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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr.

3/2011

EVALUAREA CALITII SOIL QUALITY EVALUATION IN


SOLURILOR N ZONA CARBOCHIM CLUJ-NAPOCA
CARBOCHIM CLUJ-NAPOCA N AREA IN ORDER TO
VEDEREA REMEDIERII REMEDIATE

Potra Adrian Florin, Universitatea Potra Adrian Florin, Technical


Tehnic din Cluj-Napoca, ROMNIA University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Micle Valer, Universitatea Tehnic Micle Valer, Technical University,
din Cluj-Napoca, ROMNIA Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Sur Ioana Monica, Universitatea Sur Ioana Monica, Technical
Tehnic din Cluj-Napoca, ROMNIA University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Bbu Cosmina Simona, Bbu Cosmina Simona, Technical
Universitatea Tehnic din Cluj- University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Napoca, ROMNIA

REZUMAT: n ultimii ani, o serie de uniti ABSTRACT: Over the last years, a series of industrial
industriale au fost nchise, iar altele i-au redus units have been closed and others have reduced their
activitatea, cum este Carbochim Cluj-Napoca, avnd o activity, like Carbochim Cluj-Napoca, manufacturer of
activitate de produse abrazive. n zona fostului depozit abrasive products. In the area of the former fuel depot,
de combustibil, solurile din incinta fabricii sunt the soils of the plant are generally polluted with
poluate n general cu hidrocarburi petroliere. petroleum hydrocarbons. Soil sampling was made in
Prelevarea probelor de sol s-a realizat n 4 puncte four different points, at the depth of 30 cm and 50 cm.
distincte, de la adancimea de 30 cm, respectiv 50 cm. The total content of petroleum hydrocarbons was
Coninutul total de hidrocarburi petroliere a fost analyzed by petroleum ether extraction method. The
analizat prin metoda extractiei n eter de petrol. n pH of the soils in the investigated area varies between
solurile din zona investigat pH-ul variaz ntre 6 7, 6-7, and the concentrations of TPH, have values
iar concentraiile de HTP au valori cuprinse ntre 600 ranging from 600-2400 mg / kg, exceeding normal
2400 mg/kg, depind valorile normale de peste 24 de values over 24 times.
ori.

CUVINTE CHEIE : HTP, sol poluat, hidrocarburi KEY WORDS: TPH, polluted soil, petroleum
petroliere hydrocarbons.

1. INTRODUCERE 1. INTRODUCTION

Poluarea solului cu hidrocarburi Petroleum hydrocarbons soil pollution


petroliere este recunoscut astzi ca fiind o is recognised today as a significant problem,
problem semnificativ, reprezentnd un risc representing a major risk to human health and
major pentru sntatea uman i mediul environment. Carbochim factory is currently
nconjurtor. Fabrica Carbochim este n the biggest manufacturer of professional
prezent cel mai mare producator de abrazive abrasive products in Romania. The company
profesionale din ROMANIA. Societatea este is located in Cluj, in a former industrial area,
situat n Cluj, ntr-o fost zon industrial, on an area of approximately 12 hectares.
pe o suprafa de aproximativ 12 hectare. n Around, there were several factories, but
jur au fost mai multe fabrici, dar in prezent now, the spaces are rented or the factories
have been demolished. High concentration of

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spaiile acestora sunt nchiriate sau au fost petroleum hydrocarbons in the soils of
demolate. Concentraiile ridicate de Carbochim are linked to the former fuel store
hidrocarburi petroliere n solurile de pe from inside the company.
platforma Carbochim sunt legate de fostul Petroleum hydrocarbons are natural
depozit de combustibil din incinta societii. chemicals used by people for lots of
Hidrocarburile petroliere sunt activities, including fuel for vehicles and
substane chimice naturale folosite de ctre home heating.
om pentru o mulime de activiti, incluznd Petroleum hydrocarbons (PH)
carburani pentru vehicule i nclzirea represent common contaminants of sites, the
locuinelor. methods of sampling and environment
Hidrocarburile petroliere (HP) analysis for petroleum hydrocarbons are
reprezint contaminani comuni ai siturilor, considered to be, in general TPH (total
metodele de prelevare i analiz a mediilor petroleum hydrocarbons) methods. The term,
pentru familia hidrocarburilor petroliere fiind total petroleum hydrocarbons, refers to the
considerate n general metode HTP analytical results and to the impact on the
(Hidrocarburi Totale din Petrol). Termenul de environment and health of petroleum
hidrocarburi totale din petrol se refer la hydrocarbons. Given the complexity of TPH
rezultatele analitice i la impactul asupra components, their impact on environment and
mediului i sntii ale hidrocarburilor health is only relatively known.
petroliere. Datorit complexitii Hydrocarbons form an impermeable
componenilor HTP, nu se cunoate dect film on the soil surface, which prevents water
relativ impactul acestora asupra mediului i circulation and the exchange of gases,
sntii. causing plant roots suffocation and promotes
Hidrocarburile formeaz un film reduction processes. As the environment
impermeabil la suprafaa solului, care becomes more anaerobe, the number and the
impiedic circulaia apei i schimbul de gaze, metabolic activity of bacteria, is reduced. The
provocnd sufocarea rdcinilor i favoriznd existence of hydrocarbons in cultivated soils
procesele de reducere. Pe msur ce mediul affects seed germination, plant growth and
devine mai anaerob, numrul i activitatea production. When in contact, hydrocarbons
metabolic a bacteriilor se reduce. Existena can penetrate the seeds and can kill the
hidrocarburilor n solurile cultivate afecteaz embryo or they can affect seed germination
germinaia seminelor, creterea plantelor i by reducing the water flow to seeds or by
producia. La contact, hidrocarburile pot decreasing the oxygen necessary for
penetra seminele i pot omor embrionul ori germination. Since petroleum is rich in
afecta germinaia prin reducerea fluxului de carbon, the soil C:N ratio is growing, having
ap ctre semine ori prin descreterea a negative influence on microbiological
oxigenului necesar pentru germinare. activity and on nitrogen plant nutrition
Deoarece petrolul este bogat n carbon, (Overchas and Pal, 1979). A severe soil
raportul C:N din sol crete, avnd o influen salinisation can occur where there is
negativ asupra activitii microbiologice i hydrocarbon and salt water pollution; an
nutriiei plantelor cu azot (Overcash i Pal, alarming increase on exchangeable sodium
1979). can be recorded.
O sever salinizare a solului poate
avea loc acolo unde apare poluarea cu 2. RESEARCH METHODS
hidrocarburi i ap srat; o cretere
alarmant a sodiului schimbabil poate fi Soil sampling was made according to
nregistrat.[2] STAS 7148/1-75, inside the company
Carbochim, near the former fuel warehouses

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(PECO), where tanks and above ground


2. METODOLOGIA DE technological routes, were demolished. The
site is located in the western part of SC
CERCETARE
Carbochim Cluj-Napoca, having GPS
coordinates: 46o 47` 14``.00 N, 23o 35` 52``
Prelevarea probelor de sol s-a realizat
.00 S, benchmark 327 m. Currently there are
conform STAS 7184/1-75, din incinta firmei
two concrete underground tanks.
Carbochim, n apropierea fostelor depozite de
From this area there were collected
carburanti (PECO), de unde au fost demolate
soil samples from 4 different points, at the
rezervoarele i traseele tehnologice
depth of 30 and 50 cm.
supraterane. Situl este amplasat n partea
vestic din incinta SC CARBOCHIM SA
Cluj-Napoca, avnd coordonatele GPS: 46
47 14.00 N , 23 35 52,00 S, cota 327 m.
Actualmente se gsesc dou bazine betonate
subterane.
Din aceast zon au fost colectate
probe de sol din 4 puncte distincte, de la
adncimea 30 cm, respectiv 50 cm.[4]

Fig. 1. Localizare punctelor de prelevare Fig. 1. Location of sampling points

Coninutul total de hidrocarburi The total content of petroleum


petroliere a fost analizat n laboratorul hydrocarbons was analyzed at RENAR
acreditat RENAR al firmei WESSLING SRL din accredited laboratory of WESSLING SRL
Trgu-Mure prin metoda extraciei n eter de company from Targu Mures by petroleum
petrol. ether extraction method.

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3. REZULTATE I DISCUII 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


n urma observaiilor de natur fizico After considering the fieldwork
mecanic efectuate n teren rezult c solul physico-mechanical observations, it resulted
are o textur de tip nisip grosier pietri, n that the soil has a coarse sandgravel texture
zona saturat. n aceast zon, probele de sol type, in the saturated area. In this area, the
prezint miros caracteristic de produs soil samples have a characteristic smell of
petrolier, iar nivelului freatic nu s-a atins petroleum product, and the groundwater level
pn la cota de 2,50 m. has been reached at 2.50m.

3.1.Variaia pH-ului 3.1. pH variation

In general, pH varies between 6-7, in


n general, pH-ului variaz intre 6 7,
the examined area soils. In the soil profile,
n solurile din zona investigat. n profilul de
pH values tend to increase proportionally
sol, valorile pH-ului au tendina s creasc
with depth (Fig. 2.).
proporional cu adncimea (fig.2.).

Variatia pH-ului

7,2

6,8
ph [unitati ph]

6,6

6,4

6,2

5,8

5,6
P1 P2 P3 P4
punctele de prelevare

30 cm 50 cm

Fig. 2. Variaia pH-ului n profilul de sol Fig. 2. Variation of pH in the soil profile

3.2. Variaia concentraiei de hidrocarburi 3.2. Variation of hydrocarbons


concentration
Limitele de variaie ale
hidrocarburilor totale petroliere au fost The limits of variation of the total
analizate prin comparaie cu valorile limit petroleum hydrocarbons, were analysed by
pentru solurile mai puin sensibile, conform comparison with the limit values for less
Ordinului nr. 756/1997 privind evaluarea sensitive soils, under order No 756/1997
polurii mediului. referring to evaluation of environmental
Concentraiile de hidrocrburilor totale pollution.
petroliere din solurile analizate au evideniat Total concentrations of petroleum
diferite grade de poluare in funie de hydrocarbons from the analysed soils,
adancime i locaie. showed various degrees of pollution,
n anul 2008 au fost realizate depending on depth and location.

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investigaii pe acest amplasament, In 2008, this site has been examined


efectundu-se un Bilan de mediu de Nivel II and a Level II - Environmental Risk
ntocmit de KVB Economic SRL. n zona Assessment was made by KVB Economic
depozitului de carburani s-au prelevat probe SRL. In the fuel store area, soil samples were
din dou puncte F1 si F2, de la adncimi taken from two points, F1 and F2, at a depth
cuprinse ntre 50 200 cm. Concentraiile between 50-200 cm. TPH concentrations are
HTP sunt prezentate n tabelul 1. presented in TABLE 1, FIGURE 3.

n urma acestui bilan s-a scos n According to this assessment, the soils
eviden faptul c solul din zona examinat from the examinated area, are polluted,
este poluat, existnd o depire a valorii exceeding the intervention threshold value for
pragului de intervenie pentru poluantul total petroleum hydrocarbons pollutant
hidrocarburi totale din petrol (H.T.P.). (T.P.H).
Variaia concentraiei hidrocarburi The variation of total hydrocarbons
totale din petrol (fig. 3), raportate la concentration in petroleum, reported to depth,
adncime, pune n eviden o evoluie reveals a hyperbolic evolution with the
hiperbolic cu valoarea maxim n punctul F2 maximum at the sampling point F2, at 100
de prelevare la adncimea 100 cm. n acest cm depth. At this point, the alert threshold
punct pragul de alert (1.000 mg/kg) pentru (1,000 mg / kg) for TPH was exceeded by 3.7
HTP a fost depit de 3.7 ori, iar pragul de times, and the intervention threshold (2,000
intervenie (2.000 mg/kg) de 1.85 ori [1]. mg / kg) by 1.85 times [1].

Concentraie HTP

4000

3500
Valori determinate (mg/kg)]

3000

2500
Prag interventie
2000

1500
Prag alerta
1000

500

0
50 100 150 200
Adncimile de prelevare

F1
F2
l t

Fig. 3. Variaia concentraiei de HTP n Fig. 3. TPH concentrations variation


functie de adncime n anul 2008 depending on depth, in the year 2008

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n anul 2011 au fost efectuate In the year 2011, soil samples were
prelevri de probe de sol din zona taken from the fuel store area. Soil samples
depozitului de carburani. Au fost prelevate were taken from 4 different points: P1, P2,
probe de sol din 4 puncte distincte P1, P2, P3 P3, and P4, from 30 cm and 50 cm depth.
i P4, de la 30 cm adncime, respectiv 50 (Fig 2)
cm. Aceste valori sunt redate n tabelul 2.

Din analiza histogramei reiese c n The histogram analysis shows that in


zona investigat concentraiile de HTP au the examined area, TPH concentrations
variat de la 600 2400 mg/kg. ranged between 600 2400 mg/kg.
n cazul punctului 1 de prelevare se In the case of point 1 sampling, its
observ o cretere a concentraiei de HTP la noticed an increased TPH concentration level
proba de adncime, iar la punctele 2-4 in the depth sample, and the concentration
concentraia scade cu adncimea. decreases with depth on points 2 4.
Concentraia de hidrocarburi The petroleum hydrocarbons
petroliere n punctele 1, 2, respectiv 4 de concentration in sampling points 1,2 and 4,
prelevare nregistreaz valori puin peste records values slightly above the alert
pragul de alert. n punctul 3 de prelevare la threshold. In sampling point 3, at 30 cm
adncimea 30 cm pragul de alert (1.000 depth, the alert threshold (1.000 mg/kg) for
mg/kg) pentru HTP a fost depit de 2.5 ori, TPH was exceeded 2.5 times and the
iar pragul de intervenie (2.000 mg/kg) de 1.2 intervention threshold (2.000 mg/kg) by 1.2
ori (fig.4). times (fig.4).

Concentraie HTP

3000

2500
Valori determinate (mg/kg)]

2000 Prag interventie

1500

1000 Prag alerta

500

0
P1 P2 P3 P4
punctele de prelevare

30 cm
50 cm
l t
Fig. 4. Variaia concentraiei de HTP n Fig. 4. The variation of TPH concentration
funcie de adncime depending on depth

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Valorile msurate (HTP) sugereaz The measured values [HTP] suggest


potenialul de expunere al omului i the potential human exposure and the
potenialul de apariie a efectelor asupra potential effects on human health.
sntii umane [3].

CONCLUZII CONCLUSIONS

n solul din zona examinat s-a In the examined area, the presence of
evideniat prezena polurii cu hidrocarburi, hydrocarbons pollution was revealed, with an
existnd o depire a valorii pragului de exceeding value of intervention threshold for
intervenie pentru poluantul hidrocarburi total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] pollutant
totale din petrol (H.T.P.) In the examined area, TPH
n zon investigat concentraiile de concentrations ranged between 600 2400
HTP au variat de la 600 2400 mg/kg, mg/kg and in the case of point 1 sampling, an
observndu-se o cretere a concentraiei de increased TPH concentration level in the
HTP la proba de adncime n cazul punctulul depth sample was noticed, and the
1 de prelevare, iar la punctele 2-4 concentration decreases with depth on points
concentraia scade cu adncimea. 2 4.
Concentraia de hidrocarburi Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration
petroliere n punctul 3 de prelevare la in sampling point 3, at 30 cm depth, exceeded
adncimea 30 cm a depait pragul de alert de the alert threshold by 2.5 times and the
2.5 ori, iar pragul de interventie de 1.2 ori. intervention threshold by 1.2 times. But
Ins concentraiile n punctele 1, 2, respectiv concentrations values in sampling points 1, 2
4 de prelevare inregistreaza valori putin and 4 are slightly above the alert threshold.
peste pragul de alerta. The soil quality determinations
Analiza determinrilor efectuate analysis, concerning hydrocarbons pollution
asupra calitii solului, referitoare la poluarea of the examined samples, reveals an exceed
cu hidrocarburi pentru probele investigate, of alert and intervention thresholds, requiring
pune n eviden o depire a pragului de remediation activities for these soils, on an
alert i de intervenie necesitnd area of over 350mp.
ntreprinderea unor activiti de remediere a
acestor soluri pe o suprafa de peste 350mp.
BIBLIOGRAFIE
BIBLIOGRAFIE 1 *** Bilan de mediu CARBOCHIM
nivelul II, Elaborat de KVB Economic
1 *** Bilan de mediu CARBOCHIM SRL, 2008
nivelul II, Elaborat de KVB Economic 2 ***ORDIN nr. 756/1997 Pentru
SRL, 2008 aprobarea reglementarii privind evaluarea
2 ***ORDIN nr. 756/1997 Pentru polurii mediului
aprobarea reglementarii privind evaluarea 3. ***Raportul final privind depoluarea
polurii mediului solului contaminat cu hidrocarburi, de pe
3 ***Raportul final privind depoluarea amplasamentul S.C. Carbochim S.A., din
solului contaminat cu hidrocarburi, de pe zona fostului depozit de carburani
amplasamentul S.C. Carbochim S.A., din elaboart de CHIMGRUP SRL uncuiu
zona fostului depozit de carburani Bihor
elaboart de CHIMGRUP SRL uncuiu 4. ***STAS 7184/1-75 Privind recoltarea
Bihor

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4 ***STAS 7184/1-75 Privind recoltarea probelor de sol pentru studii pedologice i


probelor de sol pentru studii pedologice i agrochimice
agrochimice 5. ***Biotreat oily refinery wastes.
5 ***Biotreat oily refinery wastes. Hydrocarb. Process. Overcash MR & Pal
Hydrocarb. Process. Overcash MR & Pal D (1979)
D (1979)

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