
components, or work packages.
Expert Judgment
It is likely that the project team does not fully understand the nature of all deliverables that are
built far in the future. In that case it is not possible to identify the work packages. These
deliverables and work packages need to be defined further as the project progresses. This
technique of building some deliverables while continuing to plan for others in the future is called
rolling wave planning.
WBS Dictionary
The WBS Dictionary is a document generated as part of creating a WBS. The dictionary includes
the account identifier, statement of work, responsible organization and a list of scheduled
milestones along with other pertinent information. As the WBS is a hierarchical diagram of the
project work packages, the dictionary provides additional detail information to help everyone
better understand each component in the WBS.
Exam Notes:
You should know all the benefits and uses of the WBS. Most importantly, you should
know that a work breakdown structure is a decomposition of the project work that has to
be done.
Remember that the WBS contributes to customer communication.

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Validate Scope
Scope verification is the process of formalizing acceptance of the project scope by the
stakeholders. It requires reviewing work products and results to ensure that everything was
completed correctly and satisfactorily. Scope verification occurs at the end of each project phase,
and as part of the project closeout process. Scope verification is concerned with stakeholder
acceptance of the work. When acceptance is not received, the component or task must be
reworked.
Dont get this confused with a related activity, Quality Control (QC) (see Project Quality). QC is
concerned with the correctness of the work. Scope verification and quality control happen in
tandem as the quality of the work contributes to scope verification. Poor quality will typically result
in scope verification failure.

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Control Scope
Control Scope is the process of monitoring the status of project and product scope and managing
changes to the scope baseline (remember that the baseline is the initial approved scope plus all
approved changes). Because changes are likely to happen within any project, there must be a
way to process, document, and manage the changes.
Scope Creep
Scope Creep in project management refers to uncontrolled changes in a project's scope. Scope
creep occurs when either new products are added without authorization, or new features are
added to already approved products without approval.
Integrated Change Control
Control scope and Perform Integrated Change Control (4.5) are closely tied. The project manager
should identify changes to scope in Control Scope. The actual changes can be managed in this
process. However, all changes must also be processed through Perform Integrated Change
Control. This ensures that all aspects of the change are analyzed and managed. A scope change
request might impact the project budget, schedule, quality, etc., and all of these aspects need to
be understood and managed.
Exam Notes:
Know and understand Scope Creep.
Integrated change control refers to the idea that scope changes may lead to and require
changes to cost, time, quality, or other project aspects. If a scope change is approved,
there are many baseline deliverable that may need to be updated, including the scope
statement, WBS, scope baseline, schedule baseline, etc.

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Learning Project Scope Management Inputs, Tools/Techniques,
Outputs
Plan Scope Mangement

Collect Requirements

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Define Scope

Create WBS

Validate Scope

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Control Scope

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Chapter 6 - Project Time Management
The PMBOK Guide describes project time management as the process used to manage timely
completion of the project. It separates the function of Project Time Management into six phases:
Plan Schedule Management
Define Activities
Sequence Activities
Estimate Activity Resources
Estimate Activity Durations
Develop Schedule
Control Schedule
(See Chapter 6 pp. 140 - 141 in the PMBOK Guide)
Review Figure 6-1 on page 143 in the PMBOK Guide.
Effective project management requires adequate time for planning - and based on the results of
planning, adequate time for implementation of those plans. In this chapter, we'll discuss how
project activities are decomposed and then how the work packages are sequenced, calculated,
and accounted for. We'll also discuss the art and science of estimating the time for work
packages in new and familiar projects. Once the work's been decomposed, we'll create and
visualize the network diagram.
Time management is an essential element on the PMP exam. You'll need a solid understanding
of the activities and methods to predict and account for project time. Time management is crucial
to not only passing the PMP exam, but also to successful project management

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Project Time Management Focus Areas
The following is a list of key concepts that you should understand for the PMP Exam. Refer
back to this list as you highlight key facts, terms and concepts as you read through the
PMBOK Guide.
Be familiar with what Project Time Management is
Know the phases of Project Time Management
Know the Input, Tools and Techniques, and Output for each phase
Be familiar with the Time Management process flow
Know what float is and how to determine how much is available.
Know the Types of Float
Know that float is sometimes called slack
Understand the concept of critical path and how to determine critical path.
Know that the critical path has zero float, and is the longest duration to completion.
There can be more than one critical path in a network diagram.
Know that the critical path may change.
Know how to facilitate recovery through techniques such as crashing, fast tracking,
managing slack and overtime.
Know that Crashing adds more resources to activities to decrease their duration, which
typically adds cost
Know that Fast tracking encourages tasks to happen concurrently. This generally
increases risk and possibly rework.
Lag is a positive time added to a task to indicate waiting.
Lead is negative time added to a task to 'hurry up.'
Understand the logical relationships between tasks and know how to calculate FS, FF,
SS, SF
Precedence Diagramming Method ( (PDM) is also Activity on Node (AON)
Know the four types of dependencies (Precedence Relationships) with a PDM diagram
Be familiar with the different types of scheduling charts (Bar Charts (Gantt), Milestone,
Network Diagrams)
Understand the two commonly used formulas utilizing three point estimating: Triangular
and Beta Distribution (traditional; Program Evaluation & Review Technique (PERT))
You should understand how activity duration estimates are created. Refer to Estimate
Activity Durations Tools & Techniques, pp. 169 - 170 of the PMBOK Guide
Understand the difference between Resource Leveling (resource constraints) and
Resource Smoothing (resource limits)

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Be familiar with the Dependency Determinations
Know key definitions (see list in study notes or PMBOK Guide glossary).

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Define Activities
The Define Activities process will create the activities that make up the work packages defined in
the work breakdown structure WBS) The decomposition technique is also used here to subdivide
the project scope and project deliverables into these smaller, more manageable components.
These activities are the actual work planned to be performed to create the project and product
deliverables. By subdividing them into more sufficient detail it provides the project team the
information to determine more accurate estimates and a basis for scheduling, executing,
monitoring and controlling the project work.
The major difference between work packages and activities is that work packages are defined
based on deliverables, activities are defined based on the effort needed to complete the work
package. Rolling Wave Planning is often used when defining activities and is a form of
progressive elaboration. Work in the near or short term is planned in detail and future work
remains planned at a higher level of the WBS. As the future work becomes short-term, it is then
planned at a detail level (into activities) as more is known about this work. For larger and longer
projects this technique allows for work packages and activities to be decomposed when enough
information is available about the characteristics of the work. For example, if future work is
planned at too detailed of a level early in the project then this work would need to be re-planned
when the characteristics of the project work is more well defined.
Exam Note: the Project Team performs Define Activities.
Exam Note: The primary input to Define Activities is the scope baseline, which includes the
project scope statement, WBS, and WBS Dictionary.

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Sequence Activities
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
PDM is also referred to as Activity-on-Node (AON). The PDM puts the activities in boxes, called
nodes, and connects the boxes with arrows. The arrows represent the relationship and the
dependencies of the work packages.
Example:

PDM includes four types of dependencies or precedence relationships:


Finish-to-Start
Finish-to-Finish
Start-to-Start
Start-to-Finish
Example

Exam Note: You will be asked to evaluate the scheduling impact to changes in start or end
dates. The overall impact to the project depends on the type of relationship between activities.
Take the time to really understand the question being asked, before you draw any diagrams.
Dependencies - (PMBOK Guide Section 6.3.2.2)
Mandatory dependencies: Often involve physical or technological limitations of the
work; for example, a prototype must be built before it can be tested
Discretionary dependencies: Also referred to as preferred logic, preferential logic
or soft logic and are based on knowledge of best practices within a particular
application area.

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External dependencies: Any input that is needed from another project or source
outside the project team. The project team usually has no control over these
dependencies.
Internal dependencies: This type of dependency involves a relationship between
activities within the project that the team has some level of control.
Leads & Lags - Refer to PMBOK Guide pp. 158 - 159
Lead - allows an acceleration of the successor activity
Lag - directs a delay in the successor activity

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Estimate Activity Resources
This is the process for estimating how many and what kind of resources are needed to perform
the schedule activity and takes place before the Estimate Activity Durations and Develop
Schedule processes. The project manager must have a good idea of the quantity and type of
resources needed for each activity and should consider some important questions when thinking
through these resource needs:
How difficult will it be to complete specific activities on this project?
What is the organizations history in doing similar activities?
Are the required resources available?
Once these questions are thought through, the project manager can then determine the types of
resources (people, equipment, materials) needed in order to create:
Detailed description of each resource:
o People - qualifications, expertise, etc.
o Equipment and material - technical specs, quantities
Information for HR and Procurement
Indication on how to acquire resources (e.g. make-or-buy, in-house or outsourcing)
This is especially important for complex projects, requiring multidisciplinary teams and various
technical processes and resources (e.g. System Integration projects). It is a first step in saving
costs since it helps verify the WBS and Activity List and provides the big picture of ALL
resources, not only human resources (these are addressed in the Staffing Management Plan).
The Activity Resource Requirements also are important to other Planning processes like Human
Resource Planning.
There are several tools and techniques used in estimating resource needs to complete the project
work. Be familiar with them and understand that one or more of these can be utilized:
Expert Judgment: Used when specialized knowledge is required
Alternative Analysis: Used when there are different options can be employed. For
example a make, rent, or buy option could yield utilization of Procurement processes
Published Estimating Data: Used when industry based knowledge is available
Bottom-Up Estimating: Used when a more confident estimate is required. This
technique decomposes activities to a reasonable degree of confidence and then is
aggregated to a higher level. The WBS can serve as a means to perform the estimates
Project Management Software: Used when project management software is available
that contains some basic elements for the estimates (e.g. resource breakdown
structures, resource availability and rates, resource calendars)

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Estimate Activity Durations
This process utilizes many tools and techniques to create estimates that are as accurate as
possible for the defined project activities. It takes the activities and resources and determines the
number of work periods for each individual activity to be completed. The project manager can rely
on a number of estimating methods to come to a predicted duration for activities. This process
creates the major inputs needed in the Develop Schedule process (Activity Resource
Requirements and Resource Breakdown Structure).
Expert Judgment
This method is used when the project manager does not have the expertise or prior knowledge to
accurately estimate an activity. An expert, a person who has specialized knowledge or has
performed this type of work many times, is asked to provide estimates. This method will improve
the accuracy of the activity estimate.
Analogous Estimates
Analogous estimating means that you use the actual time frame from a pervious, similar project
as the basis for estimating the time frame for the current project. The underlying premise is that
this project is analogous to that project. Because we know how long that project took, we can
estimate how long this project will take. Analogous estimating is used when little information is
known about the current project or when two projects appear similar. Of course, if they appear
similar but, in fact, are not, the estimate is inaccurate. Analogous estimation is good for ball-park
figures but not for precise estimations of a project or timeline development
Parametric Estimating
Parametric modeling involves using variables from the project description in a mathematical
formula to develop an estimate. For example, if you know the number of units that will be involved
and how long it takes to create one unit, you can estimate the amount of time it takes to create
1000 units. If it takes your team 10 minutes a unit and you need 1000 units then it will take 10,000
minutes, which is 167 hours or a little over four weeks for development. The formula is simple: the
number of units multiplied by the amount of time each unit takes to create equals the total amount
of effort needed for development.
Three Points estimating
It makes sense in the real world that you do not really know how long a particular activity will take,
especially with certain activities such as research and development. In this case, we can look at
the project completion time in a probabilistic fashion and for each activity we can define:
1. Optimistic time estimate: an estimate of the minimum time an activity will require.
2. Most likely time estimate: an estimate of the normal time an activity will require.
3. Pessimistic time estimate: an estimate of the maximum time an activity will require.
Project managers can use three-point estimating to gain a greater degree of control over how the
end value is calculated
There are two types of three-point estimating:
Triangular Distribution: Yields an average of the three points: (O+M+P) / 3

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Beta Distribution (traditional PERT); Yields an average weighted towards the Most Likely
Estimate: (O + 4M + P) / 6
Group Decision Making Techniques
There are several techniques that are included in this category and they are based upon team-
based approaches. There are several reasons for employing this method, one of which provides
team building efforts to getting more commitment to the estimates and the project work:
Delphi: Utilizes a group of experts to reach a consensus. The key to this technique is that
the information is gathered anonymously from these experts to prevent the estimate from
being influenced
Brainstorming: Bringing the project team together to explore all available options. There
is no judgment of the contributions and is a forum for creativity
Nominal Group: Brainstorming (sometimes performed anonymously within the group) that
also ranks options through a voting process for additional brainstorming.
Reserve Analysis
This is used by the project manager as a buffer for schedule risk. It is also referred to as
contingency. This can be calculated as a percentage of schedule activity or a fixed lump sum. It
can also be calculated through quantitative risk analysis if it is intended to address specific risk
concerns.
Effort is the number of workdays or work hours required to complete a task. Effort does not
normally equal duration. People doing the work should help create estimates, and the PM should
review them. Duration estimating is assessing the number of work periods (hours, days, weeks,)
likely to be needed to complete each activity. Duration estimates always include some indication
of the range of possible results, for example, 2 weeks + or 2 days or 85% probability that the
activity will take less than 3 weeks. Estimate Activity Durations:
Perform reality checks on schedules.
Allow for contingencies.
Dont plan for everyone to work at 100 percent capacity all the time.
Hold progress meetings with stakeholders and be clear and honest in communicating
schedule issues.
Goals are to know the status of the schedule, influence factors that cause schedule
changes, determine that the schedule has changed, and manage changes when they
occur.
Exam Note: On the exam, anticipate a number of questions that are going to come up in terms of
durations, resources, and their level of productivity. Some questions may even ask about how
well people work on a given activity. For example, if you have a 10-hour activity and you have two
resources assigned to that activity, what is the elapsed time assuming 100% productivity of each
of the resources? The answer to this type of question is very dependent on the context of the
question (the way it is written). For this question, the answer is two resources, 10 hours, 100%
productivity. You can say it is going to take 5 elapsed hours to get that task accomplished
because it is going to have two people working on it, 5 hours apiece, to accomplish 10 hours
worth of effort for that given activity.

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However, lets look at it from a different perspective. Suppose they are only available 50% of their
time. If they are only available 50% of their time on a given day, then it is going to take you a
grand total of 10 elapsed hours. Why? They are each only giving 50% of their time. Thus, it is
going to take a full 10 hours to get that same activity accomplished. What if their productivity is
lower? Suppose they are only 50% productive and they only afford you 50% of their availability.
Well, if they are only 50% productive, that means they are half as productive as the people who
normally do this work, and it also means that you are only getting half of their time to begin with,
so instead, your elapsed time is going to creep out to 20 hours. You need to be prepared to take
all those parameters into account when it comes to estimating durations. You need to be thinking
through them.

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Develop Schedule
Developing project schedules is an iterative process that uses many tools and techniques to
determine start and finish dates for project activities, milestones and the overall project schedule.
Once the activities are defined (Define Activities), sequenced (Sequence Activities), and
resourced (Estimate Activity Resources), the activity durations can be estimated (Estimate
Activity Durations) and then the schedule can be developed. The concept of Critical Path and
how to derive it becomes an important topic to understand. The Precedence Diagramming
Method (PDM) diagramming technique introduced in the Sequence Activities process will be used
to determine Critical Path. Critical Path and how to manage your schedule using it is the most
important concept in this process.
Develop Schedule occurs throughout the project. As the project changes over time, the
techniques and tools that are used to create the schedule will also be used to revise it. For
example, if there is a change in scope (with the sponsor approving the change, of course!) the
new activit(ies) must go through the same processes: definition, sequencing and estimating
(resource and duration). Once these processes have been utilized, these activities must be
added into the current schedule. This is accomplished by adjusting the schedule using the same
tools and techniques when it was first created.
Review the Critical Path module and practice the exercises several times so that you are very
familiar with how to determine critical path and float. Any questions on the exam that address
critical path will require you to first build a network diagram or refer to a network diagram
to determine float and identify the critical path. If you draw an incorrect network diagram or make
a mistake determining float you could get several answers wrong.
Critical Path
The critical path is the longest path to completion in the network diagram. Activities on the critical
path have no Slack or Float. The Project Time Management questions on the exam focus
heavily on critical path method (CPM), and PDM diagramming method.
Critical path refers to the sequence of activities that must be completed on schedule for the entire
project to be completed on schedule. In other words, if the end date for the project has slipped, it
is because at least one activity on the critical path did not complete on time. It is important to
understand the critical path sequence to know where you have schedule flexibility and where you
do not. For instance, you may have a whole series of activities that end up running late, yet the
overall project will still complete on time, because this series is on a non-critical path. On the
other hand, all of your activities may be proceeding on schedule - except one. If that one activity
is on the critical path, the entire project will start to fall behind schedule. If your project is falling
behind, placing additional resources on non-critical activities will not result in the overall project
completing earlier.
Critical Path Method - (Refer to Section 6.6.2.2 in the PMBOK Guide, pp. 176 - 177)
This is the most common approach to calculating when a project may finish. It uses a forward
and backward pass to reveal which activities are considered critical. The critical path is used to
determine which activities have no Float (Slack). Activities on the critical path may not be
delayed; otherwise, the project end date will be pushed out.
Calculating the Critical Path

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There is a manual method for calculating the critical path by looking at the earliest start and end
dates for every activity starting at the beginning of a project. This is followed by starting at the end
of the project and going backward, looking at the latest possible start and end dates for each
activity that will allow the project to still complete on time. The difference between the earliest day
an activity can start and the latest day it can start (and still finish on schedule) is the activity float.
Once you have done this for all activities, look for the sequence of activities from start to end that
have zero float. This is the critical path.
Determining the Critical Path
When determining critical path, first identify all of the network paths in a network diagram.
Remember the definition for a network path:
Any continuous series of schedule activities connected with logical relationships in a project
schedule network diagram.
Once you have identified all of the network paths, use the Forward Pass and Backward Pass
techniques to determine the Early Start, Early Finish, Late Start and Late Finish dates of the
activities in each network path.
Forward Pass
This is done by taking the early finish of the previous activity as the start date in the activity you
are working with. Add the duration to this date to determine the early finish: Early Finish (EF) =
Early Start (ES) + Duration. Look at the following example:
1 5 5 8 ___ ___

4 days 3 days 1 day

___ ___
0 1
2 days
1 day

1 6 ___ ___

5 days 6 days

Take a look at the top network path. The second task starts on Day 1 and finishes on Day 5. The
successor task would then start on Day 5 and finish on Day 8. Complete the Early Start and
Finish Dates up until the last task.
When you have a task that has multiple predecessors (also known as path convergence),
always take the latest Early Finish from the predecessors as its Early Start. This makes
sense if you have a Finish to Start relationship. You cannot start the succeeding task until all the
work is completed from the predecessor tasks. See the solution

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below: 1 5 5 8 8 9

4 days 3 days 1 day

12 14
0 1

1 day 2 days

1 6 6 12

5 days 6 days

Backward Pass
This technique is simply the reverse of the Forward Pass. Start with the last activity and record
them at the bottom of the activity node. These now become the Late Start and Late Finish days.
Then move backwards along each network path subtracting the duration from the Late Finish to
calculate the Late Start days. Late Start (LS) = Late Finish (LF) Duration. See the example
below: 1 5 5 8 8 9

4 days 3 days 1 day


4 8 8 11 11 12
12 14
0 1

1 day 2 days

12 14
1 6 6 12

5 days 6 days

1 6 6 12

When you get to an activity that has multiple successors (also known as path divergence), you
will need to take the earliest late start from the successors as the late finish of the
predecessor task. So in this example the Late Finish of the first activity would be Day 1 and the
Late Start would be Day 0.
Fortunately, all project management software packages will calculate the critical path for you. All
medium to large projects need to use a tool to manage the work plan. Take advantage of this
automatic feature. For a small project, there may only be one major sequence of activities, and it
should be easy to identify.

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Determining Total Float
This is simply subtracting the Early Finish from the Late Finish for each activity or the Early Start
from the Late Start. In the case of the example above, the activities on the bottom network path
have no float. The activities on the top network path have a float of 3 days each. What this means
is that if any of the activities on the top network path are delayed more than 3 days, it will delay
the successor activities. Since the bottom network path has no float it is considered a critical path.
Total Float vs. Free Float
There are two terms pertaining to float you should be familiar with: total float and free float.
Basically, total float belongs to the path and free float belongs to the activity.
Total float refers to the amount of time that a schedule activity on a network path can be delayed
without delaying the project finish date. Total float is calculated along each network path without
taking into account project divergence (multiple successors) or project convergence (multiple
predecessors). In fact, as the float is determined for each activity on a network path you will
notice they all have the same amount of float. If an activity is delayed on a network path, it will
reduce the total float for the remainder of the activities on that network path. The exception to
this, of course, is the critical path which has no float.
For example, take a look at the network paths above. If the first activity takes 5 days rather than
the estimated 4 days, the next activity cannot start until day 6 which reduces the total float to 2
days rather than 3. The same holds true for the next activity. It cant start until day 9 which
reduces the total float for that activity to 2 days. Although it will not affect the overall schedule, it
does affect the amount of schedule flexibility for that particular path.
Free float is a term that is applied to individual activities in respect to successor activities. It refers
to the amount of float in an activity before it delays the early start date of the next activity. Take a
look at the following example:

Activity B has two successors: D and E. If activity B is delayed by one day this will not affect the
early start date of activity E which is 15. However, this will affect the early start date of activity D
which is 12. In this example, activity B has zero free float although it may belong to a path that
has total float of greater than zero.

Short cut method

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For each network path identified, calculate the length of the network path by totaling the durations
for each activity in the network path.
Network paths
Start A B D Finish = 7+5+4 = 16
Start A B E Finish = 7+5+10 = 22
Start B D Finish = 5+4 = 9
Start B E Finish = 5+10 = 15
Start C F E Finish = 11+4+10 = 25
The longest network path is the critical path. In this example, the critical path is Start C F
E Finish and the project duration is 25 days.
Now you can answer the question of total float. This could be determined with the forward and
backward pass, and then subtracting early finish from late finish or early start from late start.
Or you can use the shortcut method by subtracting the longest network path lengths from the
length of the critical path.
For example, lets take activity A which is in two network paths; one for a length of 16 and the
other a length of 22. The longest network path, of course, is length of 22. We have already
determined that the critical path has a length of 25. The float for A is calculated by subtracting the
length of its longest network path (22) from the critical path (25). Activity A has a float of 3 (25
22) not 9 (25 16). This method will save you a lot of time on the exam.
Using this method for all activities, total float is:
A=3
B = 3 (not 9 or 16)
C = 0 (it is on the critical path)
D = 9 (not 16)
E=0
F=0
For comparison, try the previous example with the forward/backward pass method and compare
the results.
However, this network diagram has activities with multiple predecessor and successor activities.
This is where Free Float can be helpful. Remember that Free Float represents the amount of time
an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any immediately following
activities. Lets take another look at this diagram with the early start and finish dates calculated:
Calculating Free Float for these activities yields these results:

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Based on these calculations, the only activity that has any Free Float is Activity D. On the surface
this looks to be in contradiction with the Total Float for the paths. Take a closer look at B, which is
on four of the network paths. For network path 4 (Start -> B -> E -> Finish) it could technically be
delayed by three days and not affect the early start date of activity E. However, that would affect
the early start date of D which is on network path 3 (Start -> B -> D -> Finish).
What this example demonstrates is that it is important to know how much Total Float there is on
each path but on a more discrete level (Free Float), understand how a delayed activity could
affect dependent activities.

The Critical Path May Change


There are many sequences of activities on a project to get from the beginning to the end. There
may, in fact, be multiple critical paths, if they all have no float and all lead to the same end date.
Usually if there are multiple critical paths, they overlap for many of their activities. Given that there
are many, many network paths through the project schedule; it's possible for the critical path to
change.
For instance, let's say we have a project with a network path of 22 activities over 9 months. Let's
assume that there is another network path of work that includes 19 activities and takes 8 1/2
months (It has two weeks of path float). Now let's say that our client sponsor informs you that the
project must be completed in eight months. First you would want to focus on accelerating the
activities in the nine-month critical path. However, once the critical path is reduced to 8 1/2
months, the second critical path emerges that has the same 8 1/2 month timeline. Compressing
the original critical path further will not make the project end earlier, because this second network
path is still going to take 8 1/2 months to complete. In this case, both network paths must be
accelerated. (Or perhaps some activities that are common to both can be accelerated.)
The other way the network path may change is if activities off the critical path get delayed to a
point where another network path becomes critical. In the example above of a nine-month project,
let's say that one of the activities on the 8 1/2 month network path ends up taking an extra three
weeks. Because there was only two weeks of float in the network path (two weeks between the 8
1/2 month network path and the 9 month critical path), this network path will now become the
critical path, and force the entire project to complete one week late. The project is not three
weeks late because there was two weeks of slack in this second network path. However, once
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the network path was delayed two weeks, it became the critical path, and the third week of delay
ended up causing the entire project to be delayed one week.
Exam Note:
The Forward Pass - EF = ES + Activity Duration
The Backward Pass - LS = LF - Activity Duration
Exam Note: There can be more than one critical path in a project and it is possible for the critical
path to change.
Exam Note: The exam tests your knowledge of how CPM networks are constructed, how
schedules are computed, what the critical path is, and how networks are used to analyze and
solve project scheduling, and resource allocation and leveling issues.
Exam Note: You should thoroughly understand the concept of float (or slack) and how it affects
the project schedule.
Exam Note: Remember there is NO FLOAT in the Critical Path.
PERT/CPM: Differences
Both tools lead to the same end: a critical path and critical activities with slack time equal to zero.
The differences between these tools come from how they treat the activity time. PERT treats
activity time as a random variable whereas CPM requires a single deterministic time value for
each activity. Another difference is that PERT focuses exclusively on the time variable whereas
CPM includes the analysis of the Time/Cost Trade-off.
Exam Note: During the exam you'll encounter float, scheduling, and critical path activity
questions. To be successful in answering these questions remember a few important rules:
Always draw out the network diagram presented on your scratch paper; it may be used in several
questions.
You may encounter questions that ask on what day of the week a project will end if no weekends
or holidays are worked. Add up the critical path, divide by 5 (Monday through Friday), and then
figure out which day of the week the activity will end on.
When three numbers are presented, think PERT (optimistic is the smallest number, pessimistic is
the largest, most likely is somewhere between the two). When a number is positioned directly
over the tasks, it is the task duration. When a number is positioned to the upper-right of a task,
this represents the Early Finish date.

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Critical Chain Method
This method is used when a project has limited or finite resources. If resources are always
available in unlimited quantities, then a project's critical chain is identical to its critical path.
Critical chain is used as an alternative to critical path analysis. The main difference between
critical chain and critical path is that the schedule is dependent on activity resources rather than
the activities themselves.
After the initial schedule is created and a critical path is determined, resources are entered.
If limited resources are utilized the critical path will change. The project manager can then include
non-work duration buffers to the schedule which allows the project manager to maintain focus on
planned durations.
There are several types of buffers that can be used in the schedule for this method, for example:
Project buffer
Feeding buffers
Resource buffers.
Resource Optimization Techniques
These techniques are used to take into account schedule demand according to resource supply.
Each of these techniques takes into consideration either a schedule or resource constraint.
Resource Leveling
This technique adjusts schedule start and finish dates because of resource constraints. The main
goal is to balance resource supply at a constant level to prevent over and under allocation. By
balancing the resource supply over the schedule the network path durations may change and the
critical path could be lengthened or a non-critical path could then become a critical path. The
schedule in this technique is not as important as balancing the resource supply.
For example, if as a result of resource assignments to activities there is a resource working more
than the amount of work hours in a day. Resource leveling would reallocate their assignments to
ensure they would only be working a regular work day.

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Resource Smoothing
This technique takes into account schedule constraints over resource constraints. Although
optimal resource allocation is important, this technique may allow for activities to run in parallel if
resources are available to perform the work. The critical path is not delayed when utilizing this
technique nor is the completion date compromised. Float (free or total) will be utilized if it is
available. In some cases, not all resources will be optimized, especially if they are working on
critical path activities.

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Schedule Compression
The exam also contains questions asking you to perform some scheduling exercises. Some
questions will focus on fast-tracking and crashing as methods to accelerate the project
schedule.
Schedule compression is applied to reduce the length of the project or to account for project
delays.
Crashing adds resources to project activities and usually increases cost.
Fast Tracking allows activities to happen in tandem and usually increases risk.

Approach to Crashing a Schedule


Compute the critical path.
Establish an objective total duration.
Identify the crash time and crash cost for each activity on the critical path.
Prioritize the activities on the critical path that can be shortened at minimum cost.
Shorten the highest priority activity by one time period and compare total duration
with objective.
Verify critical path.
Continue activity reduction (Steps 4 and 5) until crash time is reached.
Select next priority activity and continue reduction (Steps 4-6).
Exam Note: Remember that crashing the network almost always increases project risks or costs!
Modeling Techniques
There are two modeling techniques that can be utilized to apply some experience to a project
schedule model:
What-If Scenario Analysis: Used primarily to prepare contingency in cases that could positively
or negatively impact the schedule (e.g. delay of a major deliverable, new legislation, increased
throughput).
Simulation: This is usually performed through a Monte Carlo analysis where schedule factors
are inputs into a model and the results are assessed and analyzed. The data would include
schedule assumptions, probability distributions that would account for schedule uncertainty.
Schedule Compression
These techniques are used primarily for shortening the schedule duration by applying them to the
critical path. It is important to know how they are used, in what situations they should be used and
what the potential by-product is when they are used. Questions on the PMP Exam will require
you to take into account the project situation to determine the most appropriate schedule
compression technique.

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Fast-tracking
Fast tracking involves analyzing the critical path to see which activities could be done in parallel
(as opposed to sequential execution). It also involves more aggressive use of such PDM activity
relationships such as start to start so that subsequent activities can begin before the prior activity
has been completed. This overlapping also reduces the length of the project schedule.
Exam Note: Fast Tracking can introduce risk for several reasons. One would be re-work if the
predecessor activity uncovers additional work for the successor activity. Another is the fact that it
will require greater coordination to monitor and control multiple, concurrent activities.
Exam Note: Time has the least amount of flexibility; it passes no matter what happens on a
project.

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Bar chart (Gantt Chart)
Weak planning tool but effective progress reporting tool
No logical relationships between or among activities

Milestone Chart
Shows significant events on the project
Good for communicating status with customers and upper management

Exam Note: milestones have zero duration. Milestone charts are good for the high-level
perspective. They show significant events.
Project schedule network diagrams
Representation of how project activities and events are related and are represented in PDM or
Activity on Node diagrams
Identifies critical path, project duration, and activity sequences

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Exam Note: These Schedule Development Outputs give you a sense of the relationships
between activities, which ones come first, how they interact and how they are related. Networks
also give you the critical path.
Exam Note: The Primary outputs of this process group are the Project Schedule and Schedule
Baseline
Project Time Calculations
A project is made up of a set of distinct activities, smaller tasks that, when all are completed, will
also mean the project is completed. Some activities cannot be started until other activities are
finished; this is called precedence.
The first step toward analyzing project time is to draw a network, a series of arrows and circles or
squares that provide a picture of the activities and the order in which they must be completed. A
circle or square is called a node and marks an event, such as the beginning of the project and the
initial activities, the end of the project with all final activities, or the end of one activity and the
immediate start of a subsequent activity. Two important points:
A network diagram always begins with a node (circle or square), and
A network diagram always ends with a single node (circle or square).
So, the first information you need about a project is the complete list of the activities that must be
completed and the precedence relationships, which tell you which activities must be done
before each activity can begin. For this activity, that information will be given to you:
Activity Duration Dependency
Start
A 7 Start
B 5 Start, A
C 11 Start
D 4 B
E 10 B, F
F 4 C
Finish D, E
Things to note about the precedence list: some activities have no predecessors, some
activities have more than one predecessor, and a single activity can precede more than one
activity.

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The first step in creating the project schedule network diagram is to draw the Start node on the
left:

Start

Next, follow down each activity in the chart, placing the activity in the chart and drawing in the
arrows to show its relationships to other activities already depicted in the chart. The next activity
is A, so we will add A into the project schedule network diagram. From the information for A, it is
dependent on Start, so A will be added with an arrow from Start to A.

Start

For B, we see that it is dependent on both Start and A, which means that there will be two arrows
into activity B, one arrow from Start to B and the other from A to B.

Start B

Activity C is dependent on Start so it will be added with an arrow from Start in to C.

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A

Start B

Activity D is dependent on Activity B, so Activity D is drawn with B as its predecessor.

A D

Start B

Activity E has two predecessors, B and F. Although we do not know the predecessor for Activity F
yet, we will add it into the project schedule network diagram to depict its relationship to Activity E.

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A D

Start B E

C F

Now we get to Activity F in our chart and we note that C is its predecessor.

A D

Start B E

C F

Finally, we are at the Finish, and we will depict Activities D and E as the predecessors to Finish.

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A D

Start B E Finish

C F

We have completed drawing the project schedule network diagram. Note that sometimes you will
need to draw this for this exam and sometimes it may be provided.
The next step is to determine the network paths in our project schedule network diagram, so
ultimately we can determine the critical path and the float. To determine the network paths, it is
best to start at the left and the top, and work your way through all network paths. The more
network paths and the more complexity to the network diagram, the easier it can be to overlook a
network path. This can cause you to answer questions incorrectly if you have not identified all of
the network paths in the network diagram.

Starting at the left (Start) and the top (Start A), we have the first network path of
Start A B D Finish
Continuing left and top, follow Start A B and we see a second network path from here with
Activity E:
Start A B E Finish
There are no additional network paths from Start A so look at Start B. The network path from
Start B are:
Start B D Finish
Start B E Finish
Lastly we have one network path from Start C:
Start C F E Finish
Therefore there are five total network paths in this project schedule network diagram.
To calculate the length of each network path and determine the critical path, you can perform a
forward and backward pass as described above, under Critical Path method. However, on the
exam, there will not be enough time and there is a short cut that will provide you with this
information.

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Control Schedule
From a time management point of view, time control or project control is about the schedule
baseline and any changes that might occur. The schedule baseline is the original, approved
project schedule and becomes the standard used to measure schedule performance. Schedule
control is concerned with:
Determining the current status of the project schedule
Influencing the factors that create schedule changes
Determining that the project schedule has changed
Managing the actual changes as they occur
Control schedule is a portion of the Integrated Change Control process
Control schedule control is primarily about measurement and reporting. Control is governed by
the baseline. You use a schedule baseline, you establish that baseline, and that is the original
approved project schedule. Any variance to that schedule is going to be reflected against that
schedule. Any change requests are going to be evaluated against that original baseline.
Exam Note: Heuristic Scheduling (Rule of Thumb) - Heuristics are rules of thumb or
guidelines that have been learned through experience and "trial and error." An example of a
heuristic is the PERT process, which has modified some statistical approaches to create a
simpler but useful scheduling process; for example, the PERT formula for standard deviation is a
heuristic (simple to use but yields good results).
Tools and techniques include:
Performance reviews, comparing and analyzing schedule performance against the
plan (SV, SPI).
Project management software, including schedule comparison charts, such as the
tracking Gantt chart.
Variance analyses, such as analyzing float or slack and understanding the cause and
degree of the variance.
Resource leveling, resource smoothing to optimize the distribution of resources
What-if analysis, to review various scenarios for how to bring the schedule in
alignment with the plan
Adjusting leads and lags to bring the schedule in alignment with the plan
Schedule compression to accelerate activities that are behind to bring the overall
schedule in alignment with the plan
Scheduling tool, enabling schedule network analysis to review an updated project
schedule (and updates to the critical path(s))

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Time Inputs, Tools/Techniques, Outputs
Plan Schedule Management

Define Activities

Sequence Activities

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Estimate Activity Resources

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Estimate Activity Durations

Develop Schedule

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Control Schedule

Recommendation: Also use both Mind Mapping and Memorization flashcards for each set of
Inputs, Tools/Techniques, Outputs.

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