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Conflictoflaws
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Conflictoflawsorprivateinternationallaw(bothtermsareusedinterchangeably)[1]concernsrelationsacrossdifferentlegaljurisdictionsbetweenpersons,andsometimesalsocompanies,corporations
andotherlegalentities.[2][3]

Contents
1 Choiceoflaws
2 Privateinternationallawonmarriagesandlegaldissolutionofmarriages(divorce)
3 Privateinternationallawonunmarriedpersons
4 Contracts
5 Harmonizationoflaws
6 Seealso
7 Notes
8 References
9 Externallinks

Choiceoflaws
Courtsfacedwithachoiceoflawissuehaveatwostageprocess:

1.thecourtwillapplythelawoftheforum(lexfori)toallproceduralmatters(including,selfevidently,thechoiceoflawrules)and
2.itcountsthefactorsthatconnectorlinkthelegalissuestothelawsofpotentiallyrelevantstatesandappliesthelawsthathavethegreatestconnection,e.g.thelawofnationality(lexpatriae)orthe
lawofhabitualresidence(lexdomicilii).(InLatin,domiciliummeanshomeorresidence.)(Seealso'EuropeanHarmonizationProvisions':"Theconceptofhabitualresidenceisthecivillaw
equivalentofthecommonlawtestoflexdomicilii".)Thecourtwilldeterminetheplaintiffs'legalstatusandcapacity.Thecourtwilldeterminethelawofthestateinwhichlandissituated(lex
situs)thatwillbeappliedtodetermineallquestionsoftitle.Thelawoftheplacewhereatransactionphysicallytakesplaceoroftheoccurrencethatgaverisetothelitigation(lexlociactus)will
oftenbethecontrollinglawselectedwhenthematterissubstantive,buttheproperlawhasbecomeamorecommonchoice.[4]

Privateinternationallawonmarriagesandlegaldissolutionofmarriages(divorce)
Indivorcecases,whenacourtisattemptingtodistributemaritalproperty,ifthedivorcingcoupleislocalandthepropertyislocal,thenthecourtappliesitsdomesticlawlexfori.Thecasebecomesmore
complicatedifforeignelementsarethrownintothemix,suchaswhentheplaceofmarriageisdifferentfromtheterritorywheredivorcewasfiledwhentheparties'nationalitiesandresidencesdonot
matchwhenthereispropertyinaforeignjurisdictionorwhenthepartieshavechangedresidenceseveraltimesduringthemarriage.

Whereascommercialagreementsorprenuptialagreementsgenerallydonotrequirelegalformalitiestobeobserved,whenmarriedcouplesenterapropertyagreement(agreementforthedivisionof
propertyattheterminationofthemarriage),stringentrequirementsareimposed,includingnotarization,witnesses,specialacknowledgmentforms.Insomecountries,thesemustbefiled(ordocketed)
withadomesticcourt,andthetermsmustbe"soordered"byajudge.Thisisdoneinordertoensurethatnoundueinfluenceoroppressionhasbeenexertedbyonespouseagainsttheother.Upon
presentingapropertyagreementbetweenspousestoacourtofdivorce,thatcourtwillgenerallyassureitselfofthefollowingfactors:signatures,legalformalities,intent,laterintent,freewill,lackof
oppression,reasonablenessandfairness,consideration,performance,reliance,laterrepudiationinwritingorbyconduct,andwhicheverotherconceptsofcontractualbargainingapplyinthecontext.

Privateinternationallawonunmarriedpersons
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Unlikemarriagewhichhasaninternationalrecognisedlegalstatus,therearenointernationaltreatiesonrecognitionofunmarriedcouple'slegalstatus.Ifanunmarriedcouplechangeresidencetodifferent
countries,thenthelocallawonwherethecoupleislastdomiciledisappliedtothem.Thiscoverslegalstatusoftherelationship,rights,obligations,andallworldwidemovableandimmovableproperty.
Tootherwiseinterpretthelawwouldmeaniftheunmarriedcouplehadassetsinseveraldifferentcountries,theywouldthenneedseparatelegalcasesineachcountrytoresolvealltheirmovableand
immovableproperty.

Intheabsenceofavalidandenforceableagreementforanunmarriedcouple,hereshowtheconflictoflawruleswork:

FullMutabilityDoctrinepropertyrelationsbetweentheunmarriedcouplesaregovernedbytheirlatestdomicile,whetheracquiredbefore,duringoraftertherelationship.

Contracts
Manycontractsandotherformsoflegallybindingagreementincludeajurisdictionorarbitrationclausespecifyingtheparties'choiceofvenueforanylitigation(calledaforumselectionclause).Then,
choiceoflawclausesmayspecifywhichlawsthecourtortribunalshouldapplytoeachaspectofthedispute.Thismatchesthesubstantivepolicyoffreedomofcontract.Judgeshaveacceptedthatthe
principleofpartyautonomyallowsthepartiestoselectthelawmostappropriatetotheirtransaction.Thisjudicialacceptanceofsubjectiveintentexcludesthetraditionalrelianceonobjectiveconnecting
factorsitalsoharmsconsumersasvendorsoftenimposeonesidedcontractualtermsselectingavenuefarfromthebuyer'shomeorworkplace.

Harmonizationoflaws
Toapplyonenationallegalsystemasagainstanothermayneverbeanentirelysatisfactoryapproach.Theparties'interestsmayalwaysbebetterprotectedbyapplyingalawconceivedwithinternational
realitiesinmind.TheHagueConferenceonPrivateInternationalLawisatreatyorganizationthatoverseesconventionsdesignedtodevelopauniformsystem.Thedeliberationsoftheconferencehave
recentlybeenthesubjectofcontroversyovertheextentofcrossborderjurisdictiononelectroniccommerceanddefamationissues.Thereisageneralrecognitionthatthereisaneedforaninternational
lawofcontracts:forexample,manynationshaveratifiedtheViennaConventionontheInternationalSaleofGoods,theRomeConventionontheLawApplicabletoContractualObligationsoffersless
specializeduniformity,andthereissupportfortheUNIDROITPrinciplesofInternationalCommercialContracts,aprivaterestatement,allofwhichrepresentcontinuingeffortstoproduceinternational
standardsastheinternetandothertechnologiesencourageevermoreinterstatecommerce.Butotherbranchesofthelawarelesswellservedandthedominanttrendremainstheroleoftheforumlaw
ratherthanasupranationalsystemforConflictpurposes.EventheEU,whichhasinstitutionscapableofcreatinguniformruleswithdirecteffect,hasfailedtoproduceauniversalsystemforthecommon
market.Nevertheless,theTreatyofAmsterdamdoesconferauthorityontheCommunity'sinstitutionstolegislatebyCouncilRegulationinthisareawithsupranationaleffect.Article177wouldgivethe
CourtofJusticejurisdictiontointerpretandapplytheirprinciplesso,ifthepoliticalwillarises,uniformitymaygraduallyemergeinletter.WhetherthedomesticcourtsoftheMemberStateswouldbe
consistentinapplyingthoselettersisspeculative.

Seealso
A.V.Dicey
Conflictofinterest
Lexlocireisitae
ListofHagueConventionsonPrivateInternationalLaw
PlaceoftheRelevantIntermediaryApproach
MicrosoftCorp.v.MotorolaInc.

Notes
1.Briggs(2008).TheConflictofLaws.pp.23. Rogerson(2013).Collier'sConflictsofLaws.pp.34.
ClarksonHill(2006).TheConflictofLaws.pp.23. Symeonides(2008).AmericanPrivateInternationalLaw.pp.1516(para.2).
Collins(2006).Dicey,MorrisandCollinsonTheConflictofLaws.p.36(paras.1087etseq.).
HayBorchersSymeonides(2010).ConflictofLaws.pp.13.
McCleanBeevers(2009).TheConflictofLaws.pp.45(para.1006).
NorthFawcett(1999).CheshireandNorth'sPrivateInternationalLaw.pp.1314.

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2.[1](https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/shared/shared_careers/other_pdfs/Working__in_the_international_field 3.[2](https://www.careers.dept.shef.ac.uk/pdf/intlaw.pdf)JanetForsyth,CareersAdviser,CareersService,
_aug_06_ed.pdf)JanetForsyth,CareersAdviser,CareersService,UniversityofEdinburgh(made UniversityofEdinburgh(reproducedandreeditedbytheCareersService,UniversityofSheffield)
availablebytheUniversityofNottingham)InternationalOpportunitiesintheLegalFieldabrief LegalBrief(sponsoredbyDLAPiper):InternationalopportunitiesinlawUnitedKingdom:Edinburgh,
overviewofoptionsandlinksforfurtherinvestigationUnitedKingdom:Edinburgh,EH1,Scotlandand EH1,ScotlandandSheffield,SouthYorkshire,S10,England,August2006(reproducedandreedited,
Nottingham,Nottinghamshire,NG7,England,August2006pp.1&2. August2012)p.1.
4.DowJonesvGutnick[2002]HCA56(http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/HCA/2002/56)

References
AmericanLawInstitute(ed.).RestatementoftheLaw,Second:ConflictofLaws.St.Paul.
Briggs,Adrian(2008).TheConflictofLaws(Seconded.).Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress.
Born,Gary(2009).InternationalCommercialArbitration.Kluwer.
Calliess,GralfPeter(2010).TheRomeRegulations:CommentaryontheEuropeanRulesoftheConflictofLaws.Kluwer.
CILEStudies(CenterforInternationalLegalEducationUniversityofPittsburghSchoolofLaw)PrivateLaw,PrivateInternationalLaw,andJudicialcooperationintheEUUSRelationship(htt
p://www.law.pitt.edu/academics/cile/publications/books/contents2)
Clarkson,C.M.V.Hill,Jonathan(2006).TheConflictofLaws(Thirded.).Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress.
Collins,Lawrence,ed.(2012).DiceyMorrisandCollinsonTheConflictofLaws(Fifteenthed.).London:Sweet&Maxwell.
Hay,PeterBorchers,PatrickJ.Symeonides,SymeonC.(2010).ConflictofLaws(Fifthed.).St.Paul,Minn.:West.
McClean,DavidBeevers,Kisch(2009).TheConflictofLaws(Seventhed.).London:Sweet&Maxwell.
North,PeterFawcett,J.J.(1999).CheshireandNorth'sPrivateInternationalLaw(13thed.).London:Butterworths.
Reed,Alan(2003).AngloAmericanPerspectivesonPrivateInternationalLaw.Lewiston,N.Y.:E.MellenPress.
Rogerson,Pippa(2013).Collier'sConflictsofLaws(Fourthed.).Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress.
Symeonides,SymeonC.(2008).AmericanPrivateInternationalLaw.WoltersKluwer.

Externallinks
TheEuropeanInstituteforInternationalLawandInternationalRelations(http://www.eiil.eu/en/component/content/article/84.html)
CONFLICTOFLAWS.NET(http://www.conflictoflaws.net)NewsandViewsinPrivateInternationalLaw
AmericanSocietyofComparativeLawOfficialwebsite(http://www.comparativelaw.org/)
ASILGuidetoElectronicResourcesforInternationalLaw(http://www.asil.org/resource/pil1.htm)
HagueConferenceonPrivateInternationalLaw(http://www.hcch.net/)officialwebsite.
MaxPlanckInstituteforComparativeandInternationalPrivateLaw(http://www.mpipriv.de)
BritishInstituteofInternationalandComparativeLaw(http://www.biicl.org/private_international_law/herbert_smith_seminar_series/)
InternationalChamberofCommerce(http://www.iccwbo.org/)
InternationalCourtofArbitration(http://www.iccwbo.org/policy/arbitration/id2882/index.html)
InternationalInstitutefortheUnificationofPrivateLaw(http://www.unidroit.org/)(UNIDROIT)
PrivateInternationalLaw,ResearchGuide(http://www.peacepalacelibrary.nl/researchguides/nationallaw/privateinternationallawingeneral/),PeacePalaceLibrary
UnitedNationsCommissionforInternationalTradeLaw(http://www.uncitral.org/)
U.S.StateDepartmentPrivateInternationalLawDatabase(http://www.state.gov/s/l/c3452.htm)
WhytheHagueConventiononjurisdictionthreatenstostrangleecommerceandInternetfreespeech(http://writ.news.findlaw.com/scripts/printer_friendly.pl?page=/commentary/20010927_sprigm
an.html),byChrisSprigman
EECRomeconvention1980(http://www.romeconvention.org/instruments/i_conv_cons_en.htm)
International&ForeignLawCommunity(http://www.lexisnexis.com/Community/internationalforeignlaw/landingpage.aspx?Item=333)
RepublicofArgentinavNMLCapitalLtd[2010]EWCACiv41(http://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWCA/Civ/2010/41.html),regardingahedgefund'senforcementofclaimagainstArgentina

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