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# Fins February 21, 2007

Outline
Heat Transfer with Fins Review previous material
What is a fin and why do we use them?
Larry Caretto Examples of fins
Mechanical Engineering 375 Analysis of fins
Heat Transfer Fin effectiveness

## Review Parallel Resistances Review Slab with Convection

Figure 3-6 from
1 1 1 A is area normal engel, Heat and
L
= + to heat flow Mass Transfer
T = 1
= As hconv + As hrad
Tsurr Rtotal Q& T T
First find heat flux from h1, h2, q& = = 1 2
Define total heat transfer L, k, T1, and T2 A 1 +L+ 1
coefficient, htotal h1 k h2
Figure 3-5 Once heat flux is known, find T1 and T2
from engel, 1
Heat and htotal = = hconv + hrad q& q&
Mass Transfer
As Rtotal T1 = T1 T2 = T 2 +
3 h1 h2 4

## Review Composite Figure 3-26 Effect of Insulation Thickness

Cylindrical Shell from engel,
Heat and Mass 2500
Transfer
2000
cylinder (or sphere) can
actually increase heat transfer!
1500
Heat loss physical
1000

## 500 Maximum heat transfer is at rc = k/h,

T1 T2 which may be less than physical radius
Q& =
1 1 r 1 r 1 r 1
0

+ ln 2 + ln 3 + ln 4 + 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
h1 2r1L 2k1L r1 2k2 L r2 2k3 L r3 h2 2r4 L Radius (in)
5 6

## ME 375 Heat Transfer 1

Fins February 21, 2007

## Resistances for Pipe Insulation

12
Review Conduction Shape Factor
10
Simplified analysis
8 for multidimensional geometries with each
surface at a uniform temperature
Resistance Insultation
6
(hrftF/Btu) Resistance
Convection
Use shape factor, S, whose equation is
4
Resistance
Total found from tables like engel Table 3-7
Resistance
Basic equation: Q& = kS(T T )
1 2
2
S must have dimensions of length
Equations for S depend on parameters in the
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
different geometries
Insulation Thickness (in)
7 8

## What is a Fin? Innovative Fin Designs

A fin is a extended Important
surface to application is
increase area for cooling of power
convection heat electronics
transfer How do we
Q& = hAs (Ts T ) analyze fin
Goal is to increase effectiveness?
As to increase Q &
is example of fin simple 1D fin
Figure 3-33 from engel, Heat Transfer

9
Figure 3-34 from engel, 10
Heat Transfer

Figure 3-35
from engel,
Heat Transfer Analysis What is Fin Shape?
S Conduction in x- Analysis does not consider shape of
direction cross section, only area and perimeter
T0 =
Tb Convection from Derivation of fin equation assumes
fin surface constant cross section
Fin may be in the shape of a uniform cylinder,
Heat balance but not a cone
over differential
Is fin two dimensional?
volume element
Yes, but one-dimensional analysis is
F p = perimeter
accurate if h/k < 0.2, where = D for
dT dT
kAc dx = kAc dx + hpx(T T ) circular fins, thickness for rectangular fins
x x + x 11 12

## ME 375 Heat Transfer 2

Fins February 21, 2007

## Fin Equation and Solution Boundary Conditions for C1, C2

T0 = Tb = base temperature at x = 0 = C1e mx + C2e mx
Define = T T so b = Tb T
First condition: base temperature is Tb
The fin equation for constant k and Ac is
so = b = Tb T at x = 0
d 2 hp
2
m 2 = 0 m2 = Alternatives for second condition
dx kAc
Infinitely long fin (requires C1= 0)
The solution to this differential equation Negligible heat transfer from end at x = L
is:
= C1e mx + C2e mx
coefficient for end at x = L
13 14

## Infinitely Long Fin Zero Heat Transfer at x = L

d d (T Tb ) dT
= C1e mx + C2e mx = C1e mx + C2e mx = = = mC1e mx mC2e mx
dx dx dx
C1 = 0 to keep solution finite At x = 0, = b; at x = L, d/dx = 0
At x = 0, = b = requires C2 = b
Algebraic details at end = b cosh m( L x)
T T = (Tb T )e
x hp kAc
= b e mx cosh mL
d m sinh m( L x) kb m sinh m( L x)
q& = k
dT
dx
= k (Tb T )e
x hp kAc
( hp kAc ) q& = k
dx
= kb
cosh mL
=
cosh mL
kA m sinh mL( L x)
Q& x =0 = Ac q& x =0 = kAc (Tb T ) hp kAc = kAc hp (Tb T ) Q& x=0 = Ac q& x =0 = c b = kAc hp (Tb T ) tanh mL
cosh mL
15 16

Hyperbolic Tangent

1
Convection
0.9
0.8
For convection (+
0.7 radiation) at x = L
0.6 use approximation of
tanh x

0.5
0.4
extra length
0.2
0.1
Lc, to give area Ac
0 Modified length, Lc =
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
L + Ac/p, will give
x
convection from end
Figure 3-39 from
17 18
engel, Heat Transfer

## ME 375 Heat Transfer 3

Fins February 21, 2007

Problem Solution
A pin (cylindrical) fin has a diameter of Use equation for finite length fin with
4 mm, a length of 5 cm, and a thermal end correction for convection
conductivity of 200 W/mK. If the heat Q& x=0 = kAc hp (Tb T ) tanh mLc m = hp kAc Lc = L + Ac p
transfer coefficient is 70 W/m2K, with a
surface temperature of 50oC and an air p = D = (0.004 m ) = 0.01257 m
temperature of 20oC, what is the heat Ac = D 2 4 = (0.004 m )2 4 = 0.00001257 m 2
transfer with and without the fin?
Given: k = 200 W/mK, h = 70 W/m2K,
( )
Lc = L + Ac p = 0.05 m + 0.00001257m2 (0.01257 m) = 0.051 m

## D = 0.004 m, L = 0.05 m, Ts = 50oC, T hp 70 W m K 0.01257 m

& with and without fin m= = = 18.71 m1
= 20oC, Find: Q kAc m2 K 200 W 0.00001257m2
19 20

## Solution II Increase of 40 times?

Q& x =0 = kAc hp (Tb T ) tanh mLc = (50 20)K
Factor of 40 increase in heat transfer is
just for area of fin
70 W
(0.01257 m )(0.00001257 m 2 ) 200 W 18.71
tanh (0.051 m ) A practical installation of small fins like this
m2 K m K m
one would have several fins on a surface
Q& fin = 1.05 W
Consider two areas on original surface
Without fin available area is Ac Area where pins occur will have increase by
factor shown in fin analysis
Q& no fin = Ac h(Tb T ) =
70 W
m2 K
(0.00001257 m )(30 K ) = 0.0264 W
2 Area without fins has usual flat surface result
Will consider this difference in determining
Increase by factor of 39.64 (effectiveness, ) fin effectiveness
21 22

## Fin Effectiveness Constant Ac Fin Effectiveness

Effectiveness, fin, is ratio of heat trans- Infinitely long fin Q& x =0 = kAc hp (Tb T )
fer with fin to heat transfer with no fin
Q& fin Q& fin
Fin with end Q& x =0 = kAc hp (Tb T ) tanh mL
fin = = convection
Qno fin hAb (Tb T )
&
Q& x =0 kAc hp (Tb T ) kp
fin = = =
Ab is fin area at base, same as Ac for fin hAc (Tb T ) hAc (Tb T ) hAc
with constant cross sectional area
Want fin effectiveness greater than one kAc hp (Tb T ) tanh mL kp
convfin = = tanh mL
to get additional heat transfer hAc (Tb T ) hAc

23 24

## ME 375 Heat Transfer 4

Fins February 21, 2007

## What makes a fin effective? What makes a fin effective? II

kp kp hp kp kp hp
fin =
kp
convfin = tanh mL = tanh L convfin = tanh mL = tanh L
hAc hAc hAc kAc hAc hAc kAc

For infinite fin high k, low h and high ratio Choose a base case and vary each
of p/Ac make a fin effective parameter from 0.1 to 10 times base value
Rectangular fin with width, w, and thickness, t,
For pin fin, p = D and Ac = D2/4, so
so that Ac = tw and p = 2(t + w)
p/Ac = 4/D; small D gives better
Base case has k = 200 W/mK, w = 0.03 m,
Effect of variables on fin with convection
t = 0.005 m, h = 70 W/m2K, L = 0.08 m
at end is not clear
Base mLc = 1.05 and = 28.5
25 26

## Effect of Parameters on Rectangular Fin Effectiveness

110
Base Case
Overall Fin Effectiveness
100
k = 200 W/mK
90 t = 0.005 m Original area, A = (area
w = 0.03 m
80 thermal conductivity
with fins, Afin) + (area
Fin Effectiveness

2
h = 70 W/m K fin thickness, t
70

60
L = 0.08 m
mL = 1.05
fin width, w
heat transfer coefficient
without fins, Aunfin)
( )
h fin A fin + Aunfin (Tb T )
fin length
Q& fin
50

40
=
30 Q&no fin hA(T T )
b
20

## 10 Q& fin A fin Aunfin

total = & = fin +
A
0
0.1 1 10 Qno fin A
Ratio of parameter to base value

## Figure 3-45 from

27 28
engel, Heat Transfer

## Fin Efficiency Fin Efficiency II

Compare actual Relation to effectiveness
heat transfer to Q& fin fin hAc (Tb T ) fin Ac
ideal case where fin = = =
for uniform &
Q fin,max hA fin (Tb T ) A fin
entire fin is at
cross section
A fin = Lc p base temperature Recall pin fin problem with D = 0.004 m
Q& fin and Lc = 0.051 m so Afin = pLc = DLc =
fin = & =
Q fin,max (0.004 m)(0.051 m) = 0.0006409 m2
Q& fin Previously showed = 39.64 so = (39.64)
(pD2/4)/(0.0006409 m2) = 0.777
Figure 3-39 from hA fin (Tb T ) 29 30
engel, Heat Transfer

## ME 375 Heat Transfer 5

Fins February 21, 2007

## Figure 3-43 from

engel, Heat Transfer

Figure 3-42 A p = Lc t
from engel,
Heat
Transfer

31 32

## Electronic Heat Sinks

Designed to protect equipment like
power transistors from overheating
Characterized by thermal resistance, R,
such that Q & = power dissipation =
(Tdevice - T)/R
See Table 3-6 in engel for examples
with R values
First part of table shown on next chart

33 34

Problem Solution
A power transistor that dissipates Tsurf T Tsurf T 70o C 25o C 1.125o C
Q& = R= = =
120 W has a maximum operating R Q& 40 W W
temperature of 70oC. Cooling air is
Only the HS 5030 mounted vertically
available at 25oC. Are any of the heat
(with R = 0.9oC/W) will satisfy this
sinks on the previous page suitable for
cooling requirement
this transistor?
& = 120 W, T = 70oC, T = The R values for the other heat sinks
Given: Q surf are too large (1.2oC/W and 5oC/W)
25oC
Find: Do devices have sufficient R
35 36

## ME 375 Heat Transfer 6

Fins February 21, 2007

## Extra Charts Zero Heat Transfer at x = L

d d (T Tb ) dT
The following charts show the details of = C1e mx + C2e mx = = = mC1e mx mC2e mx
dx dx dx
the fin equation solution for no
At x = 0, = b; at x = L, d/dx = dT/dx= 0
convection (dT/dx = 0) at x = L
d dT
b = C1 + C2 = = mC1e mL mC2e mL = 0
dx x = L dx x= L

b = C1 + C1e 2 mL
C2 = C1e 2mL

b b e 2 mL
C1 = C2 = C1e 2mL =
1 + e 2mL 1 + e 2mL

37 38

## Zero Heat Transfer at x = L II Zero Heat Transfer at x = L III

Combine results from last chart Rearrange exponential terms on last
mx b b e 2 mL chart and introduce hyperbolic cosine,
= C1e mx
+ C2e C1 = C2 =
1 + e 2 mL 1 + e 2mL cosh(x) = (ez + e-z)/2
b b e 2 mL e mx + b e 2mL e mx b e mL e mx + b e mL e mx e m( x L ) + e m( x L )
= e mx + e mx = b = = b
1 + e 2mL 1 + e 2mL 1 + e 2mL e mL + e mL e mL + e mL
2 cosh m( L x) b cosh m( L x)
Multiply fraction top and bottom by e-mL = b =
2 cosh mL cosh mL
b b e 2mL b e mL e mx + b e mL e mx
= e mx + e mx = b cosh m( L x)
1 + e 2mL 1 + e 2mL e mL + e mL Final result: =
cosh mL
39 40