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l(l)cTFJKoo (ppoo) xoa. o, a r pIp_ |)(.I lll.l)pyloT lo Ty oToI{oo xTTa (po),
IIT' oyrTBT r'lTlJoT HA o p. ,r.
HoT HapaBHa Ha l'MaTo IoyllH pt o
l()|)ll/lt4ttKe a
- o T o) opaa. oa
|()(.V/(pTBro pTpa' a Ta yKJroHHr o ao p_
ooBaH ivIyU]TBoM' Ipo)K ToBapoB, BtoHH pao l II)ilIl oyT t ooBaHI B y..
oKaH vv. al rrTpH|\4a.ekl IlpTaBT pr-
peut1L'ti
- pllo o' KoTopo T o- (.Il)ilLl aB o yTaoBo op oKyFIT o ya.
HoT, oIIo,\4 B |4 opaTBo ylpBH l(. l)cTpaoI}roo opa. Ppa oytTBeT'| B H
oooo yrTBo oB(tT o Bo}I]\,t oiai.ll,a ||l)/tB,IlJ oKyHToB 3-l po5 MoH o-
T MyTBoM, Mo)(T oT Boro l,llvlIl popa o],- rlV'|I]]{ oKrFloB o o.
TBT yTBtIHIr IlI l{ryrTBle atsa, lopor o .ll pTpa ooBT y .oy-
T oao, I l,l'oJ\4 oBTtlKoM B y. l\|(lI l.I:
opaa' BITy'I B KaTB lopl(Kx ' ']a'lBr ypT'l.;
*ya tpa/]IIKoo I-IpaBa. Tp <<pIllp'l,> K
'IB)T- ya (po xooo oapa);
P oxpaH I ll'I oyapTBHHl I{aJlHl y- yprT'l ooop ( pIer o oaFI ptl-
TapI]I pp'IT . oopMI-l FIo IppLrT paaT.pI,IBarT_ I\()I.o a p oHoM y.tp);
c 14 KaK ot, pa)aHKoo paa (cl,. 12 K P); B TO oKyrHT' oTBpa oae oyapoo Ko-
y ol{ pp.r ottMa}oT Myl.BHl o. |(l'l] o aToooo oT Poo pa (
o y l oytTBH tlp aTo _ (.JIyLla' pyMoTpHHI aHToofloHlM aKoF{oaTT-
oT. lt()):
opzla opaTc Ha KoM]\{pK' I] KoToI o- lol(yrT, rToTBpa oaTy H rr 50 % yaoo
oo }o rTI{oT BeT Btltt pur, 14 liitIlTaa ( orHI-{Ix oax);
I{I(oMpK' r pr/yjo B arITB oool)i la BT o yaTr oolllHl;
oy pl pap.r pt r)y yzlT- /toKMrHT o oaoBaH c OOTBTTBIOII{ KoM]4TTo flo
ltt opeTKx oopa). Y|IpaBIo yTBo|\L HIM ooorHIM opaoM
-(po
dueu (accoa oIoI) lu l]T- llLlttI ooa oaTl BJl'a Tapoo pIIpT'
a BTopoo op.a. o \,IoT t o_ ,I|}Jt'lIoro ypT.ll (po B}I,l I.rla.oB >o
pK KoMrpK. HopvK o r|lop a T p.).
ol]o KoopHa|4L| ppHa o 'lTI{oT, a A'paTl{BHI opal H BpaBr. poa proTaBr_
TaK)K pl(TaBH|4 |4 3aTI or TpoB. to pr[i- IIl,l llpy oKyMToB prcTpa (a r oT-
H yaTKoB I]a aoaI (oro) BoaaIoT Br Ko. IlI' )^IaB p pTpa px HOTpHF{I
Mpr1g.*.i;l TeHoT, TaKa accoa oayT B o- VlI:lcTt{KoM, ao oT.lx aKoptx o p.).
lto ToBapc.Bo oo' To T B KoMMrD- ApaTBI opaHI, ol.Io pTpaIo,
Ky opaa. B TaKoM ya yltopohI,t tlrtat B TLI 3 taptx MoTa oa oK-
orl KaK ya paBa .i tl oTarT oT _ N,lllToB lt 0 r 'aTI I1oToBoo oTpaBH pt{'IT p-
opoBa yTa paBa pBoo opKa' TO T opaa- lIIHr o pTpa Iop\{Koo a' BI.aT ypllTM
14|4. l}l)Mt.lo BTrTo o }ITpa oo ooTBTT_
K P op.rT ao 1' ot{oBIr IDaBoI ||ylor aF{tI .paT pTpa pKx . oa
opI ppHao THo. Cal Hop{l |)Tpa BoMo)H Too p HooTBrTB ypTHI
yTaHaBBIT aoaM p|\| HopaTBIlvI aKa, /I.oKyMToB I,t oTaBa opa,I B poat
P-
pyloMl.{ eT oT oTFl I op H a L{o Ho _
I pzl BoBl tilKoHoaTTBa.
22 2
l llrt'llt. lIoyLlrH BpFIoo BrTeTBa pI{ro zll(.liltil' littlotI<a, ].po]4TJIa I'r'lTrHoTl opT ]\4llop.
rl||lll) (.IlllIOI]T Ha yT B LlJlooBoM opaH' B opaPl oTaT]-]- rll,/|(..]|IlIIIlI .OBapoB; ',lTrI]oT B acTB HBTo}IHo
ll||(ll, lI0IIo{I{oM |1 p .tx ox' oTpIBaT B Il{)|!| I lll I , H]]ToHIIoo oa p.). epyI Bl4,I
|

l);llIl( T .II/'I oaTI yTatsIloo KaTaa. /l'(.'l'l'ojll,IIoT opo BI.I{a I1|4i7 opIoTC c-Ie-
().Kp]B T' p'tlKo t{o oaBaT aT yTaBIoo ;l llItI l l)I HoDMaTBlN4 aKTa.
|(iIllTaa (oa), yKaHylo B plIlH o o'aI,I lopJltlrI(oo ( !lll oTT' To pIIn <<flool-{o Br' To I{ ap-
J||. 11.OoBop tlprlTr. a ol-IJIaTl lloTrpxarT a. l l l(. l ()') ol]prT aBoBor rypoBaH prl{pt{MaT,,
| o
|<OM rN{ BIa ooTBTTByt paB. oarrra aT (,( ) ll)l Ul] Ho p 'l paBoBoo ppoBaH KotITt{_
|

yTBrIoo KTa BHOT B TtIHr pBoo oa TrHoT ||l,t ll OpaoB Ba yaBH KoHol,to. p ToM .,-{T-
opIll4ztI{. Ko oyTB e. c'I a o oBl opao' B, ll.o Hr papUlrIo)>. AKT, plll
IlLl'I' lI)aI]JIo <<apHo
oe p''IBr ,pa.K aa o ya aTl4 yTaBHoo ()l)l'tlllo BaT 14 ypaBe\I c apyI]\4 oMeTH
KilIl :UIl B alI H 'tpaIlBH | oH' oyIB'I pTpll_ trt,ir.ytoro aI(oHoaT'TBa' Mo;lrrT l pa I{oM H.
' a Ta)K BprrH]Jolo I-{TrBa oT]vrTKa o IoTaHoBK ]l l .Bl{TrI]I ooTIo \4 aCTI4Ho o aBrHIo pll-
I

yT B HaooBoM OpaF{' opI oTaTT . (o o- lIl,ltlTr. oa BITaT Ba)(FII"tll] paBo rTppHaTe-


t t pTaBHl r o 0 Co H oyg,' ,l'I
l.I oo B..TBa' poTBI{oM yar Tpa cT aeT ''.-c - Ha yyIo aTy B ya HpaBoMrI o-
yllapTBFII opao' oBrIx l oIIa' a
t1tto) p T e 'I BIaT oTotIHo BTT- l.ill() pyIl ppIl]\IaTii.
o. vpT oTaBBaIT aT' rrlTa, pt^- 6,a, ootrt oaHoT p.'lIp}lMaT .'yU{ :

oTKpIBaIoT B K pavt, aror pe Ta. paT]BaT paoTHKa]\4 I7caBvIco oT Boo a-


pvo Jlo I,IT HaMoBa' op)Karr yaa. oBoo OToIl'j a poBF{ H tI) MF1M2uII{IX paMpoB
Hr Ia o oHol{o-paoBylo py, a Ta)Kr B pry- O llaI Tpya' yTa oB I.IH lx aKooJ-(aTr TBo ;
MoTpI{]-i]x aKoo ytl o)/TBT oaJlI{l' M'I{I,IFIK Ll|e .t oa-
K P - B
oI,I o{ lJ'I
xapaTp rTrFIoT.
ppa oo)I(e_ .JlI{Oo Tp;lxoBaH pa)(aH, paa o ay, o.t-
H o paBa, oaox oTtsTTBF{oT. otloo |laT oB ill p/toBo 'Il.tloT B ooTBrTTB aKoHo-
aBO p.p}{MaT oyTB toyto I] aprylo /iaTBo, KOKTBFII HBLIZuII .ooBopaM'
aoo 'IT;Io (.- 49). peleTe ao <<!oo paBHo aTT pryopHHIr aKooaTTBo FIao
Bce' ttTo I{r aplo>>. B prpHaT apaF{Tpylo oyrcTBT oT(I e'l. Bo Bt{io.l)(Tl-l I oI.
paBIJo aBo oylra Ha ploK, aTpaI{IM' paor, ppl,MaT" HrT oTBrBHFloT o}{tt
TpyOBI' l,IoMaoH}lIM pyl,IM pypaN.{' paBI yoB t{rFIar)KaI otIHII oa.tB o ooBopaM; ]{apyI-
.eTrJ]FIoT. I{ paB OTBOTI,I .pyx 'o [lp'pF{I\,IaTo
p o MeTo pBoBoo pyOl]a' HitIBaI\,{oM - /.l'lTJlOc, apHr}i OKpy)IIrIli pt; eo}I
TooM otx oo. aoToTF{oT prpHa-l o yJroB Tpa; po(a)ry opoavrTBHl{o po-
- oTM
oarIBaeTC .l'IIlI B MoMrHTa pllj]ll4 /ly; I{pyIUH HTo[Ioo]{oo a I(oI{ OaTTBa I,{ JIp.
Tr FI] BopooB K OTII oaoB BaT paB. paa pl{eoo a oyITBe Ilo pl]JI}IIo
'r
el^ aM B aKoHoaTTB aeToB. pv pa)I(al{- plII,ITJIr 6o opaH IpKoI'o JIa. ylroHooI]I]oo
K paBa p.pHTJ'UI oyT t opat{tl}{I To-[o B }la To ytIpTeJIHIM lI'oyHTa' Pop aLI'I pol,lBo'T-
ot,i p, o o oolo B a14Tl o'HoB TI,I- TrM cH, poI,IIlll41 l]Il(JleH'I , pai\reIll4 -
TyoHoo Tpo' HpaBTBrHoTI'{, opoB' paB aKol]F{lX opaoalr.
Itpol] ]1pyx , olre}.I oopot TpaII o- B yua :LIH1 poerl \I tpopaoarl oTaB-
HoTI,I oy(aTa (. l I( P). t{ap, aKol{o/aTTBoh4 rTc p.aottl K IIpaBopil,{TRo i]xoI,IT o BI{OB
pryopI-{I Bl,IjII rToT' papl]II{F{Ir I}oTro BO}{I4KIIIM.V pKoy r (pI,t popaoald.l,I\I uI-
o)IapTB}{lM ppJIT}t (polrRo.Bo opy]l,l, opla- l,r), o K Ipo'IIy y (plr plrot,r).
liloB, apKoTtlrcK' HoTts},.IokIX ,olTI r{eTB, I1p te Il oTaBa lopll-]<oo a o.OO |4 l^_
l.a.lrtx e; rppa y .ofIx' pI(o KTB}{Ix oK],I p.KLIx ' a TaK parI loplJI}{KOO
l,l plt'Kor]\,ItlI ToB .). I4 oTaBT pal.t-t K I()oMy Btots
Hoopr BI e'IT e'HoTl,I ppla oyT opztoaI p.I].KI,{x I,I rxoJlT paBa ir oao
-oy-
TBT Too o IILIFII]\,I JII,I ()axoBa'I' bD- oaHOBaHF{oo lplIIIKoo a.
). 25
llllltltrttttttlll l()lltl/lrll|(.(.l(ltl(| .]ll(:l IlJItl1. prKpa paB Il() I}.l.opylo o(lpri tpoBoT p.ll o BlT I]lol1-
||| ll| |lI|||il|| |lll ||l l ||l.||l'\{)]|;l l|\ |l '/|.|)}I.l,lM a. oa o> l Ill.t tIl:o oa Tpa a\4I4' poaM o Tpyo-
rr \ lllr I lllrll ll,l lt()M .tlooBopy (oay);
iIiI l)|
||lll{| \||I|(./|lIlt.r|t.ii (t11.o) o opa p-
|||| li '].l)TIo ope ,oBTBo[]T port KpTopoB IIo
| .llIl l|l||l.l \ |IIll||I()Nl()l|(.l|||()|'() ll:t To yprTHI .oKyMTa- ()()'|:]A].TBaM' oocllljvl aoojvl l{TBa KB,py-
1||| ll t lll| |lI t ll(.l(.'l('IlIlM poa' Ha i(oTopI lopKor o l\l()l.O lopl,IKoo rIa;
l | | |]|'llIl | ]llIl)(' (, ]l.()'l.ll)l(Il ,
a KoTopo oo yo- I]t tlTRTy}o ollp oaIaT'T aoxI{oT o oa-
l|||lIl ||l'l]|()' ]ll|()() (.IlI)Ll:]HaHr yo o o p- IlI,I M llllaTr>t<a t>T Bo BHrIo..lr ol;
(llr,lllllll. lt I]'ITyIo Orpll poBo.{T paI J{pI4M Kp.'Topa
lll t I)(.ll|('IIl II() ylla B ya oyrL[TB /'ITo |} OoTBTBI4 aooM (L'tltaI Tl,I Kprl{Tolra oyT-
(,(r lll(.|('. l'lll()llt o '1To1.. aplt{I]}to a-
Il,]l'| Io'1.'I o TLlrH M o /{H yTBp)K.H poM)KyToLt-
lr(lIl()l\t. .,lttItl Ho]lHoKTHl pyt HayH - I loO Bal,to}{l{oo aaa).
I lv I( )l l (Ll|.() KoHoaTBa; o.ll aBepIIIH paLIToB pTopaN{ oTaBtoT ooI'I_
.tit-l-t KI]]{.aoI{HI ;l:t. oa o yloB-
l.l}Opr,t poa KopoB I,lyTBo lproo a
l)rl llp,('tT 'y o prl,lTa (2lTHKa,, MloI,I-
|vl il l]paBa I{a To MyTBo Ll oaTTBHl paBa
|} OTHolH Ktsl1pyoo p(roo I4a.
pvo o tlarT prKaTBrillt yTBoBaHr
lrl o.apT'Bt prTp lp-
IIo BHr af[
B HI P. /ltIK ],Ill.
p yprT (yua-
a) l,t o l(Ba' Haa_
aT.'| KB.aoa KoM yTaaI]aIoT IopoK s 2. PAo cocEHl-lo Py
l]ol( K.a|4. iaoIHa o yy tsr_ BHl PABA PPHMA
H o Ba |opLleKoo a, op -
poa pTopoB ( 2 a- op>e paa oTBHtIo. pao OTBHHoT
I'4t o KBa) opa aT]1, r o - Ilall_
o.cr r.t{poKor o ojlp)I(al,IIo NrylTBHor pao .ltl,la. Co_
ocyaTo pTpa. Kpo Too' oa I{FIHO ytsr- TBHFIK BiIpaB llo BoMy yMoTprH oBpIaT B oTHoUI
oeT KpopoB o a ptl- tlp14l{a)(alo My yTBa rI /JTB, H poTBop.
MaT pI ot1g CT. (la[{ aKOy Il]\t paBoIJlM KTaI\{ H apyJatr pal]a
o oKo oa Kp- 11 opal{le aKoHo ],tHTprI p],I (. 209 K P).
Topa KBaI4ol]a KocC|| oTaBT po>tyotii o.Ky t]pa)KaT paBa BaeHL,1 ooBa]l
l(Baot aH, oopt op)KT BH o oTaB paop'l)I(tl Bo yrTBo.
Bdu.- To al.lo oaat,r l4l.BoM' oato-
[r 'I oaaT Boo)t{oT HIop.'BItHoo BoTI]l,l
H }lo. p ol aKoHHl (.yIttl) B.jra.rr orT
t ToKo oK, IIo lll)tllllil.op. oop)KaTe,
KooFlp T. . I] .o yLIr IJJIil/rli ooBal.{ l{_
poa)Ky yrTBa y.rI TopoB. oKa opaalo,I looBopo ool\4 l{
;t yTBtI po )yToHoo ) | KB ao}l HoO aa -
oo.
ytlprTeNl' ( oooHIM Ha To opao) a-
LloHFIzt'l Ko OTBT BIaTy HI{l pTB B
,qottte
- To otioBaa H aKo BooHoT Ky-
a.alt, O'IT}]coo ooBal] MTBa Br_
c l r o pllHoTl.I:
LIl,l I{o oHl BoI",lTB, IIoprH. oo Ba}{o pa.
I] pt]yto orp yoBrTBoploT .poai pa)a' p IJootll,{ Bae}I' TaK aK o)KI{o ooBaT'I MyTBoM
KoTopI ptlKo o HT oTBrTTBoT a DLl_ Too p yOBl,I BJIaI\e . ootsaH, aK Bll{',
J{ Bpa )KH opoB; o)KT D Ha.zl' HOTBHHKv.
zl) 2l
l |||l,llll( OLloB}lo pllIt()()lll'|0 oTBHHKa' zl]_
||| |l||l||l ll Iil | 'l Ml,JM. PppoBaT paa |la /BxMo MyT-
/(l])l(
l| |i ll()l]o)(oT ()lI|)/lJlLllI,l R]Ko yI
,|.l|||l||l l'( tltl ll 'l.1lyT' Kpo]\4 yar' yaaHIJl -B aKor.
||t.||||| ((|l'l)'(II I-Il'I.Illl |} o.I'BFtoT ( )t:tl<l rlr oTaHoBT a TaoA4 oKT paa oTB-
py a''
I lI;Ill;| |l ti|]J()|. T. ,.). Il()(:'l'l,t, I(aI( 3JI (l yv). oor o Ba}{lo,
l;lltlrtl oTB}{IIO.l. Il 14rpIBaT |JJ oaar
I ||().l||,,}O|]illllo pallol)'IH] pypyloTc'I He ToI(o
||l\|V|||,l'I]OM, I]O())|(ll().I l,I() IIoy /loxoa.
o- ||)il)|(,(llllK|\4' Ho HIM aKo}{OlIzlTTBo. Co;rao lt. 3
( ||t(.Ill|().I.' illII()llilI()Il(o'I oo.'MoT
HT paol]l lIo ..r' |29 l( P vI 'pIle pporjIe pypl oyT oTy)-
(.()/|l))l(tll'IIo Ol /l.il,| |lC!t l,I]4 pxoT oT o{rtoo a K pyoMy I loo-
t tt'tt,t>t<tt 1.lt< l\llI lt 1o p, ao x oopo ollyKaTc aKoa o r
( );l l I I(}]O,T.Rll, ]ltl l| /(I)yI. ppo.tllx pyax. B aotr Bp yr -t
- aoB P <o paB pDJlaII Po-
r'.tlt.tIl.ll.l. o (r/I.I{II lKT o.ooo po.a
l)yl(ol]o/.l].JlcM' opal]aToo poBoTBa' paTBI o_ r.tttlii pa]4 IJa oytl aTHy oHoT Ha
IIOM. lIl)o/(axy I{UIIx yaTl{oB BllrI tlHoo oooo
/l'itlltloo oTBa' a{oBo.TBa IIByzUIFIoo J]Hoo
(. I.I)oTlla> (l992). B o.tt{ paBoBoo xaMa

l)Jla yKaaHHoo paBa oTaHoB prTeJrTBa P


rl't' 30 ,ra l993 . yTrp)Kr op']o y-po. paxaHaI,I
l)oo pa lIlx yaToB. Bpo paBa aT-
llo otloT Ha rlvl} .pyx , B aTOTI,I ptpo,
(),a'I o-pr)K}{rMy rpreI{l.
yeI paBa oeo. CoaHo T. 2|2 K P y-
I(Tzt paBa oo1' B HAllI pa pa<ar,
'IBIoT
Io p/'tl K a, Poa pa, y't Poo
a, yI{IIaHI oaoa. B oocB T
14MyTBo o)rT HaoT a.H, oyapTBHo, N{y-
llo }] l ax oIo.
.2| K P opFlo, To oTBo ToMoT - B oOTl{ pa>H pKx , I{a oBop, B
ITBa, ao{o oBrFtoT pzDI(aH Kx .to ooT' Mo)KrT FIaxoT o yTBo' a
Jt, I-I opaHBaT'l' zt KtIHr yLIaB, oa TaK l,lJIIHrM oT.I ro BoB' KoTopI r oyT pa-
()patItlH yTaoBHI aoo. JIaT B ooTBrTTB\L c aKo}IOM (. 2l3 K P).
puqa o,l BoTaHoB accKa I!{yTBa B altoT oT aT yp.T (yrao) opao-
I'l l,lrBMor B)o, ypaHylo R oBrTKoM paB B Balt MyTa pK ojl.Hr lTo.pae'IroT:
l.lltIil 20_x oo. a lop.. a' B oTHotlIHl4 KoTopI IaT
IoT oa;rI paBa: oIr ToBapTBa' ToBapTBa
}{a Brp (olaTt{I ToBapa), oa opa.tIto
l,,i ooFlo oTBTcTBrHHo.I' aKl{orpHt oa,
poBo.TBtIl oprI(r KoopaTB|; oHI4, l{
Bo yrTBo B aTzUI IpI,lKoo Jlt(, TrpIoT I{a Ho
paBo ottc.tr4, a popa oaTBHo paBo' To
rT par]o Ha yaT B ax lopKoo a ypaB
M' oytll{I{ aT pltt (.'o) v' yITKa, a TaIO(r
aT yTBa llp KBa opa}Iltal1 B pr{ B-
Hoo BKaa (o, ); oBFIKo yeTBa' p.II'a-
HOo B KaTB Ba.oB (oo) ypT (y.raa), a
TaK) Ipopl-Illoo o tIIM ooa' TaI{oBT ao
IopI,IKo o;
O.l.atot {TBo' BJI]a Hl,t rHHIr y' trp- }op],1.tIK a! FIa I,IyTBo KoToplx x pT
28
'l
lIl\|(.|()l' lIpaBo oTBoTLI I,o B}to I]pBo (o'tl- ||l|,Il\|ll It() l}Jlili-\gHr' ooae \1 paop'" ffa paBr o-
ll()|() BH' opaTBoo ypaH); oTHo.I. oy. ||i)|() ()l-t'| Tl]HHoo BeI7 opaTBoo ypaB.
t]Ir y,II plpT, a aK) ( .|)/l'Ba ooTBTTByIoro a ^lo oyapTBHHo
HI(o opaHa; caNLII p lll\|v||l(.,l]O' lJr aKprrFlor a oapTBHI pep\4T-
TtloBT, a popTaT i Br- |\|lI ll ylIpc)l(M' oTaB}oT toapTBHHyIo KaHy Po-
HIr paBa; ( |..()ii (I)cl(rpaI4 J Ka}Iy ya Poo pa.
Iop a, B OTHoIilr oTopI x ylrp.T [4ytt1r'o' pa.I1rxarr F{a paB ooT opo-
''l.tllM l,l K oH' a Ta)( pyM fu'ItIlM
(y.ra) l HKax yl]lTBrHIx paB' o rT o
yTpaBaT paBo Ha yTBo' rpraHo oFIoT rr(l1llt'ttitl:'llt|\7' BeT |{I1I4,ro oo. pao-
ooTBrTTByr opaI{a: oI-Il ol op- lrllii l))I(M yao oBFtoT aaotl pr)Ky
ata (o), aoBopTI l oir, l ('t.v]t.it1lg13go oBHHo.
o Iop\lLIe (ao oI); o a- l}tlle IIpaBa ' e B oKa. y_
HoBT ol,IKa popaoo M MTBa, oHaKo tl(.lIlll,l paBa e Ha BHI oaTBrHHI. p1o o-
oyloT o l1I oT)( ' pyoTpHl (.||}lIIIoT B. BHI flpaBo' To T l-Ipatso' ooKoM
.IpTHl oyHTa; B yar J7KBa|4 ao opa- |.'(}|.()l)oo BeTc (y). o ao oo_
Ha yTBo' oTaBrtI o yoBTBop,t po- 'lBe
Il()lloJta}o pr Ix BHlx paB' pof,otx oT paBa
a KpTopoB' oT B ' yKaaHl B yp- r'rl.BHo- Coao T. 216 K P H oTHoT paBo
.Ix
oKyrHTa. ||())|(HHoo Haryoo BaeH HI yLIaTKo'
B aoT oT oIIoBtlI TtIo. IopI4eK lIl)itI]o oTot{Hoo (pooo) ooa eMrHl yaT-
zl o.parT |((), pBT},,TI (paBo opaF{oo ooBa}{ ) y-
Ha. pl llltl.o), paBo xoHoo BHI,I paBo opaTBIoo
pl. K oo Vl l)ilF{ yTBo.
I

ToBaplTa Ha B .r. 265 K P opro' To paBo oI1I{oo ary_


HOTI' ooTo OTBTTBHIOT, aol{pI, o- (.()o BaI\e IM aTKo' ao B oyapT-
tlrpl{ aBCNLre ttt:tttto yao oro, poTaIoT p<a-
)' pooTB FtFIl Koo paTBI' oyaT-
yI yHTap}{tr pep.'I.
BII-I I|0 Io oHoBaHlI B op.Kr' KoTopI poTI M.
HopvI(M opHal1|{ B'II. prK lII)l aooaTrTBo. pa>Ia, oaaro paBo
a' TaB ooo B pt lI())I(lI}loo F{ar.roo Ba.H'I (Ba oo
V.|TKa)' MT paBa Bae: ooBaH'I' p.aBaMI o
IlltTBy. o aaT paa paopHl4, To Bar orT
||praaT t yTo py a ToKo B ap.y
(loIo poFlo ooBa. po)Ka' o Ioo
tlaTKa oBplIII Ix c.oK, KoTopI BKyT MoyT
l|()I] oTy)H MIoo yLIaTKtt, H .oyKa. Ba.-
,| rHoo yaTKa BpaB TaK)(' oe I{ BITKaT
TrKo .TF{OT' o oy pl y)KT .oT)I(- ll|Koa' BoBoT a a}l, oopy)K oaBaT ,pyo
IlB)(Mo M}'IrTBo' popTa Ha Ho paBo oo-
'14 .

pao oToHHoo (povoo) ooBa rHI


(laTKoM ITproTaBT KaK a.aa' TaK IopKM
-|l Ha oHoBa peevI yooolltlFtoo Ha To oap-
.IlHoo .LII}Ioo opaa. B ng ropal{a
IOptIKoo a pHaxa y paBo oToF{oo o-
'}OBa rIM yaToM pxoT B opK paBoprMT-
|].
o, KoTooy r yaToK proTaBH B oTotl.
aKpeT a oyapTBl p.pT|i |4 yprr- lIo ooBaHr' B[paB aMoToTo oyeTBT Ba'
30 JI
|| llIl ||.ll lIllIllIll lllIl\| Y'ltl,l.I(o B pea, yTaHoBJIHtx aKoo |{l|'l MylrTBa, Haoro oFIo tl-
lI l|||l.|^||| |||l;lll(tIt|,| lvl14 al(Tzt, a TK) aKo o poTaBI,I ||l)Il'l''I.
\.ItIi l||l ll ll||]l|'t()|lillI. B.taTo, a yacTK oyT Botso- lrr.apt l.IppT' oHoBaHI a pa oaTBIoo
I il Il|,Il||l)| l| ,/|'I)l()c IIBI,I)KO yTBo, oTopI proT Vlll)tlI}JlII't' opa B yax' pyMoTpIHI aoa o
B
||l||| lIll.lll|()('|'l, Ipaa 'I |opKoo a. o,o
|() yI{TapI eIrpTx' Io
l|llllIl|\ {.]lllil'j r]\4I]oo yaTKa o)I{o OoT- |)(. pa rIa 1z-
'{oJIoI]aI{r
lll.l( lll()lJil,|' l-l' KoTopt otl proTaBI{. ('I' oro. pI]pl,{-
l'ltt tl1-ll>r rHI yao, axo c': B oo_
'|
|. I KaI{HIM pp\IT-
||() |l()JloBaH, B aTI]oT raa o B aprll o- M'
l\4lj,lllIor poor ooBaHLI, oyarT Too oa Klto ppT B oToIUr aKpJIoo a M
tlKa yaTa. po paBa ooT I-I rr- lll\4lIlTBa oyTBT B ooTBrTcTB\4 M oe rTr-
tti yua.K Hr BT oHoBaH |tprKpa{ 14 N\eHe- l|().t'l4, aH oKa aarl{ yTBa paBa
Hl,I Ipa)l(ato o l,Ky HB)K]VIOT pltBa oo - ||.]ljl}Il,{, ooa'I paop>Ke'L . Coa}Io T. 297 K
BaI{ T aTol\4. l)(l) oo BIIpaB oTXaT 14 I17 oo paopaT'I
Coe }tB".N{oo N,lylTBa (o yrTKa, '|l|I(pLII{IM a yTBo l coac oa
po HBxolI). l.{lKx o. Koopo Ill y.1g- '),l'Oo lBa. oao rlpoBe.eylo poylilo oHo pzUI-
ToK poTaBJr}I B o)]{rHo ayrl\{or Ba 11 Io- lyT aMoTorF{o, I{o e yTaHoBo aKo}lo|\4 I4HI
ToHlIoe ooBaH'' BpaBr poa o otJKa o- IIl);l.BolM aTa. oo pap oxooB KarIloo
Hro roo aTKa plloTaBFI paB opilIll,ILlr}too ||peI\Ip\1TkI opT ToK p'I poTaBr o-
ooBa,I ){ao (pya). poBal] yTaHoB- .r|ill.laTIo Boo paa paBoMoLI o opaI4Ho' l
' BTyTa BlIBa oxooTI .ttt lloxoa llpBo xoIrHoo B..
pora pr olll{I,f rr y.tg.t.' ITpoKa,I K- Kpy. I i]aB opalttl aoo. o r BpaBr o
aa I4 IiTorpra, Bl' or.IFI ool;a- (-.I}or4y yoTpHIo oaaT a-o I paoB.oT
). a Ta)( pyl\,1 tly)/laM. ItHIx paB oI4Mo prHIx. oaae BeHOo paBa
LpBl4Ty. TaaBBaT o oaIHI M)Ig'y o. OpaT a B K HoBoy oy
KoM oHo ytJaT (ltapp, ooBaT paBolvl lTpoea
TOo' a aHo .tp yxo
ecao o I{ToM Jl' rl,l,l'pi|'\4 HcoTp Ha To o ot
I]pa a ets;<oe IIpoaI{ ooy Bay).
1o N,{oT opt;t
.aK) .a,
oop),xt{'t l,I po l-1B)l(l,1o yTI]o. oa oo BoHKa p oTyllFI o-
rraBo oI,ITBoo ts paBo opal.Bl{oo yaBr- lloT .By rKoKx yTBa' KoTopo Hr NIo)KrT
}I,I MyTBo ploTaBJl Tc oKo l,lyTBil o- t paeo ]\,trFI o a (rt lt)
yapTBrH}I] MyIra}tlN,{ yHTapI]VI prT. o oT pa/ly B c aKoa (app' TBo
apo ppllT' OHoBao a pa xoioo ](pTKoo oa).
Bl-I' . 244 K P aKpT .B paHotsHOT o o-
oyap- BHl{oT: orBylo oBTyIo' To poal.aT OOTBTTBFI_
TBoo vr-
Bo TaKo I1o opllH o aoo ooB B pa o-
yapT- I]rHoT n oTC\cTB Ta o.
BHo ]4 e Bar-
T, ollyT aop)(a, l'M MyTBo B pa' o <roT Ha YrTBo B oHoBt{o ec do-
oi,t. flolr y.raTIIKOB aaaIoT'l lta oHoa aKoa
op.rel{lx K P. B t]aToT' OHo r BaB poaBaT
oa[IIt Y HM.
pI{axare y FIa paBr xott}too Br'I HBI,(. ooy )ro paga p oro oI]ocTI. B-
T o.o' a tsa I{KoKo I,t' ao'I)KFIr MycT-
BoM olTBT o oailIr Bx yaToB. H o
yaTKoB F{ o)KrT paoaT BIo B Co' r
oTTO ooTBTTByIrr oarrlH o o y
yaTHKaM oo oo. Oo aNiI \7 |f
BI{ MT rpaBo a oyH aT pl oT fIOoB. BpaBe o Bory yoTp}IIo t[poaT' oapT' aBaT' oT-
JJ
( )/|'|lilI(() /(ilJlKO It Ba o)(o I.T B l{aTyp
aT B ao BoIo oIo o paopT I opao oI'
o'ItM p BoroM oTyxe paB, oxl- l(l|(l|);|'| ,l.()llIl() ooTBTTBoa t o yaTHKa B paB o.
I c.. 250 K P. paa aKaT B ylol. Ill.||l|()(. l'll. l] r.ax C|4Ta }topaMrpoT yTparT BI-
p po(e o B paB o ooT oTopo- tt,l;t ltlli ()().l.l}ol.Tyl xo o Kora' o
oTHl yTHK oo ooT MeT p- ,l l }| | v(. |iil l''I,o Ko c .oae BIIolo oKa.
MTBr[Io pao IToKyK poaBaMo olzl' o ' a ('t lt i't t' l |l l t 0 I.t com om' ooa BaIT oyloT B
KoTopy oa po.arT1 FIa po paBI yoBx' Kpo \'|.l('l||lll(14' oaIr )K FIM Ft pyoTprHo
ya po.a yI TopoB. ltIl(l(. ( J(.lt r|o pop)KH yTBo' aoc B
poa o oaH BTT B o op oT.Ul- I llIll\|(.(.t'tltlii oBI{oT' Mo>l<rT oBrpltI a;<t yaT
I yLIaTHo o ooT o ap po.aT BoIo l llI jIil(.l|,l llc oTJrItx oI{KoB. oao B ooTBTT
ol oTopoHry y yKaa rI p}.x yoB, Ha l'||''ll||()|\,t Pq) <o KTHKo (ppo) oB'> orp-
oTopIx o poarT . oTaI yaTK.oo o- | | |. ll |. ('/|.Jl I( o paopxIo yTBo KpTKoo xo-
TBoT oTKa;yT oT oKK Jl'I4 He popy po.aBar- l ||l.| Nl())l('l' oKo ro aBa pyo H xoTBa o .oBr-
MyIo o B pa ooT l B)Mo yrTBo B I 'r'l | | l()('l I'1.

T a' a B pB ooT a B)Ko M}qrT.


Bo B Tr l0 o Ber, poaB BpaB po.aT il;li;l,.,'"l,ffi;#";i:ifi::I*"i.x,{y.,r;r,
cBoIo oI oy y. l||,|]l(.]| '/(('I ooo yaTHKoB oyT t oyTBHI To-
p poax o apyrrllM pyTBFIoo paBa | ()
||()(:J| rIpBapTrFIoo opH o aoo yn"'.
oKyK o pyo yaTK oo ooT rT l|tt|''()|l |} llpt'l a o MyTBo. p To o Brx yaT-
paBo B Tr 3 poBaT B yo op. pBoa a Illll..()|t llpF{a}oT'I paBI' r aKoo \4 oalllrr
Ho paB oao oya.e. ya pyTBH- \'lli|(. llll'lKoB pyoTpo oe.
oo paBa oKyK.o H oyKarT. l |rYlllo t{oB KprTHKoo (ppoo) xoa
Ba. ooa yTBo' axo oo ll||l||l;|'/(Jlo)(T o tla Ha paB oo oo.
oeoT, oTBIoT IIo oa[Irlo B e yaT- ( )t)|||ll yTBoM tttIo xoa B]oc TaK)r poy'I
KoB' a p lI llt)\{)/(lll' lloyllttHI B pyaT TFIoT xoa.
y.o.
FI.OT)..K9}{ coILa
- B ITopK, yTaoBF{F{oM
l,lt'(.lt MyTBa prToo (ppoo) xoa o.
a ..oo ooT T paBo Ha pr.oTaBr- NIl)'\(.|| JlI p Kpar rTHoTIt XocTBa B B
H B o Ba.}I ooBa aT oo MyTBa' Ill.l\()'/l()|\4 o Bx o FlOB o IM ooBatvt'
opaepo o o, a p rooHoT Too BpaB po- ll|)(./lV('MOI.pHIM aKoo. o MyrTBo p To o-
BaT oT px aTHKoB' BIo IIoyIox MT- l. l|| l)ll'}/ly o KaaHHI BIllI paBa o par orBo

BoM' pxo a oIo' ooTBTTBro KoHa. oIlocT1 a l yaToK


- o
r rrltl\It'(],|.llo pBa'
poy oxoI oT ooBa yTa' ao.- \'l li|||(}lUlIlltt K P
.ltFtI]vl aKoHo.aTrTBo.
o B oo ooT' oTyaloT B oTaB oo y- \(t l'|ll(: l'|]a BlxoT oH o tlloB' r yaToK
rTBa pap.'loT M>l<y yaTKa .oo o- l l)(./l('lltil lpoBo.TBa' pF{aa oTBy, pay r
HoT opaptlo o,II\/l' ec IIoe r p.yMoTpo oa- ||{l/l]l(.)l(ll.l.. Btr.r xoBa T paBo a oyI{e
lHr Mr)Ky H I, lr.Il(.z|rll() KoHa' opapo o o o o-
|| ll' I ll l lil To yTBo.
ooy ooT
- H Too ao, o p, Kax-
t yvaK .oro oFIoT oa opaMpo o
|

|'l. 254 25B K P op. ITp paBFITBa o


o o yaTBoaT B yaT aooB' opo Ix [aT- l|||(.I|(}lt KpTI{oo xoTBa B paB oo o-
x o o yTBy' a TaKe B .ep)KKa o o orp)Ka- l|(ll Il|, llc KJ{IOB To' To oaIr yaTHKoB Mo)KrT
tIIo oxpaHIo. l'|.I | |. lIl)yMoTpro Ho.
TBo' aor .oo ooc.' B- ( .()|]lllo T. 259 K P paBoprHKo KprTtloo
rT l, tlaTHK Moy pa. o o oaIFIIo lr'tltii,l |}it p o pTpa o)rT r xoTIor
M).y .'I.. p oe oattl o oo oB- IltIlil|)ll||l.I.Bo poBoTl KoopaTB. pao o-
x paa oo yrTBa o l..a o o.oo yaT- ( ||l(.Illl().l. Ha yTBo po14T xooy ToBa-
tIKo axt yaTKoB BpaB o op.K po- Illll||',l I} KoorpaTBy KaK IopKoMy I4' a tII
BaT BI.a B FIaTypr o o oo yrTa. l ll(.(.l l,'I||Koo oa popTalT oaB}IIe paa
4 35
Ha yTBo' pao Nt.I4 ol BoB pyx ||l'I ll,,|;I l l, Il()KIIitT B ooT op,.n,'ff ToBap' llp
BItooB ToBapT* KooIpaTBy. Pap BKaoB yaT- lli ll\| V ||()l(yaTr NeTc ooBTTByr paBo oa
t'iKots ToBapTBa tIHoB KoorpaTBa' o.aoo a ||l'|)(.]|iItIlt :)'l\)t.O ToBpa. B o I]p oaoT oyaTr
yTBa ]<pTF{Koo (poo) oT.Ba' yTa- ||||;IIlll,l, tl.ltoy ooBopo y a popaI
-
\
tlaBBaT c'o IlX o R aBe o olloT Il||l;Il). il lll)aBo oBa
I la yIlIBo oTB. - TpOoBaT ro oaTI.
l:tllltl.tlI .ooBop" at,r (ooBopa pTaBJI'IT
l lll |{)l| ()lII)/(HtI aoF{o po'ypy' p oOJill,{ KOTO-
l|lIl| (.()| Topotl ob yTaHoBH OoaTTBHHI oT_
s " PAoo yPoAHE lllll||(.lIIIii 'lllIlII{e
lITT oTyTIM, a 'ooBop - o(lop-llHI.IIM.
ooBoPH lx oH ollJ Hv| P P l-l MAE ||{l|()|t()I) '}itl<-l}otlzlT or.TBoI\,1 HapaBe:'I opt (o-
I l.lIlIi| }lll<JlIoT ooop) o.o Topo r aIITa (p't-
Pylrpoa prp}Iao TIto p l lll| ||l)()lJlo)<) po opoo.
yUTBoo oopoa oylTBT a)K/{aHKo_paBoBI ( ()| ,|iltlo . 435 K P p.troH' a,]lpoBaor ooM
l{oOBopoj\I ( p TpoBIx' )yao'I HI oTHol]I- ||rIll l|(.l(ojtK KoKpTI a]\'1' M,I lolltlyl y
H p||vIeHIoT ooBop]' pypyrlr opa OOTBTTB_ (!||t]l'|(. l opo) o Toa' Ko'a oo l]9T oTaToHo
IoLx opa paa). flooopo llpaT oau{I{r y iIl||||./|(.-]|lII{I ilpaKTp BIpD{aT ap a, aBIIlo
KoK o yaoHI4\1. Nl Jl pKpa- |||'(./|,|())(I{, TaT BaF{lM B JIa o p}IT
H pa)qlax paB oao (. 420 K P). l,rt' tlt.rt l.lt)' pox LITaT oTTo}{o oIIp.lIN{'
fiooop BeTc paoBI{oTIo K' c J{ oBlII- | ||| ll:t lt IIrM yKaaI yTBIII yoB ooBopa L| IIop)l-
H olltloTopo ceK14 oxolto ]IoTaToo BIpa)r ||tl' l|\ ()llp. IIpo;Hl,I' Fl r po (o-
o oo TopoI]I B ooTBrTTB aoo' I{I]\{ paBoBI- ll!(.Il|()|\,ly 'y ), I{ l\{oT t{TaT opo.
]\f aa oaIl' To aKJIorI .I1ooBop o- ( )tIlt.1rt.tL MoT pN,IaTpts. l,{ pyMaTpBaT poK
oo BIpDH oaoBao o Byx Topo (yopot- l l1l ()lrl.t.a (aa). B yrla, oa B pO)l( aKIIIoLI
H /{rKa) o Tprx I,{ o Topo (oopol{H _ ||||()ll()l) Oip)(T yKaaH poKa ' oTBrTa (a Bo To
Kzr). iIll('/|l|())|(H oTyTBy}ol apTHraM' 'aIT't oI B Il-
p paBo tpaoaa TMa ooBopoB' yTIBa- lr.ltllttii tpop), ooop TaT aKJI}otI{I, rJI o, -
Io ooeo oT}IIx B.OB KoIoMeI( oT}Iot i,t, |'l|l||l(.(. lIpro)I(H' Iloyo o pyo TopoHl OTBT o I]-
B'Ill-t}II poB>l<r ToBapoB oT tlpoBo op- ||1| |lIl| |Il)ro)l(I] Tel{ T.oo poK. Kta IIp'o,I(Hr
TIo' BloItIt po oKaaF{r yy. p Hx o)Ko ll']|;l(.|'L]'l To yaa poKa oTBTa (a prJlo>H
BlrT ooBopI y-poax' oTaB (poo l|| |( lV||ill()., KaK paBo' p or.TBrI rpOBox),
l(Il-po)' op.a, apHI' ooopt oa pTo- 'Il||t)ll()|) ttTaT K.J1[1I}V1 p Ft]\,IrHo pT o
ztl-to ootltt' Ha BItrot{FI H?yo-"""oBaTr- .11'1,trlti .t.poto. po)KH ya poKa oTBTa a
x pa p' Il(.l() (.,/(Jlllio t] Mo op, ooop t]Tzl.t aIIIo-
op>a' aooTTBr pIt ooB1 BoB lIl.|NI lIl) yoB oy oTBTa o Ttlll poa' yTaoB-
/{ooBopo He BeTc cpIBaI. Copot BpaB a- ll'tIl|()|t) :taKoHoaTTBo, a Ttll(o poK r{ yTHOBFI
llT t{Ie ooBopI' H pyoTDHtllr KooM 1\1 I4L{INI l'.|(.Illl(' IlOpMaI,Io oo(oo ' Too Bl)rrH.
- B
I
Ilpil]]OIM aKTa, a TaK)r lr .ooBop' B KoTopo o- N|tllr.litttt4 l] BjI'IT KToM' ec FIo H BITztT 14
,lpa.'I JITI paI ooBopoB. o ooBop OI- l,ll'()lIil ll'JII,I I,1 o)I(Bl]ll{ /oBl oTt{ol]I opo.
pel(cjl'lIOl.'l o yl\,IoTprHIo TOpoH' Kpo lIaB' Kolla o,{p. ||t|]l\,l|(.lI O.I]rl. o o aJIIoT otoBop Ia Il OB'IX'
)l(ilt] l,lO ()o.BTRIoro yoB prco aoo.TTtsoM. .ll l\| lIl)/lJIO}KHO ts op' To oI{ BJIT aKTo]\4.. Toi;i
lt,tLlt,tlt.Bo (ooBopoB, IiMrIx B ppHaTr- IlIll(.i Ill)l,IIlT OTKao oT aKrTa, o B To r Rp o}I o)rT
o t.llI.loT.' HoT {ByTopo}l xapap' Koa y axo l|'ll ('N|ilI,l)t]AT Ka HoBa opa.
TooFII I4toT opI paBa o.to. B TK ( .| .t45 K P pyMaTpBaT' To ax' oa ',I,I
oo|]o}]a Kil)I(a'I },I Topol{ BITyaT B KatlTB l(prTop l I t )|)( )l lt,l , o.oii apalIella orpTa, aIo ooBopa R-
l,l lATl,TR, Ilo oop|]\,l ott ]v1eeT paBo poa, - B . lr tt rl'|'il|.JlHI' Ta Topoa o)a HapaT pyo Topo.
o)KK2t
- o olTJIBa' KoTo]]I o,r>ttT BloJllll'. ||| lI lIl(.tl(Itl ] aT, l4o o oTae oT aKIrT, o oT
Hut t1lp' trrll to IlpoaBlla o,,tot.oopy Kv_oa)
- 'tl Ilt.Illt'llt|lpr.t Ia lx yoB'I (poo aHoal4 po-
1tf
KTy ooopa) B Te 30 o . oy op.t. lIl|'| |((),|,()I)t,I Opr,JIrI{ oMrHTo BoTprooBaH' I(pUl]'op Bllpa_
.opoa, HapaBBlIIa opy IIoytIBlII oT pyo opot, trt. tttl't.1lflrl}1L. CItoHrH'I B o BprM. !.o; ol tlpo-
l1 KoTopo a.r ooBopa oaFlo' oTKa oT aKTa lt'}ll.I' o 7-tt-tt po o .'t1 oyH poa 1 ec\l
;to FI o r aT Ha I yoB, BpaB raT lllI() |l 3aKoa' pyx paBoBIx KTo' o
t]l.t'KaT
l)aIIojI2l'I' BoHllI p aJItI {ooBopa' Ha paT_ tl(lll'tll.l.JII,TBa, oIarB ,oBoo oopoa ya ola-
Il a B TH 30 o I{ oyLIH Taoo BI. |(']|l,.l.lj.
ttl o TeI DoKa aKTa. Ooo BIT B aKooaTTB Bopo o opotto
B laIx, oa aKIoH .l1ooBopa oao Topo- llll()JlH oa (. 315 K P). flox BfIpaB -
Ill, rtapa opy, e Tr 30 r,j }IIpzlB Il().]IlIT oaBo opo}Io' To .yMoTpo aKo-
poToo paHoa poey ooBopa' Ta opoll?l orraa lt(Ulal.TBo 'ooBoo o raT rTBa o.
.tlr 30 o II oyr poToKoa paHoa ec_ ICJlI,CTBZI o)KBlIIx ota. p oyTTB rpH-
TT /-(pyyto TopoHy o p:T ooBopa B paKrr o o Ill,l yoB o>lK BpaB IIo oaa
oTKJloH}l poToKoa paHoa. p oToe poToKoa ()l.a KprTopa. Haprp, oTaB tl BaBr .oBp-
paHoat1 ;to HrotIFtI,tI{ }lB o peTaT o pa_ MIIHo oTpyT oKyaTlo ooBylo apT ToBapa' oTatsKa
MoTpH B yKaaHHI poK TopoHa, HarTpaBBlIla poToKoJI l(()Topoo pyoTpa B ,ooBop paBoN4pHo. B Ttir o.
paoa, pa opa B y. l(pop B ToM yar oT oTKaaT o p o.
oo paHoBrIoTIo /looopoB BT ooBopI' a- Il'l 'o aTytl TaoBoo ooBopo poKa.
LIarIr a Topa. flooo aKaT o. BIpaB- Mo oIIe oa. oaTo o;o r
ll]M Top, To T p ayKoo pop poBlN{ Ha- oIHo B MT' p.yoTprHoM aKooM .oOooM.
o oHFI Hr oprI{o aoo' ll'14 paBoBI-
o BIoKyIo y' p oKpo
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BIpaBI Top, 14 opaHaTop o.IlctBT B ToT )Kt] .I{ aKTaM .ooopo' BTBy otB oBoo
poToKo o pJITaTa Topots' oopt M y otoBopa. oopoa Ta oaTa' To oao . 316 K P
o, BIpaB Top' p yKoLI\l oT ozi IpoTO- oo olt<o I poBo:
I(oa yTpaBaT BIl aaTo. opaop opoB' vK_ o oaTBy rpra H.Bxor Mo (l
.ltol-tr oT oca po.ol(oa, oa BoBpaTT ira_ aToK' aH . ,.) - B T ro Iaxo)rH;
ToK B ,olt papr' a Ta) RoTT y' BlaBMy o oaTB aT ^oap I4 or yTBo p
l.op' yt, pHrItIr ytlaTr B Toilx, B aT, t)Bl_ oo.oT o rpBoK
- B \{T .a MyTBa I]pBo-
rtor My aaTKa. M pBoy ruI oTaBK o KprToy;
oo or oae. oacTBa o .ooBopy o py oaBa p.{pT epraT ToBap
.\oXHI otlT Ha}a opao B- yTaoBl l,,l Ho MycTBo
- B T oToBHl'1 14 xpaHrH Ivty-
poK B ooTBrTTB C C,oB .ooBopa TpOoBa'lM aKo- lTBa, 'Jl To rTo to TFlo p/{Topy B MorF{T Bo-
IIO/laTeTBa' a p oTyTTB TaKx yo poa - I-l KoBr oaa;

OO,I'I]TTB otaM oBoo oopoa |I|N1]4 oI.Itll o rFloy oarTy - B MrT )TTBa pTopa
lll)/(.|,'ll]'iIM po (. 309 K P). (voo a) B MorT Bo}IKHoBe oaJITBa, a
();Iloo1o oa oT loHrr olTB o /oot]o_ KpTopo .eTc lop.or o - B MeTe o Ha-
I)y tl OllHoTopo}{F{r MrH eo voB yKa,. o)q,H B MoMrT BoHKHoBrH ooaTTBa;
KJIl()tIllM yttarB' proTptlHI aKoHoivt' a TaK)l(r oTa_ o BeM pyM oaa
- B MT TTBa {oJ(H-
)l(CIILlIlI Il /looop. toT'I. KaK paBo' IIoIIlI y- KA' a 'ooM BeTc Iop.I]'Ko o
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Co lle oa. ooBop pryTpl,lBaT paTop)rl .I1ooopa. B po ec ooo-
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poit pMtI' B TtlrH KoTopoo oHo oo lt, lo}{- FIor H pyMoTpo aKooaTTBo. CopoI oT
llo, oaTI]o o)T oHFt] B 1.OT rll I,l ooT- llI()Ke oT oaIIIH o opooM paT.op)KH ooBopzl.
I]TI.BLIHo t .ltloo MoT B TTprra TKoo llpoa. l(o,tl ();t tlopo oa oT o oarTB I,l ooTopo-

/ooBope l)ol( I| ollr/lrIt' oI{]] /I,O)KHo oIT poB- l|(' t.,{Hr yoB ooopa oyaT ToKo yo
.rI.Io B paytII poK lloc BoHKHoB oraeTa. o ll()I)'|/lK o TpoBa o.o Topo B ya' prMoT-
TrH'I Too poKit, a 'IitK)( o olIztTBaM' poK oI{- l)('ltlll)Ix ooBopo aKoo (. 450 K P).
38 9
o l,ttIe paTop)K ooopa tuo
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l ll,l. tll;tt< ltt'lt(l4 llp BoHKoBe o)KHI{a pol aTp/f,-
p otoopoli, j\,IHI{14 oKa oT ]]ooI]opa. Koil lrt.tlttii tt oltrl.llto llp o apt-lr l(plllTop },,1o)rT r oy-
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tIo r.oporto appy o JIooBo1,' ot}ll4]\l yTaoBH. l,||(()|l()]\4 (o o), rB]\4o oT. l.oo' ltpyN4o't-
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to, BaLILII t) oH B yTaoaHrloN{ top papr- ttr''t: l'tlli:l
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paor KoHoa'IITBo prTaBT rTpHI,tNIaT- Il;||)yi llI{e\'{ yIToB, Ho Jllll it .ttt, I(oTopa H IIol(lTa
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a' op(Il,lT,IBo, oa apallT' a.aToK p', I.- /l'()ll)Klill I rar{a B MN(a rtyolt IoKITI Br
l l| )tII'{t{}It yl. I{ap, at B HeyTo p-
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tIItIIo K olol]Hoy' oTopo o o.lt,laloT. pp:t l||)()pOtl oTaB, oaBKe po.y rrlaliJTxtIo li-
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al paBa apl oo IIpaBa Ha y)Ky}o F{ oyKa- |)(.||I||.|\ /tJ|,l l(ootsopoB aoa.
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pav o :L'IoorpxaT (aa). p 'UIoa orT tIlrl;l\l, Il oH HBTII.
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I paol(oB py.
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l]ir/tToK yT oT(IaT oT Ba}Ia. ao' aa B Irr. l t.','."n*,oT a }]apyrl oaBa Io llooBopy BJIT
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(),| l,lll()JlIttt oaTrTBa oH I TpT paB H p.I-rFIyIO B Il',.|.';|||(I.O oJlr'l o'IaT.r. flp o oTyTTB B]lI
(.'l(''l. | |Jlil,l L.)Kil M. 1|l||.il tI,I BaT oM] apyltrBJ oaTJITBo. ,o o-
'}ltl<tltl ()II]?lpBaT TBTTB}IOT Topo a rl.ItIoHrI | (.Il /l,()l(aaT' To Hallrarr Cl]oeH oazuIo HBOMO)K-
,|.()l'()It()l)il () 'Jilj(1.l(. l,t TBa Topo' aBIIIa a.aoI(1 |||.|l\| IIJITB oTo,[.JI,B' a l(oTopl H o(}Ia Topo tI
()ll ()'|.il,l.ll y .rt1ll.o TopOI. Bi{a TopoFIa, IloyB_ i l llt(.ll,|. (lit Be].vI. orHIr l, . .).
IllA'l'llul'i|,|.()l<' OlIil tllart yaTT .y Topor oyto /l'lrlr 1ll Bopoa o oTBTBIOTI{ a Hapyr oa-
:tiUlil,|.|(lI. (lIl1lx l.oO, Topo}{a' OTBTTBa a HefIoHr_ Il.rl|'(.|.|{il Ba)(Hor aHr I,IMOT oI]r.AlI1(] I{r Too ..oXI(a,
II ,llOI.()l}();rit, tllt'.lltllil l}oT1. pyo opor yt atll_ ||{| lI l(!)ilTopa. .404 K Ipy]vtoTo' LITO' l Hec-
.o MMl,I :]J(il].l(il, ll()]l||('lll,lLl JI tll{ltar tlojl oaTBa poo-
JI l] /IooBope I]e pI{yMoTprFIo Ilor.
44
rIIo o Br oox TopoFI' y OOTBTTBHF{O y]\4{II.taT paMp Kol|Po lE BoIl Poct
OTBTTBOT oKa. y/ Ta)(r Bpa yHl.[IT parp
oTBTBHto o)KHKa' e. Top y]\,{tUIo o l ||;t tlltttt'tl ()ol]HI aKoI prKo aKl' prplr pp-
eoTopooT ol.lTBoBz y parpa yITKa' tlp- | | | | l\|ll l (. l| |'(' l(vI() /t'lTo AK.
roo HrIToeI'\ 14 ara oHlN{, ,' /J;riiI ililKTpTKy oIlot{Ix yeo paa. Ka I]opaT
||||l llI||)l|||lIN4]l'JI aBMo oT }ypI yeTBeHIJtx oor?
H' p]tl pa),,lvlHIx p K yMrFIIlIr. 1 l';li.(.il)Ic, K oyrI] oyapBa pTpa HB14a-
oeIIoT a e TpT;lr . CT. 40 K P ya- Ill|| tI l||l(./lIl|)l,lIIil poo a.
oBIo' tITo OJIK oTBraT a orH 14 rHa)Ka_ .| |(ltl<tlrrl Oot]ll paa, ottoT oTBTToT p.pae-
r o}Iea oaTBa TpTM I4aIv,, a oTopIx tso- 'l' ll','
|(itttlt IlopoK popaa LIKB'Ia p.rKoo a?
oI{o oH, Kotlo oprrI]o' To OTBTT- (r Il 'ltl :Jtlla pao oo? Ka paoo oo onpr.
BtF{oT [IrT BItr opTBrHI{I]!{ o.rM rlr llll( l( tl'2
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KoB' oH oBJ] a oo Hor eHaJI)Ka- Ilt|ll |||(.ltII(),l.I4 a Mlo. Ka p. aKa oo peypy?
li lJ:rii.l. xapaKpTy ottoBIx yo paa o}IoT. K o-
lll o HH oaTt}.
Illl l/tt.]|,ll()l,l peKr a B aBMo o ytla yvp (ya_
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pTopa. Crtal ootsa}t Il'l|) |l ()(|),loa r x ?
HaTyF{ oTrTTBFlHoT o)KHKa KpTopa y)T o_ .) |(lr t aeie lHI Irpaa ' H BIoxf ol'la?
ra M popoKa, To T poyK yTaI{oBF{oo Jloo- / |lllI l(. lt ilpaKTpi.
Bopo poKa oBIxr orHt . |() 'I'o oHMa o o oeoIo? B a opa Ilprpa-
Ii |||.l I|lil ,l'lt
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aTy yo, oa pyoTpHa ooBopo' flox Il l)aaxe o op. o oa^o paHI ooBopa.
oTBaT TaKx yao -aTyBIIIy Bo tsp popo |,l l(a oot o.re o oae o ooopaM Br
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.JITBa oTaaT
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l-Jll,.l.Ijy ooo oHa oT BtaTI l]oToB
il l]pM'I 'lI]Jl'l.l.'I
o,I.pO(IK.

46
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( )]lt|||NI I,l TooB oIir- [.oyapTI.}a


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Il
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aopoItlljlroo poBolTa> (l997) oll OoyapTBIlIM l Il| l'l\ t(JtBlX opi:lN4.
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lIlI VOBHii o :llo Jl KoI.o o.l,tllt I: Ill)oMIUI- rlllIl)1l;Il,lltllx aKoI] yTa}IoB}IHI I,I]\1 Ko]]o Hol]*
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''J lio l1 otlrKor l,1po Bar apopO]vt J IrH ol.o IIOIJO.-


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l)/l(ll|,() (lt,ttllit. l] or.TB aotto P <o o'yap_ l . Ii)NIl ltlt.lItltlii lJpl,ll{aji,l)tloTt,l 1997 . ]\4oy, IIoOI]:l,l.'I
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48
oTHI yoBx ( aM r o 25 % eo s 2. PyPoAHE oPMPo B^Hv|;
P). Cp,a oo oa HaoT B paopxe - yHKoHPoAH PIA
I.lI,tTpTBa Koo xoa pooBocTB P o. KoxoBHHo PoyK,
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l,I .py :lTpa}{l ppoB otlLloo poa' ToBa Illlll ;ll l)()l|[)ol]l]IlHoo poBo/lBa) (1997) pypotsa
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i\,1l,{. prTB I4Ma oo oli,ia p. Pal,I:a|4'| ooBopr T IK Ha TByIoIt(c }IO[)N|tl].Bl]t .IloKyl\,lrTI
rrpoIKl,I, oIl)KaU1 pI4Kal4ll, pKaTa 0oT_ o TajI;tpTttIlI4 (or. ]T) .;ttlo tor. t yTalIOBHI
B.l.'BI l 3al)U tH[l. llNtoToTo.
Cplr(laT ooTBrTBI{'l l]lrliiT opaIo o p.pKaI4 B ooop Moy' l tp1l'yo.pItI II{KI4 a HpyJrl]l,l
o loJ]ttFl'I poToKoa lTaI{ a apTIIIo tlpo1'1411 poa K KaTB' ToO l{rT, pi\lrT aHKl4,
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p. po o l,i't yI-laI]I4B opa}lo o pr.lllla_ P: ozl P <o arl,r IaB rIOTp.ltl",l>> (1992 ., B pr'.
l.(l,114, Iio H o .t 3 t.<l.a. B pao.I IIo cpTl.,{}al,tl,t l996 .), ..o zttt1,21 I,I oTaB](a ooto p1u-
oa14 BT 5I t]l4TJl . I,I, lp'I pollooTl]'I 'JI'l oCapTBeI{HlX H}X>> (l994).
60 6
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ILlHIl 14 DztHrll't. ll()IllJlH
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poK],I. o llot] lto ape,> (|993 .' B p. l995 .).
pil,l poKoB H B ooyl Ty Po BxoT JIaTr)( ot
p. apat po tllo , o oaoo TpaoBztr P' oapt
ToM LI I{ KOMIIKTyIUI OTABHI rIaT' FIo Hr rl;o a,lToT Har'l P, ot oerHoo I\,Il4lJH-
py]\4oTprFIo HopaTBl oTa oToBT,I o I(oo Tpaoa. opo aTI pypyT -
a HapTa |,I ooopol\4. I I I aKoHoa TBo.
pmtt|itti po nodto \4.CJ| o .l Btso.it B l(opo a o.r HooBoo aooaTTBa' pa-
KJIaTaI4lo] ToapI Hapooo op o H poDI( IlIoT cL|ce.' ooo BoBpMHHoT BH'I
p pot| Hlo TopoByI rT' Tpoe'Hl -ol I] ooTBTT tox HzUIooB pyx oatllx a_
oJlaLI aKTa o pKr x oo oypo - o tI'I
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cce. apat po KyaTa poBarT'I a ylo oo.B aoo PCP <.o oyapTBrH-
l]l]eN,t' B TtlFI KoTopoo B e )/Tpa]4 opyxll rto traoo yx PCP> (1991 .' B p...1993 .). B.ta-
IrloTTK. IIoTt4, .t a, B ToM r ldHt ripp_
o odo|nu cTaaB\1Baec poyKTI .aH, app_ IIaT' oaI B yTaHoBrI oK IIpecaB'lT B opa-
pTBa' rKaHTl /pr oBpI, tlt ppao ooo y>t Kapzl o oxoax il
oa KoToplx o Bp,MrM oyT l yxy_ tp,Iy o, Ha oHoBaH oopo poBrp,lT pa-
, To oH TaoBT OHIN||4 , llo. aLII4rI4 BHH B ooTBTTBy lo'x<r oo-
ooBaHI/I \4 MoyT p.TaBT oaoT .'I )<I1 o.Hoo 'LIToa.
opoB. B o ya yT}{oB poKa oHo B- Kpo Too' B ooTBTTB aoo P <.o pat
T o'IaTlI\4 TpoBaH oCTo. Bo oTaHlx y- opaltx ooo o>> (l995) B Tpa oaa Haooa'l
'I poK oHoT opeT'l oToBT o oatrl]- o7L4, aa oopo y: BIBLI' pryp>l(-
rN,{ TopoH B ooBop. tl H HaooBI pTyr paoapy:
Cpo c:ltl, K apal, yaaBBArT'I a TH_ o oaoT TtoT toyapTBFIIx Haoo-
rK oxt{Ir e, prHaaHl II Teoo o- I]t , aTI x oTpHKoB oT poTBopaI{l o-
oBa',o oprT rpo Bptl' o T oTopoo aTTB p oe xtx oao; pr-
ToBpl (pyar pao) KoHorK Hroopao - p)qrFl' BIBH ptlr Koppy B HooBl opa-
ooBaT o ooa o)t(T l].TaBT oaoT Ha.
B oe .la po o y-
l1 ]opoB |4 >KH|4. ay Tao)(eHHl ol1l KoHTpopyT To)(HIllr opa_
HoBH poKa yxI
- oao poBae oCTo. Bo HI, a Brrr a or o poI oa-
B oTIx ya poK xI yTaHaBBaTc oToBe- THoo .l-Ioo TpaxoBaH
M o oaI TopoH B ooBop. ooo oa paoo oa - ooTBrTTBrl{FIo opal
oa.l-too ]vI'-
Ll HKoo TDaoaH.
paa oaoT oyttpBHHIx aooBIx , a
s 6. HAooo PEyPoBAHE TaK)K y oallo oyapTo a;loo yxI pa-
Hl ypoBH opel .Io ttl(oa PP <o
* ool oyeTo' xpaKTpy}o yruyto B ooBax rtaooo TI Po pa>' <(o oy-
o TM HiLTooB, BeTc aorr PCP <.06 ooa apTBrHHo aooo > PCCP>, a TaKxr ooxl,r o
lraooo TI Po pav7l4>> (1991 .. I] oyapTBol7t aooo y> oo pa.
p. l993 .), oopt oIprT pr HaooB ol1l]], ) 'oKyrHTa opHl aBa otaocT aoo-
aTl(oB HaooB' x paBa oaoT' paBa oa. aTlIIKoB.
HoT aooBI opao. opo yaTI Haoo' opo, B oocB14|4 c aKoHoaTTBoM P, pyp}oM HzUIo-
orUH p aT)K, oTI aTrKa. a TaK)K oBl oTotIlH' o op't'Ka aTI l]aooB p|4X
BtIHa TaBoK TaHaBBaT aKooaTHI]\4 opao PD otaIx aT)l( oBaT pI\4rFIrI-{r Ko]{o]vr-
p1,1|vII4 opHaM oyapTBo a B ooTBTcTBI .lKo' aMI{Tpao yooBoit oo.
62 6
s 7. PyPoAH lllEoHoMo (.l'l]eltIlI oaoB I| IIoiftIoMOHI
p"Ha oyrcT-
It]Ill op.FIIx BlIoB BHrttIF{Koon,{Kol:i tl..
EirO I ltuloa paKTKa' TaB Flao}{ro.o poBollT,]
B IIp-
( )yII(OB'IJI BHlIJI-trKoIlo]\4I,ItlKlo |l,lJI I.,loBaHi{o ooX, oarT My op I{toTzllJI-
TrlloT' ]ll]/xp-
|

llI,I]\'1ll.I.Jt Iloy prI\,Iy(Ba MxllyHapo/tloo ])zll-I'i M KoI(ypTaI\{.


|,|)y/la. Haplp' ott o)KT 1-ll,top a py>o,' 1]oB- Kot opaFILIHJ,t BHIHOO,IKo e-
'I..]l|,o [erlpltFla opllTBrFlo .r
t{I ].x}too|' oBpMtlFt] xH(lI( pTI]a' I rl BaI a_
a'pI4I, oToI B rO Tpa H lol4Bo. oBr I|l)ToM Ha oyTB yrtlrr ora, Ho aa-
,|.},.l()
lot4BoT'I I] Flol.ill'otlIx Ko.ITB. a llTI1oT oKaIaT I]r I]\{' ao o-
ooy o oo,!y IJaII{I{I ToBpHoo plKa' o_ I .]|o)Kr. Ba>tro ]\{To B Tr TaKx op|] aro
BIl]lel-ll{Io ol,rooii 1loyL1t,t. I
l litl.loFla aooBa T]\,ta aol Tapt.
Ha-
Bl. oyl.l.I-'t pyt,lpol.lz1l{I4 -]I()oa Tra orBa paH To1. TaI( opa,
.I.I oa prylr(rTB:r
I]rlItII.iK llpllttpll}{^4a, tl- oya ooa-
tli4BitT IlITMy poTKOHTK ]\,{p' I.tlpaBAlHI lia Oa- l lto}'Io' poyl I (:lta
I
l)r,pat[CrHl po' -
aoajlFtI rlpol4BoTt l ao aottp'lI;l y-
I{I,I I!t,Iots . .). I-Io.lH TI{apoB T.pa},I aK;<r o)(rT
o Ha BIIyprI] }.l BI{tlIHI\{ plHKa. !' o1ltro Po- ||oy)KT oBoo K apy BBoa ]\,topo po/lyK r
L4 oaJ1rHoi,r oIot,tt<o Ti-l}l paa Ha ByTprH pl}I. a }taI'lot HI TpaF{-
/lI1oT I

OpTB I,IMT l.lollTrHo Ba)KHO I:IarI}l. lIOpTt{I apo l]rpr/o oT pTB l] OT oTaB-
K I,ty }.l]4or paO.l.ptl!{Hlx ll paK.t.l4K ]\4rp l<l,{
-pyoB
copTrpaM o paBIIIt] MiIopTpN4.
o lT ao}iI]I ToBapIoBo.Tri'i o,l]oT - Korrl Ivt opa HL||vI\I oy y>. ll plitsTJlrF{-
]olI4. l|l l.lpIl[Ia o ooBa]{ pI,I poBol]T.B po(yKl
1. ao;<r{Ho Oo)K (r.apIrl appt), paalo_ O]'o o ao}IUIoo lp'I' alpeT lzl itpl,tp-
L t]ooBztIJr oKoBTrTB]{}.tI I{e oyapTBltI opaIa'INI j,IopTIlI .oBapoB I]I4
tIaJItr[ aoHlx aHaoo !I p.
B cpay (p>
- BIt]oil lt)
III{,I BIJo:a B
po]].yl(' { orlt'l HzlollaI)l . a oypTBHHoo TMyJloBaH I(opTa: I]p-
yptt FIoTpaHI]\,t pIrplall ot,Io ),l-aHaBI,litIoT I]l- MI /]o'ra KIIopTpaM B ts KopIll lt1l, BII]aTa
oKl4 TMorl-IIe otl1 ttp Ilo1l oor IIpol(t4 l',I PaI]I TooT yy o TpaHopTpotsKr p:]ol] Hitllol-
o,ltyapKztTots 14 o lt II I,IMopT Ip Jt aTp_ IIl HoTpaFtI ]TpBoKoB T. ., BI/.lil(lil }lzi J]I.oT}lI
itoB. - yjl oB'I opIx KlI oB. oyl]pTj]}{Ho l.pztoBal{
2 " Pal,tt.tt ,p(ltt pl, aor pztpopaHe_ OyTBJIFti4 Bt{ll]HrI(oox opzt o cTpaa]vl
t{'1r i]'}l Ko.oplx IIoy KOHTI4FIHTOBaH l,I t{po- .aI oTrK po. aool]l JloTI ' ,.
Bi1H BlIt0Ko}to]Vll''ltIrj(l,l opa' Kll,ll-rrpoBaI{ yap p Ha ce a]4TH},) oIo l]a]o,tlo llo JIr-
Bo ' yTaoBr}{M Ktso. Ha Klop. (o1l') OTI ll0Bl'IIo Ko}IItKTypl poBoo plKa, altll,I].c HTeprots a-
ToBtlpoB' B pra KoTopI BI]riHKoHol\414tIKr opai4 ol{FIIx KopToB' I4flopTol] p.
Oy oo,tIo. FI all KoT}{- B o.t:BI4 pi aio P oo oy{apTBFl-
Hi o 5r opl,t III(oB ToBapoB' Bo- Ho4 peypoBal{ ar-p0tlorIrFJ[{oo tlpoBoBa) KopT
ol1l l paljrt polto o o,ta l,t N'ftlop Kooo poKll' Ip'I tlpooBo-
l'o]\4o.L4 |D{ pol{Bo.l-' p l4cpllltl,l]4 TBI,I oyTltIoT yTo IiooMoT l]{I Trp-
ol,ltleTl]a .(yr' Kt]op [t,l,to) oBpa lle- ots OTTBI{HIx ToBaopool,t, (lp apopoIrfl-
.I(pil(c,I. jlHoI-o poI]o.a oIIIlI,t lpoliotsoo -
-II oJiaarT oxo iro-,iy-
Hl']. opiiave' papt[ (lr) l]a ocvU{]B OtaOT TaHI. flj I pa.t:llo P pi{LlT
BIl l-tjl lKoHt ii tuatl. \,{I: aTl{oo' l1pOT.K],lo}{TJ(oo apaKTra' {J l{aIr-
op,lto BoToBaI1 I1 L(HpoBaFI loTBOK ToBaOI] Il pi}{a cKooo poy, Ip tlpooO_
Ha opT OtIprFI oKyI\{}ITo. yTBp)l{'H-
TBII A40)(T l oo a T otloTBrHoo or{oT-
I,l MBC, lVll-roo (a 199-5 .). | \I\1 OpT pBo.T ]( llllFt) oToIt op,
K o:fa pMIx o '1T TzlK CIIooBaHr riLI)eIo .IlootloT Koo'l'iTBHlx ,oBpopoBol(T-
I o} pB ottoO }l KaK I,IKII-] l1To o paa o yap- ; Io Ti{]vI YI4pOBaH l,I K opTa eI(ooti ozlv-
"l
t

64 65
lIlIl|. ('|,lI)|,'l ll lloOBo}TBI41 To H HapaT TI-Io- ox # oo-
|lJIl,j paop)I(t{l,1 prHa a pHl{,
Il| |tItVII)t:lIIlco pll]Ka. atr pI pMaIoT lop ItaIla o rpBoa Poy pIo Too.' oa_
14N,l
.l.l arl l<o
lrt)JIll'ICO.l]ellHl opHeH BB oBIltII{HIx Tao_ KoiL lt pacooB' opI{TBo BaHlx
)l(IIlIlx olUH' t}HltlllKolIoMI(o opa, o oopo oyHa Btpt1-
pitl,lTBo P yTaHaBBaT opoK yoB BBee |(?l. Cpa, Hr IIptItlF{Ir Ha tITa B ot{oottl
ptIH opooBlx ' a ooBr KoTopI ol]pr.rIT'I lr B yTHoBl poK' oaT 'l Bt
T2lo)I(I olltHt. opooa a' B BoIo orpll' pil- 1lrp P.
TlBarT H oHoB I{' oxBI]JXe Ha ByTprHM plHK B op Io BITHII .lT o)I(T t opl
TpaI Hl oTeII BI oot-Io poK' prTol\{ a aH paplll pHoo aa P
Ip,r pooBOTBJI. yTo KoHKpTl BatoTI pa. Tao
Coao tMy aKooa.rTB Br apTppo. oTI(plBarT'I' HIpllp' B oopy)Krt ooB' por-
BzlHIfI Po opaa I |4 o HeaBc\4Mo ol. rH BITaBoK' opTBI' yTypHIx Ix opt,ti,r
opr otoT BpaB orTBT BllilKoHoLIr- zt pyxo. o aBrprH yKaaHI opa pITI
K .'lTHoT ao prTpzt. oarlt pBT BaIoTIe ptsa Poyto palo.
po BHrrI{TopoBI ooBopo po ppl,l- B o floHoo pBoa BJoTI pr.B
lla }{oTpilIIHI pa paxaa JlBtoT po P oTaHoB oo ei Baoo
BI'llHKoHoMtIK orpa, BaI ooM ToBapa opTl-loo KoFITpo o paBT BaIoToo plKa> (l993)
yyzl y oyapTBa (oaBKa oBapoB' BIOHHr I]oo)I(o . l{;lal a P poBp BoBpaTa B:LT-
pao. pBo]a pyoB . ..). tlo Ipyu poltM KopTpa Po pa-
Pat o BttJKo}ioMtIK a oyTBIoT rI. poypaTypa P oaa pHaT MpI o BlBHl,Ilo
H:l a MpoBIx B BooHo KoHBpTpyro BJ. B pa- opaa (a]vlo o op ot.lo), HraKoo
(tl{lx opax, pI{rMI B r)Kyapoo paKTK o- OTaB}o a pa opTy BIpLIK oyTB-
JIzloBAlHl .topoa B aKHHo M .ooBop: B B Iox HAKoHI rpBo a pay I{oTpaHHo tot.
aBaoBIx aTr)K, B ITop,I'K HKao aTa BK, oloTl]o P pMaTpBaT Te BaIoTHlx
trKKpTBa T. '. B ooTBeTTB IXpaBTTB}IIN,I TB opaal4 ppt rtr >l B B,r
TopoBo_oF{oMrK oaIeHN||4 paTI oTI yaTl Haool], lx opoB' a TaK)I( oao pot<
TpaIlaM oyTBIoT o JIt,{poBI Ta FIa KorHa. LILl.c.| aIo BIpyLlI4 oT KopTt{lx op, oopa po-
oI{Ho oHoB oTo ooT (IacT.|4LlHo IoTaBKaMLI BoT'I B ooTts.ITB t{pyK [-{paoo aa P
.oBZrpoB '1
". '. o lopl oao poaxll pp T|4 |4, o -
<.

Pypoar BaIoTHlx oTHolI prptlMztTTB ]v{l4' opaHa aT THo BlpyK tlp yoJII{oMoI{_
B'IaIlo plxM IIIpoKoo Kpya BopooB: oTKplT BIOT- t a poBH opa Ha B]{yTpH}{M BaTFtoM
I]l ToB a TrppTop P a pyxo' oyrTBeHIl pIHKr Poo pa> (l995). tr L4'|1, BztloT]
I]aH] opa, BaooTHotllH pHI MT- prTB I{ oyKzltoT'I.
Hl )<a .. ,. p olo po)K opaHaI4 oy' tlpoaaT o.
!' opr'I BaITHI ol]pal w yT (pl TpHIty BaIoT tIp yoJlI]ooLItilIte lt tttt ><ao_
I'tprHTl) oplBaT cllTa B HoTpaHo BaIoT B yo- Balx ltp;ta' a .ztK)(l BlollI p1l l_{pao-
loMoFII aax. Haxoc Ha Ta LITax pTBa o aa P' p Hilpytl]l.I14 OP'l/lll oirr.o poax
o)I(i MT aFtol poo). aoHo.aTTBo y_ lT BaloTIllX r/lTI] op'lllall tloBrpa tpay
TaHo BLI pe}I rzLIIIx To tl KoB oTFt }IoTpaI{ - pap B oKpto lp.tK l] 14I{O,tpIttloii B:lT p-
oii al Ha llTa ppT. ,Boo BBzI{Ta l lpaa Ilo .Ky py l-tpa-
B oo.B|4 c aoo P <o BaIoTF{o pypoBavI t'too aa P(D. ar.a rpapa ooo>aT oT oaroo
tsTt{o KoHTpo)> (|992) opKo' yTa]JolJ.]tHl IJ_ prBo BaloTo BIpyK Ha LIT B oJlHoN4otilx aa
pzlHl ao Poo pa' '| BaTLIa'l BlpyKa oao tpo \IacT opllo BtyK.
r,r
opazr_poB oT BHII]FIKoHoN{o 'THoTI,I, oat,ta aoToTo oyIoT B}oTHyIo pt
oyI]Ha a po' o.)KT pBoy Poyl _ I1o yzr,I HooB ppIl"l lrr >I.
pa}o a ttTa B oHootIHF{I aa B Ttlr 0 oa poa; opzlo Ba}o.l Ha BI{yTprHl{rM
aTI aTa. Baa BlpyKa' oTyllia B oo t'HK ooi;i p oT oyrTBT 'p yo-
66 61
llol\,lottltl aFIK. o opyvHIo opaali J{KI,I Ky- llpatl y o ypaIo oplt,ra-o}Io ap_
lllloa)( FtoTpaHo aI l\,Io},,T oyeTB,I o HfIo- paxl,loy yaB'lloMy. a pa prT B JIya' JI
prlc.BA{o Mx yoFIoMoIIvIl{ aa' o yoo_ NlrT pJia Boo)l(oT BoTaI{oBT aT)oot+
tIrHIM aalt BJly py.
OpaHa-oXtIKa, , poox ee e.eocT oTa-
].o(IHo paoBa aT yTRa o}.{eTBT .py MpI
]oHo4rKoo 14 opaoIloo paj(Trpa. poot<.ll-
s 8. HGoHo (AKPoBo) I IoT Illrlo ypBIr yIr(rTBoM llo)l(K IJ ",toxT
PPHMA lIBIIaT lB l.
Apllpt ypa+o BI]paB opa aplax-
Pypoa Bopoo o }IoToTroT (apo) trt y rr]\4 o aBpI BHlo ypaBest. c
prl]rIrae TBT Ha oOB axiroo o- JI BrIro ypaB'I oTtlya (oarl-{a arr-
rKa P, aoa P <oHoToTHoT (ao) p- IlooolloT oaFII caB ]I rropMHoo oo)KI
p> (|992), aa p.Ta P <o poIIa;Kr oyB- ilTroT loprK]\{ o), appt y B]iIoT
tlI tlp1-ox?Io)) (1994)' p.a oTao a- opFI o rTppaIF{ BI{lUro ypaB OBOT-
a P. t aTa oaa aoa ooa Ba o y o HoToT-tloT (apo)" 9 ;r< JloT).
poBI lrHyTJlo opoo.lto ll.a Ie- H yKaa}{to tI oKa:U]o F{BoMoHI' BIHo'I ope-
oToTUiI{I opal{a. a oyITBeTC B ToM JTII o pKa}I BrI1Io yl]paB eH]/L' pF{aFI .o)l(FI-
ar, rI4 tlpo}.]e ropal{aoHI poyp B oTI{oIr- Ka I{oToTtlI (apoo) o oTKplT oHKyoo
l{ T opaa ootr'I'K rrooopa}lo JI|4 o: tIoBoTBa.
H i1a ollo)'TIoo yJITaTa' fl yKaaHI opa- Cu (opo) oxla ttpoBoli o r Io
TB}{IX aKToB apoTaT Ha B opaa l{eaBo R Trx )t ya' To BIIIIIH ypaBFt. o o
o pt oo. oTxH,l r 'pyo: oa oo .oJ>l(HI'lKy o To_
o oToT'or (apoo) opaaL I|olLl- 1ottt oBIiI{Ka' KpeTopoB ,I i -iI.
\4aIT oooT yoBrTBopI{T pol,t KpTopoB, B pyTBI{o I]aBo I{a yTr B poreLl aa
To r l ortI faT)4 tx Bo Bll- IoT oK ppT-ioxKa' Kpr.T.opI' a Ta)K
;et ot' B B prBIllllt oTB .o;K- liI Tpyooo oeKTBa Too ppI4TIl. F, o]!I7 |l
HKa a o yTBo B BI4 Hy{oBropo r BIp )a}I ){aTBoBaT B aatl, ol
pypo aaa. BrrI-I Hao apoa BII'IT: KoHKyp a rr po.. o, o o paBo { OyrT-
p]4oTaoBI{ K},,l arrx oaa, c o}{a I{ BI{ aHa' pMarT tla ,rr oaBo paTaT'I B
rae L,I.|4 aBoA,Io ooa oT BII]oJIH oo o o Br pTopM B oaoBztlIllte ll[4
poa KpTopoB B TtIr 3 o .H,r aTytle po- pOK.
KoB I4x \IctIHeHsI. pl po aHa|tI,I' aK Brjo vlpaBr{'
opaa tITaT apoO]Vl Too o ]I{aFI 18 M. xoaay , oyBIor aa, ot]
pa HoToToTl4 apl,rpaxI yo JI IIo o- MorT l pot{, o H o (I l! 6 . oao
z]oO rr- e Jlo)Ko p opooo sta- yx loJt 12 yaTHI,l aHaI414 lloJl)I(}.tI oKplT t
. Haa p\Ta oy.apTBrF{Ha TpyKTya I] ]vlorT paT MH 40 % o6l yt poatt KpllopoB, B poTBItoM
BOpo apo. ya caHakI Kpaa.l. attar4'I I]pKI']arT'] Ta)K B
aooaTBo rr,{opo pMrI{r opaa- cy,UIx oKoa'] TulIoB.[rFItloo poK r oB' -
Ll -olD(IK cry llporyp : opaallotx (- o.
He BFILIJFII'O ypaBr yTBoM' arra), JIKB.aoF{- B .la peKpaH caa apputllt? 1 pHaT
HI,I (pI-lyTra opooI{a Ba), arv- plIl o pa Ioa rtoo.]-{I (aoo)
'I poBo oa[I. porypI Kpo]\{ opooo oTKpIT KoKypol.o poBOr.. I,t apparrr y to-
I IKI|4 I\aL4 LI o cyTBIoT pr app ax li c . o oa.
TaT' tITo ll,rI cal/. oTHyTa1 oH Kaa IIpol{Bo-
'1 p lpol,IBo.TBa o JIy o HoToTHoT TBo o JI o cocToTJItIoTI4 (ap).
BeT' B oJD|<HK|a1 o KpeTopoB opaoB' H_ p Ioopo op.'l,I IToBo.TB rro y o apo-
Jle HI oOTBTTB}.IoI"I Ko. TB B THr 3 appt y' H BpaBr BIIITI,{ opre-
Bttt nparu llj,xmo]fl dolu BBoT y,rM rlr o oBrr caRal4I{.
68
9
/(;lr opa' B I\{yt,Br KoTopIx M Ba. (o; l(pTopoB. Paoplt<H MpoBoo oaJ.n'o u,o. a oo
IOyapTBa' opaHaoHI]tr poypI (r ypaB- Ilotto'H poBoTBa o .y o HoToo (arl-
H t,{ t4 aa) poo'lT yoIo]\4o HFIIM oapTBr It IM I(poTTBr,.
opaaM' a aoB:t o'.pxKa oKaII}T'I Iloll pa- B pa aoa P <o oToTrHoT (apo)
l,t. K LIy TaK opal]ol} oTHoT ptt 1l$n po". lIppJIT>> oaoBHr paea P <.o oollx
o ea o IJroToTJIHoT aoBoy oopol]Hl i\,lpa o pzUI a KoHoaTTBa o oTo'tTo (a-
rr TpTopaHI HTTBa. po) prp'l> (1994) yTBp)Ka Ta KpTpB .
!' opaar( _>IlKoB. (laoo oorl] oTopI tlprI4 HoBTBopTo pyypt ara tlraT-
l{ o)l(T t yy.t rUIlo ootl popHtll,loliHl Ilpo- >ooIx opaa. K X oTtl]-ll: }
.t.l B.ol,i, oT o.to oll_
yp' pry]vloTpHa ttudu,tt. lla ]vlorT I pI,,t_
.o (po op I(oHKpoo l-lpo IIo KoH- I tlM prTtsa' opT BoaLIoBFI'I (pat) Tr-
Tpo ztppaoo ya) poo;o (po'l o. >r<oooc ('ll. I2). > oTaHoBrH Bp;(-
KoHTpoM popo). j1o oo)l(H o opK p,oTaI]H oyapo (l_
fl opoo.r Ha'I Jll,tl]l,l aLI' opa a-o>t< OI] oT- rtetIloo llorp HaT)Krool rrppT'I |4
BT tto opI( Ilo BaM]]oy oJiaII.114Io l,ttlooBa cpe rpaoo tox oTpaBI
)l(,y opaHa'iMl{-.oxHKa KprTopi]]vl B l yoB_ MroTpal .)l(TIlIx poo B popaHaj,l
TBopH poa oH IlpoTBpaIFl HraT}lBl1 |4 KBI{ HraTe)Kool ppT. op
oaH t oTBl.t ll It HoToJII IoT (ttIl po_ IIop']oK oTB oyapTBHoo papoaLl Ha
o) IrpcIlpI,IT. !'loprH, KpTopa MO)(l' a- opao opao oIloB' HapaBHoo LIa BoTa-
a'I proTaJlt oTpoK () papoK lloal{|'1 I{oBrl1r aTooo o.pxa{ o
llooB Kt]I,Jl,{p oii op tla, H I,I)KH ll aT o o. xool",l lloT opaa, oyeTBH popa-
p opoBo lrHo Kl]l] I l oal.l }{a-o)l(I-I Ka p- [I14aoFIHlX \1 B.aoHI rpopl4T. oa
o,eI-Il yIoI pop'lTl: olr1 opall (pp- oI]oKyo o' p KoTopl Haoot{IM oa-
r) poBoo KorKTI4Ba, opa Kl]TopoB, oy- a'I MoT I poTaBH oypTB Iao-
rTBHr KooN,lLIoo alaJIil oToIl opaHl4Ll.I.t' a_ ts:l o.p)(Ka: I.lJlLl aHa ooo oopoBlt ('-
HarH KottKpHoO yI]l)aBloo, raptt.ot<a }Ja ll-tl), oaHIx ts yTaoBlLlo op/lK oKyMrToI] lla
JIKB.a opzlt{.lllt'tl4' paa'I (lpoa)K) r lv,lyTrJa' llpBaTa ( opatt' o:rax oao tp_
op TaK)K opoK ooBH'l pTl], B},ll)yLIH t{Ix aa)' yoo oH rBoo apaKTa IIo_
OT paa ]\,IyITBa KBI{pyeolI opaIltltI],{. oBaHLl paIJ proTaBo oy'apoli pttloil
Ha o Ta oBol]TBa o ' o arpoTB Mr)K. l1oip)I(K.
/doHo I(oHKypHI\,t pl{TopaN,r Mo>rT IT a.to B ooTB\I c yao pea P <o poi])(r oyap.
.xlllpo o?oltlIru. at tITaT'I t|p|4H'lIM, JII.I a o TBr}tl pIIpT*o;..o> ( l 994) oyapTBH l-l I opa-
aKLlH BIazUlo H rH yx pti (o yt .l.poa- Ha, B oToltIH KoToI pTo prlllIl o pHarl
) oypl KpTopoB vpo olx orpr. TpyKTypl a HryoBeTBopl,lo, :t ,tot,i opaHa
/r},i. HaTrxooo, o.aT poI(ae. po>a oyTB-rT-
Mpoo oaJ BT oo.l.tMIN4l{ oKyMrIITtlI\(l,I lly.M prulaI,1 Ha Kop(lKx tlBTllotIl Kol-
ep.aT a TBp)l( appil(I{oMy tll lloc Kypax oal.{all-oll<loB oxptllIM ]opl,,ItIKoo
Too BTyaT B y. p ]\,Ipooo o.aII{ po* a: lKB aLL|4 op
I l l,l ii _l- >l<t ol] l loy p-
I-I I

BoT appI y/to tlaTrN,t aHTpoBaHl To_ jwIaL\LI x MTB (aKl.I]oB,) lla ll(lloHa, KoMtIKI,Ix
p. B Te 2 or TBp> pooo oit|Il- - I]BTo}tHlx l(ol{Kpca: pl,lIt[,t l|.il aKoHax }Iao_
}II, o)KHtt oKpIT] lo paMrpr MeHe 5 %. llLl,t B oy/apo o o (' )
[a opo IoaIH .ooB opr.T'I oaIe- opar{a_ox<o. opaM T{oo aMopaBH p-
Hr TopoH. t(oMHJ(oBaHo poBoT poa)I( opaHa_(o;rroB' Iaxo_
Mpoo oaIIIH o)(rT t pztopHyTo p BIo}l. 'lrxJl B yIlao ooT' aHaoHo]vt op-
H TaHoBJtHI B H oa Topo' pollo)Kal-lM I(.
yy.lx aooo oTotll4 oIDKHKzt' oBplUIt NI o oox<l o ooox poyp' pl,IMH'IrMIx B
c., KoTopIe HaoT ylp paa]\,l aol HTpaM oTlolll1{ aTr)Kool Kool oDa]{-
70 7l
.poBa' pewoo a T B pr
3llIl' Tl]p)rHoy paBTTBo P (1995)' pMIo. (l|\4 oT
J /lylol l( popa}I3aoHF{I 14 KB\IaOI{I I]po'ypl B Ill)o)K pTB. "opytt
B co KoF{Kypa o IIpo.alK oo I{r.B)l(oI'o l\{y.
|

IoLtIH plx oyapTBel oxoeI


O'I.I
Oalla, a a)t eoxor oaaI4', B a- IIrTBa (oo) Koxorro opaI{ BKJIIoaT
,t.1loa o oxpai]Io I{apaBtt x ooBaI{i,I
ll I(oopI o () Poo pa oTaT
o 25 ?, pIatl]x B TaoBIoM oKr HraTX- paarrI pI o po.D{ o il JKBaI|r 1-
ootll ]4 e Io\I{x roTBopTry TpyKypy a.a_ I)ltJIHOo I.oyIpTBrFIoo yHTapoo rKOoTBrI{HoI.)
tl: oKa3H oo opxK yT aTa 3a.o)Krl{oT ll|)/lIIpITl{ TBp)]]ztioT rpto yro Pol,l o
p OcyaTBoM o aTea B to; I.xrTI ,|' o rooTol. aoBoy o,OpoB}IIo C y.l.
,l'OM it)e
ulTl]TBa JIKoto xo:la DooBo-
ot Ha vN,Iy }t I4o.eHIX B poK oyapTB}IIx ozr- (''l.BII P .'/ro /lPlol.o.pzutt-too oalIll t,IIll,t.ll
TTB 1r, opatal,: I]p.'oTaBFI B ycTHotst{I{O
|\.JIacTl,7' lIMI{ro B 'Bo BeFI yKaarlo pedT.
oLrK oyapTBr aoo IToIIrp), oTpoI{K Io
oatt]N,l ITaT to.<T B)KTI ll;
op oyapTrHoo lloa B Br ocyapTBtlIl IIFI- g 9. oA' yc||. PyE hlAIAl"iL{
l ya; l(ot| oM l( o G ry PoA1l
popalatr4, B To rI MHrr opa3aoFlllo-pa-
o op opa{,{aI'{;
BlrFII4 oo oo-Koy pI' -
ts p itporTpo]vlIl]ltlrlo Ipol PoI(o o-
po papTypI p'aa oaa r.o /lapTBo OT . rp .oTOF{FIoo oop,IHoo xa_
I) KTp Jt ojtpxI{ KoF{oKOo ]vlypoBa'I oT.
B]T o opaa]\,I MeTI{oo aoIIaRFI; tlTBFItlI ToBapopo. pl HZtpiiBeHI tIft
BII .pyoo yTBa (ao) opHa ro
pootl a poBo.IITts:l Jli(oxolpio pol<-
poa)I(a.
Ll{}I' F{alir{rIl{ plI{a o"erl.BrI{Ifi,f roo}II
oot opaHaII' MM Ba)I(F{or FIa- Ipe IIpoJloBoTBr yTeM oalt opl.a}t}1ot{o-O-
LI paBT\7 oTpac (ooKM' MllHIM |4 p.)
t{oKx aoBIx yo I Boo Be.r'I
pJIyIo BoMo)oT oTaHoBT aT<ooo, - apopoIllIeoo IIpo}{Ro.Ta, popllpoat apapoo
HaHoBa ollp)a oaIBaT B IIpBoorp/oM o.Kr. lHa.
.oItII pol]e.ypI pItrIoT B py}o opr{ (Dzulr aoapr P <L) y lI tIoTaB& CIr-
oxotsHFiiM OpaaJIM, rlo pIITB otlo po}pl, ,|p llpo.oBl"tj . oy-
rO aIJT. /lllT'BIJIIx }ty.>> ,'.o oy{apTB{o yjTl,Ipoali apo-
pt, pHI B oTFiI eH L|eI|Jlaoo r- poM] lIJoO I]poLIoT'Ba> yTaoBeo' To ToBapopol4.]Bo'
oxotBHlx oalla paa yTar{oBrI{I IpO. ]ITUI, oTopIe oTa},t rooi.rl.IttI() poyKlli,
'yp, oyrcTBIoT B ao o]IoBaTOT: Ipr po(oBoTBl,[ /Ilf t0.YlapTBt{lx I{x' J\{oY p\o-
BI.H rp'a opaHa IIoJIH.lto B.acT\4 B-;IT tlI IO Haooo<l.tt. Il-ll]lt] .'(I[I4I,|
yo P o opaa MrTI{oo a]VloypirBl oo |lI\Lt,' KpTI a JIortIx yo'Ix, aI'ltotsall _
ol,IaI{o-KoMl4yao pI, FI)Krrpo paTpyTyI' paoo a, xol Jl'I t-.t.ttl ll tt1l.r.a o.
a t,rrx oT.oB )KIto tI?CeeI{HIX yttKToB; c{ol] pQBoTBa I,t o].BoK JlKool"tto rroIyl(i{l
piroTptl BoN{o)(tIoT poTaBe}l B yTaFloBJItlo Ip'I tlpool]o.B" Bzt-to,t.tt r/lT]Ba' IIo.IrI{IIr ToBa-
op.I( oyapTBo aoo O.epK; popOBo.TrI p praal( oxoo po-
opHI,f'Jall .,lKo;OIt opHaIl. B oIlt ll.\'ttr' Ip IpolIoBol.BI4 r:Ia I(Ilop' O].aio'I x pa-
r I,IMH opaaoI]o-aoo oprl, o,)I(rI{ }Ia oIlIx oX.
BI'eHr p eoIv{oT aT ]\4y.IB (eo) B p o. JIT I(opr.i.tfI I}I,{.I1I' [ilIOK I,I M-
cKoot,ilto opaa I{ ro a fl \{acTNl pI r.,oTaBev| oljtrx yl4x JIO']. I{a oyl,alJcT.-
(JIoTaM) oBaFtt{M BIpyHIx oT IIOa) p/lTi] li t]}{HOM ypoI{ TI{BJlBa}T'l loc.al{olijTI,l,1 pa.a
ylIoB.IIrTBol']t poa .TopoB, . a, a T rTB a.;tri > rlt'oTaBJIl)'I.
O.a;a B yar JIB.aI-I oxol."{TBI{o palt:a. /loTal{ a [Iop)KKy I-{oO Ii'ea B ,]KBOT.I0B()TB I'r TvI-
Ll e I,{j\{yIrTB (ao) o LIaTI\{ (.,r-IoTah,{) yoI3jITBorH- IIBOJITB' ltpoBo.l.Bo IrIrc].Id' JI]{aI't oFlITI4' B'J[eHI.[r T.
'71 7
ll()l.() (.N,,lIl()|}('l'.|.|}il, IIposoBo oplx 'I KyKypyt, lIl)o/loc itt]]l'llol.'t opl}lt,lI,t'I]\,t p oR oiIoil IltlooB-
ll()']l'()j||l'llIItKll l| ll\ltPIIo I],tl, ppo.l( rtl oBo_ IIll'I M yMl\,l Illll.1'Hoo 14Hoa tla toJllltiIOlo oTrITl]lO
lll,I' ;l'll!|l| I(Typ Kopol]Ix KoprlrooB T. . ttlt.t.), a aK)l( l{2l llppo/loopilI{t]I ]\,lPoTI{ \0 % yA4i
};t .t|. I)CTl] pa-rtoo >r<a poBoT'I KoMt{- I(i|II,taIIlx Bo)I(t{ tl ]\lp()|tllr,IT). z1oiaJIiIo, JI14
('ilIlIliI IIil.l'l,l ll.paT Ha KTpKyIo TroB HpI, p_ ()l)l]l,I'I oytl.t]'lr'I yKaaHl Kalll.ilJll ll Bo)HI,l'l
I)()/llIltlIl lil'J l]py BI ToIII]a' oyM] ll-'l TrHooI4- .i. 1.lt,II,'llt, rlttit 1. -l,IT ]VlIII)I]lIo y]\{r\4y Ila;loil IJil
ll('|(l| ll)|(J( p BIpai4I]a}{t,r oor B a]LllLlllol\{ pyl-lT B l;t .
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r t 1lI,l

Iill()!( JUl'l opaIIzl o ppao Ha KoHo|Jl, pop_ oPo11l BoIl Pocl


l(.Iill ]\1tlpJIl{t pt,t ]\lLlK pllT aulTl
l)il l.Ill1 I,,l p. l Kltllt poJ] oyl1llp.t]ll t] ol|()l\,Il,|oM pl)/lIt)()l]lllit'tl,| Il |lllyllol]lt-
pa pptllloo tl<a HapzlB'IIo1.'] B rpylo olt- l l I ! 14 l). ],1 }t tt 't .ll l<lt,i tloc.tt,?
2 Hltl Oilol]tJl lll.lBJt|lIl' ttot }l
I)/l ]lll o]|'Ip)l(y o paotottlx J].I(oxoTBl]-
]\lCT(),rlllI )Ii()llO]\lLIrlKOo l)y-
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] Kltl't O|)lJllOll ll lII)r1IlI)I]Hl|]\,l-


llL.).lotll]Lllllc Iloj|ltJ] /r. l]{lltIl,l
p pzt.ltlloo to,1;<a, HaIpal]'I]vll H Ilollp)I(Ky t-ltii l,.t.t a ooii |{ill)y|lIl llolJo.il'l.ljll. |)rjIl,t|)yJ()tI|l() lI olIlOI1l.
11 pt]l,t tlpopolLUHHoo pot]oTBa' lloJlT'I r tillt")
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H lJl]l \,t l,l illl Ol)ll iI4 |] lJ lio |(yI) ll
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1

OP.I.I]I ,IL] I,] lv1tll )(]4Bo.tllx B ooTt]].l.l]il _ 6 O1r1-llt1'li ll.IloC,t ll}lfllilt()tlo]]i}il ol)tllll()Il' tl|,rtlllll1. NllOl
l)a,l]{li\,1]4 BIM opaN'{Ma' IIoRItI'l Jro,]opo,t{ lottB; llOl |,|Lj rtJ L|'l
]l e ]!1opl.14 B H] r\,Ipo pl,l ,r -' oleTIJ r pito
pol]Il t] 7 Kllol ]tlll(||ll,t l.)t}/j|l,I|)OBllH,'l t.ltlpltoatl'I R IlI)/.llll)tttttllt'luii
lto op BpJ,ITC]\,tI{ ot jlI(Ooiittl.tlx l|,ll,lHOT.] Illt.;lt |lO[)NIilll'lllI|l
Illll'Illl t] l t ol1llt tttl
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ollllHI Hd)KoHtt aoa X}IRO,lll; poBH lta- tltllt t1,l K 1l1-tlplol.'l UH| tl;llt tl'tttii-ttollIltilitl)
Ill oa ttpptlt o oxpil op;tt 9 Pax o |)!llpoR|||Jt,l tl|] ll oii.rlil| OOl}()l)il
pltl; KpeoBaLtI,I TpoH p zlpollpOlJl]Hoo lt) Ka o5r1..',u.',.' oy.llp|I-}ttIii o.t.;l.rjI l| o[']lI('tlll,lN! /tllULLl,]}l-
IlI Ltll, Klll oIt]1!,l]HtIo- t]yI |).0.Hl,,1l\'1il..]l14 IIl)l1 |lil|)ylIll|lI]
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tloti py14, Ip I]po/{oBoCT|I4; opal Ilo po- (.llllt1ltLl]]litlIl'l, 1lrlIlttltl,t;]. ]\{'oO|l)'} Plra>Ill () ll()|)NlilIlll1||t,I ()},,-
olIitlo oj]oToBKl,t 14 OI]Itl a.IrKl{l,lI'l l(:t/toB; N l l l i| o 1 l] l l]l.il l]l'l]] U rl poyl l |,I. ])oT' ).V
l',l t{l Bt oat 14 Ko]\lrlatl. Kop.HIr tlpaBI{l,t l2 l(a oI)llIl]VlO 1rrrtdllllttlt,It l)oyKlll,l. plr.' 1lll.1
o,lt apoBaH'l o HN,,l TaIaBT ar._ l3 l(lloir porlr' x.llliiI}lHl\,ltot-]oI)Ol] ll ot]Jlttttt,t t1ltlltlttlt'tii l<it-
l)oyI,|lI]
o P. |]}/
l4 l(illl Oll.TltHO pril|]l|lJlltt;lii ll l|.|ll) tl1ltl';tyl<ll?'J'lr.l
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'l.t]1lt91'* I'>t llojl)l(Hl oKalB?tT llo]lIlp)l(l( ootii_ l5 Ox1llrlpt.tyt iltlolli-l,H],.t l tlltljl())|\(.ltlI,l |l)l)I,lHl,lMll-
.BIIt{l ToBapo poBo/lTJI,l , tlaplBtl Hy H ol,r ,Iii rl P l(lr oL.ll]'l,I ot]ll),ll :t ollNl llilrl()l(!l]()[(! JlloHOllll-
]\,'|aKaJIlIo t]oo)l(Lloo lpol]o.TB l]oiyKl,l ]loTaBOK r l -l lrl t]ll ]
l6 l(lltlr ll()KLll]Otlll1.K!to \'1r;]|)l oyiTill)llllt tt tIl;l
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l)] }!]I]|)oIl0IJIl'l

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lIN1yto l4 oTal]'lMyIo B pit.ltltl)i poitlltii (lotlt; l),]


()lIll.T Ko]\lH:t tlilT aTpa He op)(tttl o.lo l8 Pa:ittlt o pl),l11})Ol]iltIIL-Ll Bit}oTH] llttttltttii tl P
l9. l(lor o}t,l t|, r]I)ilBOl!c ,pOBlltl|{' ll()I)'l]l() lll)I,1 ]Htl,1 rpl,IllIl-
tll1ttttlto IltpapyTypl ra' ot]IltlH14 lloopol{14 tlolIB 'llrt auo^l,J
/ll). 2(). op1lii'i ltl1lllHtl3Jllotit!t t't j||Illt,|JIlltIOtlIllc po.,lyp]. pt,t-
opo pl,rpyT I.IBTIIl,{oHHyl llTIloT opal{L,l_ 11}l cM le K ll ]]ll t}| l oI1-!",o)t( l,.l K
l( o pot.llT'l, B tlao' B l.or\{. l] o p Ltl4Itl'l,l 21. Kao ol),lO]( r.oill].|ltll,l,| o(.,ll:lI).t.|tIltli]t rptt-llloli to.ie1l;<tt
}iO tl pl oaa,ta pl. Mrtiila IIl.l yl'l]\1l, Illll)ootl,,l Ol]llH|lJll!lt,t'|Nt I1 tItl()j||' J()lllllltl,| TI,l pl] TKl,ii\,ltl oI)il
ttl,tltLt,l?
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14:]l]ojlTBlttloo 14 lIpoBoTBHIloo l{lIlII],l ( oTI 2J Klrlt ooot,l oyc.I'||l!,l,| [)oPIlitllliltloH}IIx l,l lll]/1llLlll(]Ii-
.7
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l porp, peeI B oTt{ot]J llaTexooHI epatx o- VI. PypoBa oToTro (apofa) prp-
yaprlx oxoerx opaa? ||\,1a.ee.
24. I(aoa o.oao oyeTJl}t Mep ool}t IIae_ l. opo pajl opaIa apoo; Tra p-
ootx oyapBeIx eKoo< opaa?
25. Ka p oa u cc olBJUlT Kotloeo prypoa-
'
l' p B. I op o o la II7tKBa opa a' - o <r{KoB.
r .eo Koxol opaa?
2. apapcTKa peopaaoFlIx 14 KaoI
Irpoyp' peeIx K opaaI4-o)GKy. oorro
lIpoyp' pt{MIx B ooIll rl]aTxooIx -
AP o ]vtE KoHoM KoE Py POBA ooBI opaa.
PEPAIIo o)
3. ooo apoTBa oparlair c uace oyap-
AH o oo.
VII. floa, cc|4|4 p|I4 apaB'l ooeKoo
I. Aoooor pypoBa pr.ptlaTo .-
pyoBa.
TeI{o.
I. fletlc oTByIo yKToB BaTFII opar{oB,
opaHalo KoKyprIo.
2. Pypoar .TrI{oT opaa-orlooToB.
3 . apap cTa .rTro cT aIITMoooIx opaFIoB.
II. oyapTBrIo prypoae' yTaoBr prr-
e a ToBapI (paoI, yy).
1. paa oaoT pe.pIHNIaTeJ o yTaoBel.4o
pIo . Peypoa eH opaa-ooo-
TOB.
2. PeypoBanvle B oTBIx .ooBopa.
3. oyaprI KoTpo a oIo.rrM .III
. OTBTTBI{OT pe.IIpa a apyre |4c|vI-
I e.
III. oapTro prypoBa KaTBa po.K.
1. MoI oyapTBeoo pypoBa;l KaTBa O.}'K-
: Ta. apTa, pTKa' )oo.
2. Po xoTBI{HIx .ooBopoB B oprFl TproBa K
KaeTBy poyK.
3. oeoT ttprTpMaTr'l a arTBo po.yK;
apal po, poK o.FIoT, po y,KI.
fV. Htooo perypoBar p.ptao T-
oT.
1. Pypoar Hiuloooo>vI p.tlpMaTr P:
aKooaTJIHa aa, opo a oIo.r HJIooBoo aKo-
o.IIaTrTBa.
2. oeeoT p.IIp NIaT e II a apyIIIr uulooBoo
aKoo.traTTBa.
V. Perypoae BeIrKooMrKo .eoT p.-
pa.
1. pooTK MpI oyapTa ep prypoBa.
'I BlIIKooMo Tt{oT.
2. Copae pypoBa BlIIrooKo .-
HoT pr.IIIvIaTr P.
3. PeypoBankle BLIIITI oot.
76
lll\| lll)t)l|lPl4tiMaTKo ''lTJlHo.lo, oH Mo)(rT olT pHaH
||() l)(.||lLllllO y HoTo'lTct (apoo). C o l_
aa 4 ,|.itKol.o prrxl,'UI
II('( ('lIl,l'| l]atsar y o prTPa B KaLI_
oPAHAoH Ho. PABol oPMl ( | |t(' l] I l/(I}/ytlJIHoo pr.pHNlaT'l.
PP HMA Ko EHo |l|t|\vtaJlI.Ia prpHaTrKzl .loT B _
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l]pBIT paN{ ra JIao Hoo Kal-ITa. lt (IJII-{I-BKaLIK .- ToJlo B prax BIla.oB B KaT
.a I1OI-Ioo To BapI,{TBa ol,I'apo HyT cap- 'oBapTBa. oTIoa BIKaT I,I oBrplHo pt aT:
Ilyro oTBTTBHoT oM Mlll.TBo,t o oaTTBaM ToBa_ Ktl:i TBTI tt (o;tl p) |4 p-
rcTBa. o oa.taT' LlTo yaTl oTBraT Bo tlI{IM l(OBolITr., TaBT py apTpoB' 'IB'I
ytIaTByT B
rTBo o oaTTBzl ToaprTa To.Ko IIp Flo- ypaBH "oBaplTBoI\,I; BI.ra,IK x paBa ooa e T'
TaK oo t,lN,lrBa. ottoT B ToM 'tar I{or,IT a o
oapH1it apap: ;Itt I1 ToBp]4TBa oTBtIrT rp
o ooBHo paBo
- oJlH poo o ptl,t
lo;l KaT. B, BIHy)QTI ot{oTIo oB1]T
KpTOpaM B BoM ]\,tylrTBoM HeaBMo oT Too' tlp_ yaTaN{ o}{o OTTTBLIHOTIO B To]\,I, t]To I(:larT -
HI,{ o yLIT B rJI (oaa') r. Kpot tIooBaI MylcTBa T()BatTBzl' oa TpaloHHo o-
ol.tllo BlKBa}o o oHoo aTHo (a paBo' l,lKo aBaHI4 ToBapI,lit]TI]o I]a B.
ao ottoo), tlTaBts My Boo)KHoT a- -
oapTl]O Ha Bp' KaK oJIFIo Toapl,ll.Bo' oal.
,Ta
Ta oTaII,{ o;<. oBTTBroT l(arT JIIIJ- yopyT a oHoa p.Troo ooBopa. -
FI]\,{ prB ;otx poa K ap aor{oo Mo B.FI, yaaI Bllll' I oTpaa]. Ta)K a:]Ivt
KaTaa ToBarT, o yrTBO l(aoo l,t oap KaoB, Btolx BaLlKaMI,I' IX }{aT B pareIII
TllItoBT llo oTro apa e pI4Topo ]. pt, aIJa, oarr 14 oTBTTB{}1oT.
a Ilooo ToBaprTzl BpaB l o. B o. opo BH'I I{ parH ToBapTl]o a Ber
BapLlTB' ytlp)KHo Ha opHt po, otl Mo)(T To IloFtIM oBapM o)rr.BrLec IIO aBaM l]oI{oo To-
aT tll o yB)I(TH ptt.l. B oapTB, ypr. BTB. Ba. r BpaBe y".'.uoBaT I] ypaB
iirto yaa oKa' oa .py yaTHKol} tl Tp_ Rr,HI,I r ToBplrlrTB' oapBT }TB|4'I lloIIIX ToBapl,I-
y, IJo oTKa oT y2.'.,''' llo)(H l aFt j\{Hr M a l. o ]\,toy BICT}IIZIT oT MI{ ToBapr.B ToKo o
tl{. rBo zruol.O BIxo.'a. l.loBpHoT.
uay, rtrrr)/ oJloo ToBapITBa' BIaBa- opavll IlpaB Bl.rIaKoR B B.II,Ii r I,i }/ptsr
T TooT aT ]\{yITBa ToBprTBa oropLIoHiUIo 'oRapTBo I{:t p \IaTttI] o KoM}t?lpy'I /pyI4Ml4 paBa_
o or B JIoo KaI,IT. o oairlr cTopoH Blaa ,tI,t. B aToT],I, Ba.LiKI,I l'lrloT Ip?lBo o OKotltja ral{-
ToMoT Myl.TBa \4oT l aHa BIatI yra oBoo o,lt ll,l 14 oBaptsa o\,tlT o a] p-
HilT'ypr. aT BoIo oIo B aotlO Kafla re aT pyoMy
pa.la B KaOFIo Kal{Ta p) yaTKa To.
.II'o I]Kay JI TpTM l4; p I{Ba ToBapl{lTBa Ha
BapTB |1 peTI,i I{aM' a Ta pr ooTI Bp' B To tI B 1129 oa{KpoTTB, MioT pMyTBrtl-
oBl-I?cB oyTBIoT Too oa Br roB To_ tlor flpaBo rp/I ol oBapIa a OyFI BKa/loB
BapTBa. . B ToBapTBr oTaT .tITBt yaT_ yUlTBa ToBTBa' oTaBIro o OBTBoprI-l Tp-
' oO o)o t Bpoao R Te}I lIlT oa prTopoB.
MrB tpopaoHo B xoo oo. ToapruTo tI Bp KBpe.'1 p ttl{l,l Bx yaT-
t ToBaprTBa ]\,I lltpoKor papoTal Po- I]o]]aBIX B Hr BK.IzlKoB. oao oIr ToBapI{tLl BpaB
c|I B rpo/1 Ha. 13 aor BM a p Irpr'lpFt- t]o I4KBa tpopaoBa. ToBaprIrTtso I{a B B oIo
84 35
,l.()l]aptrT.o. ToBapTB
a Bp oTaT o paH !' o oa opil H o o'"'"'u.,ii*'oTI oy_
Mcp o,tlI oHl ToBap oI1 Ba.' oo MoxT y- IIl.rT a ooBa ypTHI .tI'oKyMtToB. o yvp-
I-loHDoBaT. J(r .ooBo, opl o.IBaT B pe.e\I,
ToapTa a Bp oalTc Ha a tt KoxooB y.Bep)rlil ya ( oo pr.TaBHo oFI
oBxooB Hopoo, opoo, Bopoxcoil .py ytlaTFlo, To yrlrt ooBop papaala). v-
oax P. I)rT1 .,oKyHTr o)KH I o.rpaT o M Mo ox Br -
lt o o B.,l o parp yTaBHoo KaTa, .o
I(a)oo aTHKoB' pap' oTaB' poKax op'K B.
5 . xol oA |1|4'1 M BJ]aoB' opK ITp.'a .o TpTeMy y' OTBT-
.BroT yLIaTHKoB a HapyUr oaHoTr o BItIo
Xot oTBo paT Ko]vlrp(lKa opaLl- BKa.II'B' oTaB KoMTr opaoB ypaBrH oo
a paeHl a .o ylip y'TatsHIM (ao_ opK pT M ptlH.
t) aaoM. ooo ro oT o oTtltoo .oBa- B o opao oTBrHIoTl yal Ka-
pLeTBa oToT B ToM, o oBo Ka or KaTa- . pa Ha
'oBIr BoI, pI4 ToM pap BaoB op-
oB IJ peoaa (xo He Kllae) (IHoo y(la T C ytlpTrFl I .o KyM Ta . H< pa ll a Be I4LI.
yrIpI,ITr (yvao) ax oa, a oToy ot]KztT- IIl yTaBHoo KTaa (oa) op'T ,iytI\4 aKo-
' Bo-epBI' oHoBpMHl{o ytlaT B roK o HoaTTBo. Kpo Too' oyapTBl HopMI
(uo xaeT pK MyTBHtllx oTp), o-opI, LIaTI,I B paTpBaIoT Boo)HoT BrI] Ba papoo,
o lx JII, a I] ToKo pllIlpHMTlt, B-TpTI,I. MMZUIHI pap BHOA oHT oapBHIo p-
yaTHI4K H oTBLIiltoT o oaM ol, a IIyT ToKo pK .pa ( 50 %) po oo oaTI yTaBHoo a-
yto B paMrp BHHIx BaoB. .aa ( TrI pBoo oa rTHoT ora). B yua,
ot oTB oyT o/BaT opl ora Jl B TrtIH rpBoo o'a .TIoT oo H B oTo-
oparo ooJiHTo oTBI{HoTIo Klto- FI ooT oLaT ol yal KaTa' oo
poo oa. o oT o o MHI.e ( H Ft aKorlo.aT]{o
oo opao oTBrHo yTaoBIHoo poBH) ooyto pTpa ya-
opa}{a' yp)(HHa oH JI ttrKoKLIM- KopKa
M' y- HoBHo op.K' o ppaT Bo] .THoT yT
TaBHI aT:uI oopo par I{a o orHHIx Ip- [KB\[a.
TI oyrr{Ta paMpoB. p ].oN'I yaTtlt,t oa o oKotIaH BTooo Kaoo o.yo Ira-
r oTBaIoT o ro oaBa 14 Il pK yto B p- oBoo oa TooT Tlx aKTBoB oa oKa)KT'l Mr-
/l2l ToMoT BIx BKaltOB, LlTo oBo'IT oBo- o yTBHoo KaTa' To oo TaK oao o o o
p o opFltto oTBeTTBHHTI'{. yMlII aprTppoBaT To B yTaoBroM op.
Pa oa[I aKoHolJaTTBo o,,a opaI{LI- ooT TI aKTBoB oyTT Hx opttoo
.tt-to oTB,l.TBF{oTJo FIoBa ToBprTBaM oTo- aoHoM MMztoo paMrpa yTaBHoo KaTait' ooTBo
)KlTB Kol.{pHIN,l ozt aplToo T,,Ia. B o>T KBa. tlrr yTaBHoo KaTa oTBa
aTorr BM o aypo' o yT' oo H y- oyKaT ToKo o yBlorH'I Bx o Kpr.'Topo. o-
rT. JI BpaBr B To yt1ng oTpoo}JaT opoHoo pKpa{-
fl oTBa opatlHlto oBI.Io1- aKooa- |I'1 L,|\]t oHH ooTBrTTByIo oItl oa
TTBoM yTaHaBBaT a LIaTl{oB. ltpooi,:i Bo yIo.
oIT BTTByT o oooT yTaHoBH Too pr- yTaBHoo KaTaa oa oyarT o
ra a ypo 30-50. B T fia B oM BHH BM o yr1ng1.,KzlMl4 BKa.'oB B ooM oo.
xot Har]THoo KoLIea ouTB opa.lo oT- oTBa opaIltlo olHoT, oHoIo
BrTTB}ioTI yTrM pppav4 tyt Too c LI|4c- BHl-t] BoIo lto, oyaT ooTBTTBy B'TTBO,
t{oT}o yaTKoB 600-1000 oBK Iop'K],{ Hpao- KoTopo lopeK KpT a ro BKJIa' FIo BeTc
pfro. } opa I]T'I To, tITo oo opa- o 'tao.
.Io oTBTTtsl{HoTIo H Mol. 14MeT B Klltl.l.B upHIM .oKMItTa ar Bo pr..aTpBaT
HTBIloo ytlaTHKa pyl-or oii o o.Bo. OTo. prMyTF{I{o paBo oKyK o agTa ooTBa py-
ooo .t. MI,{o LIHa aMM oolTBoM ( oTLIHr Tp-
86 87
||,ll|\t ]lll||,llNl I|('lt(),tN'l())l(llO, py }.tl2lTllK oTBa oTKztiBa_ !|lT.Ba opal l,t(tltHoii ol-I]l'l.l]IlItoTI) B o ocTl]i]
l()|( il ()I ('(' lII)|l()[),|.tll.l,I). B lty.1g. c y(IpTLtlM[I oy_ lIOJ]ytl l.IIpol(o DalIol.pa}ll,'l. B tlIlotttll\l oH ol1Ba.
\l('I|'l ;lN||| /l()ltI(lle,l.'l rpJIaLIa o TTI4M a]\1' yLIaTHI( ]ttl t] i]0:]T2lT pOpilH1llttttt I llt4 I(OjlXoots, ol]ooB l,l
\l(),l((.I ll()||()Jl..]()t]ttT T]\4 paBoM) ll B Tt]H Mr,Ia p- /lpy]'I oyapBrHI pplt. :lHo rpaBlt-
ll|(. \/t|'l(.|'lllIKl,t OUITB Il llo)(aT l(yT ro olo. po -,Io] BCC I4]\{yI]lTBo Lropal{MIx r-oxo.Ilt{I plt-
ltl ]l;l/Iil Il() IliIjl.llc].ijy oyITB-Jl'I o],f,py y'Il- IlpI1., lt. B }.r.atlt K,lI]l-I BK)tll,I oCFIoBI]TC pjtBit lt
titllr ll(ltt't]il' Ll o tlI-IO B yllp',lTJx lloI(yt\4i{l.a, O.aTorIHo loi\l()1.L| (zt l,lt.ty l,t)' o.rlt pJlTBit.
tt|flll !l;l.llr{l{t(.]N,I Bla(IaT [.o ^,BT'I l.OI4]\,l()T .r(t'I)ttI pllTl] B il' a 9Ta B !]lltlT.ll (J I]l)ltlofuI
l|]lIl Irl,I,1lll. B a.yp N{yUlTBo I{l1 Ty .Yj\{l"1. lJ/lo)(tt]]o.l,t y I,{ l(PlIopzrl) ,ta-l.pIlll-ilI{l ill(.l,1BI.
I l pll op.tt tlIo aN'IJ,I]\{ oLL(Tt}oN,t,tlo}o yaTLlI,JKa o o /lo)l(- -al KaI4l. !)r/,]'l M)I1.y tIaIlK]\,tl], tJJlr}_
ltrl ,tt,tflo raoRaT pyM y(Ia'It{l,1I(l\,t l,t T'l4]v1 ]\4' ]io Kol"opI. otlpo.II]lJIJtl, 0ol,lr\{ oopll]t],{]vl K()rK.II4tla L]ll"
llt,t y,ttILtI4.I't, Ha T io yTBHIii l(nl,l.l.ill.I" I,IBTB o t.lt or-rrI,tol. B orr oaI]o]\'l op l]]l.ilI()aJl14 paT_
li l],] l l,l l.opt]t]. l !I,ll{oB popatl]v!ol.o T.lp/tpl,l,lTlt) I{LI!ioHel)oB' I0jlltIl4x Itlt
.ttt olTBa ol)HI lt ttto oTtstloTt l]l Ipl] l|lIIIIo Ilf ,Jiol.() C,jtlIl)lI'|l. lt -ii)K llo l]ItllItto o1rltlltt
lt .lltoo BpL4'I BlT lt oUlTBa It:]aBI4I,lMo oT o"l]'I l]yI,r , tl)\/|.I l ttrr (p,I.lI(ol1 tllritlt.lttt tp1lI ('L'Jlil. :lllt,I l!

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14

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t<or.optl7t ]vto)(rT t l-',lI,IJtIltfuI l,ll,t /I}{OJII{.{IIIM. K t- HI1lI'IN411.
lIt{ILl,t14 l,{o"]tHJ4T.Itoo Opirt[a oTtto1.'l TeKylI,t I]opol.
llr' )( ,| rl ()ll(}l}iioii llt't oIllR ()llrilIlllt|I.| lloii
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rIl, ||l|()ii ;tl<oHoM lTrHo]'{, o]loB:tliHo l] ,IlLliloill p/l()i]o14
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HI ooopaTBIx Hx.
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eK l,laM p yoB oaTrHoo acT|,l o- Il;l ||ill]l)l BItoI eo HoB B oo].tsTTB\,| c yTaBo Koopa.
o Tt{oT Koorpaa' opr Koorpa- rrttrlt. I)llpI aBoo oa KoopzlTl4Ba oaFloo a
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Bxo.T H 'By loprlKx 1^ }{ rr T a)K-
a. p To ]optlrKo o l]o)Ko t pTaBI{o B lI ll()|)'Il(Kr, pyoT'pIII yTaBoM.
KoopaTB .l o, yIIollooHIM Hal ll/lI or KoopaTBa H T Ha a, BIaTl
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BC . oB KooIIpaTBa.
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I rt;l( Ilo.
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HoT HoB KoopaTBa a F{apyIFI oa o ||(, ]\l('Il l0 % oaeoo aBoo BHozt' a oTayl aT
BHerFIIo IIaBlx BooB' oTBrTTBeoT oB KoopaTBa
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oK pap pl to KoorpaTBa; paMp ,l (.Il lIIlL]T 25
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or yoBTBopH pTH Kp'TopoB' tt oT pa- Il l I
l oooa BoMo)KI]l Ill]Drt popaa otaltoHHo-pll.
pIo )Ky ypTM' paT Ha l4' lp.y- rrr ltrtli,i (lopt op}lal.l
Mo.pH H I yllp/l,{T HI oyHTaM.
Aoa (oto) Il ttT MylTBHFIo oTBTTBHHT
o oaTBM Box tlHoB. Ho .ltttt accoa HT
otIoIT}{yIo oTBeTBrHHoT o oN,I Bo My{r.I.-
BoI\,l' tlTo IaKT.IK H py]\{a,pBaT poa -
ll. Xaparp pl I{ooHo oTBeT,IB[Io1. r-
IoB aou. o I{oa .oHI I lpHl B yprr4_
THIx 'oKyr\4ITax.
Blxo aoa (oa) oya lll o oKoI{a
}aooo o'a. p B aoaro (o) oBlX IJoB
oyTBrT o pirHl B ytlaTlll(oB' pM B ToI\4
yae I{a HoBoo Ha N{o)KT t ooxa oTBTBoT
o oa o.' B To r BolIIM 'o o BcTyr-
H, ecv[' To pyMTpBaT yprTrII oyHTI.
I(oHPo II lE BoIlPocI
l. Klylo op lI1-t1)HMaTKo .'lolT!I OHo pa, I
I)t]j|T4 2t,| l, 2' l0, 100 o? K;tot |'tlv|yTBHHI paBa tlI{ot]
oaBtleN'I epMaTKl,lx cTpyp /
2. Paa>r o }toM prpt{l\{aTT L] cKoM oTe
pa, llo Bl plU oI.ito.lT pT,lHo (t|lpoe) o
l(ot 1, Lll ec?
Hoe paKTepHle ootIo KoKl]oO p.r,1H,1\,Ii'tTlJll.
4 K r oBltIx oBp,IB t aee? Px o fol),le
L]():J/{lltll,l,l THOT oTDrl ToBTI] B Ko o'lTB.
5 l(lr i\llo :lHll]\til ot or.Bil It tt;rtltto
]l,Il.]II)|loT tt ? Kac l ot.lltl o l aTr. B 1l 14
O |]| |4tl14.lttl te ooot,r?
(l l(lr t t]t Ilpo KotlpoBaH oxoo opaa?
7 I(alI orlTtlt ooo r oxot]I]l| KooIrpa-
rlll1) l} tIl\! o.l'l}I PoBO..I.I]Ht t-lplKx KooCp:rTBot]'/
ll Kltl,lt: |}t't,].l|n yHl,rapHIx Ilpllp'tT r n? Kaot oHot,t ,x
(lytl 11r ll t l,t ;ltrlllt I t l,tlt,/
9 Klrt,r rltl.ltI,t ot,c ppt,tt.ll,tite;lci,l t He? Kir t,t x Mo,,r
tlltiil'I,t l t lll,l tt,t l | | | I | |} J| oM xo,?

I0' I(ll Il1ltl1llt:ttlttltl.I, l,lMtoI,t ooltTBCtIHt o:]ltlllrl B ()ol.-


HTRIlI l (.,l('ii(. l IlI( )|III lM !il(lI I( |/t..ll 't olt?

108
||()ll III)()llI()'toB ,pyx opH It plo(IHl* oHoI-t.
a 5 llll l|l('C-lIJIilIl o) aBaT OTBTI Ha BopoI: ToT JI a_
l\|llIl),l lIpraaMI .roM' BKlIalBaT ' tlpt{T oI1
Hc. AH tlP P H tvlA l.Il(ll(. /(()xolll' KoTopIr oyT aTpaTI' Ka HaLIaT ro oT
(.|() ,]|.() l<oo .
o i ['rrli ttolllo KoMaH oToHHa'I paoTa o apoa-
|Ill|() l|( o Baa, Kpy{]x, TaK Ka y Hr MI.IJ
It('('yl)()l], KoTopl oBo I tpaT oo)l(Hr B yl[ar
rlttrt|l(t'l.
l,Iy.tttpHo yTotlHt -aa rIo pBr B
s 1. HAE oEP)(A -AHA ({)()l'Itc.TBr MH] yoB .aT BoMo)I(HoT _
l l()]| |)l]()il o oK aKTtI prTaToB rTHoT
x l.l aBc oT oo, KaKoBI opo (|l)l illIllil l,l. l au pryTaToB paoTr B pB-
ToBapa' yya, KoTopI o pIJaaT, KaK o]-I o1'yioBr-
TBopT .}4 opo. oao. pllpaTIo l|(.Ill{14 aoBI ]vlorT BUIBT t]lr aIr TopoHI
Ily)KHo HaT ToBpI' oTopI I ]l l]pJlaa a pIK, {)I)|illIl. o HHlo apal{K ,eaJIToB o p_
BlKa ToBapl y[lo o paBHHto llpytrl KarIT- lll)llll.tTTBy t, lllya, opa p.:. oaH
a. Hoxoo TK)( BIT py to' KoTopI TaI]y. llo- {)lI ilI_Ia TaHoBT pBI oIToM TpaTKoo a-
pl ToapoB; a oHoB LI}lI4'l pozr oprT Il()ltl|ll. Ppaata oH raTa opaFIIa p
rlrr KaTBo, KorTBo' xapaKTrp BrHo oop' l|(.I|()pTBro pyKoBo.,cTBr yaT pyKoBoTr. CoTaB-
rl,|l(),l. o oto IHo ooBat
yaoKy' yoB pzllllla. o r'o)KH p_ - oI p.Ta-
rrrl,l l, t[lp po)K B ao BIoHoM BT l..'I
pHMaT e ooTBTTBoa poBalNl op,
oI orI] oaI aTT a praaMI Itl|(. l(oMaH (aHKpa' HBTopaM . .) ' BHTpr-o
ToBapI. ||().,l|,lJoBa
- B KaTBr TMtITa
()tlttr prpar
paBH.
TaIoT, LITo' prr r papira.
o pa yr pIHKa pp}{Ma. (IaB14I\-
l-ll KorKl) otl papaoa a ec -H o H-
ll,| ||il.l, OOTBTTBI1I p.I
paa Bo e I{Mzlo BOO)KHIM aTpaTaM'
()poB' y)KIo papaoa pa.I ByTpro ooBa-
Il(.(''|
rlrtll. Toa -a y o pzuIHI.
a apaT Too, LITo poet oor lit,trt HaarT o BTopoF{F{o oyta 1 p-
oooa.
||t|,Il,t'l prIr'I lopa apaB papao. p o
oot.tl oKyToM, KoTopoo }{altaIoT aKoMTBo
praao popao , pKo pyto ptx ||('||llllOT, Kay}o oToHy TaTIo tpa (o papao
|(.\lI()Jlo poBp r o oooBaI oHKJIaTypt oo-
I{BT, ec _a. o o)K ol]paT JIaII lV|()l.o oopyoa, op|alaIl poBoTBa, ITa, oTa-
IlpptlaTKo THo Xo.|yloro ya a ]| l l

IIpToI I'lTe c aoe jI]a oaa lll lt


t 1 1| n*' cpoBaHVI, pBe ,l aaa).
l llr papTtlo Tar IIpoBo aH oBprrHoo o-
rt pr o.. Ha oylo ol apyT ToKo ao-
Jl Ba)KI{le oKaaT (oet poBoTBa, aTpaTI po_
( |()'|ll'I .II' B opaHaI[\| op.IoT' paotio BJIa-
I]ol1TBo poyK BIOI{ y' e)(l oTyr-
rIl'| ltltl. B H F{BrcT' e o,tlo l.o aT'
H, HBT, TotI x oKpIT). -a Mo)KT l i l| ( ) )(ll rt.
papaata Il1lpMaTM oxoo plxT It ce, KaK r
Ha oe opo poK, Happ 3 oa. t|||lI llp'yT, papaara _zlt. oy I
lr-aH aT'1 BzDKy] opaIo . IpH\l pr[I-
|.llslIM]
tlopa, aa' patlt oa, Ipy lopr- ()||rT cTr przLHoT oT) aerrIx pr-
|<|\4 vI tpl.t a' yM BapaHTI BIo.Hoo Bo)(-
lY rll,l'lt'l'OB;
H'l H)(I|l pTB. o paBT oo oar o_
v(l]L opHt py B oopaHoT propa-
BI r.I. ' paToM ooMlx pypoB, TaK'
l l l ytllByI ppHMaKo TpyKypl o'a-
ooo paJIat( KoKpTl aa .tI.oT)KH flo- l
1' I I I

ltttll tt(lt]o:
TaBHI{I tlcjl.
||I)l,ll]Jltl BtIaHr oTaFlI }IBTopoB' c X
o at t o UI ttel.'l oT par ppaalarl lptlp'| - l'l l l I l'I'l)loBaHocT .l].
poBo tl o_l4 H Il o Bl IIaHoB (po ao), .lt tr_
ll0 lll
ll()\/||()r1l.lllt. .o ooo Balo B .].oN.l
s 2. Mol(A A3PAoK4 t}|-A!-|A I||(. lllltl.opiI l}ITIl ppa, oo)Uo l{BrHa
a' ola Ir
| '|||(.( B KoI\4_
\I('l )'l(.(.|\()M l)r. ]\{rlIa BO14 lvlLI,])i'.
MI.'r.pT.I]o4 jlCoo otiiT'Ba I,{ Ipooo;lTB14 Po:-
o tat-t yBp),I{}t opa tt.IlIetHa KoxO_ Ii rlt.'ttl;l.loli tlaKe JIroo;la:o yI(a3a' .l Uto -
tii.lrtllo pjl[tp-'l}l. ol{al(0 To Ilolry\,lI]. IIO ollpl(it.
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| |(

Ill vlTBHIlo OTa' oT attoo lr:tr_.;ttla. lt.ltt'...tt'4(lil K pof]oll.y pollyl(14' ilzl|JilIltr,I'l opa11tlit,
||\l( llil ]II(),11' tlT.l]OI]aBIlt aTBy}O I] JloI I(otlztI(_
Ilp-Fll'oo B ]lJloBol,l l4p.
l ;l\ )l(;lztl-.'ltto pKaT o l.oNl, zt t opltl1OBaI lo
'' Paa-> o /]HO Bllpl,lzIl.]To t,t_aH. o trr. ].1

r.l e.yloly lo pyi(Tp' l',l !|tl||lil.]I() Ilpcli[Ipl4'lr. tsIyKljt cooTBT.Bylol{ylo llpo-


Tti,i I'l. lVIlllllO.
B,1tt,t.
l lltt<<.llItl, JlyeT oKt]aT, .tl papairtatt po. y.t.
ai ll a BoMo)l(}{oTl,t y'_ Ilr l 1t' 11'11 o..IHo oDoll|.
l]l]pl4ilztTo
T2l_
l} 1ll.lt <,Pt|lt ,titt op (),> pI4BolT oIlLlI{
|||l(.)(/( l]o t]yTp}JIlo pIK, paor.ztT IIII y pzto'
Pttt ta .oRao (y).
ortyli'i {a pl}tKr t.a.
lll)('/llIl)l4tr.lNJae (oatar.opol,t. Kooi y.yit.o-
|('lIt()|)-9lT aM[Ilto tpoBollBy py). .rl
11 pTIla.
l (l)()l)lv| po}]li}IHoo prIKa {T, pllyaTpl4BaT BoNto)I([toT. I.o
a t1loBollTBtl.
opal :ro t ual.t.
( lllll]al(l41 pBO']T lll{Hl O po/a)Kr poyKl,t!4, KoToa'i
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pao ott.tl{l patrl.l pIpI-I,'tI\4ael(o . \ l|r(' ll)O141]o],la'


I t,ro lrlOLllx ToIJl:1 (il;t1,a) ll
l'It\'IIIJ|}ll|OT ttptKTBI pailtl oo po]]Ki1. o:l-
il.
oa LloB i,t aol', Hlt.
Il;Il()|' I(clll oIIaa .a poyli' KOJIKO ll.;l
l,tillt t;tatr Tp].l4 apolt1|{'1. It ||| ]\lo)l(T rtop.lt )ol[lo, B K[iI4x Tpaa-
()rtlta pIHolylo KololtK,Iy: rI\{KoT apKTllBl
Ha mu-Ilor u(:m ptlNlaT ltrpopl:tlo o l'l.llt'l, olil I,|

oJ]oTIt t,l_a. a olo,r LI. :jJIilz1Io.I. I.(r |'il i||It.l.'l plHa ta ool.tsTTBylol,{x ToI]apoB, Ha pOBO.f-
oo/lp)(a}Ie, To c. jlaT TKTplo pltl.aBJli-{ I[ful.
Itt' |rt).l.op|X ppT ltllN,{ptlo raoBa, }]oMo)K-
I l l'l i.. ((] l oJlBOllttI0 Ka I{)> I] a lly. l]p14i] MaT'I.
Bo r;dutl ootloltttl.l. ltoO/1tV{T oillt llopaM-
l, t,I tl li I il KOl ltolypy or}{Ba}oT o BI,IBH]IOMy llpoy, B
,rI l,lIl' o al(llt" k"atBa]T, ttzl l(ol.o illtil lrl_
( l|)| |lI rM IpoBollt oBAH (y.rt.tr) opo.l'l t:t-
i zlF].
l l ]lll}l I]yrM ollpo' p aBoK I'{ .
B a odrtLt urt l| o.j|10)tt'|!or:ru i}t.ttrlLirtluvotni()-
o nn>> JIaaIoT Lt t4 xapaK1.p lttlltoo lrzt (ot_ l Utlt lrlr po>ltl'I oBoB aHaJIl4pIT lIIolr(r_
I]IOT TrItooIo' opyl1t.ltitltrI, ol{I(l{Io, HaMHI{y] i]'I
rlI || oTaB I,t o,l B opf,l.Izltl'lx TopOt], atill I]a
. l tIil]lilX Opaal1 ' HatIaI\4It- opI't{a j\,I-I{ollll.aN{l.l
poBo'Tl]tl, yytl4' ttapt]fl11'l !.IIIoJlJOBaHiI )Toi'l tIpOJ{yK_
rt). t{ or yi]lT't]yl.Bojvlo)K}1or. ttt,t}[eH'I r]poiyi(_ rrl l|,('N,l|ll trpoBoJ(TBa l,{ pral,lal4 pollyKtll4
p. [1plt lo
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I<al< ol,I 14 B]]r]\4'l ta pO'vK p]ol' t]['l opor. }.lJltll,l Ha rppTop],l l\ll.t,].l.Pilll l opo, alaI
''tlJIill\l,
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pllT, oTOpI HTp I]]jI. }I[l po:lI\t tt. B
.tol\{ palji /l)l(}Ia l illIBJtH:l }t OKyllzl'j IIO to_
llrt tllapI o)(Hl t o.,liol]ilHI N1aK(]l,tJv1z1Jrr:t t]l_
. l't. t' t tl Itllol lo.
li]..
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Il'l'.tlOJlO'[ pOl4BO/Il'B o)tiit. ol]p]/erl]lIy}o 0&,l- ^,||| |l ]l.}ot]ol]a }iM y'" )/IBaT yI\{]\{y aBa}IOB, KO].o_
Mpll|i}() .t.iil,, ttxolo [tailT l-lIt. Kal(]4N4 ||l'IL ()lll.,t \,loyT I]IJtraI,IBaT opira. p' poll]zlx BJ{I
op;-ro t r y.t' oxpali' \( rI()|}ll,l l]poTT o.ioT TM ]oYaTr'IM, KoToI oi1tl],IBa.
C-lt1,t it'Jll. opIIIta. ]\1L'H ' oall l.l.l_ Il|| ||I)()llyKIo ilo t tttoo , pBo,iT Bo,pa}i-
Il( |l) l()l\4' ]]l'iloT oto yt\,tl!l L]aHa T- '.
y'-lt Jr It]o1lllI,l I1pa l]Oo({lTfia al{ri-i loyt,tt,l
paJ(\1at,ll4 j[y. l JlI1 poyl('l Mo oltKypl4ol].l- :lHa0I4HIfi,{l,{ Ijo_
H"ltto llol{liill-, Kl( llpll}. al{lllitil o. llor.(Jll(. |\ l' lill'ltl }tzl 14pol],}l\,t pIIlK, eopa tloit:J;t., :ili

2 ll3
o rr po'a>t( l a ToM pIK alt or.X IIT l()(.|)()llIll'I pt opaHa o oLlH,p.dy.'o.o *uu"-
T o opavK oa 14 cTpaa' oIT T po.DK' l.I llil ||I)(UtyKIll| t]I)IoKo otry1roooHo'
olprT' KaKyI 'o Ha poBoM pIFIKr y.. oaB" )I(.;lit.I'.llrto o.aBT oK aBI KoKypHToB IIpo-
l|V|(ltllI,| ; llpol]Tj4 oJ{Ky KaLleBa; yKaaT' KaK py-
oyK ao pt.
)Kao rpLI aopt, oTopI MoyT oBT Ha (.llti| .l.l, y poyK opal{a|4 B ptrBH KoKyppyfo.
pIHoK (opaKa oTcKa I4Ta' Ili B |ll(.l,l , 'lolvl o)(Ho HT Ha plKr' r o}la TyaT po_
aoHoaTTBr .p.) popT o yB Ia /lVl(l(l,,ll,l KoI-{KypHTo. Hxo oo orHT' B LI Bo'l
po.yK B yoB,I rH pa aopo (, ypoB}{ ||t)('(I(ll yBMa o paBHHIo poy KoHKypHToB'
ll, oafl opa p.). lI|)('/U|())KTool, oTopI oxo Ty yBMoT yTpa_
llllllr
B p <,KopmI a Id m,> ryT IoKaaT l} .l-o p. poBoT aa oro KoypHToB yKaa-
Myra o poty p' poy KoHKppyIo-
lttttl oa poa>l( x ToBapoB; oaIBaT' Ka oo
opaa. B o pa,r aT oTBrTI Ha BopoI: /l(.',l() opaH ta prJIaMl; paBBaIT oo)KM
yrTByT opaH|4a1 BlyKaI TaK )( ToI]apI
ltr..lt tt or opaa.
(yy)' Koo ;
Il 1l oII .x4apKemtlZb> oKaIBaIoT oTgtM H_
otly T |4 Hy}o opaa Hy)Ho tlTaT KoHKpr_ Il(.(. |()I)M apT}{pa ooI]H] HapaB'I MapToo -
ToI; ll l (.]l|lllOT:aH paIxpH aopTMrHTa l,{ papoTpa}ll{Jl
Ka}o aT pI}{Ka KoITpopy}oT Kpyl opaa; llIltl,1y1111'''. pH IHKoB t. HoBI oot pB-
a ooT ,a y oHKyprToB Bp HoBI Txoo-
'|('lIl|'| |1OKyT. ! Ka)(oo Toapa papaala aI{I
' oapoB' KaKoBl x oo.I; l'l l(il poa)K' oKaIBa}o I rToI,t oopzt-
KaKoBa KorlyprToooo ToBaoB opazl aao-
I l | |

t()|tillI14'I' opaa paMI o BIrrIx Too


tII ToBapoB pyx poBoT a plK; t I)('/l(]'|.|l1 TMy TypoBa Ia ToBaoB B }taor
KK oHo pa[rpT c14T aopTMrT' yBl4T Ill)(.N4i| 14 l] eIlKTB' opaaIo opoa)(oo o.
yH[rT ot BIyKa poa)K ToBapoB y B aB- Ili||Ill'I ttlr.p. Ba;<o opT oot oppoa
MoT oT KoKpr; llt)lll('L]I'I}|.ll{oo N4rIH o yy opaa |4 rr po'yK'
a ao Ta|4 )K}It{oo Ka ToBpa Lt cI4 opa- li .llt.l p aaloT pHTy B oal{atl TpaTrl
a oT BlBrT x a pIoK; r|.l| )lrt. | I l . o]Boty 'o ooHHoo poT oo
Ha aKr pIK yT poBaT oBI ToBapI; Il|)()]l.it)|( a rT llIpHJI pIKoB ta oca oBIx
KaKr ToBapI y)Ho T poBoTBa; lIlll1llt,t llI)t]LlrH oKaT, opa yrt pBul;
L] Ka Bopoax pa .rToT oa{aI BTC'I l|||l)(']l.JI'l loT pTBa, KoTopl Too opylo.
pToM ao xo KoKyp; l l1lrr 1lltpaoTr Trt oopaoBaH p']1pHaT
ooT o pao ToBapoB y KoyprHToB' yal\,t tIllll)|r('II /(ll1. OTBI Ha yl Bot|poI:
Kll(X pKaIx p o IloyIT; i l |l t l ii Itoo oopaoB:ll.I it o yT'l opaH awe
|.'

KaKOBI ocHoBI TKo-KoHoKr oaaT po.yK- |.'il|ill I(llI TaHoBrHI I]a ToB:lpl 14 y'
KoKypHToB (a.lo, lai,r T. .); Illi,Il()lllIil B eHy a ToBapl o]4ol. orpoa)(I
KKoBl HI a aHaoHIr ToBapI oHKypToB; \( rlvl.
KaKoBI al KoKypToB o yB X o\1 Ha ptH_ ll Iri||(()l4 TH rHI oTpaaT pK. pO' Ko}rKypIl-
l(zl, r oM poa) ToBapoB oBllIIH - lr ll 1 1111.11(11 lO. .oBapa;
.BLtoT poBo.TBa; p yTaHOBHI zl Kot{TpopoBl l.]to
ltl()z|(|l() JI11
B (l l at TopoHl KoFIKpFIToB; ll.ll| ('l (l'litC.l..
KaKoI]:l ploHa'l TpaT y KoKypHToB oMoIo KaK t )\ /|V |, jl14 ooTBrTcTBoBaT yTaHaBBaI
rI a Toapl
p.TB ot otlBaT pa, ll|]\t\, lINtIl/()(. KoTolrt p}oBo opaHa .apaT o-
KaKx e. Mo>l<Ho o>t<.aT oT KoKpToB B yy. l l,l,.
Pa ey. aKoHT oa pKTB palnpe |',| |.'l)l|( ) () l.l lOl||cIl oKyaTr K yl.HoBHHl opaHa-
HoMaTpt poyK B paBt ooTBTTB- lIlIl,l| |l(.lIilM ll,|.OBap];
prKTBa KoIIKypHToB. l 'I|.()ll|'| ,l.l. ;laTtlHoT poa' pa oKyaT Ha
.oBa1 opaHa;
IJoopaHo TaK oppoBaT paTKopol o- I ll lIll'l |(.I I lI(. l l.]| l,l I I()l|cll H Ha
| |

I4 I l5
KaKoBo 'rTBe opaHa B yLIa' Ko.a oHKyprHTI H- l|(.Il Il()Jlllo1.Io I(oMHpT yBtIr]{r u.pyu*, a (IT
)I(a}oT rHI. |'tlt'l.il (ll'I,t]i\4a pulir pol]Kt,r. B>lto paBHo op_
p a la ToBaoB pr.r]pHaT o)KrH oTBeTT 'Il|||, .. ll(}I)o- MHMflrto l. po. l<oTopI pFl_
a ]'aK BopoI: t.t.'l xtl,ltti,iy yI. , app' opMaTBI aTpzrTI a
KaI(oB yT poBx}I ToBapoB I{a ploK; |||)()ll|tl}(),lTo l ooKa oTB}oT 70 I' p.Y >e o
Ka B.I TpaopTa oyloTc ' I]pBoK ToBapoB Il(.lIl1lll]lll ollKaT H' To p po|-IopyMo MN{a-
Ha pII{oK KaK F{ Haoo KooMLIHl; rrtlii 1ltl.irI-toT Hzl ypoBl]r, Ka)K, 20 % <,opo)) HMa-
pa[oaaT opaHa BoM TplOpToNI' JI\,| oT_ rlr'ii i1r'll l ,tt'loa y 84 t. py. (70 l. p..1,20)"
yya aHt TpaFIop pr; l)tl,y oo po'a>t< ToBaoB ooy top oa_
-
, paIloaa}oT'I KlIa.I ToBapoB' KaKoBl o)KI olT aa_ rltlii t|lttoK, Ba MaI oo yIIaKoBK ToBapa' KoTopI
I Ia I{x, KaoBa MKOT l1oB; ll t]l It'}}Io.t,C ao-t pooM y I.Iar' H pa'l.
aooTra TopoB TopoB
t

uo BH - Itil'l'I' .t.paTl p patIlI BapaHTax Ha oy ToBapHIo e14-


LIpr op'HoB; || .')' pzlI ooTaBIoT poHorMIM Brtl
KoKo }{y)Ko orpaT paoTKoB rl yx, ()()I,MOB o/)(' BIpyK oT paJIatI, To oBo'IrT oIlpJI-
yI]rrHo . aoar paol.t tot o paa- lll|'I.l, /looJlFrTl-{y ay p tlo payHIN,I aal{Ta
14 ToBapoB opa}lal{. r|lltt:lltttt yaKoBK. r a a JI_
p oooBal{ p O yB o peaaL7 ]|()|}il.|'Jt I{o, Beell.rr aTpaT a o o Tr
po'yK, oBIIIlI{1o KliTBa' opaHIo oTp Hy)tHo ||()l), IlOKtl T aTaTI KoIpyIOT a po-
yl{T' To TBro yBeH plt,t B r'pHa- /li|)|( l,| ]\,II pt. p o yTIBaT T yI]aKoBK' l
o r].Ho oto .oTarT H ToKo a 'T (. )l l M()T. TooT I] aKoBK .oo KoHpo-
| (

H)(H .rp)KrK poBo'TBzl' KoKo a rT yBrtlrH't Iiit||l()}l 0rH oa po.D( pO.'yK' B pryTaTr o
oo po.a poyK. ]I( )l| )(IIil BOpaTaT poI.
o aopo oBIlIl BHoT pao- lJlt>r<tIo N4.o B praaorro TI{oT aHaT
o .LIoT ppllTKx opoaH\4ii BTc II)illII|OpTpoBKa ToBapa' oTOMy ooo BHMaH ox< l
o'D(a oyK o aTop'IM KarTB V/|(.,]|llo topy tIoo TaFIopToo pTBa tooa
Ml r opTllpoBa (o opa, aop) ||(.|)(]l!o ( opa, U{I4KaX T. ). B paTa oy-
Bvrro Kot{rcTa apI. B o |()| I|()Ka:]aT ToMoT l porpBooK o pat{Il\{
T poIax poK o KaTopN{ LtTBa, B Ko- tll|/lilM .pltlopTa, .'p)K a Tapy' a Ta)I( opMI T,BH-
Topo]Vl ooTaBT'I aTpaTI BIpyKa a pral{oBaFIylo rrrlii t-t Toapa p pBo poJ]y aIM BaI4
po.yKI,t ppoK op.1oo. lIlillI(]llt.lp.a. MHll] y l. pl, M l]Io".He ao
Coppoa py oloFITHIx itTpT Tpya' 'oiloIl14- I l);lIl(.llOlIo pBo ;lt oo pBoKII.

rto TapI' a B pr yaB l{ ooHTHl TpaH[oTHIx ()r,Itl<o oxoo T B By' To ooBa!4r,. lIrI(oTopI-
p'TB. B TM yBBarT BlpLia a pzllloBa}ry |\|l| |tll/(tlM TpaopTa, HMrp >l<o.opotI,lh,l, p
lloyKl{ 3a T yBF{ ItI a po.yK}o o BtoKo- \,'Ilt('|.l,I'I l] opa 'py TpaHopTHlx 'TB (aBToMoO-
o KaTBa. cl oa BIIIaT,ooTHIr a]paTl IIo 'tr'il.
't.Ilitl(opo}] .p.), a KaK oT Tatl rtoxoo l]oTa
opTt4poB, To po(Da o opTaM (aTrop) rooopaHa. l()|t;ll) KOItKpTItI op. ooy aTpaTl pa,LITIBa-
Btr>r op'ITI\l IIo Bel ora peu|aLlvl |()|(.,l I} yMM o BrM Tpal{opTttI pllTBa' BaI
tpoyK BeT T)/poBaHr oBIlllH KaTBa. ll/|l|()ltl)HHo K pBoKa, a TaK)K yttTIBa]T aTpaTI LIa o-
!','l oltpH tlo.T Too popT oxoo | |( )|| | Ill.I.-]ttll opyy BIpyy.
poltol4poBaT yBH ooMa poBo.'Ba ],I po'ax po- IltK N,Ip o yy'IrHIo p-rtl{a poK BKlotlae
l(tl't t

lIyK B I]ot{HTax It K)qI p.yBt{'I oaTl Tpya Irt.t(ltl1l'lt|lpoo ooa Topo. polt
paoTI(oB a I(arTBo poKl-. c yBtl4r oo ||ll|() ()l)l.illlall o)IdT paoRlBa
pol,lBo'TB 14 tlpoD oepaT BrH oHa oJIaTI rr;tllt,tIl,tii rp,l1t' oTiBIM opHKaIlt, (Irp
Tpa, TzlKil,I pa tp. 'lItt.||/|()|}llIlllle Ma2tHl t,l p. plrop
.ett o.o ra po.yl(I{l.{ MorT olT o- |.l|'()N|V ttooy TopoB, KoTopo p) O paaIl4
THyT.o l,I it lleT llKo.opoo HXI{ praaoHl{I H. l\|lIlIl||\lllJ||lIIl, il tpytl](a
- aKHa. B .lpxx o)(I
ozto To roopao jll]l B ToNt JIya IILI' HeH
' l}l't ||, v'll.CIlI,I BCe TaT a)aT o pa' KoTopI MoyT
lt6 lt7
T To p To L,IJ\|4 :o op Topo. Hpp, p ltlt)<tto oTaBIo poa apoa''^,p,TB papo-
poax poy pal pro}IzUIHI ot a_ (. | )il
|
'l opa BIo"c BIMI tll pT_
Il I I

TpaTI o TpaopTpoBK Boa]T aooBT. x |lll, lloKoy o x Kor.Ba aBc14 lop pTB papo-
pra po'yK OTBT o py aaaM |4 B (.,I
I)ilIlH.
apr'yo oMH' To po TpaHopTHIx paxooB TI- apoar pTB papoTpae't pao opa-
Ba. }.y apaoo aI paoo' aF{TI opo, tlllll IlpooT B Tp Taa:
apHHyIo aTy a o' aTpaTl }1a ToBo, rKTpoH. ()llpr oHoBHIx apaTpoB pKal;
Io p. trop ooBHIx pTB papoTpaH'I1II pao top-
Baxo yT o oo'lTTtso, ttTo p poa)K poyK_ |\lillI14 KoI{KprTHI I{oT;
Bo ca|\| HxHIr pTBa oTyaT oHoBp[{o ()lIprH po.LIl{oT paI opa.
o ToBapa atrl o l|. p poiutt l]lt>tto IIaBHo opT aor l Bt
pat poal or oulT a poyKIo orT l)I(JIaMI Ha oo aa|4a pao .THoT -
oTyT p FIal Fl.pB BprH BIpyKa opa- IlIlllloT a p.I.y po. p To yTIaT at
Ha yMrIT Ha Btt . tl l,lJlIe Topor oT.rI Bo. Happ, pryT-
a, yTlBa Be yKaal aopI, Mo;<Ho oT' l|ll l'aTHo pKaMI
- B rr oTyoT' Ma,oBoT' oTHo-
r.rtt,llo IB{' BoooT aToo ofop; al
a TBo oa p ta. t

<<pTBopHHoT,> oto
Cooa TMpoBa a ToBapoB MoyT t pI., |()l)oI|l
- aa BlpaTeIoT'
('

KK rp oyK' p' o.I ' pBaTHI lItI(l)Oaoo MaTpa I T. '.


TooBI HaK, TKTK' BlTaBK-poDK 'MoTpaI4 l')(loT prKJIaMI op.rroT T ooTaBH a-
opao ' poa) ToBapoB B papoKy' yBKa apa. Il)ill Ha Hrr poopyrMI Beee oa paaaLI
oo aTl paoo too pt pl opH- ||l)('tK aI pI. Cya pl o peao
o oa po.a)K ToBapoB. l|(.il.l',lHoT14 cLIcT B B paI r)y.tlooHFlo
paoTpH BoIIpooB opaa o,poaIoo lrl,l1ry.IKo oT pa po.yK' oeo a T pKaM-
oyxa op yxo yTlBaT rH ooTBTT- ||()ll /l'tTrHoT' aTpaTa a Ty TtIoT.
B tlopTMTa KaTBa orpoaxI cy apoaM' l} pa <, npouodcm64)> oKaIBaIT o)KBIIIy'I
l]oo)o yooo paoo)I(r pBI yHToB o | |('I ) l lKTBHyIo TpyKTypy poBoTBa poy (y)' to-
KaaN,I aaI-llx .t; pIl Hzl oTcyTTBI4e II p)l(- |||ll'I poBo'TBrHI MoHoT apyMo x MHr
Ky Hy)KIlx aaHlx T, OTIBI o ao Kaoo l,t pB_ ||() l(U(il' . a y ayl ooor oopyoa,
HIx KToB' p'R}o}o TooT proTa aH]x a (,I,|l)l, MaTpar; y poBo.T'l oopa B KaK
paBHH H oHKypHToB' a paoHKoB Il(}lIl)(). Ka BoMo)(I aTp p opaa Ilpo-
rpBa BoMooT r oBIl]l{; BoMo)oT praI{oo ||()/l.'l.l}tl; t, y oo Ia aK yoBx y yaT Ip
yopl]lTBoa TMl oITpo)KHoo oxa tl |\tll.epJIl; KaKoB )t( oTaBLKoB MT oIT
op po KoHKpHToB. l)ilt)(I.I,I C
H|vt' y TaKX BIHT, T JI -o
oa poBoTBa oTaBoK prypoB.
(ll |)ilIl14tlIi
Ba>o HaIIpaBrH apToo ToT
- pKa.
B r-a pyaTpBa}oT praI, prTBa' BI- ll .l,o pa -aa Hy>l<Ho pyoTp, a yy
I Ha H; op B )(y aKBa pao t)(.V||(o.BT aHpoBar poBoTBa' oTpo KaTBa
paot FIH oa la rlpl. lIl)('lyKll' a TaKx oxpaFla oKpy)ae pt T|4a'|
papBaT TaK TaI papao paot? pa- (}I\()](Ol]; x Hy)GIo opT p)KK I]poBo'TBa I,I

Te.' rI l| | .
|ill\,|Ky
op.rrH pKJIaMI' ()oIlotaT oTar o poaaMoo po-
plxH o paHo opa; ||()/|(',|'|}lt HarI peat o o, or]T, KaK
aHpoBaH pTB papoTpaHH opa; l\|()/|(|, I otllHa pHTao p yB oo
papaoa (ope) paoo txea; ll||()ll l|}O]l1.. T p paH K poI]o.TB
oHKa oT pKal. (t)||ll'l().t, K I,,lTo(IlIKM tp' oToHr oH' Tpa_
p apoBa prTB papoTpaFl pao - ri,;rlrt,ri,i p)KM, BaIIoT Boxa p.).
opa eyT y B To' To o oTaToH l(1lytlttt,t poKl .py oa oo polJO.BrH-
yIll]IHoo poBH pao Ka21. o.'ao Hiiorr ll{)|| lt tltt,tlt-lll,tlo llpp.pyTypI HaLlTHl p)l(I(.

t 18 I l9
p oooBaH ao el ooo IoJIo. (.|)l|)|,() (ttil.ltpa oo) o ppafiy. apzt't
Ba Koolo p.yKLI Hy)KFto ytlTIBaT' To tt;t lt;lpaoTK paTIBa]oT HopaTBl ooo (o<o
p]pJlT o)KrT r proBtaT B BrxM , ppao- lt(.ll()Jll,1lol]:l op]\4'aBl poIro opaHa) ll a
ao (pla oKa ppaoa), a B yaB ()(.ll()l} lroopaoHl{oo paTa B ooTBrTTB|4 p:lo x-
(p o KaTB) ooBaT a Kop KoTy. Kpp ttllJttrt'Iao.
topa ooa ooBa'Be aula p, /[tltrtl.ltttH pl o ppaoTK poyK or.
oyaMa oT paall 1' poyK. rltll(I|. l(ltK paIly M)y plt 0T pzl,Ta ppaa-
o poy|Ll, pea.rLo ]])Kr , pIJl \4c|I\Ic- rlrlii t,t tlrIppaoao po.yK.
I. KaK pay y tpy eol,loT poBa. Il -lla pryMaTpBa}o pop ooMl
o oyK. flo ppaoao [po]IyK B llp)Kld (.l)()(.l] pOBoTBa BMo' KoTBo' H Ka-
BKloaT 'ooHTHI paxo,I a ppaoy (apaoa rtlii 71Itrl oy y paXol{oB, a Ta)( TOKI,,I o_
aTa, a]\4opTa poHT o oopyoa1 a.pa-
TI a KTpoHrp Too' BoMoaTHo lp MaT-
paI' Tzry, yao p.). p pau 6'ooC eI1I4-
t ppao,ao po.yK yTIBaT BIXo tp,I B
OOTBTTB Txolto \eK, H oDaM'
a poyK pAoa ly)qllIto o_
,]. Ha KOp]\4 KoT' l]QBoT B KopoBI llL Ha ll() lM())I(Ho poBo.TBo po'K c c|looBa}IM Beo p-
oHoB op paoa Kop]vIoB trE poBo.TBo rI BoTlIo- t.Vl)Iloo floT'lzl.la. B aor ya aT oTaa N{oXrT
.o poy opT BIo. apirl a Kopa pa- {)|,| |'I) l]p.aHa B py p1,\ op'a}Ia' o- r]\{-
I,TIBaIOT o oMoil. ttt,t o' oTop}o oo l]aT B ap.y' paTIBaT
opaa, apya paoy Koxo-
o poyK' o)I(a O.oToBT THKo-Kooo
oo xa po a
a)I(
pTar,Ioo oopyoa-
H oprT o aoBy tIpOBo.TeHoT' yoxaloT () .1g1.N{ IoTHoT N{rXaII,{pOBaIx'pao1 ITo oT.IM
I{a apyMo o .lao paoTI B TKI,I oyaloT To- l.'V/|I,'I..pa \| BaI\ )BoTI{\.Ix orIo o at
Hylo poBo,t{To oopyoBaI,I' o yTOK paoI xet rl( lt,e N4 rapotsaHIx paol"' Pa. o I]a [ooBy}o ay-
B oy oprIoT yToM tI{x aaoB lp' zl,pa- |'.V ('llloo zrKTopa, opr..I]. ()ToHoT Tpal(].opa o N{zlp.
o, oMoB .'I.r 1,, i I t\{

o Koort l,ll.IrT oT},I] IH)KHI (B ol. pI(a eNl:ul L4


IIpo3BoBa y(IrTo Il.\lt14I( B apy pOBoT l;a oHoB .ao aptu{Ix aTx'
KoT. Cy yT ()|||)(:.l(tx.ooBopo pHJI. l,l a aBflMIx B apy
poy14 acee l] lpyx Opaal[x, .ITOI t(.N,l ll}| TeK. IIpi O1. l{At{ pTB IIpoBoTBa B

.I MaI\'I.ayIo atyKy a B TF{r oa. .l|)(.Il/ly oppy KaK yjvlil po aTI Kot{o-
alal a poKTpoBa xa BiIoH po?ITHO- I||'l\ '}T[]ztT papT|4'I }{a Orp)KitFtl,{ N{ yTB B
MoI{Ta)KFIIx pao paTlalo Ha oHoB MTI' KoTopy o-
TaBIoT Io aHHI paBoHa <.l cpoTIlI opI
I,I paBa>. Coo oopyoa BKlo paxoI Ha
o popI ocTaBKy. B po KaTF{I aTpaTI
Bxo..T TooT BpMtlHl oopy>. aaI o Haa.I{
oopyoa JJp. KatulIr BoxIl'I BIaT B IIpI,tB- I rl
HI aTpaTI yHo)M x Ha LiopaTBt o{lrHT I l tll l.ll t OKaIBaN{lx vy oIpr.T oI,1BTBI-

to KaToBo> (' -o tporrrr- Nll| |l()'t|\4O)I(l.io'I xorriia. pl,t xoo TpIfJ4T


H'O,TLI--QH patsH 0.l4)' B pB,{r}{HIr aT'ptl'I Kpo KafIaI | (.|() [)ilILlpHI,I' TaK aK To /{arT {oo:"lHTeIr }{)KHI
o>lr BoT TKye OBo/:I'TBHI Till: paTI Ha ||l l(. I VIl]lll. ooyT OIltIIo aTolt paoLIKoB I,I

t20 t21
pl apoTo aTI. apat o oKaa yyt opIoT ||il lIy'I'14 Ot.IJJIr'l IlpoKTa, oztt a -i* llr.l'Opo}J,
yTM oTaBr TI paxo..oB. B a rT lJaMTT l|
.,|(']|c'l'/l'l
Ii||': ppHIla, II Mo'I aTl oT ti.
popaMy IayLIo.roBaTKIX oITHo-KoHTpyKTop (
KaT Bpo,tTFIoT x t]ot{K}|oBH,I l]oNto)KHI
pao, oxoIo \ o KoKypoooo \,lttt.llt,l, poT tltl ToB pKo, ToKoB |4
poyK. Hy;<o oKaaT' aKylo oK}o opaa'l N|()N,I|I,|.O}] BoHIoB, oKaaT rpI o poaKTK
Mo;eT poBo.II'T p aao TFIoo. l t r lt.ii l I)Jl' HMalt ypzt, oTopI l1oopao

Cy aaT, oT KaK opaHa ooo oyT ]] ya Bot|!1loI]H't o)(lx' KTprNtaI-lt


||IlItl|,|.l.I,
papIr a poBo.TBo ct oel] Koo_ ( )i , oKToB, tttl B t{ijooBoM ppo-
l( l(),l.l.cJl
o ToTI po.yl(; KaK pt poaTK IojDl lliIl||l[|, l<oea Kypa Ba 1...'., }I?tTT pop:tl\4]vly
OIT pHTI' tlToOI oyT To paplIIH oT oyIapTBFI- ( | |)il\()llilli pKoB. 'I oT
Hl opallo (aapHa HrK, aopaTop KoHTpo Ka_ l,it.'lt
<,uoti n u momZ uLtpoa'D> loL]'I-
tlTBzl poyK .p.)' KoHTpopy}ox o.ItI Koo- |||(.Il IIJIaI.IpoBa aHoBoo o 'TlIoT
o oao. |||)(']|||[)I1]\,{aTrKoo ya Io (loo IloJI_
B pa oopHo yKaaT' KaKr opy oTaB- l()IlilIll,l't llI{)KHlx pr(TI]. plto/-l |4Hec-opart, xa-
ll copL|KLI, Fl, ToMocT KaKoBI llil|r'l'(.l)Ioa aoBo oTol,1r xo'rTBa: ooI pa_
yy o 14 ooBat. ot-toa Too paa \ ( )/|,l,l, ]lr H)(HI p, aol o.. Hxo-

oBoT HBTopy oTaBT ooTHo HH o poTr. \l(t y|(aT ol,toT Hl po (o a)


B pa <.puuutttt nol7>> pBo'lT'l opat, r lIllltl.}p}' H paJla. Baxo TzlK oTpaT aTpaTl' H-
apaKTya opaHaolty pyKTpy opaLla' B- r rtl\()J(l,lM]e Haaa poBol]'a' Ha TpoTo, oopo_
I\eH o I]pota. alBa}oT oTa yu oparr- ll;llIll' MoI{Ta)K aKy, paxol H apKTH' pzlalllo
ll', oo opa oopHpotsa Bao.ec IlIt()]Il<|ll4 T. .
opa yt, apalpy}oT cxMy ypar p.- Il tl,ro opa oopao oKaaT oxo't
.'t lrl1lt.l.l.lt1i,i KaTul (paxot H Ip, zl1LII tIal4' oal.y
-
fIDT.
p paKTpTK Hoo oTaBa poo oTK |||\'J|;l. Jtl)y paxoI) o \l'Ia oa. l|o oI] opott
p'pT op opoT B .pa o poch, |'l| |lI'|.Jl:l"B o.
aoHHI poa, opt pBH paoo AIlit.l t|loo o a ol po poBo-
K Tpyy (oa paoTa' oBMTTTBo' paoa FIa oy rIlt oIlooBaH]4M oTHoTrFIIx artoI o(l-
l( )|
. ..), apaoyto ITTy o p' Ha ooToltlHr r.Il|()I| (',l,t. rl I1). p Ila ol,Il1ToB BIttt
apoBaHl appoBaHHl paoKoI]; aT- \| |]ll|()l}JlHHI Hop Mo)(Ho JIaT BlBo/.l' tITo opaHa pa-
pHI ol' pM py' Bo opoa ao- lll Il;|(.,l. o. aoopoT' Ip HatlrH oo
KoB, oIT paot. yol oao, paBa' opoK ||ll/|((' l)KoMH.oBaHoo ypoB otl lloJIxHI HaxO..T o
oopa; Ty apoa pooro o.oToBK l ()|||I)()]lCM pyoBoTBa' a pI4 yTI]Ho }H)K;H o-
oBllIIH KBa KapoB. \ l )llII]\l() pHo aH'tT'l Hao lraoo o

B pa,,poo on'ue pom npdnputtamtdo?o tll'|;lIll] ]atl14.


emo,> pBoT op' BaHa oaM l,Vl<troBy oparlzl I]a)KHo tl' KaK}o ot oo-
paBoBt ot.tH THoT opaa: aTa oa- ..It,|\ (:l)/l.B Mo)o l{y)(o oyt|l'{T po Kpr.I4Ta, a Kaylo
IJ'{ rTpa, e rM apTppoBaa' yprTrI .l\,.lIll(' tlI]I4BtI B Bl,l aKopFIoo KaITaa. op-l
oKyrFITI, opa oocl,' Ia, aKopl, o It o ooTTBo' .lTo aH, KaK paBo, Tp'Il.'I
l\|()/|(|l()
BlylI Haxo.x opa a ( aop- \Nl(.lIl,tIl'l.I) o p, o' To HT o oHl aBHl
l or). !'olt t oKaaHI oHo paoo l|l)l)il l()l\,l prpHzITJI l-IBTopr (opr). B .o
TrMl I] Bopoa {JIooB, aTrHTo llTI' ppooopaH_ r lrlI lll l(l)CllTtlor apol]aH p.oLITTIl ITpOl(_
Hl KoHoB' paB' opJlI op'loK pTpa Topo_ l()|r, (.It'I-JillIHtx
pa]I4pH poBo.Ba ts r.yto op_
o p poBH pKaMo paoI; oHoBI paBa l'l||l| o
TztK opaa a yy poa o_
}il|(t,,tlr.
ope ccea aTI' paBa1 aaloe c- tlt,lttlt'llIIO aTl a KpT, aK KaK pK Bo)KHtl U]Ko
ooBaH oprHIx apaoB B.oB .TttoT. ll(.rll||( K1lo Too, B ToM ya otl pot ttittt
B pa3l1 <.t1 u,ldo u pooau>> eoo.Mo o- r |. I I t. I
ll Il lJI Kp.To.
lll Ir oI.tl.,l
KaaT y IlBTopaM KpTopaM BoMo)(l p Il;l11 1.11 }/|i||lll tIoo op1ltIJl.lIl p.o(|Tl..lIt'tltii ll1 trtI_

t22 r2l
t1lt t[lI'lJl rax' apot aITroBHHI ff o.y
r{K (bI{aA{poBaH
- aKopHl KaT. oHTc To
t

T' rlTo KpeTo oaItl p.oaaT )KTKy ry a- rtlttllttli,i ppt opaa. o y yTrI oKaa-
|(. jllt('lli()M oo' lIo T yo.IBI po H poKIo
T)Kr, oBax BoBaT oHoBHo yMMt 'oa po-
l||)|illIl,l]]il.
ToB rTo KpTy' Hot opaa,I aHapt pa
BlaT o)KT oKaaT o a _a HrHaLITHoo poTa Ii <ltl -aa pBo aopallvyto opa-
): I IileHoBa pJll] 'I' aprc, Horp TJToa' Trr'
oooB oT paa. B ax eoBIlX a;( pyHl poKTI,
l | | | |(

oot yyr,l IIpIT oryl pt, MoyT oa- rIlltl't;, tpa.ltt,t, ra' oTrTBa pyKootTJl' aToB'
oTT. B o > Bp o p'TBaN4, oyLII oT iKoHr- rlll r y 1lltpzto -al{a.
po, ol y y ts rpBl oI Mo) oor
H aTT lIBr}II' LlTo BI3OBT Bop)KH aKoI{poB
(pay, B ToM Lla, ptJI BTyT B paB- s ' H.PH PHMAE
opaalt, tlTo B.II'T K oBIlllIo Kypa a, yKp-
Hlo o pl). l)ttt aa ]\,{a,{a ToB p],IpoTa pl a
l t|(.'|' ().I-HoTl-loo oKpaII T I{lx paXo'oB) opr-
Ba BHo lIoKaIBaT -a poK oKyaMoT
]|l||l, :]lla aoo po.to opaa\4 rla yua yx-
ecl\i,r KaK oTFIolltI{ pBoatlaIx l K
o.oN4 tlToy oo'y. B yox pro.to KoI{oMK |('| | ll otIoFIKT pI LL BoHoB .olTottt aTpaT
'l
| |

FIBTpoB opl<ro opFll pKo. o y Il(.ll()'JMoxo paeH aT.paT Ha oTOHF{I, prl


otr' M or po oKyaMoT ox' .aK KaK '
Nl('lllill.tI.
l Itr'tot ompaml (epoopoltzl}lI' rI po-
a oro po oyT yrTBo MrT oIoHKTypa
pIa' TooT lp pao I, aooBa TrMa tl;ttllll,t) H yT a aKo tpyv oT pa (aop_
I lI tilll'oHIJI oTllH' poTI Kp(T' yllpaBcK
P' C;r.oaIo' p .oTaToHo Tao oo-
.to cTa pMyTBo yHo oT'aBaT poa, o- |'ll('()J(I) o T op, oa TrpI ao r I{paLBa-
Ba]oM l{aor tyt oaroT Bo)tILIIx IIt|}l rl opyT yBrH poBoTBHI{I oltoT,
pTB.
.Il|(. llt]llIloT aIITIx' a TaI(r poTa aapaTa yaB. o-
po oyaMoT tlc yT oprT }]eTo l||Vl() tIaT oToH}IIX aTpaT p BpTIBa .TtIoT
To T pao HlloT psl Bo Bp' l|l'lill|a cH>K BIpyK oT peaa\I TaK Ko
KoHTpoBaH) (. l l, Lll T. aoITF{Ie rpol opaa
olo pMaMo a ypoB po porTa o ao- \. l\ l t

K KprTa]\,I. l,l ilN4OpTaIo B pr)Kx papa (, KOrlFIo' ooopy'oBa-


-Ha-

[-Io}II HBTop o Toy pa'ry T It ToKo llI|(. ltc papoao), tyxa BIaBaT poeHTI o paFI
o p]Ho p,lMo Iroo opaMt. Il()l|'loliHl KpTa T. I\.
l llt apam (poopoFtllIr' I4 |\4,rr1t)
I-Io o )KtloT l, KoTopIM y prT oTpy.-
||(l l|)l|,2lIoT o y[Ia poopoato BIpyLIK oT pea-
tlaT' oToMy TpaT apoBa't o)KHa orpaT
tlpI)lBay opa, oaIBa[y, Koo oTp- IlI llll(l,l H aBT oT }tI paaLl. o paxol Ha
pTB Ha BloFI popaMMi, B aKr po' l.lhVllI(y lp MaTpaoB, or.p KTpoI{rp,
oTKya ao op y otlrHl T pO.TBa' Koa Il)il| |()llOpTLlI llp' TopoBo-KootlI p.
('tltttttt ampl oToT oTo pt+o
o)(aT ot BoBaT. Hle eoop
oKaaT B Ta.lo op o 3-5 OaA1 (aot aTpaTl'
.l;tt.lt.i,i. o(tToBI pal paxo.I' aTpaTI a poFIT
{|t)()|)y/lol]atl' rKTpoFIrp p. yoJI cTa
aHpyr BIpyLIKa' L]Ta pI, poK yMl BoBpaTa
l Nlt.lllillttlIl aTpaTl tvloo oyTT. p paveax, . oo_
pt,lo).
||tl|\|il .l.0(IHoT' poT BI.'IT lIOTotIHy pMy
I-{oopo oaaT BIpIlI.l LIBTopa p Kp(ToBa-
H |4 BTI{poBaI{ pOpaMI opa}{a. p To Bo.
l|(),Il| |t MrJaIx aTaTax ooTBTTFIo pl{LIJUlT ].
po HBTpoBa o)KT paMaTpBaT lol,tit a. l|(),IlI l( lloTo'lHtlI peHF{IM aTpaTaM. FIpp, pao.
p 2t oo.lo p Mo)l(tlo paT rylol]{
B rp)KKzlx B oy pt (o poyir). l || (. |( l l)()I l

l|l)I)il'|()M. paxo/]l Ha oBeH fIoMHl't


HBTopa o y yI oKaaTTo BIo.'HoT
a - oToI aTpa-
BoH p'TB B l)oKT 'at{Ho oaHa. l|'| . l)i|()/lt,I KTpoIlp MaI{rKo oHr KopoB -_
I-[;toopao TaK)K poT K aHHoMy pay oI'oBlr I lt'|)t'Nl(: l III le.
OTI (a oJtllt 2- oa) o poBoTB poyK1 Il1ltt 1lttttl|,1 iIJ\aLI ,toKll,I|4ulllu mrIno nupoma nputtt

tlJ
r24
ol{apy)Kaec1 tITo Ioo rH BIpyL|K
oT paa aa oo pouo opr'IT KaK 1a Mr)/l.
Iropo)KarT o o MIlr pr. o po lloTF{yTo auo Ipyvo opeaa poyl( lI
HlBaIoT po poBoTBrHHoo pIaa. Hpp, t- c yMMo oToF{Hl pMHtII r (opolrl
pyKa oT paa aHoM oy oTae 22 000 r. py. pao).
p pMHl aTpaTax 1B 600 t. p. ftoToFIHI Happ, BIpyKa oT pJIa paBa 4000 r. py., ptt
py. (oa yMa aTpaT 2| 600 r. py.). Toa
3000 r. HI px . p., oToHI
pt y paa 400 r. py. poox' To Blpy- paoT
- 2200 - 1200 t. y., op()|'
3400 r. p. (2200 r. p. + 1200 I. py.)
Ka oT p.:LIIal\|4 Bopo o 24000 l. py. (9,1 %). Ha r -
Toa aa aoo polltIoT (r) pepTvt ocl.i| .
> 9'| % yBrB.lT pMrHHl aTpaTl. Tp oH 4000 r. py. - 400 t. py. : 600 I. py.
oaBIoT 18 600 l. py. . 1,09l :20292,6 r. p. oo- tpKa oT puIal oyaT ) Ilopoa prII-
tHI -aTpaTl MII}o. yapHI aTpaTI oTaBloT TaFIoT' aoo oToll opa!{a pKo }Dry.
2 292,6 lc. py. B pyaT yMa pt oTaBT lIIaT'
707,4 lc. p., .lo a 77 % oe, tIM pBoM BapaT. Moxo paTaT aa aoo pooT B por-
Tal< opao' BIpyKa oT pzaI,t yl]tlaC Bro Hzt Tax K BIpyKr oT paa. B alr pp oII coTaB.l'
9,1 %, a pt
- a 77B %.
a oToIx TpaTax'
ea oooT Kooj4
ToM ypaBHtlrKx.
rB,1 %: .
Pa aay MaMa TMoB ppoTa pt, #91gg va
22UU po'
o)o aHypoBaT yB I{r ToKo prI-IFtl' o
oTo,[]t}{lx aTpaT B aBoT oT Too BIJIT' Ha
KoKo poFIToB BopaTaT trpt. Ta' p yB Ha pa poopoaa aBoT <<BIpyKa oT pa.
aTpaTt>> oaa r )KeToT.
rprrFII aTaT a 9,l %, a ocoHl a 1 % pl a
Happ,- pHIr
p Be aKyoK Ip IloTaBK HpKo
BeLITc H Ha 77 %' a a 6]' %.
5%-o B.IH oToIl aTpaT HaeT TMt p- pe.oTaBIT oKyaTM KK I To.a aTpaTI Ia
poTa pl o 9,4 %. Ip pTyT rKoKo MrrHr BIpyK oT peaa.
B pa.rKx paTa opree a ttpo_ p opee[]4 oo]xuu u nppaod pdcm6 B po-
BoTBHtIoo pIaa oT oaaT oToLlJrH py. BoTBr TaK;< py pa,r aTpaT a prrIr o-
TaTa-oT paaa or BoH pH|x aTpaT K ToIr. oax To Ha ppr.
pl. ooo aH pooTa ooK a (lpe 8000
!1"* ar ToT oKuLaT pa 8'5IQ2 000 Ic. p. - ot TpaTI 500 py
- 18 600 I. p.): 400 r. py']. o oaaT' LITo p yBtlr- B o .l:
H BIpytIK oT peaa a BITOM prHIx aTpaT, Ka- oToHtIle l50 py.
)KM' Ia % pl BopaTT a25,5 % ( .8,5), a rrp )K pMIl HI 350 py.
BlpytIK|4 oT paa Ha 10 % pI IlTc Ha 85 % ao Too l ooir 62500 py
(r0 B,s). poBoro MooKa 8600
ore paxooo 5l0 p.
o oToI{I .rp)KK o x yM'
TI\4 cr y poBo.Tt pIa. -
.ByT o ToM' To H prMpo yBBaT oToIr parT aTpaTI Iia oToHtII perII' p-
pa-oI. B p HIl BIpy oT paa lroTp'I
yTaT oyT HeBrpI. o aoI Hopa a av-
pI o)T oaaT FIooKpaTo BIIII. KyIo poyKIo ao to paooa 57,5 p.
B TM' ppHaT yprH oopo.to (8600 62 500 p.), paxooo 510 py., Koo o-
pTB oBtllJFI poa a o ToBapI (yy)' oH o)KT TaBa 27,5 py. oyvaeTC, tITo a o o poyl(-
ooT oTKaaT oT p>l<Ma xo KoHo }Ia o- aKpyLI]4BaeTc ol oToHI aTpaT (2580 t. y.).
ToFll Kax' o opaa o o y lpyo oo BlF{ - parH aTpaT Ha oTo-
oaT oll-lfr ppoT pl. I rprrHI.
' oprFl aao uooti npoI7orlu (.tt tp- o yMMI aoBIx aTpaT oToIr oTaBJUIIoT
l) Mo>FIo ooBaT oHTrM opoa pao 150 py. (o |8625 py. 1 ), pFtlr- 350 p.
(pvo ouK, To eyIovol. (500 py. _ l50 py.), B ToM tlr a l 4 875 p.
126 t2'7
Ha y poyK .oBao pao.oBaT oCTo_
'll-Ilx
aTaT 150 y., rprl
- 77, py.
(4 875 py. . 8600 ). oo 527, py. lrLIK pacxo_
a 6
oao 5l0 py. ool\4 oTaBe |7, l py' o HBOHHA EHoc
cT piUlFIa'I KoHoM pTB. PPHMA
KoI!Po l]I Bo Pol o
l' Kaot lHo HarH -aa?
2 Kaoa llp]vlcpa pKTypa -aal,
3. Ka l]opoI paN,laTa pa.a e.lel?
4. Ke BoPol e.cT oB o.po pBJl(lltt opo?
s 1. yt{o I H
5. at,t Topoll 'eToo oKypp]x (lplrl y 'IIlT'l oTaB- tlllc (oT aT. instir -- BaIBaT, oMaT) coBr-
I -?
6. K ]\4lDKrToBI lvll]oD'l BKIaT _a?
lIlill()l.,l B oLrT roI TIO KoFioMK aK po
7. B oiv"ii L a}i p)K tlll oo,Ilc. p-
Il(.l)I)ltI[eer{ .H)KI prypoB oT T' KTo paoa-
-l!lt ter? l;l(.l. I( T' KTo B rix Hy)Ka. B l{aor, o op
8. o otlT llo ol pooTeoo pt.la? ll|Ill()T o)Ilo o TB B
|lll,t,|l4(lllIl opl L,I\\
ill.. |ltl}l. B yopo o-
I l l l N,l i l IO.I oopoI Bo)fl aI,7Taa B KaKr-o p.p.

t| |ll.. JIo, OTpa


Io floytl () pt.
ll po paKTKr BIT TaK aIBarI l'Il HB-
lllll
- TaOo)e,I' a[paBrl a Iopar
|)iI(.lllpFlr I(aITaJI ppT (oya yTaI{oBKa oop-
l|i)|lilIIl,l' .K, lp, TpoTeTBo aI1 T. .), 14 ll.B}C-

tr r.r.I 2).
l I r y paItIll BeltIt{ flo i1T l4tIBTi,l' Ko-
lr )l)l
{lr (

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i)t)()|)(),l.Itl pTBa; aIII yrr-KoI{oTI oltl


||\ l(.l)MIIo aT>. <.pzUlHlI",{
(I)llallore IIBTll BaF{i Bo<r{ LNL B
llaoo
lIl\lVIl(I.IJO Tr pop .ooI paB pa a yaT
ll /l(''|ilx py],t p. loor pBa prpHaT o-
.||l|{ill().t''I. F{aep' ao|4 aKl4Ba\/I,
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Il1';111;1 Ila LIaT ts r pylIx p popaT,I rp
lll||(VIl|(y aI,1, aBIr BoI po Bo)'I B py
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ltrar.ttl t{llBTI{ BaI BorH R aTp-
l
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papaoTK' pay T. ,. ao T BT . HalBaIT o-
li To T o paoTaloT }Ia pKTBy.
TeItuIIM,
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r
pBT (xra ).
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Heo- eT BIoaIoT aI :BecTvI:,4I B ooa-
(oyry) ppT THBI FIBcTv|vI B pa-
IIIH' yBLI poBoTBroo oTt{zlJla pl.
o Pee oBaIoT BIa}{ oor B-
E
ToHrx p.TB Io pop |4 oToBF{JI
HoBlx prTB poBoTBa' orp>l<Baro ro po-
6 B oTB Ht o a p.IIp . o BJI aIoT :BecT
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E ItI.
x ec B aorraa HapaBr}{l Ha oBrpIHTBo-
U
Bar orp}Ia poBoTHtoo oopyoa
TrooKx poroB. x e: poT poBoToT
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po.y.
r B MI-IH lpopaI BIKa poaaloT
ooTrHI p)( Ha KoppKTpoBKy aopTMTa po-
K yLITo poa a plKr. o pMaTpBaIoT p}Ia-
aKy IIpoBoTBHoo oopyoa' oBeprrIFITBoBar Tx-
ooK poB poroB.
I{ B Bepcaro BaHI F{r or-
KaTypI BIyKaMo IpoyK, oKo opa}Iaet
HoBI plHKoB ra ToBapoB.
c o BIl Ba oeal oDar-
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B pKTB BIoa)T' a- Pllc. 2' pa oaoT ':
Hr (BI)I(Ba,) ppT
p, I,1BT B
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lloooBKy Ka.poB, pKJIay, oxpay opy>ltalo l. olrtlt poe; I II
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ryl H PIHK

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oTopoo H Kaaa pya - q
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oo( oto.a ryr pI]I. opa: a Ka,aTc MaTaa' B
p pe oT BrTpoBaII oToT B
KKOM .. KaKo ' Ha-
To' uo TBOT Ka)Koo o.yUro Bo)H KoKo yoo o opaat- t2J4f07
prTB (arT LI IIp:r4 oprrl{F{o ypoBr o BaT . . Ho aK Too BI l 00l
TaHoBT t{BIoHI- pKoy I( aMaKr' poo-
Ka o paa (p. 1). plI o BrTpo. lIJo yBaHiJ' pKo opaBal ooy e'c:,"ltil.
Ba oTBJIT5 .' Bo)( B i]apr .. y)K Aao.t a CI4a BoKaT poa : oo_
HBIoIlHl
a IIqHTI pl T olM opaaHI\| B
ooa Too pa oBo'IT BlpaooTaT TpaT_ xo. x pJIa. Happ' pyKoBoT Koxor-
Io BrTpoBa'I afr ao oIITI{r o parp. Hoto p.I]p14 ooo pIoT pllIIJ o To, Kya
Happ, Ha I(ooIx p.pl,l-' MIox
proBIBaT poBtlo ]vlooKo: I{a Moo(Il-ll o, IIIIo_
or ypoxaoT rpoIx KyTyp 15 1 t, roTr-
pl.BHH oe I| ppaIBaT o po'a.
}l|e Bo)KH p.TB B pI-IoBo poBo.l ( ;t.
p r aaI{. o paT, KaKor oopyoatt
lllo KoTBa opaLIKx Mpzl,'Itx op, oo-
OyaT' aproBirT TooBo' oN,ltie oTpoT ro
HTHI apoTrxrK tIpI, ooBa oe a-
aM, KaKy M]vty KprTa pa, ;r ao po tlo. KaKr
TBHI ) ooT y B BI o ylTBro
oBIcT ypo;<ao.. o.'ao ITor.y Bo)K KaTaa
porTt. Ho oa orprrrI T opa' K o.o o.t
y oBaT B o ypo;<aoT' opal{- BpyT oFIo. Boa rroxooT KyaTpOBaT
t oaIM BoMooT yTypI opTa' Ha popo oopyoaflr, ol oo oKyo' BIaBaT
o-TO Ta ot{I4 TayT ytovtt. porHTI o KprTy T. .
pa oT t{BTpoBaH oprT p> zl aBJIHr orrtllo taT oBo-F{o rIaI,I-
p apa: aIt{oTI p]HKa Toapa' oKya- TrFlIM. pxo aTT i{' OKo .rFIaM' o Bp-
lro ooo Iat{, cTefIe^Io ootoa oT- rM' Bpxypoo ap>KeHo pao ypaB{roo epo-
pacIl, po TpaFI. B Popt Bcr.TB - FIaJIa' aplIIHrM e c lapTl{pa. Koo' pK oBrpIII-
oHI pooB TpyKT),l]oo Kpa B KolioMKr IIp- tt olK} H ooTIo KIOT' oaKo o
]leI{a'I oT BTpoBa FraTyarT pa]' B ya ory yLtt paBT paI]I' T aMI B K
paBTI Tpaa pot IA. B TI\{ oopoHo M oTp.
HBTpoBa B FIaII Tpa paa (p. 2) o, To aotulo praoaT
rr BIo.o pocc|4iIcK HBecTvIot poKT B T.IH 6 . oao yeTo M_
I TpT Balll. :LI KoIoKTpI o y pr 3 oa y pI.ro yt-
BaT .rI. B KpaKopoFtI o. B o ya prlIpITLo oo.o pT plil.
poKTI. H: pOaT. oopyoa pay' parITIBa Ha To' To o
p <(3aa3)>. ol TOMOT I{a BTopI-Io pIK HBeToIx ToBapoB rt
loHT yT Too pFIa' /oTaToo BIoKa' I,t KcJIaToBaT po.I 3 oa, oI
prTa yo alvlaK, xo t aTHo oKT yTaoBF{o opoBae' ptl_'
TaT ao o Kp.Ta i{BTopaM' Bo)KBllt| B
I]poKT Bo TBa.
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Ta. o KaTaorKa oTpa' M o'tl 'roBIr l |, t. Il I l o IJ}lo TrHooIo' ooTBTTByIoy yoB-
apTr{rpI' T opo)r ra paBe]4 olsl. ol He oKa- |\4 I)IIIK. ".'""r1,r
o'ao a Kopo Bra Ha'o aT. Happ,
aT o>o C.aIA' eoxo.,o apar poTIBaT '|
tltllrt aBo. oxIo oTpoT a KoKo MeB, o TaKor
oT Kzuoo :lJlpHaTBHoo HBooo po- .I)oTrTo e pBIao .opoM' olTBo p'-
Ta o aza o praa. lt1.l*l oBoT r Too H ]\,{o(T. B ax(o oFIKprToM
p oeTaII aTpaJIIII Toltlttotll oo - ()./l ytl.t pooTroT rpo.a aaa .oxa ooor-
eo aTaoBo)t(I|. Cyy Tp BapaTa oeK l}il,I.'l yo HaHllIx oTp oo.a P.aor x
o. i U lil ITaoFtIx rprK.
1. o TxK apa. Happ' p.'pTr' pa- paa oaIBaeT' To aaTaot{I p)KK yrT
14 BTot poKT' Mo)KT oToF{o HaparaT ltl(JlloaT B parT I' o oopo y poaBaT oBa
poBo.TBo epHa. MooKa. pyo Kootlo po- |ll)Ol(K. or IIpo a po}Io ppT
.yK. oao, or{o H yTIBarT pHr prour tt1ll }ra y ToBapa' ory BHy aaTaol{-
po Ha T ToBapI' Ha oTKI{I F{]' a Tax IIIllX [epK o)T pyMoTpeT pe.pT|Le'
ypoB ooT poBoo po'yK' p o;l<T p }lyIlaopa (oxe) ooraT a Ba-
t opaIIM: or IpepT y poBoT po- MOaBoT oTpa. ao yKaTop paFIBaIoT
.y, T BIlIir yr eo ylo. B ao BeNl TaKa Kr' poret B Bo.y. o a o Bo. pao.T py.
cT a xapaKTpa . olH Ta oT TB H I Koo - l] aFI
- To' rpaTop BoFIFIoo MyT-
I poyKToB. B pyaT KooII llJtKaTopa' To pao. oT KaM BoI
- To BaMoB-
tIp..pT BI}rrI oKpaaT oBt a, KapTo, a- ,tilHI oTpa' a KoTopI o-paoy B pao Bp a-
xapo BKJII' oooB KoTa. )(T e B rppyro oTpa. Happ, rH-
2. Coo apa ep pa aTpaT Ha po- l)lrTopoM BJIeTc poBoTBo pulx yop ei, To tlp
-
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oIT BTpoBaH oKaIBaeT, .ITo TaKo MTo orI{K oxT ,l.itT' Koa BoHa
.o .o oTpa paeBo.Ba, a p
r a oal' ooI{Ho B oB . Po
oo po.D( o BIpDKr Mo)(T a'aT' MaT-
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J1 14 oB oo..oT IIpoBocTBa MooKa' Ma, p-
paIla aa pep|ITI4
- po.T B yao, o tl
poT T yylIl' Ta a pya B]pyKa y oolto
t.o ;<ooBot1gg*. poyK.
p yTaTopa .aeT Boo)<r{oT apa aT
BaT. o.oy pKoMrT )KHI oFtK oIIo- |}pe KoHoKyIo y KoKpToo o.' BIoo
FIT TXHK paTaM. ooBaT Ty opaI; prKpaTT eBIo.Hoe HBT-
3. Coea TooTt{Ix TxKx KpTp - l)oar aaopH}Io prJIT prTBa a F{oBo po-
TBFIoT. o apa aoe a'x' TaK KaK IIoBoT Bo.TBo' opxa KoIoKTypy pIFIKa. . oyT
BTopoe orT TrxFIooI ypoBH oT, a- oBr[Ia op oyIK prpoa>K , aeIx
OFII B HBTOFIO poTr. |}:]HooB yaI KaTzuI pyx peIp4TI4 , '.
p aaa oo rrlrBrToo p. peoo- TKaTopa arT, aTyarT o Mpr yaH
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oKTypa pIFIKa ea oxoMa eo oppKTpoB- -
l'IIaTopa poa oxo.o. Aor a.a-
a. A.apoBaT I!{oBo oo HBrToo p . Bo BpMH. Ha ao-To Tar Frppy}o opato
tlBooHo. pave Be.a yeTBT Bpro oTTaBa- Mo)T aT pya oTpa. Kaxr ppHaT To .o-
(a) )qy plllI{r o oBoM BTpoRakl vI aao )(rH yTIBaT BorBpo KoppKTpoaT TpaTIo B-
o paKTo paa oKyaoc. lo6a aaIITa '|.poRa.
T o pxK: po.oToa KpoB' poaxa Tapoo Q-p 1lTIBaT aBoT M;y oo a prK
oopyoa |1 c.atloKa oBoo, BIaTa Koavr pao- 1lao BoTaHoBo TooT aKTBoB.
y)aM, oTpBllI paoy B pyTa opae,
yo o TapI KoTpaKTa' opaIo BoIo y. -
Tep Bpee}{ I|p aaTa oaaT opTBI{ KaTaa' a:
FIxeIt oT FIBTotloo poKTa' oToy
pp,IT .o)Ko KaK o)Ko tp pTpoT oBo- oT Q ol 1, poBaHe loo. Ha-
I4 135
pMp' B aTo BpI\{ pll{otla ToI\toT KI]apTp a. ],,llltloa eHoo KaTaa MT "t'u,**,o,* ..p"-
Tt{o pBIaT TooT TpoTTBa >'11 To Ty- |||\4VIIU-].l.Ba. o.yTT BHr[Il4x a.> yM p.II'l4'IIvt
pyT .aI w\ eca. B o < BpM pIoa TooT l| ()l)l'1llla (porHToB o IloyFtIM KpTa I1arBI]vI
oFIoBIx B.oB ooo poyK B p yarB Il'tll()lt' B..OB tlo KJI, 1o t) o po-
y]TBFIHO x aTpaT a poBo.TBo' To BI}Iy)qIaeT l||'I Io B yaBF{I{ 'p'ITe\I. Ha pa, oao'
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.
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l
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al{Taa oycT.B ),"I. Bo2Kr,I-iXl pTI] B t()llilIlI'1 p.Ta .i]'prIaTJI oparo r() rToo-
rro poI]oTBo' pa.It{Ir KoptlKe p(IIp-
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IIloTaRJIrFi KaTaa B }ty Ha yots BoEpaToTll ||r| Lr)Ky oIr l(pooolopl pMopoM lloy]tFroo
aTIloT. pt opF{I BT:'4 tI.TaB'iT l. )'/(l,{Ta pTaBJI oo pt pB' oopIii l-Ip-
oo p.pl{ae aTa. BolltIlr KoTooo o)/-
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||lll\4ll o)T IIOoBa. B -rlii rIIlpBIx oTo.


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py.l,{Ivl opaHa (ToBapU{rTBaM, ooTBaM' KooIpa- l)(),lI)l]I p1t ppB y rrpI{pttMaT, o-lrrrlllo T-
a). rll aa B otl, oT pJll]pMzlToo ||(.lll, 14Ka oH I\1)K oBtl.
H BJ!alalT B pIlpl,{'ITlrr' a /IztIoT pyoMy pr.pll4Ma_ I l 1l a a tl,t KaIITztJ'I' rr I I-IMaTr erT Bo o)l(.
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polirTa. Cr KaTuI BITIaT KaK ToBap, ro o |.il)yllIIoaral poTI. Cy, oaKo' ytTIaT, To
BiIeT po. ll|lr|l oT II,IB,I aoO aTaa ToI(o To.a'
o pyp KaTa [pIIpaT oToT HI{l |'()|/|,ll ltpot{TIo oTF{olLIFlp{ ryvo pllt Ko BcMy Ka-
pTB, BOr}{l B oOBtII (pollI, }{MaTrpaix aT- lll||il,Iy p'lpH]laT'l (opa t;I) ' rtpIIUa. pO-
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oot TotIH al,l oppo BaI.{ aTaa B}oT : ||(' lll)ilipH}.IMT p]]JtLIHHoo aTJIa' TlM tsILtJ }Iopa
orI pBa IIpr.pI,{HaT ; tl1ltllt,t.lta ot I(aIII,{'. [IpoI,ttoprN,I Kaaor
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I1o\ oIl..FII poHT; Il()|() zlrOo Ka]..UIa pao ilpo pi (a. 1).
plITBa' Bo)Kll llyN{ a o Ha aT -
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rut); oTttori{|l a{! p/lgl'B' .ll py.
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aTa
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prpT o ya aBT oT o Boo)(Ix FI | ||tt)1l|tJl5lTC ToKo Toa' Kot./a aMoToTI ppa-
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T Ta)( oToBIoT ppHMT Kpr..Topa . t)VMill. py BTOI HTTyTI.
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B rop)a yIH oTo oo .oa oTporK. \| l I l'll\j paBrr.
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opee (apaopl). rl IIOROJI'IT lxt{Lllo
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paBBaT BppoaT aprHttoMy pIKy pr{TB lIN,|()'I.ll. p o H JIHa BoMox<HoT zul lopy-
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llt.ivl)rl>, x()l)()lll(),'tr ll1llrtIlllllI,lpoBaIIFlO pI]to(llto opt | )l l l|,|||||{. /llIlll|]l('ll/ll,I , lI() ltl.tr otI I,lRiltOT t,ltl,i l)o.I. K:llll,l.a_

l4u r-+9
a. B a 5 pBa xapaTpTKa oTHIx BoB I{- |(|)lIllI oTp. o ao Tr, o,o 1,o..",#K oo-
HIx yMa TotIKI4 p pBKaToT 'I BTopoB. lrr't i,i 1lto poo.T Ta TaHoBeH xapaKrpyrT aI
rl[l,N4t.l Boolx .el pTB' }Ior tIo a-
5. apepTa oB rx y |lll()lIltCl 'o HKo KBllHoT tlHHI y.
" *"" l,*.* --".. ".. ",'*'" f- . -.- ;-1_- Po l} o;l yoB HaMr pcKoBa[IIa .tI''IToT
ltI||t.opoB KoHpBaTBHoo ypHo aprBHoo oB'
uzttu:
|\,I llJI l]alolx KaTI B KpaTKopolr oI p-
yte Il
l t
pilKopoH| C yo.tI,t Catl tli
} oo oli.tt,ra o-poy l.il |,I)l' BrKr 14 py rI. obaTTBa' rKpoBaH-
oopollHle
ttu: l||,lt] l} OOTBTTB TMa {p\1.
pBpoxH- opot oii.Il,t o-paoy
H le
otol Xyxc K t tptt" s 5. I{AHcoo-KoHoMEA oEHA
l-lB oHH lx PoEKo

o pFIo, I(oTopl Hooo yTlBaT p ()ltoe oTIl Bpeel{o eoT ee. .B yox pl-
oppoaH opTr I-IHI ya,'IBeTc LlKuoInl ttl KooMK p oK oT Bo)K}\ ')l(_
trr.tI
',lDrcel7u. o llHoT oHMaIoT lpo ypo
t

l||,| prTB B patlI BTOHI poKI oxoo


.rp)aT rHHl yMa pBpaFIe X B eH. oa \,l l l I |.|,l I]2lT Tay Ba)I(y apaKTrpTKy .H' Ka BprHHa
oaaT' tlTo p BTHO rHr Be.II.a aT'l oKyaT' ||(.||llOT. Hoxo.oT oK Bo BpM BaHa
KoTopI poprTT Ftle a. o p Hao llItv
Bax}I l HBecTopoB, KoTopI )KraIoT lpo o1tT HaI- t('l
tII FI opr/Ix poBoTBHlx aHoBIx l\l('l)tl
. lil t
Cyy .Ba oHoBIx pooHJII ooa op- Ill)llMpO Be.'I .aKa rHr)(lx p'TB' BFIttFll Ha
MpoaHI,IIo HBTOHHOo opTr: yaal Tr- ( t)(.l)I.aTeHl T B aHK. poo>, p'pMaT
HK. orBo oITHIx tIBTopoB potla y-
|t||(.(] lt a 1000 py. o 10 % q\ol- p o. yul BKa.a
aHTFIl oxo.' aKLlzltoe opoo Ll
( l)(.'|il|il4. l100 p. (1000 + l000 . 0,l0). ppMaT
.THOT oTpa Koa y aa HaHoBo- x I{a BTopo o.' To
ttt.(ly,r.'t'IaT .F{ aKa' oTaBT
o oToH' H)KTa KoKypTooooT.
||()(',I(.oo ooIalt yMMa Baa BopaT o 12l0 py.
| |()()(t + 0,l0) : l2l0 p.
aaHI aHa HaHaT oTpaBoo afula' B
xo. KoTopoo IoTrHl HBTop BlpaT oTpa' l{- ',)lrl,t. llp' B KoTopo a'aHI Ilxo.Ha yMa poT-
TBIoIo I o Tp. aTM B To oTpzt yTaaBI4-
BaIoT Ko]aH-pI cpe x BIpa py' rl Ilil,| t]'l.llItKa' apoBaH HaIBaT poo I{apIBa-
ya oopo Haor pBKaT| oppoa ||ll'| lt IjI,tpil)I(aT MO.IIIo oI poIToB
op. FV: PV(r + k)n,
B poooo)KIoT yaHoMy TxHK il aa /, l, (ltltI)I' ftttttr vltrc) 14ll To MI Hr, Kooplr B.
BaH yHM 'F{aMK H' T pyTaToB BaN{o- rrt.. - yya
lllIlVl()l(.)| Oll; PV (. prS|lt vllu) -TKyula (oBprMa). ToMoT
rTI] poa p.oxH|4, L7 H peoaaeT paoTp il Il(.l' K(rl()l)|)Ic HBct{ylT pa. oyfl .ooi] B oycMi rc-ypoBH
ytB KoHoMK BH. r|i l \ l )ll l )(: l l
|
( IBcTl,l l.,t' 11
| |
-
L||4co pooB rH.
Ha pooo pIHKr Po floo pKoB, BaHI
H''lM B oHKpTHle HHI y. o po p- lit.tttt.ttlll FV oaBaT K t yytylo ToMoT oll-
T pK' orI o HBTOHIM KI,IaTo: ttlltllttii l}JltIl]l PV p a.aFlo tlopr 'oxo.,oT. Hopzt
o)l(Ho oTrKo KooKo oTaHoBKo, po.t. I( )\( )]|'l l(),I.'l tlr I{o oToHHo, aBr p>_
o paoo ot-Ioo BToHo 'THo. l|(, ll(.(.|\) ()|..cH pKa Ha, oopt HBrTpyrT
B aor Bp'l oot pIoK ot pBKaT H- r,lllt;lrl.
BTopoB-poKol]' o > Kacae.c p.oBI HBTopoB' Bo- I l1ltllI. Il KO.|.OpoM I BoBpaarMa a Ko(p(pI4_
)(H'I B rIttll ya po THTOB tlaTo LIpBa.I I.|| | /Il|(:I(()lI'I.14|)OI}ilIl'I , tlilIBztT'] KoHTpoBaHM. ot-lo-

150 l5l
LlrKI4 l KoI{TpoBa'| aIorIaT'I Bo BprF{oM yo- lilIt,t Boo)I(HoT oIHoo otli aTrTa
p'IotIIl /lr)Ix oooB paLIl{Ix BpMHFII po.IIoB' Il||ll o 20 % oot, o
' lpor oBop,l' B ao)(HI4 Toi4 yMI' KoTopy .rrp- |(()Il a oaBT 72,8 p.,
HaT oToB aaTT o. a Boo)K}loT oyllT FIKO- 'l() L: l apa (a.6).
Topylo aaHy] ouryr y]\{y yy. p oHTpoBa-
6. P y're ob a
11 pacLITIBzlT TKya (opa) ooT o opy_
, opao op oIx pollToB, I Be, l} Tt]t.l ooPoo ! a Tol,1]\{o oooo

--|,.r'^o"iio""i":::l.-]
"
po't o. r.
PV=FV | -.
| pata'l
I
]

2
(t + k)"
I

0
C;Iy OTMTT' tITo B o opyax IoKaaTr k ooa- ll 72,8
tla' ToT poBH oo' oopI ppl\{aT o)KT -
o o.tllT' BoB pTB pol poT I,FIBT-
pOBaH. B o' B KaT k loy r ptooBal]l: llptry xry paLl.a oIlo opalr B B,e ylo-
poLlrHTI-{ TaBI(a aKM oTa; rrIii popyt:
poT' BtattBt ao BJIa'l{Ky a paHH o t,

rHIx pTB lo aBKa a pK BorH TB B FVn=Z PMtt1 + k)''_,.


ao-o BTot poKT; /- I

IrpoItT, BIaIIBarr o oypTI]rHI oaa


'aBKa a K. t I''|/,t- ya o]\,lo iltlH'ITTa (ltl. 'fllttt vIu of nuit); PMT-
Haptp, BTop ,aalol. KyIrT or eKO- Il]t:lIL:)K' oBcMt o po1l l (n. pt); k-ypo oxo;
o.B,HHoo aKopttoo oa l0
.t. py. oa- /l .Il,lo Do.o, B Tre Kooplx oyaT jloxo'
IIII-IN,I spe 5 T o 15 t. py. o JI IloKyaT T ],l lp/lTBT B B
oa, T paa BooxFIoT oo l:l /\rlllylo opy o)l(Ho oTT
a Ha .oTI .tT o l0 % oo? FV: PMT.FV|.k,
o opy KoIlTpoBa:1 oy.l, py": tlt l,|,, |tt,k 1yru '|-ol,J]!roT HTa l y. B oe .oo rpoll
Il(l)|Vl|tll'I'l oxoo la poT'l)Kl't /? epl,looB p po}lo TaBK.oxo.a a
PVs= |5 000 ' i = 15 000 .0,6209 =9|4 p.
-
(l + 0.10 1''
\,1l.ltttItl /. illllBaNl o t|lope FVIn,l: [(l + t),,- l] : k.

.I.ltoi,i
aHyTT liitIBaT Ta.apT}tIl\4' ro I{ar,I-Mo;11o
Coao' l,{ .tp 5 T Too oavl oTa-
BT 15 l. i]y., To TKy'I (opr) ToMoCT l)iI()rIt,l]'a'I oo KaJIK,1TOpa [UlFtIx Tao' B
|lrlI()l]|>l IIpTaBr yya o,ooT 1 py. ts oIy n p
9,l4 l. py., o T r oKa rtoopa.
o't.r B.o too optrt.l, proa
(. |'illtl( rlporTa K.
ot BHo 'e)KHlx p'TB pa/. aKoel opr'Fl- l( r l p p, Koxo TBeHoMy prLI.TIo po)I({o
o yt , opzl'l aFIFtTa (ar. onLI,_ l|||ll(l.l.oB 100 py. Ha poK 5 p oB -BoBpaTa
i/y '7B'IeTc
>o.rlt a). plpoM aHHTrTa MoyT y)I(T pe- ]l(.||I.|] K9I1 Kaoo oa o 20 py.; r{TrI{ 5 I.
-
ypHo oTyalo pFITl{Ir T a ooBa aII lI]|illlI,ll]ilr' .IlolloitTor BoHapD(H B yillMr 60 py.
B al)H. rM ytlaTo }laKoH aopTaI{oHoo l |'t.lltltlopaHo pH1 /IaHo pro)KI,I' e.I' Bo.
|\l(t)|(lI()T. ooT.tlI,I a o l5 % oor,l?
oa, oBoo popT HoBo oopyoat'I I]aMI Ilttlt.t;t.,lI o oyr' <II IrpoToI] atll,{ar]\{' Ki1l(oBa
oTHHo alBao Tapoo.
K py' p/lpMaTr IIJ]'JIaaT 'aT B apHy t)V,]|'l yN4Mzt Kol]y S-jtt.o rpO/a lII]olIpOBa t{'
t aToK a 3 O.:l, tp o t4 IJ BapaHToI] Il ()ilIlI(, p.'
oIaT apLlI: 20 l py. oII Kaoo oa, 70 rr p' l|L,: Ptr/ (1 + k)5 : 100 (1 + 0,15)5 : 201.
KoH 3-lt rpo.a. Ka Bapa}IT poTTI{' rJI
a paa 20 % roL\ot o a.'zr? llt:.lt >t<l,oHI oylI B pape 20 l py.
t)z l5
rMeHHo R oopoT, oyzl ooTI oxo, To yy- paH Il4poKO oOBa BToHIoM illli|JIlI l(.
]'II
L tlHlrTrT MoHo l)aTaT o opMy, py., K ll oTHoT Tol pzlTa poa oKyajv{oT lIlt( |lt
: : t\ MTo oprH pt op| pl a Ill}(.(.Ill
FV 20FV|'s % 20 . 4,99: 99,86. |J.I,I.
Mtnod 00 npuod oKnaomu ucmull|uti PP (a'tt.:t. 1lttt'
itl,t opao, oa yMa Tfu.la B ot 5-o - brrck rio oToT B Oprr}{ Too oKa' oopl tlo||lUI.()
l]]4oa a.IBaT yyo IlyTTa (99'86 py.), t tlt .tI'Jl,] BoMI11 H yM M l pBoFIall HI l t .
oBpaT H B KoH 'lToo oa (20 py.) FloBprMH-
lloo BoaparH (60 .r-r py.). or Mui oT:ltsl,t !'oy, ttalloo MHe)Kpy tooo tpa ll|)()
K TpoTrTB KaKoo_T'o or'a. o ooy poKTy l-pt. l
l79.86 t py., To c pro)I( oHoMtIK oo_ I]o)(T 600 r p', o /lpyoy
.
Dari H o. - 650 py. ttttir
(a. 7). Pa poKTa l p a 5 750 I)() '
opaa aaa OltprJlH,l l.I(ylro ayTrTtt oTol4T B lloKTa 2-900 l py. oxo.a. potopyMa ptt' tll
OrH yyx IJ)I{I oTyJIH o Teo Mo-
MrHTa. pya MT raI4al.I' porKTa oTaBT ooTBTTBt]Ho B pBoM ]|\/
.ra l50 . py., Bo BTopo -25 py.
t1

o"', 7. pl oT paatl paItl 1oo,* nfio"*"o", ll y.


PI/n =,, ,
1= 1(l + K) oillt lt

PMT B Kotl ptlolt /; k


ltoyl tjBeT |l 600 650
- y Tr)
T o HT;
oirt Hop.oxo.Ho-
LIo l)t4ooB. a po)H14 KoTopl r oyt-tl,t oooB:
,l?
-
oCT 'oxoI o Htl. l-ii 200 350
2. ott 270 400
fay oyy Mo)KHo poTT pTaBT B y_ 3-i,t o t20 100
tIlM B'r: 4_ o 90 50
5-i,i o 70 0
PV: PI|4T PV1't,
Bo '750 900
e PV|n't: Il- l : (1 + k),']: k, To TI) Te'I (opttl) oo - Lltt pt ol. .lIla]4 ocI([l 150 250
tll4Ttl oMoT l py KoIl aoo /? poo oTl]K .oo,Ho-
t (xo o a]]lt l,).
l,l 1.lzl.t lIl.IIlM To'ol\,t ]].Ho, To poKT 2 o _
ot op,T oopaHoT ttBTlIpoBa 20 p. p., TaI( KaK I{BT14 o I.tMy oKtlT y< a 2- ro,,
I] oT poo)KTHoT}o 3 o.a oI )KHIM Io_ ToKo a 4-.
o Kal( p paa poKTa |
TIIHM 10 py. p TaI]K aa 70 % rooIx' Iloy- -
o 'o pr'lT B ToM ya, Koa oxoo o_
opyy patlTa Tryo aHJIyI,lTTa' p., pol,t BHo t{oxo']r porKTl. ott oal pooo ll
PV: 10 ,2,487 :24,8]. KoTIo tlctla B aT BpI\{ lxOKo oyT ll
KoxoTBrI ppTx' oTpo I{ xBaTaT ll'-
Ta opao, l{BTpoBaH B at pot( o. aToB o OBpMI{HIM ToaM oK HBTrI.oHtII tlp()_
pao, Ta KaK TK aHHyTT pBIarT HaaHI aTpaTI rK]'oB.
o IIo,KTy tt 4,B7 py. oao yT I4MT B B'y, IITo .aHoM MTO plltl,I
MeoI o oT t{tIBTotII peo. B tTBrHrr .II,OTaTK: H ytlTIBaT |'TrHoT prJl14:}ll-
oI{oB pI1.'I HBTol{Hlx prr r)KT oHK pB- poKTa yMMa oTyH oxoo o Too, K?lI( l||)()
Hr oa poaMl HB .I{)(I{l . ol(l4T. CooTBrTTBo at MTo ])I{M|\4 .l'()Jlt'ti()
oTy. Mot, oyI B HBTOHHo|\,l aar' p rx .oytlx:
o)KHo opaT Ha .B pl: Br l]yl IpoI(TI MlT o..aKoBl poK )I(14'}IlIl;
poTI, oHOBHI Ha yTIIx oI(a; B poeI(TI tlp'oa paoBor Bo)K'FIr pI]oIIlltl1l]Il'lIl'I
oHoBaHI Ha KopoBHt]I o}.IKzlx. FIBeT;
o ]\,IToI oHK BT Haor Tpao- or .].oo KaK poKT OKT'I' I,tHBTop ot111,,. lll)ll]\4()l)l|()

154 r55
t1 4,

NPV= .,.
()/\lIilI(()BI,I c)l(oJlFII IH]r yI a pol.)R Bo F' l') '
. ... -
I l[)o/l )I(I.l porKT.
r I . trl' tl I k't' 1l + k)" ,-,tl + ki
Mtod ttn1a pdu I1opfuII npuu I!0 uI!|Tllll1uLl RR -i
(alIr. verIg rot of rturn) oToT B op/I:Il oTloIJ]e:I4
c Ft (tl. sh JIow) .oH ..eHc)KIIx (e>t oo)
prHooBo To I (P0 pllooo .l "n"o.u
l(ol;c po.[ l: k - xrill\4il,| t.to1l ptJ]tlHoCT (1l.o), o
ec' (ouHT pTIBaIoT B poa). Cp- poBeH oo.lloT Ml pllt]' oo1lti o>l<.t. tt. o.t plt
ooa BrHa Ho,l H xo.lto oNlet'I,I x ooryHIe ot llKTllI ( u lr a, ll oap-
TBeI]Ir rl y 1l.) lo ooil,1 Ha .iltttltI,i 14|lBeo}t-
yI ecllt (I a 2 (ec poaaT) LITo o T_ til po; py l{ oil' k top Hl]ToltoO l]lllltll'
rHI4 poKa pa poKTa Br KaT:FII aTpal yy -
artr) (a. B). .la TKyIa ToMoT poeKTa y'y'P ooxTHa,
lIpoKT .yeT pHT' oTpaTFIa paBHa 0 - o_
8. P p opt p o lrB]|or|l poa' ll p.
BpHyT.
TBor ppT l]BTpy-
llorlt i o| l l[po2
l,
T KT o pooM praa 4 ol.\a
Ila.rlt HBT14 600 650 J o .Il'ooa l50 rf py. l-{-roo_
tit pl oT poKT
]ztHo aHo IRrTpoBaI] pr.TB p aTHaTBo
150 250
Cpooa pt,.rt 30 50 Bo)(rl{ .r B aHK o 10 6 % o.oBI.?
pe opa pt;r, % l0 15.4 Pzra LlTyIo TrKy),r}o cToMoT o Bll]lepBHHo
op1z \4 o oy yro aHyTTa' oKoKy FI)I(_
LIrr IoTyeH o oaM oHaI(oI' p.,
B yua, pryaTpBarT HaJI\I oTaToo' Ina
(RI\, oa oHa l ta. NPVlo : 050PV1'lo r") -500,0 : (l50 . 3,l70) 500'0
_ :
B.aoHFto TooT
opya I,lreT B
%
: -24,52,
l: PN NPV : 050PVl, %) - 500,0 : (150 . 3,465) _ 500,0 :19,74.
tI- R:2.
Pa.lT oKalBaT' To p Tar 6 % HBTpoBar
atx TI B o, To prH HoMa pI a p.TB B poKT BIo.,Ho' TaK KaK cTa TKya ToMoT
BT o oKTy 1 oTaBT 10 %, o poKT 2- oTatsT 1'9,74 p. p a 10 % HBTpoBal4
|5,4 %, To .aT poKT 2 6oee po.tTrIII. peTB at porKT TepT KoorK I, TaI( KzlK
o, ooBaHI a pau p op]\tI pl,rl a IIoKT oKalBaT yIo.trivr (a. 9).
HBec.I Ta)( T p yTBHIx oTaTKo. B a-
oT, oH I1 yTIBaT pay )K.y poKTa o.HaKoBo 9. P o eyr oo o poTy' p.
y p.Ilooo pt, tlo Bapylo o oa I4l,I
tloTyal0r B Te.IrI paHoo a T.
B (laoBo aa oyT'l Tp oo]]I Toil'
apyloX a KotlTpoBa .rHr)HIx oc,l.y: -il 150 '944 0,909 r l4t,5l |6'7
MrTo, paTa o TKy ToMoT (.loo pBe'-
I

2-14 t50 0,8900 0,fr264 l3,50 12'96


oo a); 5-14 150 (_r,8396 0'75l t25,94 I t2,'70
MTo paTa peHTaoT t{BT|4; 4-t4 r50 0.7921 0,630 I18,82 102,45
MTo' patlTa BHyTpHII Hopl p|. oo 600 x 519,7 4 4'75 4R
Mmod pal1x uumoli mut,tt moI|4om]l wPn ocoBa a NPV t9,74 -)4 5)
ooTaBlI4 BHl xoI BTi| (IQ c ot
y KoIlTpoBalllx tITIx H)I(lll oTyJ]H -
LIH poKa pa poeKTa. opa paT .to y. 1o p]IoaaT I{ paoBy I{BTI4' KaK B _
BrI{FIo Bllr pl,lMpr, a ooBaTro tIBTpoBar
Ul ToMoTl4 T B,
t51
156
aoIx pypoB B TIJ n
.ITo o xapaKTrpo ll
e-1 I() l)il(l. oBTop'lIoT ooBa or Bt{I op_
[IBTotro oT ro xo. o opy rIltttttttl't.ll JI.KoHpoBlI (, ltlopo' p oalloM
'tlIlltlcl NPI\, oKa H yiaT'I oopa a o
paLlTa NPV pHaT ;lyto :
/|,I,ll(()Il.l'poBa''|, p KoTopo NPV y pao 0.
poy paLITaT oKaa IRR BllIlpB.HHoo
NPV=7 st'_ # . ''
I-l tl r l

l lI)llcl)ll. Bot Ba poBoHIx Ha'I ouHTa _


k\,
,
k|
,,\| +
,,t| ' I(()l|.l.l'1poBall.. k:6 %, k:9 %. Cooyr paTI -
l I()Jl lloBfl ll apoBaIx a pBHI a 1 0.
c It epo
- HBTollr TpaI /

10. o.I arte . pea oaa. 1


Mmo) |n pmomu umuuti PI (a. profitbilit
ind) oBoT opT, ao oxo. oyLIaT HBTop l ! Pt | Pa.r 2 Pae 3 Pa 4
l p. ec. {at oKaaT pa(lTlBaT o opy I ,t, IlI
oToK k:6% F k:9 % F k:7 % p' k:8o F
I ii 150 0'94 l41'5 0'9|7 |7 '6 0'935 140,2 0,926 r38,9
PI=;' ! : |. I ii
r ii
150
r50
0,890
0,840
r33,5
125,9
0,842 |26'
0,772 l r5,8
0,873
0,816
3 1,0 0,857 28,6
tD.4 0,'t94 1 19,I
1 1

,-rtl + kt'
,lii t50 0,792 l 18,8 0,708 06,3 r 0,759 t13.9 0'75 ll0,3
B .1ng' ec PI or l, po. r/ly, p}lT'
||loo
N I'V
600



519'7
l9.7
x
x
486,0
-l4,0
x

,7.6
507,6 496,9
-3'l
HIII ]4 paBeH l
- po oTBpaT. B o.lLt.I o oKaz.t_
T tITo }{ ToMoT I{K pr.a;tttoT BrT
oTHoTHl oKaaTM' To oBoT lloJIoB:lT ro p p Ix oTax cKoTpoBaHI4 ar -IIRR
lop oHoo poKTa 14 pa zTpaTtsIllX, Iox pl,t_ t)]l.1. paBHo
rpo oHaoBIr HH NPV, o p l(oMKToBaH _
IlBToFIHoo op aaHI]\4 3Il(lee NPV. IRR= 6 r" * -=} -*o
ty,/- (-14,u)
% 6 %) =7,76 %.
pyT K ppy okM prll,I.lJ B poKT p
aHl ao TaBKax, To ypoBt plt;ttloT I-IBT- Moo yToHT oHt{o Ha. ..oy, yTr -
oa ('l(()JlK Tra oprtll ;<ar I aFI Ko-
lrIlt|lt1a oTpoBa}{'I' p oTopo NPV HrT l]a:
plls oo - lso500*-llq = 0,95: rr1lIr k :7 % NPV pao t7,6; lp k:8 % NPI/ pao -3'1'
lilt)a o.tHor aLI}I,IR,R oir
l50 . 3'465
' Pl ')o-
rv n^
5oo
= |,04
IRR= l %+ * $ _ 7 %) = 7,71 %.
=-
/,0 - (-J,l)
7o
Ta opao, a l py'
ii lr1ltl ae |0 % oo-
.tt
]]Ix prpe o)l(T oytlT ToKo 0'95 py., a p TaBK oao, a oaaTr IRR e 'Boo po.a
6% ootx
- l,04 py. oTpoallHl i1H)I oTy- t)ill)l,pHI oTo KoF{Tpoa' B p.rHHoM
vt. lll'I||I prp BTpoBa BIo.'o, 2UITpHaTBo
Memod pama mp Hopl|Il npulttt. Bp opa ll)l())(lI KaTaa IIpBlrxaT ypoBH oxooT 7,7 %.
pt' BHyTp ortll. oKyaMoT l,IHBrT- ll1ll parTI oKaIBaIoT' tITo B aBMoT oT Too,
ilt IRR (a. intrnl rt of rlurn), IloKaIBarT To HaH li;tlttl pp oT BT a oHoB a KoKprTHo
oa k, p oTopo NPV y. pao 0. ||l)/(lll).' oyT t 'aI pal BlBoI. B
pao pFIrH aHoo MToa aTpI{Ho' Ta ) | llNt Ilp aIIa rcToIx I]poKToB 'yT xoT

KaK poTc opaa M.o'y po oto, ot lrtlItl([)L].l.lIl>l yo ToTLr p" oTzlBH|


yTr I-lKoKx o.'oaTHlx p>e, p l ll)lI I{lIlt()l.poBall . Ka pao, Hao olryt
a Kolvlo HaFt 1R. p To BLltlaJIe NPV opIoT {)|l(.|||\ /(lll. l(oIIKHo pt{ paIx MrTooB orIlI(
fIoMoIo KpTt{o tpao tIHl oHTa 14C- lr lr rr. ti,t't',l llI t o. poToB.
KoTpoBa. cr p ToM NPV oaBaT oo)Ko,
I I

158 59
KoPoll I E BoPocl
I l] c yHoT ,no""',,} Kaol x aooe Kotlot]Koc aa 7
o pr,ttl,lr?
2 l.[lro ootltr tpopt, oper p[lMp, aMK (-r- KOMEPKA T}lo
.l,l
l]Ho' t]T
3 Ka
l.t '
op''I BeLl oTHol,lelo a apilBoll
P}lMAE
t?
4. Hao ool]Ir pflt l{BTolJit, lt M xaKpTl4K. o
5. Ho oHoBHi :TotlHK (loppoa tleToIloo KllTa'
l It xpilKTKy.
6. Ka ope rpB o IlooB H,I oT llo oo'ollr s 1. l Ko[MPKx loK oPoK
x oyH
]\,'[l

o po Ki.lIta a pp?
7. ox oB'I apaB ([lKTBoo ool}a aKoHrP.
Hoo (K.oIIHoo) Ka a Ilp.p. JIro oBollT rooI1TBIIo flpoly oT
B' B yoT t,t B HHre yra? B oo'rl4 Ki]KN,I rIlt.1lp 'o KpyHo oo'i.B}lo opal4atl -
BTy_
t4 H a M}l t{loppy T o}i Hr opt!
. (oprpr ttl] l y ? -
IliI1' t] HooJlHHlr KOMpJ(I4 rK py opa}l.
9. K t lja LtBTIlpoBa Hl yta t rt? Klt
y.paT |4 CHI4 orp oT pa B BeoHHo to.lt? tiIlll,l,Il\,l t4. o po .ro 1loFll4N,{a )tr JIBX
l0. Jlo ol.lol prl' oyeI B 14HrTllot-tol ta. Hil lI)ll1 lIKox TopoH Ha oTaBKy ToapoB (poyKpl, paoT,
KK Da o tlv? V(.-lly yTaToB TBoprKo rTIloT) B ooTIteTcTB C
1l. eru aKtla.'l ioo t opell'I o]\,1oT ee Bo \/('l|()l]14N,{, yTHoBiIM B oJItlrH.I,1. C\\ B /JIK .In-
p./ K o'leT,I pil.le Ooallr p}leo ap.l-tl,Il]H
(o>rx pouo), KoHTpoBa}I, HH),cTl'/ ItV|()l Ill)[tBIIT oHo Tl)}IJ,l (.l HopHtIl
l2' Haolr. oHoBlr MrToI oIpHl,t,l (lol,l lleoHl rIllt1llt, aTppoBaHI B paI oKya.e ll l]po.aRa),
oeKoB. o To pallTr orlx oKa1., llllo]\4lx 1,l ( /l,JIl<i't TarT'I tllpti. )( B Kr yaTI]yrT p-
OHK oKl.o- (.|,iIIr'IOI4 zlIjIx TpH (pt, r aTppoBaIe a Tr-

AAH PAKKX A l)ll|()p TpaI.po'aBa I,{ ol(ae), oHa I]JIT: -,IJrca-


tl(I|)odo.
Pa o)<.aM F{o]]M}. oo ypoBH ptlil o palltlll\4
I lJ Kop Jll,t (oepa) opa.o]oT l{tr Bzl
HBeTM p ir.aI yoBx. lll|,|.il: oiORHl BIloMoarle. I{ ocot'l oTHo]. .IIJIK.
2. no\. tMl tpaoo MaTaT (o>t Ilpo[rLII, llKo- ('Ilil,JlllltiI Kr-poa KoprTHo poyKl4, a}lo-
Tl4l)oae' ayr.) pl4 oK p.lt,Hlx llcToriil oKo, lltl-
tr coI oH o eTpo l] poKTl. |(.lIl{tIKI,tx IJaIt (ar.Il, e' tlOy-xay p')' TIj-
ll(.(.I(l,l
JIy (BH/{p oBl Txoo, OTBI4 p ,o-
|||Jl|,lB yHKZUIHI oKTOB p.), apo paopo po3.
Il(|/l(''l'l]il' ToapoB ]4 yy' opaHa Tya. Bnoozm-aHt
t'th'.,l!iIl l]'Ial]i pa ToapoB (poy, paOT, yy) oT
II|)()/(lll]l(:.l IIoKaT. To .K I]o pBo pvoB, x
(.Il)il()L}ilHl,Ii' apoBarl' pri]aOTK xpaHrFII,{Io; tIpoBrJ{.
l||l|() l)lt(Il.oB )< Tol]Oa{ (atro opal.I). Br-
|()| l.ill<)l( lmept ( onauoe) jt, oyrTB,]-
ltl.tt' IlpBrI rl{rIx prTB B HzL'iI{o a-
l|(}I\4 ltll/(c, l.o rT a o}1oB '{l\{oo ToBapoorl{a. pL{rpor
l);II)|l)IlI,l lOK B apapl{o rKTOpr B'lT ofi.tFl polvlIril-
ll('IlIIItI ,|.()|]al)OI] Ha Koxo.BHIylo poyKLI o 1|7|4]\14-
'I||lIt(' ('(ll() :] .I.opo-
ll r l1lilt<'I. pelrpaTJI]<O oT t] rKoM
lr itliIt'l|}tl llitoc tla,o oyl.l. Ba MTola poBIIII
l.
( ) \l]\,|(.| )' (' l( l ol(: H Irp]ll}1o tlpe IToplIHl{Ka.
l I

l l1l>ttt,t tlt0ol dlll To OI1rallI,1 ]vl)l.\y HopT-


-
lIt.|||||'ll\llt Il(),l.I)(:11.I.J|,I]\4 po'lIJoIlTl\,{ ol]aoB (po,t1,
ll,lt)()l ll 1l1:.ll1,| ) ()lrt,t t't lt,tgltl, Iltl(lT[{le pI,lyU{1,Bzl:
l6t
oKyaT rT BooF{oT oyt{T I{o ToT ToBap' o xapapy BaMooot )0y tt 1l,,t t; lt t lt,l:t t (oa-
oTopl My Hoxo.,; {I,loM oKya) opl]II|(O|\,| ,|.()l)I1)||()
ll()l)-
oKyaT TaaBBaT Hop.TBrF{Ir cB oTaB- oa|4 pr{To oparT }Iul JIL'(Vl()l I ll | (' ll l t/(I,I :

rKoM, To ooHo Ba)Ko p tIoL{eH o)KI aaoB onPaLlu no pnpodoJt, p KoTopI II()(:I)(.i|.||ltl( IIoKyflarT
MrxaHMoB' Tpo- ToBap y poBoTe, a aT poaT O Il()l(yllil'I.Jll(), 'o eT
KTOB Ta )KBOTI-IO- }{a KaKo-To Bp TaoBT oKo'|.()ItilI)il;
ldo'MllLlol7I c.poTc Ha ooB ooBol)il ()l|(.lll| |\4c)Ky
;
p
Iroxo.MoT
-
pepTr-poBo.T opH Ko : l l()l)/|'l l l l( o- t | |

MoyT t yaoBHI Ha cTaI4 ayFIo-r.oBaTK I<yI]aT ToBap poBo,I{Te, a otsplrlarT JlI( I(l|JIIl ||l)('la_
poTt ao, To oBo BoBpr}Io BoT op- )( a T IIpoBo a BoHapa)rH' il:l(.l) ()'lr)I)()l.()
pTBI B HaMaylo oTBJIeMIo .,rKy; oyo I(ooBopo Koc (otvo o 10 % t,t 'l1tl.ll-
Bo3oxo .TIIoe BaMHor oTpy'LITBo .ax o- Kl:
BMTHo IpoBOTBo; ,u
- TpoT a oFIoB arHTKoo oa[II'I (l)(/(
prpTM IIopKo Ha oyTR oIll)il |(14
opar a Ta KyaTa oTaBMo po- 14

y oopyoa (apaoe oapao oy- y-po.a a T oT' M IIpepT|4; .T oI]JIIltlI'l


xa). aKtoaloT Hr Ha KoKpTHyIo l(y' a FIa opI lll)-
oao p ooa Too To.a porr KoMMp- o BrM papoTpFl X ecTBLl a oprllllllli,i
ttKx .o Koxor ppaTr oxe poH;
MrT o opaa (p) ooTBrTTByIo yxI popu, p KoTopI op.tl oytTBT otl
r KoTaKT e)y poaBo oK}TIaTr; TaK op o(I,
Ilp Ba poBo.T a pxa ayKoI{a; a yyry pop o-
oo- aT BoapaH .o 2- % yMMI .e.
aTHlx opa. B ooTB|4 c yro aooaTo Br po-
p oyTB oTaTooo oITa ooTBTTByIox KBa- Bo.TBHI KoHotIK oTotH rorx xol
poaHHIx ToB oTLHI BapaTo oy- yo, B ToM Ll KoxoIx' o oyrTB-
rTBrH KoMpKx ro B,JII9T pB ope.'- HIo KoMptIKo .oJrxHI l ooptlI .ooBopo,
oB. KoToplM pF{aT oa[IH BX 14'14. HcoK o
Topoo-nopduu cdu - To orpa, Ba}II TaoB'I| Il.erIe}{I4 |4 llpKparH paaKx paB
y-poa>e' ToBapoB (poy, paoT' yy), BIo- oao.
I o op}o oKyaT oaBa IraBIM oT B p p BaFIoM oBrp apTrpoB JU{ oyT-
oTopoBIoprKo{HaocF{oBraaooMe)'II'y B Korpo Bo oTTotlo ra paoBo-
rrN| oaItI. Tpolr opr. - To op pa o o, oa rrKa 14 pl4lvl Ba ooBop-
opaFla' .oTopIe BaIoT pt oyrTB,I Top- oT' To lIIpoKo papoTpaFlo cp aaIx pp-
oo .K a T paI H oKylt\ peapIaLI|4 a a. o.ao Po B .K pp
rT KoMoFIoo Boatpa)ll, opaa xy oo paxaa aJIIoaIoT B c-
Ky poao oIaTr. Top o op, otl .oxI r oaHI pyKoBoT.lUI
'aIoT poBo.TJUI oT pao.oB, cB IpetIp 14T (op a a ) KptI raTIo.
|4, a Ta oyXBaM Io aaJla KyaTa. opo oyeTBeII o}repeKrD( .eo yaTr -
o,o Ba)Ko, oKoKy .aa pa rTo py oxoBrIx p..pa paoTp Ha pp .o-
KpyHI B prJlay, TpaopT, JIa.Kor xoo oBopa (opaa) y-poax (poy, oopyoat
|4 .. I'. ,p.]'
CopI TopoBI opK oKaIBaIoT poBo,T- B po oyT KoMrpK oK oxo tsl-
JlT 'y Tal: oHIoKTypI pIa o HTp-
ylr ToBap' o oop KoHTpaTa' o.oToBKa I( ll-
KIoI KoTpaKTa' o aI' pzLTa\4 yo orl_
l.paKTa' Kaxr T|4 TaoB Mo)G{o pa Ha KoKo
oroBaTH Ix c ai,.

r62 163
Haa (ro, oxot ppMaT IIpo- o.oo ar, aKaK tpa oo,'oi,,u,* oTB-
BOI{T KoMKo yI] pIa o yroli4]\t HapaB- I(oB - ' Too My' Boo)KHo, ITp.T IlpF{T yaT B
HM: aJIvlpoao RlTaBK o opT oo)Ix apT-
ytt}i poyK' KoTopI oH HaMpr poBoT: r epoB o Kaaoy.
aTtso' BOMO)KHI pl,{yTBa FrcoTaT o aBI{tI) Kaxoy Boo>t<F{oy apTrpy flo .t1Ke MoT I apa.
}DK t-{tc Ha pIK aIaoa, paBHTIa KoHo- I.Il TBpl{Ie H\I|4aTBIII po)KI]. Tpdo npdo-
MtIa .oT yTo a)aT a poo.Bo t lHu a[paR'IIT B To ya' Koa KoTpalJTI o ,
(oHIX p)KK)' MIT oToHl TFII B B'llHt llooBop{rM
elF.e IKa pIloHo MHTaL{' IoBoIo BI- oaa. ooBo opa TBpol-o p.o)KH:
,IBT T op Kooo poy H1\1HoBaII opa. o oaBoK, ella' poK ''tBll'
TaKM pao ai ooTBTTB,IolIIrr MrTo (tty) Ha pIHK; t1umuo npdoulru HaI7paBeT po.aB, oo plto-
yrr Bo]vIoI oyaT anta JIo)BlUo Ha TBT MaKtty l,topaIo BoMo)Gloy lol(ya.lllo O
pl oprr.Koo poa; ,aaMoM ToBapr yo o oTaB'. npo )l('
aa oB KoI{Kyp F{a ptHKr KoprTHo roxo_ LITO IaTBo por] ToKo l.{apaBrT'l -To
poBo.
tt1 o poyI{' tltt rTe }IoT KotIKypHTo' J]Tr}o I]oKyaTM. aF{oe po)5}{ atIpo
Cyl Tao oyrrTBrH Kopo CeK B- tsJIILtaT .ylor prKBI,,tTI: Too oIIprI prJla ar-
IoT o oop KoTpaHTa. Ha o aITr p)I( Bo Moo TOBapa' KOLITBO'oBpa' KoTopo oxT oIT oTaBl-lo'
Hy)I(Ito opT. LITo KoHKpeo (ay po.yKIo, oopyoa- Mat po oTaI]K aKMaI{o oJlTBO' oTo-
Ha . .') .,aoMy pIIMaT}o oxoo aKyT o Mo)KT r oaBHo ts MMat po (oc
KoMy a aKx ty'oBx t|po{aTll t]o ToBp. ooo Baxo p oTaBKa Kopoop oori,i-
floy, KoKpTHI pp ( oepaTB ppo) to o poy).
ooyo oBl ptII pF{ lUHr po.a_ O.opHHo HaI]paB}r Iip.oX,I'I yalaloT poK'
I]aT MooKo FIa opo.o o.ltoHI aBo, a aoToTHo B T' KoTOpoo ao poxr y .o
ppaalBaT ro Ha Ip (a T. .) pzu]oBIBaT oTo- (trapp' l ). o ao-o paK Boo>l<Floo
By poyK. y po pop TaHoB y apTF{rpa B Tr Too BprMLI oarlaT o }I)KeaHr yaT-
ooTBTTBy( oopo o prpa l\,{ooKa, BoBa B p'ao ,'
l-I> o pp .o)K oT' KoKo ooKa o}t C o"tr oTBrToB OT Bor\Io)tII apTpoB B B op-
xotlt)T MoT paoa (100 1000 a rIy), a MaoF{IX KoMpK peor aarT Ta
lo y o at{rTBy (poo I poBoTBa Ipa, o.ooBK K aKrIeH ll. ooplii BKIOa
Ma'a . .'.), I(r Ka yaToBa oopyoBa .' Bro I]OB.FI proRopoB I]apTpa}l rIo
(a > yrue a BoB BBoMoM poo), oJIaoBaI{ co loOBop. Bo p Tx eoBopo yTol{-
Ka]<ol yoBI,I }l)KIJpoo o].rl Too poBo.I]a HT Kar.o oopyola[,,rrKr pItI' apaT'
(ilv aa' BoI, Tla, KTpopr), THoooo oot oTaBK pe BooI. oa TaK)Kr co.
o.t' TlxLIoo o>Ba\4. o Bao TaKr JlaTa' oT KoToIx Bo MFIoo aBT ooara eHa .o_
rT BotlpoI apoBaHI4 .rK: y oa oyT- oBoDa"
BHa a rIaI{I llt{, a T Kp.II'Ta' B oo}t a aT Ha a IIoI{oToBK K aKJIro K oK}IaTUI 'O)rH
pol{Boo poy (ec,llt To r<o poaBy oopoa- poB KoI-{oN{ K oH Ky popa oo oopyll.o tt
) a tIT praa KaKoo-To yoo Toaa (Happ, yTo oT KorI{oo po)Ta ( aI pMrp
epa ...). tpa), aTaT, B']aHI porM KyaTar oo_
-
Ha ooa Bx Tx aHIx oHo r o.Too py.oBaHJl' a TaKx oapa J'UI oa[IH KpcTa
TrKo-Kol]Kor a.al{ a opTrII oopoarr o o,aI B K. ooalu[ Jl paa oyT jI})KTlr
o ppaoTr ooa B Ip' R KoTopoM aKaLI yKaIBaT Br Ha po)Ke'I lapTrpa yMMa aTpaT oKyaT].
aparTpI Too tIoT' IoMIlKJIa- Ha o ;,I( Tar ylI]T Boo)Hl op1 eTo/\l t.t.zt
Typy ooBoo tlo po oollH (oy.lt) poy],I B aHoNI pOFI (o ol.ol(a,
T.. .'), a TaK K (opo JIaT)(a' rpKyIa p'). oopI{HO oaytoT aI.lyIO .l_
eoB oTaB' poK}l BIIIor}{ ]Kaa' BoI\,to)KIoT cp- ToT' KoTopa'I oBO yBJlT l)aJlzll1 lI)Jl_
Bl,IHoo o,vx<a opyo BaSI 1 1' .). -rlaaoo K poa)( T'oBaa'
164 t65
Kol pyTaTo Too afla CeK lec oTaB. 14 c oTTyM oT TaapoB' TXFItilo. oa-
Hr poKT'a ooBopa. oaoT oTaBT IrpoKT ooBopa oBaHI opao (aoo); p oH oKyaT H-
I.IapaBT o oTpaHTy ooIrlo BoaaT Ha TopoHy' rp- IIaTr)Koot; B yx cLIa, p]\,{oTpI{t{Ix aoo-
aloy poyIo' oKIBaIoy yy14 \| BIIToIIlyIo aTTBo. otaT BpaB TaK)K oTKaaT oT pyoT-
pao' BT ooBop a aKyIIy IToTa po ooBopo poyK (oo ua.ro) p
rKoxoo po'y ' oapTBrHI y -B coB14 ooo BoMrH'I oTaBKy Bot{K|xX B cB c
To yae aTBa aKIoH p arT aoToTr. ro.
oao cooHa opaaJl' KpTHKo B yta paTop)KJI ooBopa Topoa o)KIltt prypT
(ppoe) xoo p.oaaT proBIBaT poyK) o o pyyl Topoy B yTaoBrlr aKoo poK.
opo Koolepa KaKoMy-o ppT (op-
aa) oo..o op' poKT ooopa o>t<T BIaT
oxor opopoBo.'T. s 2. oooP Ky-PoA
Cy Tao ator optlo Be"-
o,al{e .ooBopa. oo poo.T I cTa.. oa- opor pr apaKpcTKa oT.rlx o o-
oBaH TKTa a ooBopa apapoar (oao aTTB' BoKaX Ha oIoB Mt{ootlyI 'ool]opol]
o Koo a), poB.F{ ooHaTIx rpoBopots o o'oTopo uaKoB ycTBHoo oopoa,
FI rK ToM paF{I K.oK' oaoBae co pTaBrHl B . 2 K P. B pyt orp pBrrHa xapaK_
Kpr.Ta (poa rK oTaBoNl I4 poaa) TpTKa 'ooBopoB' KoTopIx BITKaIT oaBa o oT-
oaTI (ao p.). yxrrrIo TBa (y-po.Da' ra' .ap' p).
Coaoar .ooop IloIaI ot.lrio Ba IloI]oo- a yIoT ooBopI, opto pay MyTBa B
rHIx a To B TopXTBHo oaoKr; p Mr)qlya- IooBa (apea, o.'Ho ooBaI P.); po-
po.,HIx' a HepKo l(pyHI BHyptI c.IlKa )aF{o Bo.TBo pao, MaTpaHt pyaT I(oTopI parT'I -
opaoBaT o a (otulto To aT'I a LIT OHTM aKaKy (op |^ P.), oKaaH yy MaTrp_
po.aBa). zuloo apaTpa (o oKaal{ y' pBoKa' -
oa BTyHLt ooBopa B y HaHarT ].a ro ), ts ToM e )HIx (a, Kp.T' apoBa
ottH (pa)' olltHo ToT Ta KlIIoa o yTyKy .rr)(oo poaH, aKoct BKa' ao-
roBIo rprK' o opa' aJlIttH oaIII- , pau), aKT.I (pa' paoa)
, c pa, olalol TpallopTpoBl(),,, TpaxoBa_ Iop.rKx (opyr' oc' aeHTvIpoBa' .oBepT-
le ..'. yaF{oBKa popaoo oop,oBa py Ho pBH TBoM p.). y oTIlI B.oB
BIorjl TpoTo-I\4oTDI(r pao, K oopyoa JlooBopoB aBrpIaIT Hopr o HooTooHr ooo (po-
paoy poBoT B poK, eTaHaBBarI .ooBooM' o ToBaprTBo' oBTHa.Tro) o oa-
oope aHl aToM. F,c B ooBop rrpr'yzlT- TBa' BoIKaIo ol{oTopoI ectfr' (oyp .p.).
BaT apat po KI]yaTa oopyo BaH 1 oTpO. B aprr Tt oaTBoo paBa pBrlt
K T. ., o T Too lTpoa oope.C'| r o HopMI o oaTBa' Bot{KatI4X ptlFl Bp.a
aKT' KoTopl e oKoaTrl]vl oyl{ToM, B,T_ HooBaTItoo ooa.
TByIo o o oaTB rIaTIJKa ceK'I. oot oyMHTo p poB. Korpx coK'
oato o.to oaeT o ot.oopZi g- BaHHlx KyKa o,aB Koxoo po-
T ooHI p.pMT IotlT aJ\- .yK' Ip pooBoTB /IJUI oyapTBHI{I y).' B-
)KaM opao. To pBoT K prKpa. p _ ,I ooBop Ky_Ilpo.>. o Ko|\,'p paoo o-
oH Har)I(arM o}tH o.lITBa oo KyT' peypyl KoFIoeKI4e1 I]paBoBI opaall_
poo)aT oa B tlpax oo oKa ooBop. o- o H Ho-T H K e ol oItI oB popoBoJ,Ul (o ru il )
I

o oaTBo o)T pKpaTT'I B cB'|I4 FlrI]oMo)KHoTlo tp (oya). B op'IIoT coB|4 pirJl-


o to|1\1, ecv| oa BIBaHa ooToTTB' aB- a Kopco , op.o r oIH' L| TaK)(r
lII OT coH (a HaIBaMI op-aopI. B To BaooaoBal paBa oao t(o TopolI,
tI oBoB' XBoI' poyK . .). aTByx B rKr. B oop Ha arIKy roxolr_
B p a oKaT oHoTopo oTKa oT o{r- Ho o.yKvl, Ip po.oBoc"B oypl.BIllIlx
ooBopa (ooT .lztltvo): lT oTaB tIpoI{yK- Hy) opr.e:toTc ot, aopTMT' aTBo' llop'I/loK zl_
t66 167
I(llK I4 oTaBK, F{I, poK o'IoK aLlTOB a aKyllK 14 T rt poa'I atI (ifuK yo-
oTaI]K KooTBo poyK, Ip pooBoJI- B MoyT I papot oKyT I1 pro)rl{I lpo-
TB' MyTBa oTBrTTBHoT TopoH. ao); o lKaL\, yaao B ooBo; o opa,
H> IIptsrrII oBtrta B poBo pa Tpyypa oaoBa}IIoy o.Tp)oy aHTrpoBaI Topo-
.ooBopa y-po.'a)K|il 14 KpaT KoTapIl IIo apao HaNI o o.p)(aIo olx BTB B ToBap (ope
o oHoBIx paoB' Ml]vlaor I4 ]\4aKaJto IIpolIlITtlo orpxatiI,t KoIIo-
B oopo yKaIBaIo' Ll;l- HHTa B ToBap' pM, Caxapa I] BKJ], )KpLl L4
pl
- BBo.a aT ooBopa'
rFIoBal, op' To \4 aT oJlal{ IoKyrHT, I{aIoT MooK T. ..); <<T-KoJ]))
oIlI lopl4,l1e aBaH Topo' Mexy KOTopIIvt a,rl}o-
- oaBa ]'oBapa t] ToM B', l]
Ko OI.I T' To T poaB B To ya tI }leT OTBTT-
J{ooBop' pLIBo/I TepFIl' KoTopI oyIoT'I B T' BtIoTl,I a KcTBo oaBoo .].oBapa'
Ha. )(r yKaIBalT, KTo l,t Ha KaKOil4 oitoBa M (rlaaop IIpOaa' oyttaT J| pl' TOpo_
(opo p.) OI]zUl 'ooBop' t) oo oJrI aTBa ToBapa yTaaBl]aloT'I o
pdtm dooopt- aI\{oBaLIe oTttB]\,l oy OJi a0HIo Topol{.
(oapa) orliH oIoBHIx o'IBHI KaLITB- llar B By, To B ooTBrTTB zroo P <o
ILl Ztp3'KTrpTI,1l(. B o allrr.o>I<o t ooopo, c> (199 ., B p,.. 1995 .) 't.lll
rpTKaIIl4],{ po.y\Ivt
KaKM oCTa (oTavr I. .) ooTBTcTByT oTlta'I ilpo- oTBp}IrHll OOTBTTBI,I'I o.y]< yT'aoBrllt'p -
'yK' - To BaHo p pzloTrH apUJH[,r oOopa ts ]\{ JloJDKIla poBo/1T p. a. CppoBa _
appax. - poyK ooTr.TByrT yoBl\,l' KoTopl y. a poK I\{apKt4yT FIaKoM OOTBTTB' 3aTppo-
TaHaBBaIoT t{op.TBHtIo OoBlIBa TOpoHall, Bal B yT}{oBI]o IIop"I(.
To B o]-I o;l<i t ooBopI TaM opao, ot Cpa Ipo(y (y) ro ]\{eT oatti
BoLta BOMO)KHoT y TOpoH TaKToBaT l4x o-Boly. T- .opool xaaKTr. aoo allp{ro prapBi1'
r'Kr apaKTpTK olrHtx Bl,I.'oB TOBapoB oyT t l- oyK]l, o/IJI)KaIl ar.l-l pt, o H
I{erl B Iral pa.ll' Ha KoTol ot ttar ilaTc M\Io ppaa ooTBrTTB.
IKa. taI]JIMa po.'I oToT paLI].{Ix o- o (poaI) I4I]oIt) I]pOIy,{l{, o.ra-
TaBloL (app' B ..ool3opa a poTr oo ( oao pa'I I peayeo FIa TppTop
TeX:Kor o), o MoyT t .IJIF{I B P, oI:
poxHx' KoTopI e BI|oTe I{roTeM Mo a.to llooBol)a. praoBlBnT T} IlpOIlyKro ToJIKo p t{iUItIIl pa.
Kotlm m o a (l. l paeo]!{ praTpyIoT .FIa
A' BIat{Hoo I]pI{aHoo yfIo-r]FIOOi{IM H To opaOM;
Mrprtl oBapa (LT., T . '.) }{ lIop,IoK opJ]F{ o o l,lT ooTBeTTB piul],Iyoli lTpolyK poa-
KoLITB. Ko'Bo .oB.pa' o.opo oer llOTBI4T llo-
I llONfaB]]I JloyrToB' F{a OOTBTTB KoTopI or{a cp-
TaB B ooTBTB .ooBopo' oI{o l opHo
l1-lo al7a, L7 MpKLIoBI,I aKOM oOTBT.BI,I'I;
p, apoo .o (app, 1000 )'
o paKax) /IoyarMI J{ooBopo (+l,5, o/o)' o B ooTBT- }'i(Il] ts ooBo'o,Hl,IKo oyTa
Bi{ pa \4 oIvIaT,{B{I .ol(yt]tdTax' I(oToplM
cTB oaoBaFII{IM paKoM oTaB (I]apr, KBap-
.o)tla ooTDrT.TBoBaT po.'yI\t4, olr;t1. o.I{It],t
THo o 2500 ).
Ba<tl Bopoo' oopt ooBapI]IoT I] ToM p(' B-
' ttopa o op (tlol'yail' .a]ll[,Ia);
plioTaHaBJI]aT t,l KllitLtilT iL:]aII}o 1.po_
IoT'l yaoBl{ apKpoKa Toapa. Pa.tl Ba BI,{/1a o- .a itopl]Ttj_
TaBK ToBapa: pyo - c yrTo yIIaKoBl(I4 FIT"O - yua BaFII{o poyK, eLI, ol{a H oar
yaoK. aoa .oJIa o opaoT pya Illx .oyNtIToB' a ooTBrTTB KoopI TpoBaFia' o
proK. ppoa oxo.pt]\,la .',l ttI1 pya. TtIt{ poa plta'a, \7 B yar, r iiT..
Kmo moa. ,o a .ooBop;r yTaHaBl,tBarT I!{,o{ 14 rrllTa IT}-}pIoTa}IoBlt rttr O.NIHHO pri{t,fo]\,l ol)zl-
porypy opl{I aTI]a rrpoyK (/.I i,{ KTO poBO/I]. ]Ja o ltat,]
Oe aa). tttaT tIrT'BrFIHo BIot{(]l OJIlIoMollllll
I}l.';tt l{roKo oHoBIlx NITo]oB opll KaTBll llO)KoTI{IM Jtr.il,i opI.OiJ, Oy{rTBIoL oltytl
ToBapa: o OyapTBHF{oy TaHap.ly (tp M)I{IlaoIHIx r.I4KitIo oYKL(!{pI KoJtl.o : ptrrtlllitltI-ttlii
.OKax
- o TaHapTy cTpal OyaT ]-l Ipo.'aBa): o O',vr;
TXl{rK oB'lI\,I, Koa a ToBap oTOyTcTByIoT Ta.'apTI tsrtaT Opa}{ 1l'lKl1 r tI4X' B}llltIIX B

r68 69
TxHLIKyIo oKyTaIo TooK po po- pya, oaI]aeT pa, p BrrTooBlx ...f*a* oyarT
Bo'TBa pTpoBaIo poy. KopTtIIr }I oBaT opTHl ollIHI.
o poyt4, I7e o.e)Ka oa pa, 4. o (<pao op a>' <<Booo a opy ya)>,
poa' a ooTBeTTB KoTopIM aooaTI KTa- e on bord,>,FoB). poa oa oTaBT Toap a op
P rTpyoTpo poBH oao pa- ya, peoTaBT r oIIa^ (p BHHTopoB]
' o HaTBr ]oprKx pD(a - po.'aBoB ea) KopTFII olUF{I' oyecTBT ol]aTT B pa.
oKyrlae o poyK oI Io ol.pyK ToBap a op' oyT .tTt ooarFIT
- o) lpoBo po- o.TBpxr opyK ToBapa op>e. oya
-
BoHa pKa.
ttt ou omaKu. B o pa .ooBopa o)G{o oa p/loTaBT yo B yTaoBeF{FIIr poK' apaxoa
t. opI{o' KTo KoHTparHToB oIatIBarT paxo..I' cB. o oaTT paT' OaTT paxoI o papyK ToBapa B
AI{I Tpaoppoo ToBapa oT poaBa K oyaTIo, a opTy aaFl,I.
TaK)Kr o<t{ t yaoBe po (a)' Koa pao.o- 5. C (<,oo ToBapa, Tpaxoa pax'>, <,ost, In-
BtIoT FIa ToBap rpoT oT poaBa oKyaTeIo (BT SLtranc' Fright,>, ID. poa oaI oaBT ToBap a op
T op'llT' To Koa T oTBTTBrHoT a pL4KI41 ya' oaTT paxo.I ro opyK a op, opaHoBaT ep-
BaHHI opv oaa). BoKy' oaT pa o Ta Haar' oaTT paxo.I o
Cop TooBa >yapoFII TopoBIX TrpoB papy' oH BKloI o pax, p TopoBlx
<.oTp>>, BIyI exyapoo opoo ao Ka [oyT KopTHIe eH]4 oIraTT KopT]{I
(1980)' paFIT 14 paoo aI o oTaB- ottI}II' aTpaxoBaT ToBap a Bp pBoK oaTT
K. o ooaaloT HaLlHI ya' opM Tpaoylo pIo' p.aT oKyaTrIo T' TI ooa-
LI paot o. oyae oa pT oTaBKy
oo)K}I pya o oTHolIItIlo K TpaopTo py. p-
Br.I1rM apaTpTK KoTopI lX ( op la
ToBapa o oyLIH\7 ceTa' oHoaTa TpaxoBoo oa
(paua KooalvtTa oHaaT pray oapa), ba pa-
K paooB oya). Xo.IlI o papyK' oH l{ BKJI}ort o pa. paxo-
1. C aoa (<.pao-aBo - oTaBLkI:>> |7 <( aoa-o-
TaBKa)>; <,-works,>). poa oa peoTaBT ToBap B I o papy o}"T l orI a T poaa, tto-
pao)(r IToKyaT a Bo KJ]a.. oya T B o BK}I aoo ooFIr,I <<BKIoa pary>>
(<, BKJIa papyy)>' <<IF lndd,>).
paxoI |4 pK1 BaI opyo poo oapa o
cKaa po.aBa .o Ta aa.
6 (<.oarro oaTo otI>>, <<paKo-J]a
ItotiaTr,>, <,llivrcl du-pid,>, DDP). poa oa oTa-
2. oP/oT (<.ooo F{a TaF{)>' <.pao-ao)>' tsT Totsap K Ty IlaaFI, BITopoBI l
<.pao-pyoo aToMo,>' on ril/fr on truk>>, oyT MopTHIr .[r oaTT opTHIe oll1I'
FoR/FoT). poa oa oTaBT ToBap xo opo. epaT oKyaTrIo e eoxo.I].Ir , p:T Toapa o-
o ToBapa oarT apyKy oo Baoa (pyo- TI. oa a I]ptIT oTaBKy ToBapa B yTao-
a) (full lo, poaB o proTaBT TparlopTor cpe.- eF{oM MT.
TBo o eo apyy. x o ToBapa .oTaTo- o opf{ ar yo I]ocTaB B .oOop
rH oo apyK (lss th full |o[), poaBr oTaBrT lIoI1 r ya yKT' K KoTooy oToT . eoB,
oa Ha H' py poBo )o opoo HapMp <.pao-ao a Ta po.aa>>' <o Hoopo.
(opo po) o Boy yMopIo BT py- l{>> vI T' ,.
NI IIap.I| ToBapoB. poa Ip'aT oKyaTrIo T po u d,m nomtl. a TaT .ooopa op o-
TpaopTI oKyt' oyaT o pTaBT ITpo- HT' KOa ToBap o)(r t 'oaBH po.aBo B aFIa-
aBy opalo o Tr aFIarH pya oaTT p- tl o .ooBop ytIKT epo.It., oHoT oyaT'I
Boy, pT oTaBe| Ha aHIo y o o},{FI I1 a, yooooo (opa, poua).
Ta TpaHopIx I{OKyMFITOB' oyT KopTI - Cpo oTaBK ot.lo opIoT t}Tol ooa:
|1 |4 oaTT oDTIr o]t{I. yaII]aT KoHKpTylo 'aTy oil (app' 1 apa)'
. A (<ooo Bo C}'H2t,>, <pao B.o opa yHa)>' po.tl (apI M, KBapT' porxyToK y a.t.l_
l7^9). poa oa oTaBT ToBap Ha pTaH Bo opa ), .ay BTyr .ooBopa B c,.aTy oTKpIT aKKpI1,|||t|
ya oyT ooTBrTTByIol oKtITI oT KTopa. oaTI Ta T' II,. Cpo o-l r pBaH K oIl)/ll]-
oa aoToTro opaT opyKy pBoKy oy otTlo' KoTopo oao .oo pooll, Ilo KO'a
t'70 t7l
ol;o pooe - ToO I]rBTo (ap, B'Ir}{l{ 7 e MI{eT'l p IlOcTlBKa B Trllll l'cI]oo 1l, Koa
oMltTa oTKpIT HaBaI4 a pe). l tto ooBopy p.- Hl j\,IoyT rHT. B o yrla Ii /(ol.ol]opr (l1yt
yol) oaBKa HKoK lt1r oBapa' o oy t aca ea oolpo o To/l plltl.l'il /(oll.ll.I ao.
yKaaHI po oTaBK poK (por) oTaB oT- B poK yoB'l B ooBopx Illl irllKvlll(y (ray)
t ap.. poy, B To Llr ooll,lttttttl, lIl)MHIoT'l
looopo I\loT l ooopHa opoa OaBa Toapa prf\,tyrTBeHFlo OJII4 rII' B ,t.tl JIylIC ytlTo
( opoHI MIoT BoMolIoT To a)' o oao ypoB}I H)1|4 IIo ooTBTTByIo 14lIl(ol(y ll[)/(llp'lT_
c eo|acL\ oi<aTJI. c O]]a I]oKvIIaT Ha opoy poBolTr BarT MaTple .l.[)1l.l'IlI l'l [)1lOl(l Ha
tToTB poy I{ Io' oTrTBo Hr LITT Blo- apaoyl aTy B Toft,IoT poy. .tl4't.l,lttill.|.'| t|p
rI ooTBTTBHHo I oTIl0T a Topotly' oTopa ToM oo>r poT aooBIx aT>t. Tlto ll()I},(cIIe
B]oIa o6aeTBa. ppTl1i,i ooa I,IM KaKo-To tsp rpa.I,'l Illl llJlilI},
a'a' aTa oTaB ToBapa o pT IIHI o}taKo oo looTByT BIyKy HKoKyprrtotltltttl tt1ltl_
oKyIToM, oopt oop TopOaM' aJIIBIIIM KlI B pTI4Br Br.T Ko oy po Itlr ll [ilttt_
ooop' Ta oKyMHTo oy'I t ooaT' t|Ba- JIL KpoBy MHo p'pl{.
x<J]oopoxl{a IJaKaa' po.llo.tt aKT . B yoI KoKypTIo opt a op;I o;t |)ll'}vl\4_
I_{ u x44a dooop Ho aT yr ),,I,r yKptleHI BoI,l offa plrl. '['ltl<.
- To ya, KoTopy oya o-
3aH yaTT poatsy a Br ToBap II|4 eI\LLHy ToBazl' /iloTaB_ pIlaTJI MoT o a oTopo axHr yp()l|lI'|
rHoo a op.I yoBX (attx yoB fIoTaB- pao o po'yK, LITO a)T I{a e lll I l,t
K) B opHHl B 'ooBop yHK. l.a]vl opao oBoT pBtI .ooTI oKya;t.
IJ ooopa oluo yTaHaBBaeT 8 Ko:.IeCTBy B yao p.'llTr o)('T IIoyT otyl May p-
rHy ( oprHor o H)' }rH MaI ToBa_ r a T rl paa]\|I\l' a a LIT yBaIrHLI oe
pa" p oaBK pHopooo o KaTB TOBaa ( palx poD' B aapo rKTopr KOoM T y MoyT
aop . .) I{a HaaaT a ry o IlapT. ol.lzt Ho p.pT tlo epao KooTBrHo_
TOBapa" o Ip (o pootTBy oarx . p.).
B op.lo TIoT opaa:lt, yaTtsy B B o )l( HpaBe:vI ro MpI' oalo
rKr' o),lTB'II oTKy aapHIx I,I rHIx tloBItllltr KaTBa IIpo'yK, oooro o opo.
. aparpl{a ooo TaI.apTI H oToT B ToNl, Bo)IQ]a}oT'I 3I(M poTo )( ITpoBo[TBa.
To oH oTaIoT MIHI B Tre|4 l\W|eoo BpMOFILI. oorFIO l]Jt t]a o llpoax( pr'Ko oaIBarT
[p x pMt] poBo.T' KoTopoo o T |114 I4HINI pKa poBoTBa' B ooBrFIoM po-
pHaM Bopo I,tp)K' poTT yMeFIrT o o_ BollcTB oHa IIoBeTc B oBoll Io B|oK oKyIIa-
Bapa' oTaBMOo B yaKoBK' o Hr oBI]a. ry po Flolx BlIoB o.yK' HoBl plHKoB ta
- olt,,
opr BotlpHMaT o.ot . o oFIo. . .. o l]rprKo oBoJlrT pT-iIoBoTeN{ Cl-
p poI\HI4 oTK ]\,IrHIo H X ypoBl{ aB]4T )KaT HoBy Hapyldy a oTpl,ree ooo po.
oT MI1t,t,I px' poa' rF{I KoKyprToB FIa aao- oHoBpHFIo IIoraT .'ooJI}ITrIr pr.TBa' oxot
Hy poyKIo' lI'I otsreHTBoBai] poBoTBa B oHoB] oTpa.
I{a, yTaFIaBRaeNl.a B ooBop aKyl{y o- looar oBpMrHI xoo' popo x-
rro po.yK' .o)Ka t poao o oHT HK Kyp tt oBo yoLI arTBa oy - To
,IaK)K aar4I plovo oo oTI,{KII ITp.paTr.
oIta .OoBopa, o a poK .ooBopa' L4o Ha
MoM, o o.[t{. o ooy cau I]HI IToJpa._ , al oBo/TBo croxoo pOK.
}oT Ha TBpIr' olIBFtI LI ol,I. Ta a op- M pp. opaaT BI\4aHr I.Ia Bo KOpT-
ee.c a oMeT oa ooB()]]' oa H orT I\4r- t oaJI' a r/{TBa o p;<I{I poax Tax o._
rl-l}o Ha IIpoT)H Bro poKa o tIoH. o. oBK. yIT yl{paH poo . BTpHH oTpoTr
o roaT Hy, allpoaHy Ha oMrI.IT Io.aH HoBoo po. p Ko}loltcK oopao oBr_
ooBopa ooBopKo, o B LIa oBIIxr'I I4j| oH>Ker7'I He Te IrpoBoTr' KTo ToFltIK pTpaBaT poBo/(-
tI a lKe ooTBTTBlio }lTc ea 'ooa. ol TBo, o)T lpoHopoBaT IaM)' r ToJlKo TLIx' IlO
o oFl I\4Io rHy' opr.i\,Iyio B OMHT oHr,I rl rIoBt I,t BIyKaro toy.
ooBopa yl.o av l,I.pxK. otzt }Ia p_ oo l,l.p)(K poBollTBa p ooa |{llI oo_
t12 |7
Bopa yTIBaIT p)K opar' B zlToT aTpaTI lla ()|.poHIx 'oKyMToB' aoy oKT opyvtx .oy-
Tptlllopl.poBKy r]poy o oyaT. B aKTKr o)(- ]\4HTOB' p pK ToBapa B yHKTr HaHarH T. '.
J|c tlpMI opl1{ paMpa TpaopTtt paooB B o B
KprT oHaIoT Korpr pe,
paTa
LlcH. MTo opH eHo, HI BKIOLIHM paooB ||l)r.oTaBJUlt poaBa oKya .'y.pyy B o
o OTaBK poafaT yTaoBr oe rIlI olx}IaKo. l|oH .ooBopo. Kop KpllT poaBa oKIa-
Bo yMo TpaoTIx paooB' oTopa paTIBar].,I KaK lIo poTarT ollro B B. papoK aTrxa a po-
peH'| Too Bc rpBooK. Ip pMH Toa o- tI.ltHt ToBap. Kp oKyaT pr.yMztTpBarT aBaI{oIr
llJlaTx po.aBy.
p pava o Kopoy Kpr.'Ty B or Bp
Il lIIp oyloT rpBo.lr BKr (TpaTTI) fIpoTI
ltK.
p oplr KoMrprK .,oK aTrM Koxo.
,
I prpa oto pMT fl aCo Ba
r l t

IKoKo opooB l lJI aKp,|IBHa opa parToB.


- B o
jl|o.c a oHoBr aTpaT
ya TaopTlIIe paxoI L7:LI'
FIa oTaBKy o )(att.o KJITy
aoBa o a paToB oToT B rpalr
opoa. Ilpoao opyHJI Bory a Ha oyC o oyaT'l
p opeeeI4 ypoB I ooBopa oxoMo yL]TI- yI aT)a p pBH|4 ooTBrTTByo ToBapoo
Ba paI oKOBHHI l, ts ToM JIO)KBI.I] /(oKyMTa. oa IoFra oKyaT, oo o.payBaT
()aTy .ro oTaBHoo ToBapa' p ToM pao.II'I
p>t<l oTpoB, F{I Ha ayKoa' Hl )K oBpllIFI-
]{I o' rl prllo pylx opaa. IIo poB.HIo Kaoo opa oToTro Br.
.l.a
la TypyIoI po rI' B pr.paT. opa tsIoa poay' TaK Ka T apaT' To
o oT I]]poKo oyTc ccTea oBl KoK I.oBap p. B paop'lxH oKyaT o Tx op' oKa
(app, a oTBo aKyaMoo ToBapa; oopo B Tr l.oT o l{ oaTT. Pat op }IKao oBolIIoT a
()TBT KoTpo a BoBprrIoTIo oy'I aT)(a'
opr}Ioo poKa' B B arTa' Ko.a eHa }IoBoo ToBapa ()aKo o FIr MT palx IaoB o' Ha oKya.
Tapoo; oIlI OKLI- - ,|c
, yoprHJI oaTI (aKTa) .oKyMToB.
lro opeH14I4' ". ,.). oot tI.oTaTKa HKaoo opI parToB B-
pzulltl lxTpal tsIa- l()T .THOT poo)H'l oK}{rToB pr oaK ooT-
TI' BaI{l yyl (xyr) KTBa ToBaa. IlTTBro po.a oaTt; BooxHoT BOKHOBH I{r-
pooTI oHr aaa T. t. llaTrooo oKyaT'I K MoTy oy proTaB-
-]IHHI oKyMToB oTa oT x oaTI. B o ts B
l)aTax o Kao oy}oT paHr ool yKop
.II'oIIo}ITroo o ax. Happ' p pa-
,la a aI I1pMT parr ao. B oo-
B e ooBoptloTIo )y TopoaM aTx poBo.T
pallI aTtIx TpYrToB. lIoKyaT ( ao oaTlUI) o paoy (-
flooopa yapa Ba OoBIX Ba paeToB: rry) B l{ poaBo.o-
a zI{Ie B KpT. p pavT HaI oK}IaT KyMrHToB Ia apaBI{I pr-
(a IIoKyaTj'Ul) pooT oflaTy ToBapa oFI Iroy- l'rTo FIa oTIo TrK-
H ToBapopaop.TrlIx oI{yMToB aoo oapa. o- ca I4 )( or IIo){r aTr)Ka.
HKo B orII yoB B B yoprM TpaHopT- B pauax o oMprKoM Kpr.Ty F{Kao oKyMToB
poBI( poB ToBap rpo ptae B yHKT aaLIrH pa- ll oto opoBo)l(aT BlTaBHr o IlopyrIo
IIl oyToB' oxax oa. B aBoT oT |IoKyaT.lUI oo |apaHTIl B IIoy po.aBa. a apa-
ooBop .l. oBaT aT)K B yar HoaTI oKyaT .oy-
opr MToB () oyorHI poK.
Hl p aKp \]4o op paeTo a oo-
pa ']T ITo yKaa a T oKaT aTx poaBy a y
t74 75
To]4]\4oT tloTl]t.tI]()o Tol]apa poTB l)r]]BIlix aFlKoM ( \'ttt,t l(il)l(oo J]aoBOo tIT)I(il yllllBBl 'Iopotla]\1]4
tl I)ollIra loKMIlToB. !|.l lIl)Jl..I.()'lIl(I.{ j\,l'I' L1xo OJIaoBaHHo Ilt.pl1oIIo,l-
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oo u. pI' oFIa oT po.DI( pzuloo pHa' LltIFloT o o ;
ooaT ta oT oKyK vpo' o - )poBa- c paBo po - aT pao' o H ola poaBa
t. oprrHr vpt opaKT pyo eo
aH poax p IIo aHo :
H .ulHoo Toapa' KoTopI r .'oo
- proTaBJUIT oKyaTIo paBo KyT po-
tt oo pt, aT KotITpaKT \ T poaT
ooe Ipr. o.oBpo) o yrT p
B ooTB ' KoTopIr pyroT' lpoBo .aF{- uprvao yTo
- oIIpaIo, BI.T paI BI xr.poBaHl,{:
Hy ooa o tsoMo)(Ho-
ot.IHo (vo) - poBoTc c Io )(a roBIx T lITo px yllIBT yaT pxo opo
pKoB oBrpaT B oo] ooTBrTT o .BTpIM (aa p- IrB' r aTT a Br rvp).
oarTBa }Ia IKr paoo ToBapa IopHoM Topo rpa ooa .aara IIpoB-
plK;
apploe - y.ttaT aTpaTl a ar' oyTBT-
IoTo B.IH BIoI oxaoo ao-
IIpToo H B ooTF{oIH pzLIIoo ToBapa
pxlx oT}IpoBoK paIM poKa oTaB; p .
t ToBapa To ooTHoIr H (oTpoa Ha .zul poK oyTBrr T, opa oyaT pal e)Ky
oTaBK oto BII' r a x) oBorT a T o pxoo KoHTpaKTa H o aKJIIoeH vI B H
x.)poa apoBaT paxoI o xpalo ToBapa; tlolI.
pIHKe B o.Ie o popoB KyTI poBoT K a px
KTBFIO
- poBo.'Tc, ec Ka a rovptlo
poBo ooBpeFlo aIotIrM .K a pzl- a o . o oTolI oa rH, o pa}oT
t oap FI Ia aKBaTF{o eo KoTBo; oyTBr Ila x oBItll oHxH.
o a px B aTo Te otIoBIBaTc Ha CyI pKo poBT Tp K Bzl'r aHI
o)K.aoaaBeTerr,IpiUIHoo oBapo aotsIM ol(yTa? KoTop|r )(aT B oo-
ToBapa; .rpHoo KoHTpaKTa. o oKyaIoT KoHTpaTI, Koa
p.Boalo - aIoarT B oKyKe poar lrproaatoT' To }lI Hzl il BopOTy]-, parTo o
vrpoo KoHTpaKTa .'o Too' KaK oBrprilra Ka optllT \{KBw1aoHI]y l{JlKy o o too
.aM opao oyr11o
pI. O poalT oTpaKTI'
Koa poaaT' tITo a IOHT' ar o.He K},[IT
o B\taoo BIloB oJlyl| pr. Ta
opo, pIr ITKyJUIHTa O poa)K oKyK KopaKTa
aBcL{T pe Bo oT Too, To oH oxaT oT pIKa.
Paa KoKo BoB yTBIx opa. Ta,
rKy'ITI MoyT KaT pt KoTpaKTI ] x o-
LI .eoK ooHo oH oTpaToB' yaBa py- .ll.l.t ppou( o o loo . o B IIKy-

194 195
9. opy tto Koooo peapl,lNlaTe,l o
\4 HalBaIoT po a oBIIr' oyKy pBoo o- oilH 'Jl poBoB oo oya .
l

TpaKTa o, a ax K'lToB - IaN{ (- l0. Kar aMoTol-t.ll]'l Koxoeoo pHMaeJ'UI To.


palor-..HoIl
2t I1oBIllI Ioot IKa, KoTopIr TpT o_ t]il H ti\l t{ pir ?
}lT Ia poa). oa>y paFI KyFIoo pxoo KoTpKTa
AH Il PAKX AH
p pr Ha OBIlr atBaIoT Bae.
l\pyo B Ky'II4- Ha oFI) . Cyt- riu ]
TI po(a p>l KoTpzlKTI I oyloo x oTKy- l BIol nl)MHTCHo K },oI]M ,tooltro opt'a-
tI o o HK ra. Ta rKyToB pTo aIBaT H.l' oopo TyT l|poo poBoBtttt pTy-
B (pa lloI o.oo M.BeM o- l. o axoy By opo po.yKt(l4 ( aoe axl .la)
Ha}T o, ), poalry KoTpaToB - poprM Ko- aT opaaoH KoOMrKy orl]Ky K:lllo l)Jlalt ( y.leo
poo o' a x to.y oTKy - opIT. |loit Ha po}l I] oI]ToBoM MrTol\,t pIHax. rKo Hill,llo
pltiJ o or t)o), o BlBoa poy pI]'l,
oI'r B Kyl.4 - Ha ooTolllrl{ r o.l{oo ottoT llpP}l'l TptlcopTtlIN'l4 prl]a' aa Ha p.laIo,
Too ) ToBapa II Bat\4oBaFI}I]x ToBapoB e}I Ha ToBapI l]oo)KHoT Peaa .lep orrry opoBy}o eT' o pae14 l]
pali\,t poKa |ocTaBK. B o B y cao ppo }IeoPl]}{o Ha ppl4'IT, aTpa a xpire lt ltppaoy.
o Be.c'I opa Ta Tp. (p)' oa t.la- Kt|TBa, e ll . .).
2- Peo>l<t.l po plll]eecll o,ua poa>r< npot*,, o Ka)ltoM
T B oFIoBprMrHo o oa;t( prtIx KoTpa- KaHa.
ToB aHIM poaM oTaB B IToylI BloI
oT paI B oTpoKax r Tx o (app' ttoKIIKa )u 2
MapToBx poaa N,Iax opao). v MTo.Ky paa pnca }i oM lo, tltlftl tlr-
B aoT oT BprI BaeH p<r KoHTpaKTaI4 pyllj xoTBHlx .ooopoB
BIeT . pyI ryHToB. pa cKUIpI' IJI\T
-
yt12.' caI HHaTeI Ko6au I4
l. oo,l oJITBM Hapyull{.ooBopoB ocTaBoM to.
2. o apaJIaM, prTatiI poaBTeM' o tlpaa Ko}t-
pt' -
KB.y}oT oHTpaKI rp t{KoKo MHyT LIaoB o Kpeoo Itp.llp,lT po3BT pll.lT ybITKo rlt B pryTa roIloTBK
I (aTrpoB) ooo MIll-tjt]e oo pooTBa po.yK}t;
pop, ovBa Tr aMI KBoT pIFIa. BTo- lloBTI,'t pae ro' Bolll BT poo opoa po-
pa pya To olll-Tpp, o-pp; o a- oB.t (eppot paot, po Ixo.Hle pa.rt}iIe .) -
-
IBaIoT .H B KyTBFII oepa a paBHTro ._ tl.ooaB KopaeTo ool]Op I'l; p ooo poBT
I po Bpr (., , tI). pya r- pae 1.toB o JlpyM oJlciTB'|M Hpa .ooIlopttl o.
3 all" aK poBo'T pi.ltlT yto ToM yae' e pcyTirT
KFIToB ooyT pBy KaTaJIa o.oO pIK a Ili]pIlle,l ooBopI oe o,pe Topo tlI t
pyo oprJUIT poBr KyTBo a.ltoT a To. HoK B.lloB.
Bap}II p>a. 4 oooT poKT KoBoo tl,llell y (appax) o taI'r
oo opol,ll plll lo (a ooa Blorlx ilHre
KoPo lE BoIl PocI plt.to).

l. B ylHoT oep.to ? ,'a al KoMMptl- du 3


Kx roK' xpKpy.
2 Hao oolI eoI poBr KoI\,IpKx oK, opaKp,l- l y oa ti o.p)ar o;llr a oapo p>t<.
yr. x oxe BoMo)Glo ooa Irplx Tooo-opr.ltr- 2. poa poaT l]aMooTt{olI l ,I l)pHaT Topo}"I pii.
x opa p oY&T IIppaTKo oT poo-
MI tlll-tHoM DooB.
3. t'T TilI Tlt ]aKH' opo Il. a lt
pp l(y.
4. oxapaep .ooop Ky-po.D( aK oHoBHo oKyH Koep-
o , paKa o eo TpyKyp.
Kaol opla op.oK papao pao.ooopa y-poa-
^5.
>Klt!
6. Kaot oool,r aeo a oo't poy?
7. opapitrc eetlo oroo IrPr.PtlI4.t o
opa3ilI4 prlullt po']lyK (rop oHa KaHaoB ooo p-
ll )
8 B [lK ..rTHo eKoxoBHloo .p}lirTeffl
o opa Mireptlo-xHoo art op a ?

196
aIoT oH Pocc, o BIBaII pBIailf eca-
oTIo xoHoo xaa.
aa 8
orrrrt p ppao TtIoT oo-
PK BloP PAE o xapaTpr JI Koo o |4 B o apo-
B PPHMAEB poIttlHoo KoKa. o ao T' tITo pyTaTl
TFIoT rKoooo ToBapopoBoTe
(o BoT pooTBa polly) opIoTc
o H ToKo KaTBoM KoTBo Bo)(FIHoo Tpya' o
otlIM oBM KoxoHHoo poBoTBa,
s 1. HAH PKA PEPHAKo BaHHI oBIIflrHHo p (pooo
Eo oyrrTBT a oro eppop, oxo atlo oT
aopTIx IMaTK yoB' op>tto o_
roxooo prIMaT TBto Ix c . .). ooy pIlpHMT,
HT B oo)GIoT a, oTp' Bec pKoBaFIFII.
BaIBaIo pTBa B Ty oTpa' oBpaT o al
H app, Koxorr a opaH a, aKIoLI a 'o oBop
HaToMy py.
oTaBa MtllII' oopMoB' TpoT}{Ix aTpaoB aop pKa BeTc . t1p.pH1{a.e.pl{l T-
T. ., pHMaT a esl pK I.a}Ioo oprl{r}t fIoTaB- N{o . oToFIoo oT )KrTKoo p)(Ma KoFlo_
lKa, .ooBopFIIx yo oaBK, I]oTy'l l{KaTBH. ' BlyXaT TaTo aIa3poBaT paoT porK-
HI Ip MaTpaoB' plBa oTaBoK. B o >l< I]prM ro o, papaaTlBaT BToHHI TI' aHaT ooTBTT-
TopoHI Bo3KaT K HBoBpMHoo paeTa oTaB- Bylo KapI. I o ppaTUI Kaa
o. aa 'ooBo o}raTr po.'yKtl, opaa aec oBop' To' Koa o oo'T o pH pele,
p a p FIBpoo op I\IapKHoo pa- o orrrTB yaB p.p)BarT paBa 70/0. o
T TaKTK, aT)ooo ope'' a c X To- oHaaT' LITo o a 70 % epr B y a' To arT
poFII BottKarT p I{Bopeo oTaBKIt po/TK oa a ro oyTBeIe' a 0 % coe oT, \
HKoo KaeTBa. o T,tMyo p paMoTpr Mp' oTopIr yT pH'|T
Coo opaFla, pBK pTBa aK- B ya .a. Ho po paBo 70/30 opaBaeT oo-
orpo ao' paT a p H yoBTBopT y , oa .lI oH pr.paTKx porKToB
o.aI' lel{oB' poTa ypoo ToMoT a Taec [pMT pao 0/70.
T. . B BoIo opr.' oepl (a) aIoT o-
TIy}o prKIo opaHa pKyT TOKT r To-
Ko KoMTTI BIM .r o TopoHI pyKoBo.Te s 2. oEP o PA KoxoHHoM
ToB' Ho oao, o.oo. C lraotlI p- PPHAE
Ko TaKBa}oT pyKoBo, ppy KoJITBI p-
pt o.pa' B ,oll.Ko oBap poaya poa ao r-
opaa p Kp'TI a, yBLlBaT p yt op.e oIT <<pKoBaHa ceKa>>.. <.o oo-

BoBaa prTB HBIaTI po|{HTo. oa aoy I}oI' oHH KoTopIx KoTpaTa TBT B aBc_
oy.apTBHttIM opaM I]pHMa. lra p FIBI- MoT o oI' o KoTopoM oBr LIro BTo' yT-
, oHo T'|, I4 o or xoo' Ho
otl oaB p H|4|t,|1.
a, pKoaoil slec a oHa opa N'loHT aTy KoTooo H MoT t TooTIo ollp-
-a oo HopIloT o, opaaoHo- /H>. Ta opao, pK o)I(o opr.rT aK oaoT
oTrlao Bolo)r<rlo, porro oep pypoB lt,oo-
oox o' Hp.Ko -a oaTFloO apy[I
ye .oo.o' a.l oBop' pK T ypoa Too' To p'-
aKoa.
a oxrT oT oTrp B Be .oot{TeHIx pa-
B pao .To xoBItHIe p MoT
o.oB Bpx pyoTprHHI poHoo, porKTo' pop
I aoo o.rrM, tlTo, ot a X, Ilpxo.T Too' a oopl o pacll-
.o oyrT .oo. )K
oTa}IaBBaT pooTeHIo paoy, ptlpaT oTKa- TlB.
IBaT oT oyTB opa, pro otx rIp- p o o oTp' pBoIr, K pKy' oFIa.I. Fl
BoHaHIx BT p. o.ol.e Be: ato-
99
r98
pxo ppoB' oTopl oKTBo oyoB xapaKTpolvl I4 }lIx ya. o poIoT Ta) B Floyllef, Ho-
Taa ppMa ecB'I, a },aI;II-II, o oyLlFl Te TotItlKoB' oTKy.a poaoc
tlOMoI-lI oTp' BoHaIo B.TBLI oT}(Jlot{ paJl- oyT' BoBpaT ooB' l]oaT oKyaTM oTaB-
Hoo oa p.pH]vtaTTBa oT paeToo ap. T o- o y ooft,ceo poyK' yMlII BIp}K
.p Hr o"a op.TBHoMy poopoBa oTo- B.TB o prB.FII pLlaM a pa-
y H oyT l 1".lI pITpIMaTeKo poKT. yry Koxoyto polKIo (aoI, yy).
tloTp oxo IIB.T apall' o lloJlI paaTpaT Hapy ooaTrIM. opaI IToTp ory r
II BlIIoLIaT B paeTylo ato (aa BprN,IrI q)aoBIr oTp, ooyoBrHI aopa)BaH
'oxo/,loB paxoo). ,]'oB, FIBoBpMo I,Ia pTB' opo.t BIaTI
op oT pKa' oTopIr MoyT BoKHT p oyTB- ojtoB.
p.pMaTo ToT B apoIrpOIlIIrr{FIo f,Iompu p.Ml1u rloT MTo B Tx a' I(ota polIc
oBoTR' palIoT FIzl MaTplI.ulHI' TpytoBi, ao- IlppFlao 'lTJltloT .I]'T M.t{r' to
Bl' BpM al. FIaN,{O. o oKaT' app. t} TM' .to oopy-
Mmep utt I no mPIl B Koxol"IB}{Ho p p|^HIia- ,oBa . paoa p oTyo B oxoy
TTB IoB'lT B olloTrIx aTpaTax pI opaaIo fto.IH' r IlaO' B cB c. M pooa
oTpx MaTrpillt oeo (a, oop)Kr, oopyoa- :p)KK yo eFIl' o pBo I( tIooyI-I
I1vI1 I\TBa' rrpo.y' aTp.oB' Ip' HppI L\ p.)'
o.oBol"{ poyK ooBTTBytox .OxoloB' a KoTopIe a-
Happ, p Bo.rtBaH apoe, oo ". '. Br.T- lBiUIa oaa.
B ox oo.F{Ix yo tlplU poBoT .,ooFITr- pr oHKy TaK oT oylt{T B aax' r.o'
ylo yp}{y opoy oBoB' KoTOpa rr Ia pr'y- Mra a]]p)l,l oyHt4,l IaM}{Io pyTaTa. [ o-
]\,IoTF{a THoooii apo. B pya l eprpao-
Kt4 X BI B ToMoTloM Blpa ttoo.I\.Io yTao-
oBaHI ToBo ],I Maotll{I Ma.rpzlI. l] o)Kap opa BT. KaKN{ oTp oollil oT tIpMaTo .-
BoToBo.tI pa To Tor oTp MaTrpaIx pr-
-
ypoB. HoT cool pBT oTI) RpMH.
MapIe oTrp tsIaaT B Tx eHa1 B KOTolrIx nurc nompu Ipo'IBJl'lIo. op I.Iar tpa
pIoT oTBo .Hoo Ba MaTpzL'lI peypoB' To .I].opoBIo H to. ( pyaT oBIloo paBN{aT-
T B v .Hax aI' oa, o2' tl,|4lI |4\1 Ma, -a oto':I TtIK oaoT|4 "|' .), opyxa-
p, pTy pi{pIltl.I.,) a TaK)I( '| p ao-
B lJITyKa. /.I,J.D] R.d Bo.Ho Be aTzLItIIX op, -
pI,ITl oIJaHI opallI,lIo_Ill{xooKx o.rl.
plx B aHIx ell}la'
poBoTc |4X ctt B
Hpo aJIHl R.'l II0Tep ,pyI{o orlprrT B Kotl-
TooTHoM Blpar' fll Too Br oT ,t-
TBttolvt TJvl Too].t{o Brpa.
oM pH yN{}IoxaT a Iry .llI ooTBeTTByroeo .lo Kaop]-To ts. IIoTp rT
MaTpIoo ya.
ppHaTIo
'ltlo,
oIIpl{Io xapap poHoyra'I ,{a ypa
Tpdot, nampu }]r.Tal oo oTp paouo Bp-
H' BIBaHHl y(lHl' Hpr}tHHl ooea- To ya HaIoo pBoo/tlT BI{y pyx oTp'
. K H lIyT oTF{T aTpaTt Tpy.,a TpaKTopToB-a- Oo opI{oToT Bittl l]a To tse [Io' To r-
ToB Ila rlpoBr ooJIH]4TrHI ( pyoTprI.IIx Txo- l.BrFI}|o o. aa Ktl I,I oy ro HI.
oo apo) M.pHIx opoo, poo
pao-po';r B Bt{ FIBOBpH}{I o.Boo l]Tpo-
TIx I\{aTpzUloB T. '.
s . l(Al(A PKoB
Tpyor oTrp BIpDKaT B JloBo-aax oBKO-
paovo Bee}I. po TpyoBI IToT B Tol.IoTtIo Pll oo IrpoBtlT o paI .pI.IaK'r.
BIpa)rFIl'{e oylI-lB'{eT }rlvlHo)KHM vlca oBKo-aoB pq1 Bo lt Kal.Ol,It{ pl{a: um.t c|I,I],l-
BI.{IT
(r-r) a T'oMol. () ooo raa (). rnttt. .tltM pKr IvlOIlO ToJIKo IIOTT (pp -
utoe nmpu BoKaIoT B yLla IIOO /l)HOo IIoTep IliMy'Ba B p:]yta ttoapa); lr ttKTI{oM
yrpa, BaFIFloo oooTIo oyTBr He py- (p>t opall) Bootl KaK llooXJItII, Ta oTp}I-
opttr p.I]'pl.ITlaTK poKToM ax, Izro arrr pryTaT. a z,i,I 2lT .oBI pt oT
pao, .II.oo}{TrIx aOo, yp rt{t prTB }I tiI(yTI-{Bt apaep.

200 201
ll tl l,t l.o.t l( BooBI'l I]pTo paaT pcK ry- o: J,
lOI t]o: omllbl; at llom o; o- ^o' _
UloIlI7I pupodlu npuua]4ll. o p BoLIKoB Ao - eril oa BlyKa po.yK (pao, yy); IJ a pa-
a|4 eHl rTpoyK'
pK KJIapy KaK dmu opdeomu do;
Jom Il n p mepo; docmm uoptt u. o pe-
np d
Cx< eH, o KoToplM aMrao
H BoFIKFloB oxoo paaT ltaIr (po- paoBIBaT poyK, B aopLtT-
l) , mtu pu. aaI pK orBaIoT a cTa I MHHM plo.ro KoHIoHKTypI' aHM poa' e-
o.oToBK K oTBrlo p.pMaTKoo poKTa' T-
BIoKM KaTBo pBoT oTp (), vHa KoTopI
y poBT B po oylTBeH prpHaTr- OprrTc o opy
o HoT. H .ltta Tya' p oopo yo-
B IiIT Bo BpMH B xy.Lylo TopoHy o paBFIIo : Ao'
oX.aB[IMc HacToKo t{o' To TpoT poTp p-
HIx ppHMa p.
AI{
- Me rl el noyK; o - o o aeo
BtyKy |4 peula| poyK.
B pu{Ir B.I poB BTpaT B oo-
TBFIO tIpoo.TB. TaK, poala aT oxo- o ] trlr HH I M aTpa I .aTpaTt, o-
TBeFIl pKoB' ooo p poBoTB poyK paT- oBF{I prpaxoo Ip' ap.UIoB' ToJIBa' p't,
Bo.TBa' oyoa IIppo.HIM pa' oHaKo rT By K oTrp (y), ua oToprx oprT opy
pcK xorI' BaHI oTlo oBa. a-
Ta aT pKoB Baa Hp.KayMoTIo oB.tI :AMr1 a...*AM'
apTHpoB o y He.oTaTo opa o Boo)GII
Ml ..AM" - ppaxo ,paIx prypoB I1o Ba T pypo;
pIKax ta rKoxoo poyK.
l .., - oHa 1L,IH|4'| pypoB.
o peptl]vlaT]tl po ttoMaloT p' BoKaIo-
lfr' p rot B.ax .TroTI4, cBalHI poBoTBo flpy oBIll]HI aTpaTI () ol T rTo -a
a oapo (poyu|4, pao.' yy), ToBapHo-.r- o BIoKx o paHIo p.'yoTpI,t poTo
I aoBI op a'I1 Kop, oyBH- TpaopTFIIx pao.oB' TopoI .ep)KK, aJIa.Ix pI4X
M ozLIltIo-otIoKX ayg6-1xHK poKToB. pao.oB.
p o o.payBaTc, To prptlMaTr T o ppaxo oaTI Tpya (.)
oo-BaeM aTpzLltIIx, TpyoBIx, aot, op- ota p-
aBrT oo oTrp a T tIpBII poTo -
aoHHI (yIx) pypoB pK BaH ypoo
FIOT paoo o BlaTI M o IoKoo o paBl.[r-
BoHKHoBH pypoo rupa.
Hlo aMeFIl ypoBFI apaoo aTI.
K vy o BDKFII B.oB ppMaToo pKa aa oBIrtleIx aooB |4 oT-
oToT poBo.TBt{I' KoMMptIK ao l.
p u I cBa:' oBolITBo p eaaei t (n) o<e MT MTo' B po oyTB
p o u od m e IIp
ToBapoB (po.yK, paooT' yy)' oylTB IoOIx B.oB pr.paTKoo poTa TaBK FIaJIoo oTrit -
IvtloT eaopTylo JI p.Irp |4H14Mae Topoy.
poBoTo .rTo. paK B pK' BoH-
Ka B oxoTBF{o poBoBe' oTtloT po- Booxr TaK>t< oTp () B trrTpao,
Bo.TBrI.
TTo yl, a Ta>l< oyoBH-
f{ I r T x itl T B14NI'I4
o pca opoxaT to aopt.

' . el|\1
Copa atIIx oo po- P.
Ba yTBFIIM BT p oTp oT a-
Bo.TBa pra14av:' oBapa (poy' BIlU
pao, yy) BTB I poBo.II'ToT Tpy.a, H (.), pBo a.,rIo poax
I]poTo oopyoavI IeoooBaFI poBoTBllIx poyK peKo K aToBapBaIo. ooy IT yTaHoBe-
oo' oTrp paovo BpMH, oTyTTB oo.oo H H o)KHa oao LIlaT ooToT
. .),
KoLITBa Ip,'I (oopo' yop oopoa pTB' Hoo l;l.<a HI' o Te aMlJvI op
KoeTBa HTa.apTo poyK |4 paa ro py oopo p.T' Mo;<o oLIT opao iryro May pl-
ptla pBoT oTrp B ToMoTHo BIpax (6), , .1gN,l p BIo eHa (o aHo .oTppyloT opa-
oTopl opr o opy HaIJ opeo oopa).
202 20
.to oBoKyHo opo' pr)r Bo TavI Il.a .oBa, B paBH poI(Tlfo lIBaT o6-} B paMp
ptIIK po Koxoo poyK' .o)(rH oa prl{il' yMHo)KHILoo a yMy yI rHI.
I t-tH oTMaJIl po Hl' oRotoll t{ oe- t+ ;r r o a p a a, oclloBHo
p,IT lJatITyIo Ma pl. pot oo Ho_ Hrp'KayI a'rHM poa (I ToBapa KOFI-
opaoa (v't oo)K - TrM to) pBoJlT K aToBap- ppylo Toapo .py aaoLII{III pHa), o.
zltlI, oKpa oa po.Dl(' oTpe oo.a pt. oo I]pBrT oTr BlpyK (pr.). a o'ep |{ep-
Bpor oTr' BaI poBoTBHI{IM poI,I, poB'I{ zlHI o paa a Hy pea-
o)(o parT a onpu noot'. p o"tTBr- ztll (.ty tr-tt B paLIrT I7a erl peaa).
o o ypoB tspoT}loT pKoB R Ko}lprTo B op II)(r KarITBa ToBapa B
p.l]ao .T}IoT BopoTeIr, I\tK o_ ll po op t H (paoppoBl(. plt)
Trp MoyT r roLII. o Too, .Dl( r op,'II- oyT aHrT ylp, ypoBFI oTopoo prT'l poB-
x oTp MoxT r t'Ha oHa' KoTopa o Be \4 Ko(IBa Tp'IHHoo op Ha Hy oKK (pa)
.ll r o rpoTHoT BoHKoBrrI oaBT oTal. B llpoBIIFI KotITBa ToBapa o I{FII KaLleTBo
To ya p KoTBo oK ypoB pKa B pa I{a Be e:|I.<erl\4 HI.
MorT pFIaT ToKo ToT B oTrp. p i t-tJ 'rpl op H tI Ha, IporKT.
Kopuuti pu (p KoMMpoo pel1rlpHaTT- lI\{ pBoT ooTBeTTByIoy FI)kl{l BIpy (pt-
por pa aK-
Ba)
- To pK' BoI,IKaIo
HI ppaTM ToBaoB Jly' To T II prpo-
). p Boo)HI p}iLIH oyT t p.B[IFIl IIolx-
-rIl'IHl' oTrH, [ITpI, Ilpr Haolr paxo.l.
DK. uot' pu Bo:aT p oTBt aoBoo
Hao BDKF{I aopt, l(oTopI o)KII t y.11gt{i p prpl{I{aTrTa oBI (>rx) 'o. Hap-
oHK oMrpo .., .yLr. y oaMI,I, apaTptl\4 U-I py BI{oB p'Ma-
H a o p T o LI H r I{ ( o B I lll t ) TKoo pKa' p orIK B(II poTo ao-
}Il aKyaMoo ToBapa B po oylrTBH'i tsoo pKa oxoo yTIBaT Tae u ao_
p.ptlaTKoo I]poKTa' yTiO B tlpoT
p.yMoTpor yoBM KoTpaKTa a oKytly' pBolI,I K
l, Ka a<oooT o.'o TopoH aoo
J{KI,{' }Irrr Kpa }Il a, I{' BzLTTI' opaHr-
oTpM (), ua KoToplx o>tT l opa o op- HIl Ha tszITo.rHxFlI opa' BoI\{o)KFIo I4"e LIacT
y
],IHaHOBI pypoB B Ilpol{ o].Ber{ p"Ip]\{a-
: o^ll. o II'ITI{oT.
o yoK ToBapa .to rpr; A - otrue Hi
-
*
oyl cHttl Toap.

Hpr.BHo H>t<t oer aKyK ,,.o1 h ff 'il?$HffiJ-BF3Y"


"
ToBapa B pB aMLIr}IHl (porKTHIM) Br'IrBaT Kor].IJI rpa pepal.oo pKa opr-
yt oa a, TO rT MarTaa opa_ aotTttI ooT}II ypoB oTp' BoHKaro
.. cll' p To poOpoztJ.lI{o )KaT'l oot ptl-
p oyTBI{ pr.'tlpao 'ITo. B ao-
oI pr,IiMaT' To oTp pt (ooa) |4c,L|\crTc IoToM BIpDI(H pK ',lo)K. I. op/t.l .;to o-
KaK poBH F{){ ooMa aKl1 ToBaa Ha B'Jly oHIx oTrp B aTL]i{ a l, lI o - R l Tt] Il l o M ( o ) l.t
I

p B paT I{a ..Hy oa paa. o.ao ToMOTr{ (>l<Io ) pl I . B ol.t.tlltO BIpa)Ke-


BvI TM) To TaK I{aIBI yoBo-oToHl{I pao.l' H oFI opr{eT KaK B(lllA [}ootll oTp' oTIlHa
aBt o Mataa pa, ts pattT H r.y ToBa- a, R aTB oopo otnllItl IlpHaTc o yrTB-
pa p ToIVl BopaTaIoT' olt paoI B pacr Ha Iy FIor oToti rlprpaTr'l' o o pao pypo
oa piI,{yoo ToBapa MoT ol(aaT oor B]oKIvl. ,al B. pllpH MaT o Jt.lt HoT' o ox.a
o yB pBrT paTHIo pt Ha .y iloo. OT prJlpaTr. Brop o l o at
ToBapa. yrTByT oaI pK Too' tITo opa oKaxrT oIlI{K ypOBH pKa Hr T lIptIaoo HaH' ol{a-
pHTaeo, o rT p BIl oyTl,too. o to ya oopal]o I,tooBaT aot oKaa-
CxH llI.lI , o oTopo paT,'I , oa.ztt{ Io r Fl Io .oToBpoT.
204 245
B ppHaTKo oT BIIT F{KoKo poToT KTo or oTp'u**t paKT-
ypo (y, o) pa. I( paBHa yIo' TaK KaK oTrp aBroo MIOT p pe;
o donmu!'|t| pllKoJv| oaloT pK' B pea Ko'l'opoo rTByT Koeu (<1) aaHa BpoToT opr-
at B prpHMaTeo oT oxparT o- Hoo ypoB oTp' To T KaKo-To ypoB oTp o)(T
I-loMKyto oopaoT' a prBIlx o ypoH B.T K oKaaT ao BrpoTI;
po ypo oo oTrp pl. BrpoToT oTp H'IT B 3aBoT oT ypoBI
Cylo
- Ipllm'ucu puc. o opx oaHoTIo oTrp ppIBHo' oooHlto BopaTa oT o a-
oTrp ToKo lpl, llo cfr' cyMI aTpaT a oyrT- MaHoo arI'I L4 TaK )K ooToHHo yI oT aK-
BHr aoo Ba pr.pt{MaTTBa. Paa pT- uu]oo aI.I .o H't o Mp BeI"[e'I ypoB Bo-
pc pBoo po, Bal ypoo orleHJI HBoo o)KHIx oTp.
oo.a' I{o p Bo aTrpzulIIx aTpaT' KpT Ha po pap.e}I BpoTo IIoTp o>Ho Bl'-
pK BTopoo poa, p KoTopo IIp.IIpa F{ ToKo Hr T TIp xapaKTrpI ToK' Toa 1 xapap ao
oyaT pl, I{o MoT oTpT B Bo)rI ts o BeoTHIe oTp, B oToplx paBa , a BrpoTFloT
'pTBa. a oBop' B To ya TpT B BIpyKa BOHKHOB B. BH HaIBaT uo cpomLI|I
Bp Too poT oaT aTpaTI. t pua B
-aHo B. ppTo HoT,
pol1'0|
Kmmpouu pucld XapaKTrpyT ypoo oTp B pa- oopt o)KrT t .t aotoo (app, B p-
p' paBo|{. \1 pI[Ia}oM Be yBHor oTo ) B oTtIoTtIoM (ttapp, B o oTrp o oTolII-
ppae. o ox pBT apoTBy p.p- HIo K pao y BIpyK oT .aoo Ba prpMa-
T papoil( MyTBa. B aBoT oT BI a) BIpax.
r\4yTBroo pI ele>KHoo yrpa aapouoy Toa 2 apaepyT Bpo'lTHoT oyTl\,{oo pKa' To T
pTo oTHoT pK' Bat po oaFIoTI . Too' LITO oTp yy I}y o, P-BHy pa.ro
)14HI1 r Botl aapo. pt. By BrpoTHoT TaKX oTep (Bon) HalBaIT
Kaoy po p T olTpe.- BepoTHoT .oyTo oep.
Hoo ypoB tloTp ( oT (p) Toa 3 xapapyT BrpoToT KpTKoo pKa' To
oKa)KT Bl[Ir oprroo ypoBI.
T BotIoBr{ op .lo 1p, paBlx oo pa-
peIe H)Ke o}IoBI tloo)K MToK oHK
pr.'paTKoo pa KaaIoT B oHoBo pKa Ko-
o yN,{ BIpyK (oxaoo oxoa). Bpoo TaK
pvo opaa (poo.Tlloo a), Ho Bo oTp, paBy B6, HolBaT BOTFIOT KpTtIKo o-
oT t orI K pyM B.a ppaTrKoo ^
D'
Toa 4 apaepyrT BrpoHoT aapoKoo pKa'
Ka (opuoMy' aooy) aBoT oT Too' To T oTp 1, p&BHl Bey yrTBeoy oToIo
To BeT yo pr.pMaeKo .o.
pr.p}IaTr. Bpoo .aK oTp' paBHy B1, HaI-
fl ol-1 poB pcKa y)KHo oTpoT KpBylo arrpr- BaT BpoToTto aapoo oTp. oIa pr-
eH BrpoToT op ( ppl JJ pMTtIo K
p.pao .TrFIoT pTatsr Ha pc. 4). |Tp pMaTro oT T, LITo' BpoTFIoT
To paIT .yI p.oo' KoTopI B ro aapoo oTp BIpa)arT oKaaTM' B.rTrT-
Bptlo oTpaaT aKoopoT prIIpaT- ByIo o oyo ypo oTp Bo oTo (app'
Koo pca'. ro a' paBo 0,3), yT oTKaaT oT TaKoo.ra'
BpoToT FIBI o- H .T a o.ot p.
Tp (o Boo)oT y, apMp' ||v,eeTc Ba B.a }^{aI, o oT-
Ns ao BooxI oTrp' .'I KoTopr oTporHI KpBI pa-
SR xa IToTp oo) -
\
ss ToxHa' KaK-To FIMzuI- pH x BpoTo (p. 5). Kao ypoBIo oTp
ttI l]oTp Ba rloT () ooTTByT opeHo a BrpoTHoT oTep
rpBoo a Bt BTopoo a 82. Bpoo ox (yap-
t
:\ MTo;
t) op Bg opeeTc aBMoTIo
a's
\^
n oo' p. n' P. 4. pa papee}l Bepo-
B" = \# B,
**" gp00b np ) _
o oep e Bt 82 ir opotloe op poo Topoo .a.

206 207
lrr B.}II
.too' KpToo
I{a]Ba *p,,.frio'*, lloy_
rQ
s p,Ka (o, K*l,,
il E K*o.'). ptlpa' oo olTa Ot|lTa
,! ]lpy pl]]pl yTaHaBBaeT , pHI
N
{t,0
ypol pKa' KoTopI oFI OI{ pBIIIIaT' ToI r o-
4 fla B oy tlp{poo' peoo pa. p
]\{olo op}lTpoBaT a pl ar'I KppB, p -
n
Br.I-IIr B Ta 13 (o . A. Parpy).
-

| a2 0J q4 5 q6 7 0o, t|K' . l3. p l' fla ppe a peprrlrJle


lp0 /7o/p (/7)
lpo0 p (/7)
Kpt,tp a aett t1Tep
ox P. 6.
I

P. 5. pa poo Kpa po BIIII- fl o l (p l ypoBr Bpo'lTHol,t o,Ls (ts %)


po3BoTBe| op 1| opreettoo }ToBll oep o. o opll pBl pt)
l(t,ll,Iu epBoo poa (r.I p l p 0,07 (7 %)
]]rpo'lTHo Too' o op pBl xr)
I(p Bopoo poa (pe I poe 0,0 ( %)
oy Ty aBoT' Mo)Ho oTpoT KpBy] BpoT- l]pTHol oo' o oT prBl,|'lT oae-
HoT yMMapI oTp (oaa Ha pyHK yHKTpo). Ha Myto oylo lpyu)
oHoBa KoTopo oIrrT T Bpo'{TI.IoT Too' ttTo Kaaporp ta (p-t y1llt t]po,IT_
t o,ot (1 %)
oT Too, o lloTp rBlT tl(.|'}
oTp lppHaT B .aFIloM Br ToT pBIT oTo,l H pep a )
ooTBTTBo orTyTMI, KpTrK, aapotI
)/poBrH.
p pT peulr o oyTocT roopaHoT,I a a}t oKaall pa KpTrpB pHoo
prpTKoo pa Ba)HO ]]aT I{r ToKo BpoToT pCa, O)t(o opypoaT ylo oe o pr-
opeI{oo ypoB oTp' O BrpoTI{oT Too) To T ocT Too a:
oTrp yy ol]I KoTopoo ypoBH. 1. oaa.lt prBI[IaT Kp-
Tr.ta KIIBa BrpoTHoT pIre oprHoo .epI4
oIIyTMo
yoBH I]oTp pBra I{ pyKr 6. p tloTpotl IIp- 2. oaa MrH[l KD-
HTI eyl pooH: BpoTHo oTp oL Tp KpTrlroo pa (P* < Kr,).
y paBl{a l; opaTa ypoBH oTOp poToT p- 3. oaa aT,Ipo.ldoo pa Ir oJDKH olIIlaT-
BIlrH Too poBI{ MortoToo )KarT; l] llropatl- e Pa S K*o').
o BopacTa}tLI ypoB oTp BoToT o peBIlIIu{
TpMT Hyro. BaT :.i'::'li:.
o ypott BpoTtIoT tlpIllI opHoo ypoB ToTl-l pBIrH opHHoo poBll oTrp }I o)KI{a
oTp BllIoT .'y}o oKaaTr prllptlaKoo Blxo a pI opaI4Trlo Kpl,{,po pol,i
p,Ka.. (oKaaHa a 'yF{ yKT-
BpoToT Too' To oTrp oKaxyT BIllI oyMoo oM,).
poBl{'l (plr) Po, - lol]yTl pc; fl o I]l{ITpt{tI-
B,poTFIoT TOO, t{TO oTrpl{ ODK)/T BI|.e I(pTrIrKOo TKoo Ka oyloT
ypol{ (o;<.ao t1.r) P*p' TaTTr cK\4' pTl'
- KpTr p;
Brpo,lToT oo' ttTo o, oK.(yT BItlt aapov- paTo-aJTT.I'IK To-
I(oO p14Ka (yITBHoI'o oToH llp.pMaTe) I.
p.
Pn,
- apo
Hapy oaaT aIITMoo, KpTrIKoo KaTa-
povoo pKa I,JI p14HT oooBaHoo re o Plc, 7. Caee oeo Bepo-
oyT pe.pMaTro .oT oJDKI IT tlo lroep po BrpoT-
yTa{oBrFII lTprrr{l BrI Tx oKaaTerii. Ta p- l|()

208 209
mmumucoo emod ooT To' To apyT rlppHaTJIoo Ka
Ta.TKa oTp, rBIx MTo B aaotlIx Bax pp. Mo)KrT l praoBI yT
HaTeKo eHoT, yTaaBBaT aToTa op,I. opao |{HeHiI oITtIl
tx ypoB op o To
(IaToT poopy BpoTHoT l].pt{aTe cIea- \
t{ToB. oao oyT yT s
y, app, IoT TaTTrIeK aHIr o -a- s
"o.i. ypoB ooTeI oTrp (o ootIo o
TKo opoa B KTp )al
KpFII oeHo (ypo s
yr ooxo rpy) 30 IarB oyTB Ko-
i
KpToo B.a p.paa (a. l4). BrpoTHoT oyTI' Kp-
KaTac.po.rx
^LIecK
14. po o o pepl|l{aeo .eIro aoTa op) aKTK HBo- |
x llpoell (o avlgl}| tltll') oHo. poru oTaBT p t 0
o oep, vo
KpToM oH Bopo: <<Ka- :
10 20 J0 40 50 tJ 70

oae Bo ol ao BpoTl o- p00e omp,7o


20 2t-40 4l-60 6t-80 s l- t00
l t.
100 Trp B Ito B pp-
l{a.Ko To P. 9. pa ao pa po-
54
H ?'>
l0 30 rro op (m eplDt o-
o ya - 7 JI
poox, pya K- )
oo poBH oep
o14 0,17 3 n rn onl 1,0 pToB (l0 uo) a -
iroa po'IBr ,2 0,
a ao BpoTHl oTp
1

Iar
(a. l5).

Pa.e rlo ytlaB' B oTopIx Mr rTo .aII po- 15. poe oep o p.pl|[ro eelro ao
ory poBr,r (o alll epo)
Br-
X oa
rp 20-0
(p. B). o pTo, ax 3 5 2
oK
Ha ooaI{ poopoBao o aTK .'aHlIv1
KpBo BpoTHoT oTrp Moxo yTaoT, tITo B paMaTP-
ircoa ot]K 0,3 05 o)
ui""o .1n" Haorr BrpoTI oTp' paBHrr pMpo 23-
H ooa pTHIx aI{Ix opT aToTI o-
Ho KaK LIaTFIO oT tla po' IKalU .a{-
ylo oHy' Ha oI tlo KpTI oHo. o oo
oTpoT pa aToT (p. 9). a Ha oor paa Tpo-
T l(pBylo BpoToT oTp' KoTopa aT prTaBe o
CaK To., o- p apaKTplox o oKaaT.
K pKa Tpyr aJI }{a- p ooaH KpTIloo MToll Hao TIBaT, To
s Hoo I\LaccBa xo'Ho oeHKa pKa B ItzttITHO Mp aB. oT HBl'|yaoo
opa. p oyc.B BopT oBKzI' p) Bco oT Tol.o' TOTT pr,-
0,
TaKo HopMa pMFIIT p}IaT K pKy oaarT't }Iyzt. B apyTo
I
py oI. ,Ila o oto o paoJIo)KH l( poBaIM pI-
s npmL mod or . l(po Too' o oTottoT |lTW Ha pK B o Ttl
s
G olrprT 3yTaTaM orTBH prly pr.
op, oyI{lr par B allaoo ya' .KTT

P. 8. p o pa Bepo-
IrIop o oTopoxo Tpa].' aoopoT, oTyTI
s 20 22 40 60 00 100 120 140 oe oTp (o lIelt{ pa yx oyaT K pKy.
!0 0np, % .a}r) o pTo oDFto t oaToo or, o o-
210 2tl
:]I]oT otIT o;t oylo ory ilprpaT- Kolla I I{)KIIT Moe, p (o
",,,.,if,
lttI pK Moxo y)Kr pHT Ha BoIo oTBrTTt{Ho);
Koo poTa Ba}Ioo ro oylrTBHr pI(a.
Pmo-aumurdu mod oTpoI{ po BpoHo-
Koa aTpaTl Ha TpoBa Hopo BK;
Koa KaK py BoMo)I(o al oT pa Hr.
Pr o pap oeo yep>aIl aBcT oT roo
pa aopoB' B To e oT paMpa oIIaIOo KaTa'
KB.HOT aKTBoB |4 T. .
. u'rcu pua. oao BT Ip.pI\{aTyIo .'l-
].HoT B OBx oTooo oBIIItHOo pKa. P
MTO.III.
o)Ko t{T [loOBa}Ir pat{I ptst{TBl rp.
o pTBHIM oHaT MpI' F{apaBHI FIa py_
s 5. M)MEH PKA p)KllI{ HpKayN{Ix papyItlx ol' c rIO
F{xr}I BpoToT:lI 14 BeI ypa" K x y oToT-
]IpopaMI TK oIrao, po yTaoBKa
a, rTKTopoB .Ilvla, oopyoalIb ORo'Iloo
poBo.Tr BaM, oa? ppT,r,
p.ypX KOHI aorBa to,I' oTo-
ttt oTo Ha'Il optlloT MyTBa p'
oo. peyp p orrro IlIlB' r Bo]vI-
yr, axl rKoorrr ppHaT.
aTpOBaF{ Iprx Bo B yl]piTeol"t rToT.
aT, To eT KJIOI{T- ozao To Ba BOo)o KaK IIo xIvl, Ta o
l p. Ta, vl KooN4 fIpLIaM. Halrpp, BoMoHo kI Tpyo
o' I{ r- }]e/(oTaTT ayxy (py xt . B opr
ax e{ToI poTBpaH B,HI' Ho' ot Bo-
ooBaTc, HeT ooKx BoMoxo (opa ao-
)' B T OxpaHT o,po p
pKoM oIIaoIM ITyTe.
o I-{ papoTparFlIx {a-)Kl{l MrTo.oB Hlt<I
pKa BT aMOTpaoBa}{I4e, oTopo o'BT yT
oa B opaa {rIi}liUIIx prplx o tto (paxo-
BI ao). Ta' B eI(oxoel opaa o.a-
IoT TpaxoB,I aaI r ( tpBa B vllar o-
ot) KopMoB ( aa,I oylo' }IapMp' BO BpM
ar BFII JI pal{o HaTyIBlII L); yrrrr op-
aFIa o eprpaoTKe Kxoo poK' Ka
paB.IIo, MT TpaxoBl aaI lp' o:]BoJi'IIo T
pK oT .'oIIoTaBoK BoBpHH|x IloTaBo Ip a
ppao.
o Ba)o' o aOTpxoa Il ol]oT riFII,IaT-
I B Kl]eeKL| o}t i4]. FI l1, a ToBapo-aTrpJI-
HI tlo (aal rM'{ oprl]Jltlo.l opTa KoH'
c}^Ia'Ix:
p.). Ho oo rT pKo BlpDKt{}{Ie KoFIoe pal'
Koa IIoTl{ul,Ta oTp tIIoM HIaltTa, vot o TaI( KaK lJTBa' KoTopIr rpFIaTr o)T oTB B
oKo}tT; oao Ilp TOM Hao T B B.y, T{-) pep, eptll.
Taor JIaHpoBaHr potlopoBa lIoBo.TBa
orKa yoBH oTp otllo or a: TO' To /T
a yTBeIHo; f{a prITpt,i ( xoi,i) TaK ooyT }Iaoy
o.t{oo ro, /I poo -
213
212
tIFlIo ppMaTKoo pa' oToM B H-aHr BrHHtM ppHa) .oxo.a' BlBaI{I f,a"opx
oo ppa o)I{I t aa potlT pKoB. KoTpaKToB' HaTroooTIo oKyIIa . .
ooa aaa - o Bol\4o)KHoT peyoTprT B oHoBIr opaa opaa Po poBoT TpaoBH pyoB.
pIAcK|4, KoTopI o)(Ho ToKHyT tlp|4 oyrTB}{vI aH- Boee aaTpyT B ya ypa p e I|o-
ttoo Ba prpHMaTKo .TttoT' yTaHoB To(l- p)(. prBoIx pyoB B pryaTe xt
HK 14 oMt{T I]o}tKHoBrH. B -a papaaTIBaIoT- (o<apa, aapw), poa>K TpaopII pTB pyx oI-
'I TaK N,{pI o oKpa}lIo .tX pI4KoB \4\4H|4aI4 l.
oTp' KoTopI Moy BoHHT. pl oyT l opattl,r. B poo pa ory po paT Tpaoa oTBT.
iioHHoo apaKTpa' p..yMaTpBat, H;lIpp' Hy Iro- TBHocT. B Po B o ol lllpoKo IIpoBoT'I'
TaBKoB oopyoa' KoKopoB T. '.' ooo .oT2lB- Halrpp' opooo TpaxoBa oTBTTBHoT alKoB
K lp rpaaTlalox opaLIaI,{' . ,., pry_ a oaIH Kpo. oo TpaxoalL4 BII:T oTtsT-
a oBaH'l oT pKoB. TBHFIoT aMKa . aI{Ko, BI.aII Kp,T, a Bor-
l papoTpaHHttl MTo B P.- Bpor o}Io oaJ peTa. flooop TpaxoBa'I
p oT. B oxo;to p'. aKJIIoaT a po ec.BL{ Kpr.THoo ooBopa.
pHMaTTB a Bo rpIlaa pKa poo..T yTrM - Pto py o BooFIoT ,I TpoBaT,I
(oo oo p. p IrHI,+\a. e ) ooo o topa
TpaoBaH
Cpaoa oBoT yeIT aBMoT Koo. paxoo c' To pao o)KT t olto ToKo B
TBHHoo ToBaporrpoBo.'T oT I{rp.BrHHIx Ilop- yoB KoHKypH ry TpaxoBKa. Taa o}lKypH-
yog. B c TM ollo BrT oHoBHI MeToo]\,I poBc B ylo: po)(eH t{oBI B.II.OB Tpaxo-
'ITII
oa pa. o.o paxoBa KopT Bo- BaH; papaoa ooopoB Tpaxoa}I pao oa
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