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pH-bf-hd-09

[]
: H2O H+ + OH- = [H+][OH]
[H2O]
[H2O]
55,5 / (1000 /18*).
[H2O] = Kw = [H+][OH] = 10-14
( )
() 1
Kw = [H+][OH] = 10-14 .
[H+] = 10-7.
pH = -lg [H+]
= 7
> 7 ;
< 7
: pH = -lg [H-]
+ = 14; ,

(-lg[H+]) :
E = E2 - E1 = (0,058/n)lg([H+]2/[H+]1) = 0,058 lg([H+]2/[H+]1)
.. lg[H+]
1909 ., . . (1909).



::
HCl H+ + Cl- ; [HCl] = 1 M [H+] = 1 M = 0
:
CH3COOH CH3COO + H+ ; [AH] = 1 M [H+] = ???
= [H+][ A]/[HA] = 1,8*10-5 ;
p = -lg () = 4,75

= [H+]2/[HA] [H+]2/1 M : 1) ;
2) ;
0,001. [H+] = ( *) .. .


:
1 CH3COOH - + H+
2 CH3COONa ANa - + Na+
= [H ][A ]/[HA] = 1,8*10-5 ;
+

[A] ( , );
[HA] . (. ). :
[H+] = ([]/[]) ; = -lg lg ([]/[]) = p - lg ([]/[])

Kw298 = [H+][OH] = 1014 pH = -lg C(H+) . - C(H+) = ( )1/2 = (/)1/2


. pH = pK+ lg(/) . -

. = 14 - lg(/) [OH] = [(Kw/)]1/2

1
: 1 1,7 NH3 3,65 HCl .
.
: 1,7/17=0,1 3,65/36,5= 0,1 .
NH4Cl ( ).
- < 7:
NH4Cl + H2O NH4OH + HCl
: [H+] = [(Kw/)]1/2.
(, 5,1 ),
- .
- NH4+ (
100%) :
NH3.H2O (NH4OH) NH4+ + OH
: = 14 - lg[]0/[]0
( > 7) .

, = 7
> 7
: CH3COONa (.)
< 7
: AlCl3 (. )

. .

. , () 2 .
CH3COONa + H2O CH3COOH + NaOH
:
CH3COO + H2O CH3COOH + OH
ANa - + Na+ , :
+ H2O AH + OH > 7
- -

[H+] [OH]
.
= ([A] [OH]) /[A]
[A] (2 ), [A] [OH]
. : = ([OH]2 ) /[2 ]
. = ([A] [OH]) /[A]
[H+]: = ([A] [OH][H+]) /([A][H+])
: = Kw / = 10-14/1,8*10-5
[OH] = ( 2 ) = [(10-14/1,8*10-5 )(2 )] 10-9 = 10-4,5
= 4,5 ; = 14 = 9,5

.., .., 2005

2
0,1 .
AlCl3 (1 ):
AlCl3 + H2O Al(OH)Cl2 + HCl
:
Al3+ + H2O Al(OH)2+ + H+
, , K(I) = 1.12*10-5 [1]

[H+] [OH];
.
? .
( 3- ) [ 2] : KAl(III) = 1,4*10-9
, Al(OH)3 :
Al(OH)2+ Al3+ + OH-
:
K(I) = ([Al(OH)2+][H+])/[Al3+]
, Kw .
, ,
( ), :
K(I) = ([H+]2 )/[AlCl3]
K(I) !!! .
K(I) [OH] :
K(I) = ([Al(OH)2+][H+][OH])/([Al3+][OH])
, [H+][OH] = Kw , ([Al(OH)2+])/([Al3+][OH]) = 1/KAl(III) .
K(I) = Kw /KAl(III)
:
K(I) = ([H+]2 )/[AlCl3] = Kw /KAl(III) ;
[H+] = [(Kw /KAl(III) ) ([AlCl3])] = [(10-14/1,4*10-9 )*0,1] = 0,7*10-6 = 0,85*10-3 10-3
= 3
[H+] , , (
), .

hydrl-36
1: = 1,1*10 10.
/?
: : BaSO4 = Ba2+ + SO42 . = [Ba2+][ SO42] .
Ba2+ SO42. 2 = 1,1*1010. = (1,1*1010)
. 137 + 96 = 233 .
/: 233* = 233*1,05*10 5 = 244*105 = 2,44*103 /
2: 0,000038% .
Zn(OH)2 .
: . 65+(17*2)= 99. 100 0,000038
, 1 (1000 ) 0,00038 .
1 : (3,8*104 )/(99 /) = 3,84*106 /;
: Zn(OH)2 = Zn2+ + 2 OH [Zn(OH)2] = [Zn2+][OH]2
Zn(OH)2 Zn2+ 2 OH .
[Zn(OH)2] = (3,84*7,68*7,68)1018 = 2,3*1016

1 . .. ., 1988, . 433
2 (2005)
3
( 100%) :
() HCl = H+ + Cl- HBr, HI
HNO3 = H+ + NO3-
H2SO4 = 2H+ + SO42-
HClO4 = H+ + ClO4-

H3PO4 = H+ + H2PO4- K1 = ([H+][ H2PO4-])/[H3PO4] = 7*10-3
H2PO4- H+ + HPO42- K2 = 6,2*10-8
HPO42- H+ + PO43- K3 = 4,8*10-13
(. . . 303-304 .)
CH3COOH H+ + CH3COO- K = ([H+][ CH3COO-])/[ CH3COOH] = 1,8*10-5
HCOOH H+ + HCOO-
H2S H+ + HS- K1 = 5,7*10-8
HS- H+ + S2- K2 = 1,2*10-15

: H2O H+ + OH- Kw = [H+][OH] = 10-14 250

() 100% :
( ) NaOH = Na+ + OH-
KOH = K+ + OH-
( ) Ca(OH)2 = Ca2+ + 2 OH-
Ba(OH)2 = Ba2+ + 2 OH-

(. . . 302-303 .)
( ) NH3.H2O NH4+ + OH- K = 1,8*10-5
Al(OH)3 Al(OH)2+ + OH-
Al(OH)2+ Al(OH)2+ + OH-
Al(OH)2+ Al3+ + OH- K3 = 1,3*10-9

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