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2012
531.1
22.21
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. .: - . .. , 2012. 37, [3] . :
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531.1
22.21

c . .. , 2012


-
-
.
-
. 30 -
(. 4).
( 15 ).
M
. -
s(t), x(t), y(t), r(t), (t)
(t) .
, -

: , , .
-
, -
.
: 1) ;
2) .
1.

-
M -
.
:
1) (. )
M
( ,
);
2) M -
t = t1 ;
3) v a M ;
4) v a M
;
5) a an -
, -
M ;
6) vr v
.
, Ox;
7)
M . -
M t = t1 .

4
2.

:
1)
t = t1 ;
2) -
, ,
, (-
);
3) v a ;
4) Ai (i ) , -

(. . 4).
. 1. i- -
Ri ri .
2. -
,
t = t1 .
3. Oz:
. -
,
Oz;
-

d
, = z k0 , k0 Oz; z = =
dt
Oz;
-
Oz, = z k0 , z Oz:
d2 d z
z = = .
=
dt2 dt

3.

1. -
(. 1). :

5
M t = 1 :
1) v a;
2)
;
3) a an
M .

M . t = 1 ,
, .
1 3 -
(. . 1), Ai
t = 1 .
2
: r(t) = beht 1 , ; (t) = ht2 1, ; b = 1 , h = 1 /2 ;
R1 = 0,4 ; R2 = 0,2 ; r2 = 0,1 .
M . M
( ).

. 1
6
Ox; OM = r(t)
(t) .
M . t,
M -
:
r = e.
. t  0, -
M :
r = e (1  < ; r  e1 ).
M t = 0 :
= 1 = 57,3 ; r = 0,368 .
M t = 1 :
= 0 = 0 ; r = 1 .
:
v = vr r0 + vp p0 ,
r0 , O M ;
p0 , (
r0 90 ).
v :
2 1
vr = r = 2tet .
v :
2 1
vp = r = 2tet .
t = 1 c

vr = vp = 2 /c; v = vr2 + vp2 = 2 2 = 2,828 /c.
M :
= ar r0 + ap p0 .
a
a
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
ar = r r 2 = 2et + 4t2 et 4t2 et = 2et .

7
a
2 1 2 1 2 1
= 8t2 et
ap = 2r + r + 2et = 2et (4t2 + 1).
t = 1 c

ar = 2 /c2 ; ap = 10 /c2 ; a = a2r + a2p = 10,2 /c2 .


-
M (. 2).

. 2
8
.
-
:
r = e,
1  < ; r  e1 .
s ( -
) M t = 0 0 = 1 =
= 57,3 ; r = 0,368 . -
s M M0 .
s = s(t), v = v
t t 
s= v dt = vr2 + vp2 dt,
0 0


 
dr
s= ( )2 + r2 d,
d
0



dr
r = e ; = e; s = 2e2 d = 2 e d = 2 (e
d
0 0
0
1
2
t
e ) = 2 (e e ), . . s(t) = 2 (e 1)/e.

v = v ,
|| = 1; , -
s
M ;
2 2
v = s = 2 e = 2 et 1 2t = 2 2 tet 1
-
M .
t = 1 c

v = 2 2 2,82 /c.

9

= a + an n
a ,
|
n| = 1; n
, -
.
, -
:
2 2
a = s = 2 2 et 1 + 4 2 t2 et 1 .

t = 1 c

a = 6 2 = 8,485 /2 .

-
M :

an = a2 a2 = 104 72 = 32 = 4 2 = 5,675 /2 ;

v2
an = .


v2 8
= = = 2 1,41 ,
an 4 2
M
t = 1 c.
av
, v M :
dv d 2 vr ar + vp ap
av = = vr + vp2 = .
dt dt v
t = 1 c
2 2 + 2 10
av = = 6 2 8,46 /2 .
2 2
a
a v -
M .

10
:
x = r cos ;

y = r sin .
t = 1 c
x = 1 cos 0 = 1 ; y = 1 sin 0 = 0 .

v = vxi + vy j,
i, j o Ox, Oy.
Ox, Oy:
vx = x = r cos r sin = vr cos vp sin ;

vy = y = r sin + r cos = vr sin + vp cos .


t = 1 c
vx = vr = 2 /c; vy = vp = 2 /c.
t = 1 c

vx = 2 /c; vy = 2 /c; v = vx2 + vy2 = 2 2 2,82 /c.

= axi + ay j.
a
M Ox, Oy:
ax = r cos r sin r sin r sin r 2 cos =
r r 2 ) cos (2r + r
= ( ) sin ;
ax = ar cos ap sin ;

ay = r sin + r cos + r cos + r cos r 2 sin =


2
r r ) sin + (2r + r
= ( ) cos ;
ay = ar sin + ap cos .
t = 1 c

ax = ar = 2 /2 ; ay = ap = 10 /2 ; a = a2x + a2y = 10,2 /2 .

11
.
1, 2 , 3 -
.
1
1z = = 0,5t + 1,75.
t = 1 c
1z = 2,25 /; 1 = |1z |;
= 0,5 /2 = const; 1 = |1z |.
1z =
t = 1 c 1z > 0 1z > 0 -

.
1 .
1 2 , 1
2 .

1 R1 = 2 r2 .

1 R1 2,25 0,4
2 = = = 9 /.
r2 0,1

.
2
2 = 8 /.
-
1 2
1 R1 = 2 r2 ,

1 R1 2 0, 4
2 = = = 8 /2 .
r2 0, 1
-

.
2 (. 3).
A2 2, A3 3.
.

12
. 3

A2 , A3 3
vA2 = 2 R2 = 9 0, 2 = 1, 8 / = vA3 = v3 = vD .
A2

A2 = a
a A 2
nA2 ;
+a

aA 2
= 2 R2 = 8 0, 2 = 1,6 /c2 ; aA3 = a3 = aD3 = |aA

2
|;
anA2 = 22 R2 = 64 0,2 = 12,8 /2 ;
 
aA2 = (aA )2 + (an )2 =
2 A2 1, 62 + 12,82 = 12,9 /2 .
,
, (. . 3) -

13
, t = 1 c.
, -

-
. -
(. . 3) -
.
2 (. 4).

. 4

: s = D sin Et, l = C cos 2Et; C = 5 , D = 3 , E =


= /4 /; r2 = 0,8 , r3 = 0,4 , r4 = 0,6 .
, -
M t = 1 c:

14
1) M , v a
M ,
M , a an -
M ;
2) M ,
M t = 1 c
M ;
3) o ,
,
3 , 4 , . 4;
4) t = 1 c
,
.
M .

,
= l(t), y = s(t).
, ,
,


x = 5 cos t;
2 (1)
y = 3 sin t,

4
x(t), y(t) .
M . -
(1) t.


2 1
sin t = 1 cos t ;
4 2 2



y2 2 1 1 x
= sin t = 1 cos t = 1 ,
9 4 2 2 2 5

10 2
y = 5 x.
9
, M :
10
x = 5 y 2 ; 5  x  5; 3  y  3.
9
15
t = 0 c:
x = 5 ; y = 0 .

t = 1 c:

x = 5 cos = 0 ; y = 3 sin = 1, 5 2 = 2, 121 .
2 4
M
v = vxi + vy j,
i, j Ox, Oy.
Ox:

vx = x = 2,5 sin t.
2
Oy:

vy = y = 0, 75 cos t.
4
t = 1 c
0,75
vx = 2,5 = 7,85 /c; vy = = 1,665 /c;
2

v= vx2 + vy2 = 8, 02 /c.

= axi + ay j.
a

Ox

= 1, 252 cos
ax = x t.
2
Oy

ay = y = 0, 18752 sin t.
4

16
t = 1 c
0,1875 2
ax = 0; ay = = 1,307 /c2 ;
2

a= a2x + a2y = 1, 307 /c2 .
.
, ,

r = OM = x2 + y 2 .
, ,
y
= arctg .
x
t = 1 c
y
r = y = 2,1213 ; = arctg = = 90 .
x 2

v = vr r0 + vp p0 ,
r0 , O M ;
p0 , -
r0 90 .
v :
1 x vx + y vy
vr = r =  (2x x + 2y y)
= .
2 x2 + y 2 r
v :


1 y x x y x vy y vx

vp = r = r = .
1 + (y/x)2 x2 r
t = 1 c
0 + yvy
vr = = vy = 1,665 /c;
r
yvx
vp = = vx = 7,85 /c;
r

v = vr2 + vp2 = 8,02 /c.

17
a
xax + yay
ar = r r 2 = .
r
a
xay yax
ap = 2r + r
= .
r
t = 1 c
0 + yay yax
ar = = ay = 1,307 /c2 ; ap = = 0,
r r

a = a2r + a2p = 1,307 /c2 .
a =
= s ( a = s ;
,
s),
, -
:
dv vx ax + vy ay
av = = .
dt v
t = 1 c
7,85 0 + (+1,665) (1,307)
av = = 0,271 /c2 ;
8,02

= a + an n
a ,
e |av | = |a |.


vx ay vy ax 7,85 (1,307) 0

an = = 1,28 /c2 ,
v = 8,02


an = a2 a2v = 1,28 /c2 ,
v2
an = .

18
t = 1 c
:
v2 8,022
= = = 50,3 .
an 1,28
M
M (. 5).

. 5


(. . 4).
t
: s = 3 sin .
4
1 . -
1:
3 t
v1 = s = cos .
4 4
t = 1

3 2
s = 1,67 /c; v1 = |s| = 1,67 /c.
8
19
v 1 -
s , v 1 1
t = 1 , -
s(t) (. 6).

. 6

1:
3 2 t
a1 = s = sin .
16 4
20
t = 1

3 2 2
s = 1,31 /c2 ; a1 = |
s| .
32
v1 a1 -
, v 1 a1
, . . 1 t = 1
.
23 ( )
(. . 4). 1
23
,
v1 1,67
2 = 2,1
r2 0,8
23;
a1 1,31
2 = 1,64 2
r2 0,8
23.
A3 23.
A3
vA3 = 2 r3 2,1 0,4 0,84 /c.
A3

A3 = a
a A 3
nA3 .
+a
A3

a = 2 r3 1,64 0,4 0,66 /c2 .
A3

A3
anA3 = 22 r3 2,12 0,4 1,76 /c2 .
A3

aA3 = (aA )2 + (an )2 1,88 /c2 .
3 A3

4 . A4 -
4. 4 23

21

v A4 = v A3 ;
vA4 = vA3 = 4 r4 = 0,84 /c2 .
, 4
vA 0, 84
4 = 4 = 1,4 .
r4 0, 6
A4

A4 = a
a A 4
nA4 .
+a
23 4

A
a 4
=a
A 3
.
A4

|aA 4
| = |aA 3
| = 4 r4 .
4

|aA | 0,66
4 = 4
= = 1,1 2 .
r4 0,6
-
, ,
, -
-
(. . 6).
A4
anA4 = 24 r4 = 1,18 /c2 .
A4

aA4 = (aA )2 + (an )2 = 1,35 /c2 ,
4 A4

Ai , -
-
(c. . 6).
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

.., .., ..
: . . .:
- . .. , 1994. 38 .
..
: . . .: -
. .. , 2003. 36 .
: -
. / .. , .. , .. ,
.. . .: - . .. , 1991. 53 .
: . / . .. -
, .. . .: - . .. , 2011.
760 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38







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24.12.2012. 6084/16.
. . . 2,33. 1500 . . 9.

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105005, , 2- ., 5.