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Fins February 21, 2007

Outline
Heat Transfer with Fins Review previous material
What is a fin and why do we use them?
Larry Caretto Examples of fins
Mechanical Engineering 375 Analysis of fins
Heat Transfer Fin effectiveness

February 21, 2007

Review Parallel Resistances Review Slab with Convection


Figure 3-6 from
1 1 1 A is area normal engel, Heat and
L
= + to heat flow Mass Transfer
Rtotal Rconv Rrad
T = 1
= As hconv + As hrad
Tsurr Rtotal Q& T T
First find heat flux from h1, h2, q& = = 1 2
Define total heat transfer L, k, T1, and T2 A 1 +L+ 1
coefficient, htotal h1 k h2
Figure 3-5 Once heat flux is known, find T1 and T2
from engel, 1
Heat and htotal = = hconv + hrad q& q&
Mass Transfer
As Rtotal T1 = T1 T2 = T 2 +
3 h1 h2 4

Review Composite Figure 3-26 Effect of Insulation Thickness


Cylindrical Shell from engel,
Heat and Mass 2500
Transfer
Review: Adding insulation to a
2000
cylinder (or sphere) can
actually increase heat transfer!
1500
Heat loss physical
(Btu/hr) radius
1000

500 Maximum heat transfer is at rc = k/h,


T1 T2 which may be less than physical radius
Q& =
1 1 r 1 r 1 r 1
0

+ ln 2 + ln 3 + ln 4 + 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
h1 2r1L 2k1L r1 2k2 L r2 2k3 L r3 h2 2r4 L Radius (in)
5 6

ME 375 Heat Transfer 1


Fins February 21, 2007

Resistances for Pipe Insulation


12
Review Conduction Shape Factor
10
Simplified analysis
8 for multidimensional geometries with each
surface at a uniform temperature
Resistance Insultation
6
(hrftF/Btu) Resistance
Convection
Use shape factor, S, whose equation is
4
Resistance
Total found from tables like engel Table 3-7
Resistance
Basic equation: Q& = kS(T T )
1 2
2
S must have dimensions of length
Equations for S depend on parameters in the
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
different geometries
Insulation Thickness (in)
7 8

What is a Fin? Innovative Fin Designs


A fin is a extended Important
surface to application is
increase area for cooling of power
convection heat electronics
transfer How do we
Q& = hAs (Ts T ) analyze fin
Goal is to increase effectiveness?
Automobile radiator Start with
As to increase Q &
is example of fin simple 1D fin
Figure 3-33 from engel, Heat Transfer

9
Figure 3-34 from engel, 10
Heat Transfer

Figure 3-35
from engel,
Heat Transfer Analysis What is Fin Shape?
S Conduction in x- Analysis does not consider shape of
direction cross section, only area and perimeter
T0 =
Tb Convection from Derivation of fin equation assumes
fin surface constant cross section
Fin may be in the shape of a uniform cylinder,
Heat balance but not a cone
over differential
Is fin two dimensional?
volume element
Yes, but one-dimensional analysis is
F p = perimeter
accurate if h/k < 0.2, where = D for
dT dT
kAc dx = kAc dx + hpx(T T ) circular fins, thickness for rectangular fins
x x + x 11 12

ME 375 Heat Transfer 2


Fins February 21, 2007

Fin Equation and Solution Boundary Conditions for C1, C2


T0 = Tb = base temperature at x = 0 = C1e mx + C2e mx
Define = T T so b = Tb T
First condition: base temperature is Tb
The fin equation for constant k and Ac is
so = b = Tb T at x = 0
d 2 hp
2
m 2 = 0 m2 = Alternatives for second condition
dx kAc
Infinitely long fin (requires C1= 0)
The solution to this differential equation Negligible heat transfer from end at x = L
is:
= C1e mx + C2e mx
Convection and radiation heat transfer
coefficient for end at x = L
13 14

Infinitely Long Fin Zero Heat Transfer at x = L


d d (T Tb ) dT
= C1e mx + C2e mx = C1e mx + C2e mx = = = mC1e mx mC2e mx
dx dx dx
C1 = 0 to keep solution finite At x = 0, = b; at x = L, d/dx = 0
At x = 0, = b = requires C2 = b
Algebraic details at end = b cosh m( L x)
T T = (Tb T )e
x hp kAc
= b e mx cosh mL
d m sinh m( L x) kb m sinh m( L x)
q& = k
dT
dx
= k (Tb T )e
x hp kAc
( hp kAc ) q& = k
dx
= kb
cosh mL
=
cosh mL
kA m sinh mL( L x)
Q& x =0 = Ac q& x =0 = kAc (Tb T ) hp kAc = kAc hp (Tb T ) Q& x=0 = Ac q& x =0 = c b = kAc hp (Tb T ) tanh mL
cosh mL
15 16

Hyperbolic Tangent

1
Convection
0.9
0.8
For convection (+
0.7 radiation) at x = L
0.6 use approximation of
tanh x

0.5
0.4
extra length
0.3 Use adjusted length,
0.2
0.1
Lc, to give area Ac
0 Modified length, Lc =
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
L + Ac/p, will give
x
convection from end
Figure 3-39 from
17 18
engel, Heat Transfer

ME 375 Heat Transfer 3


Fins February 21, 2007

Problem Solution
A pin (cylindrical) fin has a diameter of Use equation for finite length fin with
4 mm, a length of 5 cm, and a thermal end correction for convection
conductivity of 200 W/mK. If the heat Q& x=0 = kAc hp (Tb T ) tanh mLc m = hp kAc Lc = L + Ac p
transfer coefficient is 70 W/m2K, with a
surface temperature of 50oC and an air p = D = (0.004 m ) = 0.01257 m
temperature of 20oC, what is the heat Ac = D 2 4 = (0.004 m )2 4 = 0.00001257 m 2
transfer with and without the fin?
Given: k = 200 W/mK, h = 70 W/m2K,
( )
Lc = L + Ac p = 0.05 m + 0.00001257m2 (0.01257 m) = 0.051 m

D = 0.004 m, L = 0.05 m, Ts = 50oC, T hp 70 W m K 0.01257 m


& with and without fin m= = = 18.71 m1
= 20oC, Find: Q kAc m2 K 200 W 0.00001257m2
19 20

Solution II Increase of 40 times?


Q& x =0 = kAc hp (Tb T ) tanh mLc = (50 20)K
Factor of 40 increase in heat transfer is
just for area of fin
70 W
(0.01257 m )(0.00001257 m 2 ) 200 W 18.71
tanh (0.051 m ) A practical installation of small fins like this
m2 K m K m
one would have several fins on a surface
Q& fin = 1.05 W
Consider two areas on original surface
Without fin available area is Ac Area where pins occur will have increase by
factor shown in fin analysis
Q& no fin = Ac h(Tb T ) =
70 W
m2 K
(0.00001257 m )(30 K ) = 0.0264 W
2 Area without fins has usual flat surface result
Will consider this difference in determining
Increase by factor of 39.64 (effectiveness, ) fin effectiveness
21 22

Fin Effectiveness Constant Ac Fin Effectiveness


Effectiveness, fin, is ratio of heat trans- Infinitely long fin Q& x =0 = kAc hp (Tb T )
fer with fin to heat transfer with no fin
Q& fin Q& fin
Fin with end Q& x =0 = kAc hp (Tb T ) tanh mL
fin = = convection
Qno fin hAb (Tb T )
&
Q& x =0 kAc hp (Tb T ) kp
fin = = =
Ab is fin area at base, same as Ac for fin hAc (Tb T ) hAc (Tb T ) hAc
with constant cross sectional area
Want fin effectiveness greater than one kAc hp (Tb T ) tanh mL kp
convfin = = tanh mL
to get additional heat transfer hAc (Tb T ) hAc

23 24

ME 375 Heat Transfer 4


Fins February 21, 2007

What makes a fin effective? What makes a fin effective? II


kp kp hp kp kp hp
fin =
kp
convfin = tanh mL = tanh L convfin = tanh mL = tanh L
hAc hAc hAc kAc hAc hAc kAc

For infinite fin high k, low h and high ratio Choose a base case and vary each
of p/Ac make a fin effective parameter from 0.1 to 10 times base value
Rectangular fin with width, w, and thickness, t,
For pin fin, p = D and Ac = D2/4, so
so that Ac = tw and p = 2(t + w)
p/Ac = 4/D; small D gives better
Base case has k = 200 W/mK, w = 0.03 m,
Effect of variables on fin with convection
t = 0.005 m, h = 70 W/m2K, L = 0.08 m
at end is not clear
Base mLc = 1.05 and = 28.5
25 26

Effect of Parameters on Rectangular Fin Effectiveness


110
Base Case
Overall Fin Effectiveness
100
k = 200 W/mK
90 t = 0.005 m Original area, A = (area
w = 0.03 m
80 thermal conductivity
with fins, Afin) + (area
Fin Effectiveness

2
h = 70 W/m K fin thickness, t
70

60
L = 0.08 m
mL = 1.05
fin width, w
heat transfer coefficient
without fins, Aunfin)
( )
h fin A fin + Aunfin (Tb T )
fin length
Q& fin
50

40
=
30 Q&no fin hA(T T )
b
20

10 Q& fin A fin Aunfin


total = & = fin +
A
0
0.1 1 10 Qno fin A
Ratio of parameter to base value

Figure 3-45 from


27 28
engel, Heat Transfer

Fin Efficiency Fin Efficiency II


Compare actual Relation to effectiveness
heat transfer to Q& fin fin hAc (Tb T ) fin Ac
ideal case where fin = = =
for uniform &
Q fin,max hA fin (Tb T ) A fin
entire fin is at
cross section
A fin = Lc p base temperature Recall pin fin problem with D = 0.004 m
Q& fin and Lc = 0.051 m so Afin = pLc = DLc =
fin = & =
Q fin,max (0.004 m)(0.051 m) = 0.0006409 m2
Q& fin Previously showed = 39.64 so = (39.64)
(pD2/4)/(0.0006409 m2) = 0.777
Figure 3-39 from hA fin (Tb T ) 29 30
engel, Heat Transfer

ME 375 Heat Transfer 5


Fins February 21, 2007

Fin Efficiency Data Fin Efficiency Data II

Figure 3-43 from


engel, Heat Transfer

Figure 3-42 A p = Lc t
from engel,
Heat
Transfer

31 32

From engel, Heat Transfer

Electronic Heat Sinks


Designed to protect equipment like
power transistors from overheating
Characterized by thermal resistance, R,
such that Q & = power dissipation =
(Tdevice - T)/R
See Table 3-6 in engel for examples
with R values
First part of table shown on next chart

33 34

Problem Solution
A power transistor that dissipates Tsurf T Tsurf T 70o C 25o C 1.125o C
Q& = R= = =
120 W has a maximum operating R Q& 40 W W
temperature of 70oC. Cooling air is
Only the HS 5030 mounted vertically
available at 25oC. Are any of the heat
(with R = 0.9oC/W) will satisfy this
sinks on the previous page suitable for
cooling requirement
this transistor?
& = 120 W, T = 70oC, T = The R values for the other heat sinks
Given: Q surf are too large (1.2oC/W and 5oC/W)
25oC
Find: Do devices have sufficient R
35 36

ME 375 Heat Transfer 6


Fins February 21, 2007

Extra Charts Zero Heat Transfer at x = L


d d (T Tb ) dT
The following charts show the details of = C1e mx + C2e mx = = = mC1e mx mC2e mx
dx dx dx
the fin equation solution for no
At x = 0, = b; at x = L, d/dx = dT/dx= 0
convection (dT/dx = 0) at x = L
d dT
b = C1 + C2 = = mC1e mL mC2e mL = 0
dx x = L dx x= L

b = C1 + C1e 2 mL
C2 = C1e 2mL

b b e 2 mL
C1 = C2 = C1e 2mL =
1 + e 2mL 1 + e 2mL

37 38

Zero Heat Transfer at x = L II Zero Heat Transfer at x = L III


Combine results from last chart Rearrange exponential terms on last
mx b b e 2 mL chart and introduce hyperbolic cosine,
= C1e mx
+ C2e C1 = C2 =
1 + e 2 mL 1 + e 2mL cosh(x) = (ez + e-z)/2
b b e 2 mL e mx + b e 2mL e mx b e mL e mx + b e mL e mx e m( x L ) + e m( x L )
= e mx + e mx = b = = b
1 + e 2mL 1 + e 2mL 1 + e 2mL e mL + e mL e mL + e mL
2 cosh m( L x) b cosh m( L x)
Multiply fraction top and bottom by e-mL = b =
2 cosh mL cosh mL
b b e 2mL b e mL e mx + b e mL e mx
= e mx + e mx = b cosh m( L x)
1 + e 2mL 1 + e 2mL e mL + e mL Final result: =
cosh mL
39 40

ME 375 Heat Transfer 7