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_______..

_
_____________ 2007 .




240100

2007
2
543

.. .

240100 . : - , 2006.
20 .

., ... H.M.


., ... ..



1 28 2005.

. ___________________ . .

-
-
..

3



, ,
..
,
.

1. .

(1-2):
= - lg C ( 1)
=14 + lg ( 2)
C , , /
1. , , + , - 0.01 HCl.
. ,

+ =0.01/. ( 1)
= -lg 0.01 =2. - ,
:
- =10-14/+ = 10-14/0.01 = 10-12
OH = -lg 10-12 =12
(3 )
+ = 14 (3)
2.

(4-5)
= 1/2 ( lgC) (4)
= 14 - 1/2( - lg C) (5)
2.1. 0.03 NH4OH
1:2.
. 0.03 ,
. (5)
(NH4OH )= 4.76
, :
= 14 1/2 (4.76- lg 0.01) = 10.62
2.2 100
=0.07300/ 100 (HCl/NaOH )
=0.004000/.

4
.
,
(6) :
( V)1 + ( V)2 = ( V)3 (6),
V3 =V1 + V2

(HCl )= (HCl )1000/(HCl )
=0.073001000/36.5 = 2.0 /; :
(HCl )=f (HCl ); f=1;
(HCl )= (HCl/NaOH )1000/(NaOH) =0.0040001000/40
=0.01/. ,
(6) . =
0.105 /, = -lg0.105 =0.98
2.3 . 200 0.01 NH4OH
100 0.03 NaOH ?
.
(5): =14 1/2 (4.76 lg0.01)
=10.62. =3.38,
- =10-3.38 =0.00046 /, ..
, - NaOH.
,
NaOH
.
= -lg1000.03/300 =2
3.
3 :
) (
, CH3COO Na).
(7):
= 7 + 1/2 + 1/2 lg ( 7)
) (
, NH4Cl ).
(8):
= 7 - 1/2 - 1/2 lg ( 8)
) (
, CH3COO NH4 ).
(9) :
= 7 + 1/2 - 1/2 (9)

, (7-9)
5

3.1. ( ) Na2 CO3 100


=11.16
. (7).

:
11.16 = 7 + 1/2 10.32 + 1/2 lg
=0.01/. ,
m = CV/1000= 0.01106100/1000
=0.1060
4.
:
) , CH3COO H + CH3COO Na
) , NH4OH + NH4Cl
) ,
NaH2PO4 + Na2HPO4
) , NaCO3 + Na2 CO3
) ,
Al(OH)2Cl + Al(OH)Cl2 ..
(10-11)
= lg C / (10)
= 14 + lg C / (11)
4.1. NH4Cl 200 0.1
NH4OH , =9.24 ?
. NH4Cl NH4OH
. (11).
, ,, : =0.1/.
: m = CV/1000= 0.153.5200/1000=1.0700.
5.

.
5.1. ,
50 0.1 HCl c ) 20 0.2 NaOH ; ) 51 0.1 NaOH; )
50 0.1 NaOH
. .
(n, n , )
.
.
) :

6
n = V = 500.1 = 5 ; n .= 200.2 = 4

:
n = 5-_4 = 1 ; n .= 0
..
, .
(12):
= - lg H+ = - lg (( V) ( V)))/(Vk +Vo ) (12)
= - lg (500.1 -200.2 )/70 = -lg0,014 =1.85
) :
n = V = 500.1 = 5 ; n .= 510.1 = 5.1
:
n = 0 ; n .= (5.1 5.0 ) = 0.1
..
, .
(13):
=14 + lg H- = 14 + lg (( V) ( V)))/(Vk +Vo ) (13)
=14 +lg(510.1 -500.1 )/101 = 11
) :
n = V = 500.1 = 5 ; n .= 500.1 = 5
:
n = 0 ; n .= 0
.
NaCl , , =7.
5.2. ,
50 0.1 H c ) 20 0.2 NaOH ; ) 51 0.1 NaOH;
) 50 0.1 NaOH
() =3.75

) :
n = V = 500.1 = 5 ; n .= 200.2 = 4

:
n = 5-4 = 1 ; n .= 0
..
H.
, Na ,

. (10).

7
, :
n =n .
C / n /n
= lg C / = 3.75 lg 1/4 = 4.35
) :
n = V = 500.1 = 5 ; n .= 510.1 = 5.1
:
n = 0 ; n .= (5.1 5.0 ) = 0.1
..
, .
(13):
=14 +lg(510.1 -500.1 )/101 =11
) :
n = V = 500.1 = 5 ; n .= 500.1 = 5
:
n = 0 ; n .= 0
.
Na , ,
( 7).
(14):
=( V) /(Vk +Vo ) =( V))/(Vk +Vo ) (14)
= 7 + 1/2 + 1/2 lg = 7 + 1/2 3.75 + 1/2 lg 5/100 =8.225
5.3.c 20 0.1
HNO3 0.2 , 0.1 %.

( .):
(V..)
, 0.1 %
, .. 99.9% .
V.. ( ) =(V) 0.999/o =0.1200.999/0.2 =9.99.
(12):
. = - lg (200.1 9.990.2 )/29.99 = 4.2
( .):
(V..)
, 0.1 %,
.. 100.1% .
V.. ( ) =(V) 1.001/o =0.1201.001/0.2 =10.01.
(13):
=14 +lg(10.010.2 -200.1 )/30.01 = 10.72

8
5.4. c 10 0.1
, ( ) =0.1 ;
0.2 %.

( .):
(V..)
, 0.2 %
, .. 99.8% .
V.. ( ) =(V) 0.998/o =0.1100.998/0.1 =9.98.

H : n K = 0.110 0.19.98=0.002 .
, Na ,

. (10).

, :
n =n .
C / n /n
= lg C / = 3.75 lg( 0.110 0.19.98)/0.19.98 = 6.45
( .):
(V..)
, 0.2 %,
.. 100.2% .
V.( ) =(V) 1.002/o =0.1101.002/0.1 =10.02.
13:
=14 +lg(10.020.1 -100.1 )/20.02 = 10


1. .. . , 189, .: , . 1, -
320 .
2. ... . .:
,1999-351.
3.... ..:-
,1971-456.

1
1. 50.0 0.02 50.0 0.02
. ?
2. Na2C2O4 100 =8.15?

9
3. , 10 0.1
NH4OH ) 5 0.2 ; ) 10
0.15 .
4. 100 0.1
0.1 NaOH.
. 0.2%.

2
1. 5 0.1 OH 45 0.02
NaOH . ?
2. 25 ,
= 8.52?
3. , 5 0.2
NH4OH c ) 5 0.1 HCl ) 10 0.1 HCl.
4. 100 0.1
0.2 NaOH.
0.1%.

3
1. , 50
50 = 0.005300 /.
2. 50 ,
=5.8?
3. , 50 0.2
) 100 0.1 NaOH , )110 0.1
NaOH .
4. 50 0.1
0.1 NaOH .
. 0.1%.

4
1. 40 10 0.5 Na3PO4 .
.
2. 2.15.
.
3. , 25 0.1
) 20 0.1 NaOH ) 30 0.1 NaOH.
4. 100 0.1 NH4OH
0.1 . 0.2 %

10
5
1. H+ , OH-, ,
4 NaOH 1 .
2. 500
= 3.5?
3. 0.1
.
?
4. 20 0.1
NaOH 0.1 .
0.2%.

6
1. . 90 10
0.1 .
2. 40
0.1 , =4.75?
3. 100 0.1 200 0.1
NaOH . ?
4.
.

7
1. = 0.0800/ .
. .
2. 100
=3?
3. 10 0.05
10 0.2 NaOH . ?
4.
.

8
1.50 0.4 25 0.2
. .
2. =12.
?
3. , 10
0.1 10 0.1
NaOH?

11
4. 0.1
NaHCO3 0.1 .
.

9
1 100 0.1 NH4OH 2.6
. .
2. HBr 3.
100 ?
3. , 10 0.1
34 20 0.1 .
4.
. .

10.
1.25 0.2 25 0.1
. .
2. 500 0.1
NH4OH, = 9.25.
3. ,
10 0.1 30 0.1
NaOH.
4.
. - 0.1 .
0.2%.

11
1. 45 0.01 NH4OH 5 0.5 NaOH.
?
2. 100 1
, 4.76.
3. 100 0.1 NaOH 55 0.2
. ,
.
4. 20 0.1
NH4OH 0.2 .
0.1%. .

12
1. 100 0.224 3
. ?.
12
2. 0.25 = 4.75?
3. 100 0.1 0.4 NaOH .
, ?
4. 20 0.1
NH4OH 0.2 .
0.2%.

13
1. H+ , OH- KOH =
0.05600/.
2. 250 ,
=8.5?
3. 50 0.1 NH 4OH 25 0.1
. , ?
4. 20 0.2
0.2 NaOH .
0.1%.

14
1. 500 11.2 3
. .
2. K224 200 , =
8.28 ?
3. , 50 0.1
) 25 0.2 NaOH, )25.1 0.2 KOH
4. 0.1 H 3PO4
?

15
1. , 50
0.1 50 0.2 .
2. KN 0.1 HCN ,
= 8.3?
3.
0.56 100 0.1 HNO2 .
4 . H 3PO4
?
.

13
16
1. , 3
1:5 .
2. HCN
= 8.2 , NaCN 0.1.
3.
100 0.1 0. 56 .
4.
? .

17
1. , 100 0.1
50 0.1 .
2. Na23 , 200 ,
=8.9.
3. , 10 0.
05 ) 2.5 0.1 ) 5 0.2 .
4. 50 0.1 .
0.2 .
0.1%.

18
1. 3 0.0770 / .
2.
, 11.
3. 0.1 N , 50%
90%.
4. 20 0.1 NH 4OH
0.2 . 0.1%.

19.
1. , + , 5.6
200 .
2. HClO2 100 =1.15.
3. 10 0.05 ) 50 % ,
) 80 % 0.05 .
4.
.

14
20.
1. , 100 5.35
NH4Cl.
2 150
= 2.
3. 10 0.1 H3PO4 20 0.1
.
4 .
.

21.
1.50 3 100 .
?.
2. b (NO3)2 100 ,
=4.36.
3. 0.1
HF .
4. 10 0.2
0.1 . 0.1%.

22
1. 25 0.03 50 .
.
2. 11.
?
3. 0.1
0.1 .
4. 20 0.1
0.2 .
0.1%.

23
1. 50.0 0.01 50.0 0.02
. ?
2. 2CO3 200 , =8.45?
3. , 20 0.1
N4OH ) 5 0.2 ; ) 20 0.15
.
4. 100 0.1
0.2 NaOH.
. 0.1%.
15
24
1. 15 0.1 OH 35 0.02
NaOH . ?
2. 250
, = 8.82?
3. ,
15 0.2 N4OH c )15 0.1 HCl ) 30 0.1 HCl.
4. 100 0.1
0.1 NaOH.
0.2%.

25
1. , 50
50 =2.485% ( =1.0150/3).
2. 100 ,
=5.2?
3. , 150 0.2
) 100 0.1 NaOH , )350
0.1 NaOH .
4. 50 0.1
0.1 NaOH .
0.2%. .

26
1. 40 20 0.3 3PO4 .
.
2. 1.15.
.
3. , 25 0.2
) 20 0.1 NaOH ) 50 0.1 NaOH.
4. 10 0.2 NH 4OH
0.1 . 0.2 %

27
1. H+ , OH-, ,
3
5.6 OH 2 .
2. 200
= 4.5?

16
3. 0.2
.
? .
4. 100 0.1
NaOH 0.1 HCl. 0.2%.

28
1. . 10 10
0.2 .
2. 20
0.2 , =4.75?
3. 100 0.2 200 0.2
OH . ?
4.
.

29
1. = 0.0800/
= 0.8000/.
. .
2. 200
=3.5?
3. 40 0.05 20 0.2
NaOH . ?
4.
.

30
1.50 0.2 10 0.1
. .
2. =10.
?
3. , 40
0.1 40 0.1
NaOH?
4. 10
0.2 NaHCO3 0.2 .
.

31

17
1. 100 0.05 NH4OH 1.6
. .
2. HBr 3.
10 ?
3. , 40 0.1
H3PO4 80 0.1 .
4.
. .

32.
1. 25 0.2 25 0.1
. .
2. 500 0.1
N4OH, = 9.25.
3. , 20
0.1 60 0.1
NaOH.
4.
. - 0.1 .
0.2%.

33
1. 90 0.01 N4OH 10 0.5 NaOH.
?
2. 100 1
, 4.76.
3. 100 0.1 NaOH 55 0.2
. ,
.
4. 20 0.1
N4OH 0.2 .
0.1%. .

34
1. 100 0.224 3
. ?.
2. 0.25 =
4.75?
3. 100 0.1 0.12
NaOH . ,
?
18
4. 20 0.1
N4OH 0.2 .
0.2%.

35
1. H+ , OH- KOH =1.05/3 ,=5.66%.
2. 250 ,
=8.5?
3. 50 0.1 N4OH 25 0.1
. , ?
4. 20 0.2
0.2 NaOH .
0.1%.

36
1. 500 11.2 3
. .
2. 224 100 , =
8.18 ?
3. , 50 0.1
) 25 0.2 NaOH, )25.1 0.2 KOH
4. 0.1 H 3PO4
?

37
1., 50
0.01 50 0.02 .
2. KN 0.1 HCN ,
= 8.3?
3.
0.056 100 0.1 HNO2 .
4. H3PO4
?
.

38
1. ,
=1.04/3 , =6.237%. 1:5
2. HCN
= 8.3 , NaCN 0.1.

19
3.
100 0.1 5.6 .
4.
? .

39
1. , 100 0.1
50 0.1 .
2. Na2CO3 , 200 ,
=8.9.
3. , 10 0.
05 ) 2.5 0.1 ) 5 0.2 .
4. 50 0.1 .
0.2 .
0.1%.

40
1. 3 0.0770 / .
2.
, 11.
3. N , 50% 90%.
4. 20 0.1 NH 4OH
0.2 . 0.1%.

41
1. , + , 5.6
200 .
2. HClO2 100 =1.15.
3. 10 0.05 ) 50 %
,) 80 % 0.0 .
4.
.

42
1. , 100
5.35 NH 4Cl.
2 150
= 3.
3. 15 0.1 H 3PO4 30 0.1
.

20
4 .
.

43
1.60 3 120 .
?.
2. b (NO3 )2 200 ,
=4.36.
3. 0.1
HF .
4. 10 0.2
0.1 . 0.1%.



240100

: 2007
60 84/16. .
. ... ...
21
150 . .
.634050,,.,30.

1. 30 0.03 60 .
.
2. 11.
?
3. 0.2
0.2 .
4. 20 0.1
0.2 .

45

1. , 200 5.35
NH3NO3.
2 250
= 4.
3. 15 0.1 H 3PO4 15 0.1
.
4 .
.

46
1.50 4 150 .
?.
2. NH4NO3 100 ,
=4.36.
22
3. 0.1
HF .
4. 20 0.2
0.1 . 0.1%.

47
1. 25 0.03 50 .
.
2. 10.
?
3. 0.1
0.1 . ?
4. 15 0.1
0.2 .
0.1%.



240100


60 84/16. .
RISO.... ...
150 . .
.634050,,.,30.
2004

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24

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