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3 Introduction

5 Key Findings

9 Critical Considerations for Prospective Students

12 Satisfaction and Demand Summary

13 Master of Public or Global Health

16 Master of Economics

19 Master of Agricultural Science

22 Master of Engineering

25 Master of Business Administration

28 Master of Public Policy or Administration

31 Master of International Development

34 Master of Environmental Science

37 Master of International Relations or Affairs

40 Master of Urban Planning


Make Your Mark: Choosing the right global development graduate program
Global development is in the midst of a dramatic transformation that is affecting career choices across the industry. A
recent Devex study conducted in partnership with the U.S. Agency for International Development and Population Services
International revealed that 79 percent of professionals believe that the global development worker of the future will need
a postgraduate degree to be successful in their careers. For global development professionals, it is no longer a question of
whether or not to pursue an advanced degree, but rather which degree and specialization will get you where you want to go.

Today, more schools are offering degrees and courses related to global development and there is a growing interest in
pursuing these fields. But prospective higher education students in our community continue to have questions concerning
how to choose the right global development graduate program that meets their needs and enhances their careers.

This Devex Special Report aims to answer many of these questions by defining and assessing some of the different advanced
degree options that can lead to rewarding careers in global development.

Agricultural Science International Development

Business Administration International Relations or Affairs
Economics Public or Global Health
Engineering Public Policy or Administration
Environmental Science Urban Planning

These 10 graduate degrees were selected because of their relatively high demand across the global development industry
today. In an effort to dig deeper into the demand dynamics surrounding global development and graduate education, Devex
asked development recruiters around the world to weigh in and assess the market factors influencing each degree. We also
conducted an extensive online survey of nearly 1,500 graduate degree holders currently working in international development
to determine their levels of satisfaction with graduate school and how their degrees shaped their career prospects.

Global development is more dynamic and competitive now than ever before, and Devex is committed to delivering the
resources, insights and advice that will build and advance your career. Our hope is that this reader-friendly guide helps
prospective global development graduate students understand their higher education options and choose the path that will
fulfill their educational and professional goals.

Devex Data Sources

Devex Devex In-Depth Interviews

Higher Education Recruiter with Development
Survey Survey Recruiters

Key Findings

Earning a graduate degree can help advance your global development career.
Todays more complex and competitive global development industry demands that professionals are equipped with advanced
education, knowledge and skills. According to the Devex Higher Education Survey, 82 percent of survey respondents said their
graduate degrees were essential to advancing their careers. Graduate degree holders cited acquiring specialized knowledge
and increasing job opportunities as their primary reasons for pursuing higher education. It is experience that matters most
when we are trying to match the candidate to the job, says Linda Aines, an experienced recruiter who has worked extensively
with USAID contractors. But if you want to move on to higher and better jobs, there will come a point where it is imperative
that you have an advanced degree.

With which of the 18%

statements do you agree

My post-graduate degree
did little to advance my
development career

My post-graduate degree 82%

was essential to advancing
my development career

Graduate studies are worth the investment.

Attaining any masters degree is time-consuming and expensive. Full-time graduate students must factor in the opportunity
cost of not working or only working part-time for an extended period, as well as the personal, social and family sacrifices
necessary to perform at the graduate level. According to the Devex Higher Education Survey, however, 91 percent of respondents
said their degrees were worth the investment in time and money. I originally considered going to graduate school straight
out of college, but quickly realized that I didnt have the energy, focus, or financial resources at that point, reveals Ky Johnson,
Asia regional advisor at The Asia Foundation. When I decided to go back to school, I was ready for a new challenge and
it satisfied the need of most employers for an advance degree in order to progress to technical or senior management


My degree was worth

the investment in time
and money

Yes 91%

Graduate degree holders express high levels of satisfaction.
Overall satisfaction with any decision or experience can be difficult to measure. The Devex Higher Education Survey defined
satisfaction and developed the satisfaction index score using six key factors:

(1) employment opportunities immediately after graduation,

(2) compensation levels immediately after graduation,
(3) long-term compensation,
(4) long-term career advancement,
(5) work-life balance, and
(6) opportunities to make a positive societal contribution.

Across all degree types, survey respondents were most satisfied with opportunities to make a positive societal contribution
since obtaining their graduate degrees. Survey respondents were least satisfied with compensation levels immediately after
graduation. Here are some other findings that stood out:

MBA and economics International relations and

degree holders expressed the international development
highest levels of satisfaction with degree holders expressed the
compensation levels immediately lowest levels of satisfaction with their
after graduation and long-term compensation levels immediately
compensation potential. following graduation.

Public or global health and Engineering

agricultural science degree and urban planning
holders expressed the highest levels of degree holders expressed the lowest
satisfaction with opportunities to make levels of satisfaction with work-life
a positive societal contribution. balance.

Public policy and environment

degree holders expressed the
most moderate levels of satisfaction across the
six satisfaction factors.

Development recruiters have their say. Demand from hiring
Demand for different degree types can change with the times. According to the organizations can be
2017 Devex Recruiter Survey, development recruiters believe that the top five influenced by a variety
highest demand degrees will be (1) international development, (2) business of largely unpredictable
administration, (3) economics, (4) public or global health, and (5) environmental factors, including:
International and domestic politics
Since 2015, demand for international development degrees has seen the greatest International development policy
increase. In the 2015 Devex Recruiter Survey, only 42 percent of recruiters identified of donor countries
international development degrees among the three most in demand, but in 2017
Global economic conditions
that number jumped to 63 percent. Meanwhile, recruiter perception of MBA and
public or global health degrees has remained steady from 2015 to 2017. These Prevalence and scale of global
quantitative findings reflect the qualitative insights from in-depth interviews with crises or emergencies
global development recruiters. Customary changes to donor
priorities, spending and

For hiring in 2017, which degree type(s) do you think

will be most in demand? (Select up to 3)

Masters in international development

or development practice 63%

MBA 37%

Graduate degree in economics,

econometrics, statistics 28%

MPH 24%

Graduate degree in environmental science,

natural resource management, 23%
or climate change

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%

There is no substitute for experience.

Masters degrees are certainly valuable, but they will never replace or supersede actual work experience, particularly in
the eyes of recruiters. The majority of recruiters Devex surveyed contend that a candidates professional experience and
accomplishments almost always matter more than academic achievement, irrespective of whether it is a generalist or
specialist position or where it is located. Doctoral or PhD candidates candidates who typically spend years researching
specific issues or challenges are rare exceptions. A masters shows an extra level of education and commitment, and thats
always a plus, but I wouldnt say if weve got an MBA graduate versus someone who has been doing the job for 20 years, the
MBA would win, says Benjamin Salt, international recruitment manager for DAI Europe.

Our community of scholars and practitioners Available Programs
is dedicated to fostering environmental M.A. in International
sustainability, social justice, and economic Development and Social
well-being in both the developed and Change
developing world. M.A. in Community
The major forces of social changegrassroots Development and Planning
initiatives, social movements, government MBA/M.A. in Community
policy, market approaches, entrepreneurship, Development and Planning
technological innovation, individual action, MBA/M.S. in Environmental
and educationform the core of our Science and Policy*
transdisciplinary studies.
M.H.S. in Community and
Learn across traditional disciplinary boundaries Global Health
to approach complex problems differently. M.S. in Environmental Science
We encourage students to take courses across and Policy*
programs that represent diverse perspectives. M.S. in GIS for Development
and Environment*
*STEM-designated. International students may
be eligible to stay in the United States, through
OPT, for upwards of 3 years after graduation.

Scholarships available.
Apply now for Fall 2017.
Critical Considerations for Prospective Students

Understand the distinction between generalist and specialist tracks.

The generalist versus specialist debate is common to many industries, but is particularly prominent in international
development. Choosing between generalist and specialist paths might influence where you go to school, what you study,
and, perhaps most critically, the types of professional opportunities available to you in the future. According to development
recruiters, specialists or those with in-depth technical knowledge in a sector or discipline are frequently sought after
for short-term consulting roles and their expertise is often critical to meeting the rigid requirements of a project proposal.

At the same time, larger international development organizations often value generalists due to their range of knowledge and
adaptability. In general, U.N. agencies are moving more towards generalist roles. We can always hire consultants when we
need specialist roles filled, according to Michael Dahl, chief, talent management, United Nations Population Fund.

Appreciate what cross-cutting skills are in demand.

Whether you are on the generalist or specialist track, development organizations
are seeking candidates with interpersonal communication abilities, industry
insight, business skills and some degree of technical know-how. Possessing Cross-cutting skills refer to
and exhibiting these cross-cutting skills often separates those stuck in mid-level a broad set of knowledge
positions versus those who reach the senior management level. Like many other and competencies which are
industries and sectors, digital technology and innovation are disrupting global applicable across sectors.
development so professionals must be comfortable with various technology
applications. In the 2017 Devex Recruiter Survey, for instance, 62 percent of global Here are a few especially important
development recruiters predict there will be a greater interest in candidates with ones:
a technology or private sector background in the coming years. Graduate school
programs are responding to these trends by highlighting the role of technology in Project management
global development and offering more holistic courses that develop the essential Data analysis
cross-cutting skills hiring organizations are seeking.
Policy advocacy and dialogue
Partnership negotiation

Seek out practical training opportunities. Financial management

Global development graduate programs offer a range of practical training
Proposal writing
opportunities including long-term and short-term study abroad, field work,
collaborative exercises, capstone projects, independent research, and Grant management
internships, many of which are transferrable to credits toward graduation. A Donor relations
graduate thesis that requires applied research can also constitute practical
training. To diversify student experiences, attract more international student Language
bodies and provide practical exposure to developing economies, some graduate Capacity building
schools are establishing satellite campuses in or closer to emerging
Monitoring and evaluation
markets. Development recruiters advise that students should always try to take
advantage of any opportunity that links theory and classroom learning to real General business
world situations and challenges. What is important is what the candidate has
done with their professional experience, whether that is through internships or
part-time work or whether they were able to gain productive, relevant experience
sometime between their undergraduate and postgraduate studies, reveals
Gregory Taylor of the American Bar Association Rule of Law Initiative.

Over 75% of Bush School graduates go to work in
public service locally, nationally, and around the world.
Do you desire a career with...
National security agencies? Federal government? International NGOs? Government contractors?
International financial or development organizations? Think tanks?

Our Degrees and Online Offerings can help get you there.


Master in International Affairs
Master of Public Service and Administration In-state tuition for all
Scholarship support for all
ONLINE GRADUATE OFFERINGS Competitive internships
Executive Master of Public Service and Admin. Real-world consulting projects
Advanced International Affairs Certificate Targeted career assistance
Homeland Security Certificate
Nonprofit Management Certificate


http://bush.tamu.edu bushschooladmissions@tamu.edu
Consider degree and program reputation, not just university reputation.
University reputation factors into the decision-making process of most graduate school candidates. But development
recruiters encourage prospective students to conduct more thorough research and evaluate other factors, particularly quality
of the specific degree and program within the institution. This additional inquiry could involve learning about the faculty
and their backgrounds, the program rigor and culture, curriculum options including practical training opportunities, and
where graduates end up working. According to the 2017 Devex Recruiter Survey, only nine percent of recruiters consider the
prestige and ranking of a university as very important when conducting candidate evaluations. Over 40 percent of recruiters
surveyed indicated university prestige or ranking is not really a factor. We know, for instance, in Scandinavia there is a huge
focus on sexual and reproductive health, gender-based violence and humanitarian work. We know that universities there are
good in those areas. They might not be in the top 10 universities of the world but they are in the top when it comes to those
particular focus areas, says Dahl of UNFPA.

Evaluate alternative degrees and programs, but understand their limitations.

Graduate schools are offering various alternatives to full-time or even part-time school, including online degrees, executive
degrees and certificate programs. Driven by technology advances, online courses can be viable and affordable options for
development professionals looking to enhance their skills. Pursuing an online degree also provides valuable flexibility for
working professionals. Some more traditional part-time programs are even offering online components that enable students
to continue working. The 2017 Devex Recruiter Survey revealed that 48 percent of recruiters believe online degrees from
credible institutions are acceptable. For those with more professional experience, recruiters see an Executive Masters degree
as a way to fill specific gaps in knowledge and help mid-level professionals transition to more senior positions or a different
field. At the same time, while certificate programs and other non-degree coursework can prove your commitment to your
profession and willingness to learn, they will not necessarily tip the scales in your favor during a formal and competitive
candidate evaluation.


Let us help you find yours.

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Satisfaction and Demand Summary

Degree Demand Factors

Need for integrators

Public or
Global Health 7.5 New donors and financing models
Epidemics and humanitarian crises

International finance institutions and development

banks hiring
Economics 7.4 Big data and analytics
Contributions to monitoring and evaluation

Research and innovation redefining the sector

Science 7.3 Emerging donor investments
Overlaps with climate change and renewable energy

Addressing the infrastructure deficit

Engineering 7.2 Technological disruption
Prioritizing water, sanitation and hygiene

Growing intersection of business and development

Administration 7.2 Business discipline within development organizations
Value for money movement

E-governance movement
Public Policy or
Administration 7.1 Focus on democracy and good governance
Intersection of philanthropy and public policy

Linking development theory and impact

Development 7 Focus on local capacity building
Growing humanitarian sector demands

Environment embedded in the Sustainable

Development Goals
Science 7 Innovation in natural resource protection and
alternative energy
Climate funding here to stay

International Generalists in demand

Relations or 6.8 Language skills critical to development
Affairs Changing nature of global development

Rapid urbanization
Urban Planning 6.4 Technology and smart cities
Integrating disaster risk reduction

Master of Public or Global Health
A Master of Public or Global Health program provides a well-
rounded education in areas like health policy, social and
behavioral sciences, epidemiology, biostatistics, environmental
and occupational health, and health services and administration. 7.5
Students develop an understanding of the most important global health concepts
and challenges and gain a solid foundation in global health research methods,
including ethics and working in cross-cultural settings. Additionally, students
understand, evaluate and compare health systems from around the world, a 2-3 Years
skill enhanced in some programs by a field research module. Graduates adopt DURATION
multidisciplinary and multi-sector approaches to health as they learn how the
sector is influenced by a multitude of factors. Combined with an international
concentration, an MPH is a solid foundation for a global health career wherein
graduates can apply their expertise to real-world problems.

Demand & Outlook Courses You

Have To Take:
Over the years, progress in global health has been both significant and
Global Health Challenges
demonstrable. Because of these dividends, and the prominence of health within
the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the sector will likely continue to attract Global Health Research:
more international donor attention and funding than any other sector. There is Design and Practice
also high and growing demand for specialists in important health subsectors, Biostatistics and Epidemiology
including nutrition, infectious disease and maternal and child health. Here are for Global Health
some other factors influencing the demand for public or global health degrees
Health Systems in Developing
in development.

Need for integrators Comparative Health Systems:

Financing and Delivering
As most global health work is delivered through specific projects and programs,
Health Services
health implementers seek strong project managers who understand the entire
health system and how it fits together, as well as the use of IT systems to improve
service delivery. Health systems strengthening and behavioral change are critical
cross-cutting principles that require integration into most health programs. Courses You
Might Want To Take:
New donors and financing models
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Gavi, the Vaccine Beyond Choice: Emerging
Alliance, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and most recently, the $3 billion Complexities in Reproductive
commitment made by the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative are just some of the more Health
influential donors and models driving innovation and shaking up the global Food and Nutrition: a Public
health sector. Health Perspective
Psychosocial and Mental
Epidemics and humanitarian crises Health Issues in Forced
Responding to and recovering from a wide-range of health emergency situations, Migration
such as the Ebola outbreak, Zika scare, famines, typhoons and earthquakes, Public Health Impacts of
requires cadres of qualified and diversified health professionals across all Climate Change
segments of the development community.
New Media and Health

Master of Public or Global Health

Director for Health and
Technical Advisor, Health
Systems Strengthening You provide strategic oversight,
Program Coordinator, lead in the pursuit of new business
Maternal, Newborn, Child With field experience working with
opportunities and provide technical
public and private health systems,
Health and Nutrition leadership for the planning, review,
you provide technical assistance
You provide overall management research and implementation of
supporting health systems
oversight and coordination for the interventions in selected countries.
strengthening, health financing
delivery of specific requests for You also supervise a team of
to country teams and community
technical assistance. You also provide technical specialists from health,
engagement to implement people-
support to the implementation of nutrition and WASH sectors, business
centered health systems.
primary health care activities meant development, and monitoring and
to improve maternal and child evaluation.

The USAID Global Health Fellows Program is a

cooperative agreement with USAID and managed by the
Public Health Institute in partnership with Global Health
Corps, GlobeMed, Management Systems International
and PYXERA Global. GHFP-II fellows work full-time for
two years in a variety of global health technical areas
ranging from reproductive, maternal and child health
to nutrition to HIV/AIDS. Placements are made both in
Washington, D.C. and in developing countries.

Distinguished Degree Holder

Susan Desmond-Hellmann
CEO, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
University of California, Berkeley

How do we address global health
inequities and ensure fairness
across generations?
How can we promote responsible
biomedical research?
Harness your potential The School of Global Affairs at Kings College London is a vibrant hub of multi-
disciplinary scholarship that seeks to address the most pressing issues facing our
rapidly globalising world today. Situated in the heart of London, Kings is home to
Institute for Health Metric s and Evaluation one of the most exciting and highly respected research communities in the world.
at the Universit y of Washington Postgraduate students at Kings enjoy outstanding connections with Londons
cultural, political, legal and health institutions, and opportunities to build networks
Master of Public Health and invaluable skills.
in Health Metrics and Evaluation
We offer courses in Global Health & Social Justice | Bioethics & Society |
PhD Program in Global Health: Ageing | Medicine | Health & Public Policy
Metrics and Implementation Science
Find out more
Learn more at healthdata.org kcl.ac.uk/ghsm | kcl.ac.uk/global-affairs

Study at a world top 25 university in the heart of London

(QS World University Rankings 2016-17)
Master of Economics
A Master of Economics degree typically involves the study of
economic theories, econometrics and quantitative modeling.
But since it focuses on important socio-economic issues that
people encounter in their day-to-day lives such as taxes, wages, 7.4
commodity prices, and healthcare, it has increased in popularity INDEX
for those with math and technical abilities that also want to
make a positive difference in the world.

Economics graduates influence international development policy and practice by 2 Years

analyzing development challenges and forecasting, monitoring, evaluating, and DURATION
reporting how interventions address them. Many development economists also
learn the ability to process and interpret complex economic and financial data
and communicate it in ways more people can understand.

Demand & Outlook Courses You

Have To Take:
Economics degree holders enjoy among the highest employability records and
highest incomes in international development. In an effort to reach marginalized Micro and Macro Economics
populations and address growing inequality, the international development
Game Theory
community is constantly optimizing how to apply and distribute resources
and economists are well-positioned to lend their perspective and insight. In International Economics
fact, nearly every development project, from social protection to agriculture to Applied Statistics and
infrastructure, can benefit from having an economist on staff. Here are some Econometrics
other factors influencing the demand for economics degrees in development.
Economics Research Methods

International finance institutions and development banks hiring

A masters degree in economics, econometrics and/or statistics is a highly coveted
credential in organizations like the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and Courses You
Asian Development Bank where economists are called on to collect and analyze Might Want To Take:
socio-economic data and rationalize the impacts of policies and investments.
These institutions often require a PhD in economics. Energy Economics and Policy
Latin American Development:
Big data and analytics Political Economy of Growth
The international development community is increasingly adopting big data and Climate Change: Science,
analytics approaches to gauge the impact of their interventions and measure Economics and Policy
value for money. Todays economics programs are emphasizing the power of big
Economic Growth,
data and teaching students the tools to leverage it.
Development, and Capitalism

Contributions to monitoring and evaluation Economics of Natural Resource

Economists are critical to conducting accurate M&E as they are accustomed
to applying data-based and quantitative techniques and drawing important
conclusions that other project staff might not uncover.

Master of Economics

Chief Economist
Monitoring and Evaluation You lead a team that conducts a
ENTRY-LEVEL comprehensive assessment of a
Economics Policy Analyst country or regions development
You provide analytical input in needs and devise a development
You conduct cost benefit analysis
the selection, design, monitoring, plan that outlines a long-term vision
on issues that impact the public
implementation and evaluation and presents shorter-term strategies
and recommend legislation and
of projects, including contextual and programs for achieving it.
governmental intervention to
research on sectors, review of
address problems.
tools and survey methodology,
and evaluation of data quality and

The key bedrock programs such as finance and

accounting continue to be strong, however, to
become ahead of the curve, students should
diversify by taking additional specialization in
David Green, Higher Education Consultant

Distinguished Degree Holder

Jeffrey D. Sachs
Director of the Center for Sustainable Development, Columbia University & Special
Advisor to United Nations on Sustainable Development Goals
Harvard University

How has globalisation affected
different parts of the world?
What are the successes and
development challenges for
emerging economies?
The School of Global Affairs at Kings College London is a vibrant hub of multi-
disciplinary scholarship that seeks to address the most pressing issues facing our
rapidly globalising world today. Situated in the heart of London, Kings is home to
one of the most exciting and highly respected research communities in the world.
Postgraduate students at Kings enjoy outstanding connections with Londons
cultural, political, legal and health institutions, and opportunities to build networks
and invaluable skills.

We offer courses in International Development | Emerging Economies |

Political Economy and Emerging Markets

Find out more

kcl.ac.uk/international-development | kcl.ac.uk/global-affairs

Study at a world top 25 university in the heart of London

(QS World University Rankings 2016-17)
Master of Agricultural Science
A Master of Agricultural Science is an integrative program
focusing on the management of resources cultivated and
produced in the soil environment, particularly plant life.
Heavy on fieldwork and practical training, curriculums concentrate on the INDEX
quality and production of crops, low ecological impacts and humane treatment
of animals. Recognizing agricultural science cuts across multiple development
issues, graduate schools are increasingly integrating coursework with other
disciplines such as health, environmental science and engineering. Crop irrigation, 1-2 Years
seed production, animal husbandry and many more aspects of agriculture and DURATION
livestock are essential components to achieving the global food security agenda.
Due to the fact that the vast majority of the worlds poorest people rely on
agriculture for their livelihood, the sector is a priority for international donors,
nongovernmental organizations, and other development organizations.

Demand & Outlook Courses You

Have To Take:
As food insecurity threatens regions of the world, to say the survival of the
Agricultural Systems Analysis
planet and future generations will depend on agriculture experts is hardly an
overstatement. SDG 2 Zero Hunger stresses the importance of sustainable Agricultural Environment
food production systems and resilient agricultural practices and targets doubling Agronomy
incomes of small-scale food producers by 2030. Here are some other factors
influencing the demand for agricultural science degrees in development. Agricultural Production
Natural Resource Management
Research and innovation redefining the sector
The SDGs also emphasize the need for increased public and private investment
in research and technological development to optimize agriculture productive
Courses You
capacity in developing countries, making agriculture experts critical assets for
long-term food security.
Might Want To Take:
Agricultural Sector and Policy
Emerging donor investments Analysis
Emerging donors such as India, China and Brazil are filling the void left behind by Challenges of Global Food
declines in traditional donor spending. These donor investments focus largely on Security
technology transfer and technical support to national and regional food security
Rural Community
initiatives and will require local agriculture capacity.

Overlaps with climate change and renewable energy Agribusiness Value Chain
The impacts of climate change and extreme weather patterns are further
complicating sustainable agriculture in the developing world, requiring individuals Climate Change: Process,
with the cross-sector understanding and skills to build climate resilience and History, Issues
leverage renewable energies to sustain farms and food production.

Master of Agricultural Science

Agriculture Market
Development Manager
Agriculture Value-Chain
Specialist You identify and analyze market
Climate Smart Agricultural developments and trends within
Specialist You convene and broker private
the agriculture sector, and initiate
sector and government partnerships
You promote environmentally internal intelligence and knowledge
in order to increase rural access
sustainable natural resource sharing. You also build and maintain
to farm inputs. You also develop
management practices, including successful relationships with relevant
field-ready strategies to increase
cultivation of crops suited to the customers, partners, and donors.
smallholder farmer knowledge
agro-environment; integration
and use of appropriate agricultural
of agroforestry into the cropping
system; and promotion of practices
that increase soil fertility and organic
matter while reducing moisture loss.

Farming is a business, if you cant understand

how to make profit...you cant understand the
cash flow, you cannot understand the balance
sheet, then how can you take these farmers from
where they are to the next stage? You need to
provide holistic services to the stakeholders:
extension, agronomy, access to inputs, finance,
Anne Mbaabu, Marketing Head, Alliance for a
Green Revolution in Africa

Distinguished Degree Holder

Sir Gordon Conway

Director of Agriculture for Impact & Former President, The Rockefeller Foundation
University of California, Davis

WSU inspires teamwork to tackle challenges and find
solutions like breeding wheat to feed the world
Learn more about our agricultural programs and research:
Master of Engineering
A Master of Engineering is a graduate degree that develops
mathematical and scientific understanding in order to design
and operate a variety of different structures, technologies and
processes. 7.2
Beyond just technical engineering expertise, the degree equips candidates with
cross-disciplinary skills such as critical thinking and problem solving. Engineering
has grown in popularity due in large part to significant job opportunities and
high compensation levels. Most programs offer specializations around specific 1-2 Years
engineering disciplines from civil and mechanical engineering to software DURATION
and environmental engineering. Apart from the coursework, schools are
integrating independent research projects, also known as capstone projects, in
their curriculum to provide students with hands-on experience analyzing and
addressing complex real world challenges.

Demand & Outlook Courses You

Have To Take:
For many years, the international development industry has attracted talented
Engineering Dynamics
civil engineers to its ranks. Today, as new engineering disciplines emerge, donor-
funded projects require a variety of engineering perspectives and abilities Project Development: Methods
from constructing farm-to-market roads and building community bridges to and Models
developing mobile phone apps and other innovative technologies. Here are some Communications for
other factors influencing the demand for engineering degrees in development. Engineering Leaders
Engineering Leadership
Addressing the infrastructure deficit
Capstone Project
Engineers are in high demand within development banks and other international
finance institutions which fund and implement infrastructure projects across the
developing world. This trend is expected to continue as new institutions join the
field, including the $100 billion China-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, Courses You
which is destined to boost infrastructure development across Asia.
Might Want To Take:
Technological disruption Big Data and Global Cities
An array of health, education, agriculture, and environment technology systems Water and Development in
and tools are revolutionizing ICT for development and driving the need for Africa
IT engineering graduates within both donor agencies and implementing
International Business for

Prioritizing water, sanitation and hygiene Disaster Risk Reduction in

From wastewater treatment plants to sanitation facilities, international
development donors are increasingly focused on providing access to potable Sustainable Infrastructure and
water and improving sanitation in developing countries which requires significant Services in Development
engineering expertise. WASH is also a core element of the SDGs for the next 15

Master of Engineering

Director of International
Engineering Services
Engineering Project Manager
You provide leadership, vision
Climate Change Engineer You are responsible for the
and management for engineering
successful implementation of a
You provide policy advice and services, including supervising and
major infrastructure project (roads,
technical expertise in the field guiding engineering staff, developing
bridges, dams, ports, etc.), including
of greenhouse gas mitigation, strategy, and maintaining technical
assigning resources, managing
including in the areas of estimation, leadership.
schedules and budgets, and initiating
measurement, verification, and
corrective action when and where
reporting of facility emissions.

The field of engineering is changing. Its no

longer focused on the local type of engineering
its more global talk, global engineering, and the
key is, how do we create global engineers? You
ask engineering students today why they are
interested in the degree and they say they want
a meaningful education and career.
Bernard Amadei, Founder, Engineers Without Borders

Distinguished Degree Holder

Winnie Byanyima
Executive Director, Oxfam International
University of Cranfield

After water, concrete is the second
most consumed product on the planet.
Concrete is an inexpensive construction material with a relatively
small environmental footprint and, for the foreseeable future,
there is no other material that can replace concrete to meet our
societies needs for housing, shelter, schools, and infrastructure
but its attractive properties have lead to massive use that contributes
approximately 5% of global CO2 production.

Were working from the nano-scale to the city scale to improve

sustainability of the worlds most common building material.

MIT Concrete Sustainabilty Hub

Free, public webinars throughout 2017
Master of Business Administration
A Master of Business Administration (MBA) is a graduate degree
that provides theoretical and practical training in business and
Beyond just technical business knowledge, an MBA can equip graduates with INDEX
important universal skills such as leadership effectiveness, problem solving, and
strategic thinking. Because it is widely and consistently known across the world,
an MBA is highly transferrable across countries, industries and organizations.
Many schools offer the option to pursue MBAs in conjunction with other graduate 2 Years
degrees, including those more traditionally associated with international DURATION
development. While the MBA core curriculum is unlikely to change anytime soon,
innovative global development-focused electives are becoming more common
in MBA programs, including those related to emerging topics such as social
entrepreneurship, impact investing and clean energy.

Demand & Outlook Courses You

Have To Take:
An MBA can be pigeonholed and stereotyped. The banker on Wall Street.
Microeconomics for Managers
The general manager at a Fortune 500 company. The auditor at the big four
accounting firm. But todays MBA degrees are increasingly relevant and valued Statistics: Regression Analysis
across the international development community as industry players and for Managers
approaches change. Here are some other factors influencing the demand for Leadership and Organizational
business degrees in development. Behavior
Technology and Operations
Growing intersection of business and development
The business and development fields are merging and partnerships are the name
Marketing Strategy
of the game. Development organizations are hiring partnership professionals
with the business acumen to negotiate and close agreements. Corporations are
building out their sustainability departments to bridge the gaps between profits,
people and planet.
Courses You
Might Want To Take:
Business discipline within development organizations
In todays more competitive development sector, even the smallest NGO is looking Global Markets, Human Rights
to acquire business skills to improve internal business processes such as strategic and the Press
planning, data analysis, financial management and operations management. Cleantech to Market
Growing Social Enterprises
Value for money movement
Environmental, Social, and
As foreign aid budgets continue to tighten, development organizations are
Governance Risk Analysis
increasingly focused on maximizing the impact of their investments and hiring
individuals who can rationalize costs, articulate results and inform evidence- Investing for Environmental
based decision-making. and Social Impact

Master of Business Administration

Chief Operating Officer
Partnerships Manager You are part of the senior leadership
ENTRY-LEVEL team, responsible for leading
Private Enterprise Officer You secure, manage and monitor
the effective global growth of
partnerships with private sector
You design and manage projects the organization and managing
partners. This includes developing
to advance inclusive market operational and administrative
strategies for mobilizing resources,
development, advising on the aspects of the organization.
devising engagement plans, and
commercialization of new agricultural
building successful partnerships with
seed technologies.

We have a long history of working with USAID

and in each project we have technical positions as
well as administrative positions. When it comes
to the administrative roles, Master degrees
are highly preferred and sometimes required.
Essentially, if youre looking into business roles
in development, a Masters degree is pretty
much a requirement.
Caroline Vantine, Senior Staffing Specialist, Tetra Tech

Distinguished Degree Holder

Rich Stearns
President, World Vision USA
Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania

Experience our program before you
enroll by attending a class visit.

Accepting applications now for Fall Cohort.

Apply by April 15 for a $1,500 early application scholarship

Master of Public Policy or Administration
A Master of Public Policy or Administration degree provides
students with a thorough understanding of how public policies
are created, enforced and embodied in legislation, laws and
judicial decisions across sectors. 7.1
Much of the curriculum focuses on political institutions and processes as well
as methods to implement organizational change and development. Most
public policy graduate programs offer a skills-based curriculum that integrates
information systems, empirical analysis, program management and evaluation, 1-2 Years
and leadership skills. Many graduates pursue careers in the public, nonprofit DURATION
or nongovernment sectors, leveraging the organizational and management
principles to build networks and influence policy decisions.

Demand & Outlook

Government and governance underpins every international development
Courses You
program making MPP/MPA graduates attractive to development recruiters. Have To Take:
Perhaps the biggest buzzword in global development is sustainability and it is
Policy Analysis
nearly impossible for a development program to achieve sustainability without
considering how it fits into the broader public policy environment. Here are some Economics for Public Policy
other factors influencing the demand for public policy degrees in development. Quantitative and Qualitative
E-governance movement Management and Leadership
Information and communications technology is impacting how public services are
Ethical Analysis
delivered as paper-based services and communication are being replaced with
more personalized, web-based interactions. Public policy programs increasingly
account for these technological changes, equipping students with the knowledge
and skills required to facilitate the transition to e-governance. Courses You
Might Want To Take:
Focus on democracy and good governance
As the world faces political uncertainty and threats to democratic principles, Political Economy of Foreign
some international donors are pledging to double down on their investments in Aid
democracy promotion and good governance programming. Implementing these Policy, Politics and the Media
programs will require technical experts in areas such as civil society strengthening,
Global Environmental
conflict mitigation and elections monitoring.

Intersection of philanthropy and public policy Health Policy Analysis

Private and corporate foundations are expanding their commitments to Social Innovation
developing countries. These non-traditional donors are hiring individuals that
can shape public policy to facilitate and scale the impact of their investments and

Master of Public Policy or Administration

Public Policy Engagement
Innovation and Process
Improvement Specialist You devise and implement an
Public Advocacy Specialist engagement strategy that reaches
You contribute to the policies,
You monitor, analyze and report and mobilizes key policymakers
operational and knowledge agenda
political events and trends that and other influencers at global,
on public sector innovation and
impact intraregional issues such as regional and country levels. You
digital government. You also
refugees, and recommend possible also represent your organization at
provide technical advice on the
action. external events, liaise and negotiate
modernization of public registries
with partners, and work directly with
through digital solutions including
mobile applications.

The Network of Schools of Public Policy, Affairs,

and Administration or NASPAA is a membership
organization of graduate programs in public policy,
public affairs, public administration, and public and
nonprofit management. Its members award MPP and
MPA degrees. NASPAA has nearly 300 member schools
located across the U.S. and in 14 other countries around
the globe. NASPAAs Commission on Peer Review and
Accreditation is the recognized global accreditor of
masters degree programs in the field.

Distinguished Degree Holder

Ban Ki-Moon
Former Secretary-General, United Nations
Harvard University

Join us.

Were global
citizens effecting
positive change.

Master of Public
YOU CAN DO Administration (MPA)
Global Diversity
Our Master of Public Administration is a pioneering international programme for
public management professionals looking to advance their career and deepen
their knowledge around a defining challenge of our time: the governance of
increasingly diverse societies.
Harvard Kennedy Schools two-year mpa/id Program is designed to Delivered by world-leading scholars over 15 months and designed around the
prepare the next generation of leaders in international development. needs of working professionals, this unique programme of study provides the
A rigorous multidisciplinary approach paired with PhD-level economics skills, knowledge and global perspectives that allow you to successfully manage
and an emphasis on policy and practice set this program apart. cultural diversity and create positive change in your own communities.

Exceptional practitioners with strong backgrounds in math and

economics are encouraged to apply. Scholarships are available for www.coventry.ac.uk/CTPSR_study study.ctpsr@coventry.ac.uk
qualified applicants. Applications are due in early December. +44 (0) 247765 9059 Centre For Trust, Peace and Social Relations

+1 617-495-2133
Master of International Development
A Master of International Development or Development Practice
seeks to bridge the gap between development policy and
practice. A cousin of International Affairs, this degree equips
students with the expertise to address increasingly complex 7
global development challenges. INDEX

Graduates are well-versed in concepts like social and gender equality, conflict
resolution, environmental sustainability and education. At the same time,
students learn hard skills such as writing proposals, managing budgets, and 2 Years
designing, implementing, monitoring and evaluating development projects. DURATION
Programs require field-based research modules, providing valuable on-the-
ground knowledge and critical, analytical, communicative and problem-solving
skills in varying contexts. Since a career in international development values
experience and education hand-in-hand, many programs offer flexible hours,
providing time to take on internships, volunteering opportunities and pro bono
consulting to bolster resumes.
Courses You
Have To Take:
Demand & Outlook Theories and Policies of
International development degrees were borne from the recognition that
development is a unique discipline with its own subject matter, standards Community Based
and language that can be quite different than those of international business, Participatory Research
diplomacy or security. Development recruiters value these degrees expecting Research Methods for
that graduates have already been exposed to the nuances of the international Sustainable Livelihoods
development industry. Here are some other factors influencing the demand for
Aid and Poverty: The Political
international development degrees.
Economy of International
Development Assistance
Linking development theory and impact
International Field Seminar
Major global development organizations, from leading international
nongovernmental organizations to the United Nations, seek candidates that
can adapt development theory to complex conditions on-the-ground, including
working through the full development project lifecycle to make a lasting impact. Courses You
Might Want To Take:
Focus on local capacity building
Global Health, Relief,
As donors increasingly look to channel funding locally, international firms are
Development and Religious
being called on to help develop capacity of local organizations. Capacity building
and Non-Religious NGOs
skills in high demand include local stakeholder sensitivity and collaboration,
cross-cultural communication and the ability to deliver practical training. Problems in Culture Change
and Applied Anthropology
Growing humanitarian sector demands Gender in Conflicts,
With emergency response needs around the world growing, international Development and Migration
development graduate programs are increasingly focused on humanitarian Humanitarian Response
education and training that can prepare students for careers with first responders, Simulation
international organizations and INGOs operating on the front lines.
Technology Solutions for Social

Master of International Development

Chief of Party
Field Program Manager You provide overall project
ENTRY-LEVEL leadership, management, and
Project Coordinator You oversee day-to-day operations
technical direction of a major
and coordinate administrative and
You contribute to project proposals development project. You also serve
financial aspects of the project
and other communications as the projects primary liaison
between staff in the field and at
materials, organize workshops with funders and international and
and conferences, and help design regional partners, while overseeing
development programs. performance management and
strategic communications.

The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation

devoted $15 million to create the first Masters in
Development Practice (MDP) programs at up to
20 universities worldwide. In 2009, the MacArthur
Foundation announced the first round of 10 universities
across the globe to receive significant grants to
establish new MDP programs. Globally, there are now 28
institutions and universities that offer an MDP Program.
Columbia University serves as the secretariat for the
global network of MDPs.

Distinguished Degree Holder

Sue Turrell
Deputy International Director, Oxfam Great Britain
Manchester University

World-leading distance
learning that comes to you

Gain an MSc in
Development Management
with the UKs largest university

Shortlisted in
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Education for Try our free
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support International
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Master of Environmental Science
A Master of Environmental Science combines physical and
biological fields of science to help solve the worlds most
pressing environmental issues.
Students can obtain a wide array of skills, such as data gathering and monitoring, INDEX
project evaluation and assessment, problem solving, and conflict resolution.
These more general skills, fused with specialized knowledge of climate change
and environmental issues, can be a powerful combination for those wanting
to pursue careers in global development. Schools are increasingly offering 1-2 Years
specializations at the intersection of environment and international development DURATION
such as environmental governance, conservation, natural resource management,
renewable energy and sustainable development. As opposed to other degree
types, concentrating on a specific environmental area, such as oceans or forestry,
may distinguish one candidate from another when applying for environment-
focused jobs in international development.

Courses You
Demand & Outlook Have To Take:
Data Analysis and Statistics
Environmental scientists conduct research on how humans negatively impact the
environment and apply that knowledge to help alleviate pollution, human waste, Advanced Earth Systems
global warming, destruction of ecosystems and extinction of wildlife. Recent Biodiversity, Conservation and
multilateral forums and agreements have validated that energy, environment Ecosystems
and natural resources will remain global development priorities in the future.
Here are some other factors influencing the demand for environmental science Ecological Management
degrees in development. Environmental Policymaking
and Policy Analysis
Environment embedded in the SDGs
Environmental protection is an important cross-cutting development issue that is
now prominently emphasized in the global agenda for sustainable development.
Courses You
The majority of development stakeholders governments, the private sector
and civil society are in search of individuals who can help them understand
Might Want To Take:
and integrate environmental considerations to achieve the SDGs. Biosciences, Politics and Social
Innovation in natural resource protection and alternative energy
International Environmental
The growing global population together with our heavy reliance on natural Law
resources continues to strain our planet, but environmental responsibility and
Principles of Wildlife and Fish
renewable energy are now embedded within many developed country economies,
opening up new business and professional opportunities.
Human Environmental Impact
Climate funding here to stay Sustainability Science:
Despite some political uncertainty which could affect climate change funding, Concepts and Challenges
donor countries have committed to supporting the environment through the
2016 Paris Climate Agreement. The worlds international finance institutions are
also integrating more rigorous social and environmental safeguards into their
lending practices and investing heavily in green programs.

Master of Environmental Science

Regional Biodiversity and
Climate Change Advisor
Environment Capacity
Building Specialist You provide expert technical input
Conservation Program and policy advice on a broad
Associate You support implementation of
range of environmental issues in
environment-related development
You help develop strategic plans coordination with programs of major
goals in national policies, plans,
for conservation, and implement, donor agencies and international
and programs, and address
monitor, and evaluate environment- organizations.
implementation issues such
focused projects.
as partnerships, financing, and

My advice would be to gain experience as

quickly as possible, to know not to expect to
get the dream job today when you leave the
university but be clear where you want to go,
use the opportunities to build that experience to
understand how development in general works,
and within that, specialize a bit more.
Kelly Tobin, Recruitment Manager, Engility Corp.

Distinguished Degree Holder

Jan Dusik
Director, Regional Office for Europe, United Nations Environment Programme
University of Oxford

From the sustainability of our communities
to the management and preservation of
the planet on which we all live, geography
and the environment courses examine
humanitys biggest challenges for this
generation and the next.
The School of Global Affairs at Kings College London is a vibrant hub of multi-
disciplinary scholarship that seeks to address the most pressing issues facing our
rapidly globalising world today. Situated in the heart of London, Kings is home to
one of the most exciting and highly respected research communities in the world.
Postgraduate students at Kings enjoy outstanding connections with Londons
cultural, political, legal and health institutions, and opportunities to build networks
and invaluable skills.

We offer courses in Sustainable Cities | Tourism | Environment

& Development and Disasters | Adaptation & Development

Find out more

kcl.ac.uk/geography | kcl.ac.uk/global-affairs

Study at a world top 25 university in the heart of London

(QS World University Rankings 2016-17)


Master of International Relations or Affairs
A Master of International Relations or Affairs degree develops
an understanding of complex transnational issues through
theoretical and practical training.
Developed as an academic discipline in response to the sweeping political, INDEX
social and economic changes in the early 20th century, these programs provide
solid educational backgrounds for pursuing careers across the international
development sector. Most programs are centered on a multidisciplinary
curriculum, covering a variety of topics and equipping students with versatile 2 Years
skills such as research and analysis, problem-solving and writing. Many schools DURATION
encourage students to focus on a specific subject, such as human rights or
international finance, during their second year. International relations programs
also emphasize cross-cultural experiences by offering language courses and
multiple study abroad options.

Demand & Outlook Courses You

Have To Take:
International relations degrees are broad and adaptable. This flexibility and
International Relations Theory
breadth is precisely what attracts young professionals exploring an uncertain
and History
job market or experienced professionals who want to jump-start their career
internationally. Here are some other factors influencing the demand for International Economics
international relations degrees in development. International Political Economy
Global Governance
Generalists in demand
International Law
In todays fast-changing and diversifying global development industry, employers
are increasingly looking for individuals who possess a wide range of soft skills.
From communications to resource mobilization to policy analysis, development
organizations need generalists who can adapt and lead in different types of jobs
Courses You
as they move up the ladder.
Might Want To Take:
Language skills critical to development The United Nations: Change or
Many international relations graduate programs require proficiency in a second Continuity?
language in order to be accepted. They also offer language training as part of Dealing with Violent Extremism
the curriculum. According to the Devex Next Generation Development Professional
Philanthropys Influence on
Survey, 72 percent of development professionals believe fluency in at least two
Global Policy
languages will be required to be successful in development in the future. Currently,
French and Arabic are among the most in-demand languages in international Building Democracies
development, while Mandarin Chinese is expected to grow in prominence. Public-Private Partnerships:
Aligning Resources and
Changing nature of global development Interests
Once an industry dominated by rich countries giving to poor countries,
international development is now far more diverse and includes different types
of organizations, people and roles. International relations degrees provide that
broad perspective so students can find their place in this new world.

Master of International Relations or Affairs

Director of Global Policy
Policy Advisor You lead the development of strategic
ENTRY-LEVEL and tactical approaches to policy
Political Affairs Officer You identify policy objectives and
and regulatory issues, including
devise appropriate and impactful
You monitor, analyze and report building coalitions with key policy
strategies to achieve those
political events and trends that stakeholders, anticipating relevant
objectives as well as supporting the
impact intraregional issues such as policy developments, and promoting
implementation of advocacy and
refugees, and recommend possible your organizations brand.
outreach strategies.

We want the core staff to be good at building

partnerships, policy dialogue as well as resource
mobilization, among other skills.
Michael Dahl, Chief, Talent Acquisition, UNFPA

Distinguished Degree Holder

Anne-Marie Slaughter
President and CEO, New America
Oxford University

Master of Urban Planning
A Master of Urban Planning program examines regional and
urban development and its ecological, social and economic
This degree provides candidates with the technical and analytical skills to develop INDEX
and implement urban plans and designs, which ultimately serve the needs of
populations. Urban planning degrees traditionally cover topics such as urban
design, environmental planning and policy, and community and economic
development. Taking into account rapid global changes and advancements 2 Years
in technology and knowledge, new urban planning programs are integrating DURATION
international development, offering concentrations in sustainable urban design
and development and international planning. Still, given the broad nature
of urban planning, candidates are encouraged to specialize in a specific issue
relating to urban planning and land use management such as transportation,
water or sanitation.

Courses You
Demand & Outlook Have To Take:
Introduction to Urban Design
Building more efficient, livable and sustainable cities to accommodate the steady
and Development
influx of residents and workers is now a collective goal of the international
development community. SDG 11 urges the global community to make cities and Site and Infrastructure
human settlements inclusive, safe and resilient, stressing that while there are Systems Planning
significant planning challenges, properly managed cities can be incubators for Urban History and Theory
innovation and drivers of sustainable development. Here are some other factors
influencing the demand for urban planning degrees in development. Law and Planning
Urban and Regional Economics
Rapid urbanization
Mass migration to cities is accelerating and an increasing proportion of the worlds
population will be living in urban areas in the future. Managing urbanization will
Courses You
require sustainable urban planning and design skills as well as the ability to work
with affected local communities.
Might Want To Take:
Design of Sustainable
Technology and smart cities Communities
Smart Cities are sustainable urban areas that have improved social and public Governing the Twenty First
services due to the application of innovation and technology. As governments Century City
and donors sharpen their focus on smart cities, demand for high-tech urban
Community Economic
planners and urban infrastructure specialists is expected to increase.
Development: Origins, Policy
and Practice
Integrating disaster risk reduction
Land Use Planning
In recognition of urbanization, climate change and the growing threat of natural
disasters in many developing world cities, disaster risk reduction is now an Planning for Sustainable
integral part of any effective urban planning approach and forms a core part of Development
most urban planning curriculums.

Master of Urban Planning

Urban Conservation Director
Disaster Risk Management You are responsible for developing
ENTRY-LEVEL and implementing strategies
Municipal Finance and that increase urban resilience to
Urban Development Analyst You support and lead programs environmental challenges, including
within the disaster risk management projects that reduce risks for
You assist in the design and
portfolio in a specific region, including disadvantaged communities.
implementation of urban develop-
technical assistance, policy advisory
ment concepts and proposals, and
and procurement.
build partnerships with institutions
working on urban and city

Urban Planning is a very dynamic field. Urban

planners may be involved in activities such as
initial research, actual project planning, design
review, environmental impact assessment, and
stakeholder outreach.
Catherine Geisen-Kish, Integrated Community
Development and Planning Specialist

Distinguished Degree Holder

Sameh Wahba
Director, Social, Rural, Urban and Resilience Global Practice, World Bank
Harvard University

MIT Department of
Urban Studies and Planning

Work with award-winning

experts on some of humanitys
greatest challenges and bring
your appetite to Kings to explore
ground-breaking approaches and
ideas to address them.
The School of Global Affairs at Kings College London is a vibrant hub of multi-
the human
landscape to
disciplinary scholarship that seeks to address the most pressing issues facing our
rapidly globalising world today. Situated in the heart of London, Kings is home to
one of the most exciting and highly respected research communities in the world.
Postgraduate students at Kings enjoy outstanding connections with Londons

discover better
cultural, political, legal and health institutions, and opportunities to build networks
and invaluable skills.

We offer courses in Climate Change | Sustainable Cities | Tourism |

Environment & Development | Geopolitics | Water: Science & Governance

Find out more

kcl.ac.uk/geography | kcl.ac.uk/global-affairs

Study at a world top 25 university in the heart of London

(QS World University Rankings 2016-17)
Photo Credits

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Photo by: Kris Krg / CC BY-NC-ND

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Susan Desmond-Hellman photo from www.gatesfoundation.org

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Trader photo by World Bank Photo Collection / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
Jeffrey D. Sachs photo from jeffsachs.org

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Agriculture photo by Levi Morsy
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Rich Stearns photo from www.worldvision.org

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Capitol Building photo by TheAgency (CJStumpf)
Ban Ki-Moon photo from www.un.org

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Aid worker photo by DFID - UK Department for International Development / CC BY 2.0
Sue Turrell photo from http://policy-practice.oxfam.org.uk

Page 35:
Wind turbines photo by Master Wen
Jan Dusik photo by UNIDO / CC BY 2.0

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Flags photo by USAID U.S. Agency for International Development / CC BY 2.0
Anne-Marie Slaughter photo from www.newamerica.org

Page 41:
City photo by Max Boetinnger
Sameh Wahba photo from www.devfinance.net