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LAB:AnalysisofBleach

March29th2017

PurposeoftheLab
Thepurposeofthelabistodeterminetheamountofsodiumhypochloritein
commercialbleachthroughatitrationusingsodiumthiosulfateinthepresenceofiodineions
andstarch.

Pre-LabQuestions
1. Whatismeantbyatitration?

Atitrationisessentiallythetechniqueusedtodeterminetheconcentrationofan
unknownsolutionwithasolutionofaknownconcentration.

2. Asolutionofhouseholdvinegaristobeanalyzed.Apiperisusedtomeasureout10.0mLofthe
vinegar,whichisplacedina250mLvolumetricflask.Distilledwaterisaddeduntilthetotal
volumeis250mL.A25.0mLportionofthedilutedsolutionismeasuredoutwithastandard
solutionofsodiumhydroxide.Calculatethemolarityofthedilutedvinegar.

Dilutedvinegar:0.0344M

3. Calculatethemolarityofthehouseholdvinegar.

Householdvinegar:0.835M

4. Calculatethepercentbymassofaceticacidinthehouseholdvinegar.

Massofaceticacid:4.78%percentbymassaceticacid

Procedure
1. Useapipetbulbtotransfer5.00mLofbleachintoa100-mLvolumetricflask.Diluteto
themarkwithdeionizedwater--mixwell.
2. Weighout1.5gramsofsolidKI.
3. Pipet25.0mLofthedilutedbleachintoanErlenmeyerflask.AddtheKItothisand
about25mLofdeionizedwater.Mixwell.
4. Addapproximately2mLof3MHClwhilestirringthesolution.Thesolutionwillbecome
adarkyellow-redbrowncolor.

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5. Filltheburetwith0.100Msodiumthiosulfatesolution.Begintotitratethesolutionin
theErlenmeyerflaskuntilthecolorfadestoapaleyellow.
6. Addonedropperfulofstarchsolution--adarkbluecolorshouldbegintoappear.
7. Afteraddingthestarch,continuethetitrationwiththethiosulfatesolutionuntilthe
bluecolorbeginstodisappear.
8. RepeatthisprocedurefortrialII.

MeasurementsTaken
-Volume(mL)
-Mass(g)

Materials
-Bleach,5%,5mL,NaClO -Balance
-Hydrochloricacid,3M,HCl -Buret
-Potassiumiodide,KI -Erlenmeyerflask,125mL
-Sodiumthiosulfatesolution,0.100M -Pipetbulb
-StarchSolution,2% -Ringstand
-Volumetricflaskwithstopper
-Waterbottle
-Weighingdish
-Buretclamp
-Transferpipets,5-mLand25-mL

Data

TitrationofIodineSolution(OriginalTrial)
MolarityofNa2S2O3 0.1M

TrialI*** TrialII

InitialBuretReading 50.0mL 46.8mL

FinalBuretReading 26.0mL 24.0mL

VolumeofNa2S2O3Added 24.0mL 22.0mL


***TrialIisborrowedfromanothergroupsdatabecauseweovershottheendpoint.

TitrationofIodineSolution(PeerResultsforTrialsIIIandIV)
MolarityofNa2S2O3 0.1M

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TrialIII TrialIV

InitialBuretReading 50.0mL 50.0mL

FinalBuretReading 26mL 28mL

VolumeofNa2S2O3Added 24mL 22mL

Calculations
VolumeofNa2S 2O
3 added

Initial-Final=VolumeAdded
50.0mL-26.0mL=24.0mL

MoleRatio
1molClO-(1molI2/1molClO-)x(1molI3-/1molI2)x(2molS2O3/1molI3-)
=2molS2O32-

AverageVolume
VolumeofNa2S2O3added/2
24.0mL+22.0mL=23.0mL

Molarity
Molarity=molesofsolute/litersofsolution
0.0023/.05
=.92M

AverageMolarityoftheCommercialBleach
MconcxVconc=MdilxVdil
100.0mLx0.046M/5.00mL=.92M

PercentbyMass
Percentbymass=massofSolute/massofsolutionx100
(0.92molx74.4gNaClO)/(1000mLx1.08g)x100%
=6.34%

PercentError
PercentError=Accepted-Experimental/Acceptedx100
6.34-8.25/8.25
=23.15%

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Results
Fromourexperiments,wedeterminedthattheamountofNaClOinoursolutionwasabout
6.34%.Commercialbleachhasanacceptedvalueforcontaining8.25%NaClO,thereforeour
percenterrorwas23%.

Analysis/Conclusions
PostLabCalculations
1. Determinethenumberofmolesofsodiumthiosulfatethatareequivalenttoonemoleofsodium
hypochlorite.

1molNaClO-=2molS2O32-

2. CalculatetheaveragevolumeofNa2S 2O
3neededforthetitrationof25.0mLofdilutedbleach.

23.0mLofNa2S2O3istheaveragevolumerequiredforthetitrationof25.0mLofdiluted
bleach.

3. UsetheaveragevolumeandmolarityofNa2S 2O
3todeterminethemolarityofdilutedbleach.

0.46MNaClO

4. Calculatetheaveragemolarityofthebleachbeforeitwasdiluted.

0.92MNaClO

5. Assumethedensityofthebleachis1.08g/mol.CalculatetheaveragepercentbymassofNaClOin
thecommercialbleach.

6.34%ofNaClO

6. Fromthelabelinfoonthebleach,calculatetheaveragedeviationofthethreetitrationvalues.

Averagedeviation=1.91

7. Calculatethepercenterrorofyourvalue.

PercentError=23.2%

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PostLabAnalysis
1. Defineoxidationandreduction.

Anoxygen-redoxreactioninvolvesatransferofelectronsbetweentwospeciesina
reaction.Anoxidationreactionisareactioninwhichthematerialgivesupelectrons;
comparatively,reductioniswhereelectronsaregained.

2. Writebalancedoxidationandreductionhalf-reactionsfortheoverallredoxreactioninequations
(1)and(3).Identifywhichisoxidized/reduced.

Equation1:Cl2(aq)ClO-(aq)+Cl-(aq) Chlorineisreduced
2OH (aq)H2O(l)
-
Hydroxideisoxidized

Equation3:I2(aq)+I-(aq)I3-(aq) I2isreduced

3. Inthisanalysis,analiquot(dilutedfraction)oftheinitialsolutionisusedforthetitration.What
advantageistheretodilutingtheoriginalsolutionfortheanalysis?

Dilutionisusuallyusedforgreateraccuracyintitrations.Itusessolutionstrengthsthat
areclosetothetitratingagentconcentrationinordertoquicklyreachtheendpoint.Forthis
lab,itallowedustoreachtheendpointfasterwithasmalleramountofthiosulfate.

4. Howmany25.0-mLaliquotscanbemeasuredfroma100-mLvolumetricflask?Explain.

Froma100-mLflask,onlythreealiquotscanbemeasured.Itsnearlyimpossibleto
measuretheentiretyoftheliquidoutofaflask,thereforeyouwillonlyhavethreecomplete
aliquots.

5. Thereactionoftriiodidewiththiosulfateproducesthedithionateion.Calculatetheoxidation
numberofsulfurinthision.WillsulfuratomsinS4O 6 havethesameoxidationnumber?What
2-

mighttheoxidationnumbersbe?

Theoxidationnumberofsulfurindithionitewillbe2.5.ThesulfuratomsinS4O 6 donot
2-

havethesameoxidationnumbercomparatively.Twoofthesulfuratomshaveachargeof5,
whiletheothertwohaveachargeof2.

6. Howwouldeachofthefollowinglaboratorymistakesaffectthecalculatedvalueofthepercent
NaClOinthecommercialbleach?

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a. Instep1,thepipetwasrinsedwithdistilledwaterimmediatelybeforebeingusedto
measurethecommercialbleachsolution.
Ifthepipetwasrinsedwithdistilledwaterbeforebeingused,therewouldbeno
change.Thesmalldilutionofwaterwithinthepipetisnegligible,andcanultimatelybe
ignored.Iftherewassomehowalargeamountofwaterleftoverinthepipette,thedistilled
waterwoulddilutethebleachsolutionfurther,causingasmallerpercentofNaClOtoresult.

b. Instep2,threegramsofKIwereusedinsteadoftwograms.
TheoriginalamountofKIusedinthelabisalreadyinexcess,thereforethe
addingthreegramsinsteadoftwowouldhavenosignificanteffectonthevalueofNaClO.

c. Instep3,someoftheiodinethatformedsublimedfromthesolution.
Lesssolidiodinewillcauselessofareactionwiththiosulfate.Becauseofthis,a
smallerpercentofNaClOwouldresultfromthetitrationifsomeoftheiodinesublimed.

7. Whatisthemajorsourceofexperimentalerrorinthisexperiment?

AnsweredintheAnalysisoftheLabsection.

AnalysisoftheLab
Thepurposeofthelabwastodeterminetheamountofsodiumhypochloritein
commercialbleachthroughatitrationusingsodiumthiosulfateinthepresenceofiodineions
andstarch.Fromthislab,Ilearnedhowtocompleteamoredifficulttitrationinvolvingdilution
anditseffectonprecision.
ThislabwasmuchmoredifficultthanIoriginallythoughtfirsthand.WhileIhavedone
ahandfuloftitrationlabsinthepast,thisonehadanapplieddifficultythatreallysolicitedour
knowledgeofchemistry.Otherthantheobviousdifficulty,Ithoughtthelabwaspretty
interestingtopartakein,andIreallyenjoyedworkingwithmyteam.Eachteammemberdid
theirappropriatepartinordertomovethelabalongefficiently,anditwaspleasanttowork
through.
Ourpercenterrorforthislabwas23.2%.TheacceptedvalueofNaClOinbleachwas
8.25%,andourexperimentalvalueresultedtobeabout6.34%.
Therewasapotentialofnumerouserrorsinthislab.Oneprominenterrorwastheissue
ofcontamination.Therewasatotalofaboutfivesolutionsandspeciesusedthroughoutthelab,
andanyslightvariationorresiduewith/leftbehindbythespecieswouldhavehadasweeping
effectonourlabresults.Becausethebleachwasdiluted,andthedilutionofitcausedan
increaseinthedemandofprecision,thesmallestvariationintheamountofmaterialsused
wouldhavechangedtheoveralltitrationprocess.Thismeans,ultimately,thattheamountof

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thiosulfateusedtotitratewouldhavebeenlower/higher,andthepercentofsodium
hypochloritecalculatedwouldlikelybelower/higher.
Theprocedureweusedthroughoutthelabworkedwellenoughthatanychangewould
havenegligibleresultsoverallontheprocess.TheonlytweakIwouldmaketohowwe
conductedthelabreliesontheissueofusnotknowinghowpaletheyellowshouldhavebeen
whiletitratingthesolution.Wethoughttheyellowshouldhavebeenmuchpalerthanwhatit
wassupposedtobe--regardless,thelabprocedureitselfranefficientlyandwell.