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Diamond is a Crystalline form of carbon
Diamond is the hardest material with high
melting point
The property of forming bonds with atoms of Diamonds are used as precious stones for

the same element or tendency of self linking is jewellery because of their ability to reflect and
called catenation. refract light
Carbon shows maximum catenation. On moving Diamond dies are used for drawing thin wires
down the group catenation tendency decreases. Due to the hardness, diamonds are used for
This because the strength of C C bond is very cutting glass, drilling rocks and are used as
high and in case of other elements, strength of M abrasives.
M (where M = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) bond is In diamond each carbon atom is sp3 hybridized
decreases down the group. state and is linked to four carbon atoms by single
covalent bonds.
Bond Energy (kJmol1) In diamond each carbon atom is bonded to four
CC 348 other carbon atoms situated tetrahedrally around
Si Si 297 it.
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Ge Ge 260 Diamond is giant 3D molecule

Sn Sn 240 The C C distance in diamond is 1.54A0
Allotropy: Diamonds are bad conductors of electricity as
The property of an element to exist in two or more there are no unpaired electrons in them.
physical forms is called allotropy. The value of a diamond is expressed in terms of a
Except Lead, all other IV A group elements show mass unit called carat(1 carat = 200mg of
allotropy. diamond)
Allotropes of carbon: Diamonds are insoluble in all solvents
Crystalline forms: Diamond, Graphite, Fullerenes. In vacuum diamonds are stable upto 15000 C

Amorphous forms: Coal, coke, animal charcoal, but at 1800 20000 C , they are converted into
wood charcoal, lamp black, carbon black, gas graphite
carbon, petroleum coke, sugar charcoal. The high melting and boiling points of diamond
Lamp black is used in making boot polish, are due to Giant polymer structure with strong
printing ink, paint and black varnish. covalent bonds
Coal is formed in nature as a result of slow Diamond is chemically inert

decomposition of vegetable matter under the Diamond has higher thermal conductivity than
influence of heat, pressure and limited supply of graphite.
Total Number of atoms present in a diamond
cubic unit cell is 8.
Different forms of coal: Graphite:
(i) Peat (60% carbon) Graphite is a Crystalline form of carbon

(ii) Lignite(67% carbon)
Graphite is made by Achesons process:
(iii) Bituminous coal(common form)
(88% carbon)
3C coke SiO2 SiC 2CO
(iv) Anthracite(purest form of coal)
SiC Si C graphite
(95% carbon) (Burn without smoke)
The allotropic form of carbon formed by thermal
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decomposition of carborundum is graphite Density of graphite is less than diamond

Graphite is used as a lubricant, for making Density of diamond: 3510 kg / m 3
electrodes in electric furnaces, in electrotyping, in
electroplating, in the manufacture of refractory Density of graphite : 2220 kg / m3
crucibles, in the manufacture of lead pencils In graphite the layers are arranged in the
(graphite+clay) sequence ABAB with the third layer
exactly above the first layer.
Graphite is also known as black lead
In graphite the order of layers is
In graphite, each carbon is in sp hybridized state
The C C bond length in graphite is 1.42 A0 . Graphite act as metallic conductor parallel to the
Graphite has hexagonal layer structure with planes of layers.
mobile electrons Graphite act as semi conductor perpendicular to
Oxidation of graphite with alkaline permanganate the plane of layers.
gives mellitic acid , C6 COOH 6 , which Graphite is not paramagnetic

indicates presence of hexagonal rings in graphite Penetration of electron donating species such as
Graphite is used as lubricant due to the slippery Na, K and electron accepting species such as
nature F,Cl increase the conductivity of graphite.
Graphite consists of a series of layers in which Graphite forms inter calation compounds with
there are hexagonal rings made up of carbon alkali metals.
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heated with
atoms Graphite
vapours of K

C8 K
The distance between the layers in graphite is
C8 K is
3.35 A0 .
(i) paramagnetic
The inter layer distance in graphite is more than (ii) a better conductor than graphite
twice the covalent radius of carbon (iii) highly reactive than graphite
Due to the wide separation of the layers and due Fullerenes:
to the weak van der waals forces between the Fullerenes are prepared by the heating of graphite
layers of graphite, the layers can easily slide over in an electric arc in the presence of inert gases.
the other layers. Hence, graphite is soft, greasy Fullerenes are the only pure form of carbon.
and has lubricant property. Fullerenes are cage like molecules.
Graphite is thermodynamically more stable than C60 molecule has a shape like soccer ball and
diamond called Buckminsterfullerene.
f H 0 of graphite is taken as zero. Buckminsterfullerene contains 20 six membered
In graphite, the number of bonds formed by each rings and 12 five membered rings.
carbon in the same plane is 3 In Buckminsterfullerene a six membered ring is
In graphite, the number of bonds formed by fused with 6 or 5 membered rings but a 5
each carbon in the same plane is 3 membered ring can only fuse with 6 membered
Graphite is a good conductor of current but rings.

In Buckminsterfullerene all the carbon atoms are

diamond is non conductor because Graphite
has hexagonal layer structure with mobile elec- equal and they undergo sp 2 hybridization.
trons (free electrons) In Buckminsterfullerene each carbon atom forms
Graphite is chemically active three bonds with other three carbon atoms. The
Graphite reacts with hot concentrated nitric acid , remaining electron at each carbon is delocalized in
molecular orbitals, which in turn give aromatic
forming mellitic acid, C6 COOH 6 . character to molecule.

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Buckminsterfullerene contains both single and C2 unit: CaC2, BaC2(Acetylides)

double bonds with C C distance of 143.5pm CaC2 + 12H2O Ca(OH)2 + CH CH

and 138.3pm respectively.
SiO2 (Silicon dioxide)(Silica): C3 unit: Mg2C3(Propylide)
Mg 2 C 3 + H 2 O 2Mg(OH) 2 + CH 3
Allotropes of SiO2 : C CH : Propyne
Crystalline forms: Quartz, tridymite, cristobalite
Amorphous forms: Agate, jasper, onyx (ii) Covalent carbide : SiC & B4C
The purest form of silica is quartz or rock crystal (iii) Interstitial carbide : MC (Transition element or
Sand is the crushed form of quartz inner transitional elements forms this kind of
Sandstone is sand particles with iron oxide bound carbide)
to them Interstitial carbide formation doesn't affect the
Flint consists of amorphous silica associated with metalic lusture and electrical conductivity.( no
quartz chemical bond is present, no change in property)
Kiesulguhr is a siliceous rock composed of the SiC
remains of minute sea organisms
2000 to
as a building material. SiO2 + 2C(coke) Si + 2CO
as an acid flux in metallurgy.
Quartz glass is used for making special glassware 2000 to
Si + C SiC diamond like structure
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suitable for working with UV radiation as quartz 2500C

is transparent. colourless to yellow solid in room temp.
Bricks made from a mixture of powdered sand,
clay and lime are used for lining the surface used
when impurity is present
in the manufacture of steel.
Coloured variety of quartz are used as gems
while the transparent varieties of quartz are used (i) It is very hard and is used in cutting tools and
for the manufacture of lenses, optical instruments abrassive powder(polishing material)
etc., (ii) It is very much inert
Quartz is used as a piezoelectric material. (iii) It is not being affected by any acid except H3PO4
Silica gel is used as a drying agent and as a CO
support for chromatographic materials and How to detect
catalysts. How to estimate
Kieselghur, an amorphous form of silica is used in What are its absorbers
filtration plants.
Types of Carbide (i) How to detect
(i) Ionic and salt like: (a) burns with blue flame
Classification on basis of (a) C1 unit (b) CO is passed through PdCl2 solution giving
no. of carbon atoms (b) C unit rise to black ppt.
present in hydrocarbon (c) C3 unit CO + PdCl2 + H2O CO2 + Pd + 2HCl
found on their hydrolysis Black metallic
C1 unit: Al4C3, Be2C(Methanides) (ii) How to estimate
Be2C + H2O Be(OH)2 + CH4 I2O5 + 5CO I2 + 5CO2
Al4C3 + 12H2O 4Al(OH)3 + 3CH4
I2 + S2O 32 2I + S4O 62

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(iii) What are its absorbers (i) Feldspar K2O. Al2O3. 6SiO2
(a) Cu 2 Cl2 : CuCl + CO + 2H 2 O (ii) Kaolinite Al2O3. 2SiO2. 2H2O
(iii) Asbestos CaO. 3MgO. 4SiO2
Uses: Preparation
In the Mond's process of Ni - extraction (i) From silica (sand): Elemental silicon is obtained
CO is the purifying agent for Ni by the reduction of silica (SiO2) with high purity
coke in an electric furnace.
Impure Ni + CO Ni(CO)4 150
Ni + SiO 2 (s) + 2C(s) high temperature
Si(s) +
(ii) From silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) or silicon
recycled chloroform (SiHCl3) : Silicon of very high purity
Producer gas: CO + N2 + H2 required for making semiconductors is obtained
Water gas: CO + H2 by reduction of highly purified silicon
Water gas is having higher calorific value than tetrachloride or silicon chloroform with
producer gas. in water gas, both CO & H2 dihydrogen followed by purification by zone
burns while in producer gas N2 doesn't burn. refining.
Teflon (CF2 CF2
)n SiCl4(l) + 2H2(g) Si(s) + 4HCl(g)
SiHCl3(s) + H2(g) Si(s) + 3HCl (g)
CF 2 HCl Physical Properties :
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CHCl3 + HF
SbFCl 4
catalyst (i) Elemental silicon is very hard having diamond like
(ii) It has shining luster with a melting point of 1793
CF =CF Polymerisa

tion at
again2 2 high temp. and press K and boiling point of about 3550 K.
28 29
(iii) Silicon exists in three isotopes, i.e. 14 Si , 14 Si
(CF2 CF2
30 28
and 14 Si but 14 Si is the most common isotope.
Temp. withstanding capacity upto 500550C Chemical Properties:
Silicon is particularly unreactive at room
(1st organic compound withstand this kind of high
temperature towards most of the elements except
fluorine. Some important chemical reactions of
Silicon (Si) silicon are discussed below.
Occurrence (i) Action of air : Silicon reacts with oxygen of air
Silicon is the second most abundant (27.2%) at 1173 K to form silicon dioxide and with
element after oxygen (45.5%) in the earth's crust. nitrogen of air at 1673 K to form silicon nitride,.
It does not occur free in nature but in the Si(s) + O2(g) 1173
combined state, it occurs widely in form of silica Silicon dioxide
and silicates. All mineral rocks, clays and soils 3Si(s) + 2N2(g) 1673 K
are built of silicates of magnesium, aluminium,
Silicon nitride
potassium or iron. Aluminium silicate is however
(ii) Action of steam : It is slowly attacked by steam
the most common constituent of rocks and clays. when heated to redness liberating dihydrogen gas.
Silica is found in the free state in sand, flint and
Si(s) + 2H2O(g) redness
SiO2(s) + 2H2(g)
quartz and in the combined state as silicates like

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(iii) Reaction with halogens: It burns spontaneously Silicones

in fluorine gas at room temperature to form silicon It is organo silicon polymer
tetrafluoride (SiF4). CCl4 + H2O no hydrolysis
but CCl4 + H2O COCl2 + 2HCl
Si(s) + 2F2(g) Room
e SiF4(l) super heated steam
However, with other halogens, it combines at high
temperatures forming tetrahalides.
SiCl4 + H2O Si(OH)4 + 4HCl
(iv) Reaction with carbon : Silicon combines with
carbon at 2500 C forming silicon carbide (SiC) SiO2(3-D silicate)
known as carborundum.
R 2 SiCl2 + H 2 O R 2 Si(OH) 2
2 HCl
Si(s) + C(s) 2500
Carborundum is an extremely hard substance R R R
next only to diamond. It is mainly used as an
| | |
abrasive and as a refractory material.
O Si O Si O Si O
H 2O | | |
(i) Silicon is added to steel as such or more usually
in form of ferrosilicon (an alloy of Fe and Si) to Linear silicone
make it acid-resistant.
(ii) High purity silicon is used as semiconductors in R2CCl2 + H2O R2C(OH)2
2 HCl
looses H 2O
electronic devices such as transistors.
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(iii) It is used in the preparation of alloys such as
silicon-bronze, magnesium silicon bronze and O
ferrosilicon. 2
Compounds of Silicon :
What is silane. SinH2n+2 SiH4 & Si2H6 Silicones may have the cyclic structure also having
Only these two are found 3, 4, 5 and 6 nos. of silicon atoms within the
Higher molecules are not formed. Si can't ring.Alcohol analogue of silicon is known as
show catanetion property silanol
Hot Mg + Sivap Mg 2 Si R R
dil. H 2SO 4 | |
MgSO4 + SiH4 + Si2H6 + ...
R Si O Si R
Q.SiH4 is more reactive than CH4. Explain | |
Reasons | |
R Si O Si R
(i) Si H in C H | |
C electrove than H R R
cyclic silicone
Si less electro-ve than H
So bond polarity is reversed when Nu attacks, not planar
it faces repulsion in C but not in Si H 2O 2 H O
R3SiCl R3SiOH R3Si-O-SiR3
(ii) Silicon is having vacant d orbital which is not in
case of carbon
(iii) Silicon is larger in size compared to C. By which H O H O
the incoming Nu doesn't face any steric R 2 SiCl2 + R 3 SiCl

hydrolysis heating
hindrance to attack at Si whereas CH4 is tightly condensati on

held from all sides.

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units. These units have a tetrahedral structure

R R formed as a result of sp3 hybridistion. Silicon
| |
Si O Si atom has its complete octet but each oxygen atom
| | is still short of one electron to complete its octet.
They can complete their octet by taking up 4
electrons from a metal, getting converted to an
This end of the chain can't be extended hence
anion [SiO4]4. The [SiO 4 ] 4
R3SiCl is called as chain stopping unit
tetrahedral can be represented in three ways
* Using R3SiCl in a certain proportion we can
control the chain length of the polymer O

RSiCl3 + H2O R-Si(OH) 3

| | O
| | |

R Si O Si O Si O Representations of SiO 4
4 tetrahedra
| | | In some silicates, the oxygen atoms of SiO44 units
| | tend to complete their octet by sharing electrons
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with other silicon atoms, the oxygen atoms, thus,

cross linked silicone form bridges of the type SiOSi to other
3 dimensional network silicon atoms. The number of such bridges can
vary from one to four. This leads to the formation
It provides the crosslinking among the chain
making the polymer more hard and hence of complex silicates. Any oxygen which fails to
controling the proportion of RSiCl3 we can pick up electrons from the other silicon atom is
control the hardness of polymer. not able to complete its octet. The resulting silicate
Uses chains are, therefore, negatively charged anions.
(1) It can be used as electrical insulator (due to The metal cations generally present in silicate
inertness of SiOSi bonds) minerals are Li+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Al3+, etc.
Depending upon the way these SiO44 units are
(2) It is used as water repellant ( surface is
covered) eg. car polish, shoe polish, massonary linked, silicates of different structure and
works in buildings complexity are obtained. Some representative
(3) It is used as antifoaming agent in sewage disposal, types are:
beer making and in cooking oil used to prepare
potato chips.
(4) As a lubricant in the gear boxes.
(a) pyrosillicate (b) cyclic silicate (c) chain silicate
Silicates are regarded as the salts of silicic acid,
H4SiO4. All the silicates are comprised of SiO44

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Natrolite Na 2 Al 2Si3O10 2H 2O is a natural ion

Permutit water softeners use sodium zeolites.
Molecular sieves can be made with pores of
appropriate size to remove small molecules
Zeolite contains alumino silicate frame work.
The structural principle of zeolite is same as
Chemically zeolites are hydrated sodium alumino
Permutit : Na 2 Al2Si 2 O8 .xH 2 O
Artificical zeolites(Permutit) are characterized by
their open structures that permit the exchange of
(d) sheet silicate
Zeolite General formula is:
M x / n AlO 2 x SiO 2 y .zH 2 O or
Three dimensional silicates:: M nx / n AlO 2 x SiO 2 y .zH 2 O

Sharing all four corners of a SiO4 tetrahedron
results in a three dimensional lattice of M Na
, K , Ca 2 or Ba 2
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formula SiO2 (quartz, tridymite, cristobalite etc.,). ( n = charge on the metal ion)
Uses of zeolites:
Ex: Quartz, Feldspars, Zeolites and Ultramarines.
Zeolites are widely used as a catalyst in
Feldspar: petrochemical industries for cracking of
Potassium aluminium silicate/ barium aluminium hydrocarbons and isomerisation.
silicate/calcium aluminium silicate/ sodium aluminium ZSM 5(A type of zeolite) used to convert
silicate. alcohols directly into gasoline.
th Hydrated zeolites are used as ion exchangers in
Feldspar is formed when 1/4 of Si 4 in SiO 2 softening of hard water.
are replaced with Al3 and K ions. Note:
The mineral lapis lazuli is a splendid blue colour
and was highly prized as a pigment for oil paintings.
When some of Si 4 in frame work silicates are
It contains ultramarine Na 8 AlSiO 4 6 S2 in
replaced by Al3 and an additional metal ion, it
which the colour is produced by the polysulphide
results in the formation of zeolites. ion.
Zeolites have a much more open structure than The ultramarines are a group of related compounds,
the feldspars. which contain no water, but do contain ions such
Zeolites are often used as ion exchange as Cl ,SO24 and S22
materials, and as molecular sieves.
Some examples of ultramarines are:
Zeolites act as molecular sieves by absorbing
molecules which are small enough to enter the Ultramarine: Na 8 AlSiO 4 6 S2
cavities. Sodalite: Na 8 AlSiO 4 6 Cl 2
Then can absorb water, CO 2 , NH3 and EtOH
(sodalite cage is formed by linking 24 SiO4 in the
and they are useful for separating straight chain
form of tetrahedron)
hydrocarbons from branched chain compounds.
Nosean: Na 8 AlSiO 4 6 SO 4
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LEVEL -IV 6. Which of the following is incorrect

SINGLE ANSWER A) Graphite is thermodynamically more stable
than diamond
1. Which of the following halides does not B) Graphite is oxidized to mellitic acid when
exist? treated with conc. HNO3
A) PbF4 B) PbCl4 C) Diamond is chemically inert than graphite
C) PbBr4 D) PbI 4 D) Sn+2 ion is more stable than Pb+2
7. Which of the following is incorrect statement
2. Which of the following is the correct order
of reducing power of hydrides? A) silicon forms a number of compounds
containing p d bond
A) CH 4 < SiH 4 < GeH 4 < SnH 4 < PbH 4 B) C - Si bond is almost 50% ionic and 50%
B) CH 4 > SiH 4 > GeH 4 > SnH 4 > PbH 4 covalent
C) CH 4 > GeH 4 > SiH 4 > PbH 4 > SnH 4 C) Silica gel is crystalline solid used in
D) SiH 4 < CH 4 < SnH 4 < GeH 4 < PbH 4
D) Kieselguhr is one form of SiO2
3. Select correct order about stability of cations 8. Silicon dissolves in excess of HF due to
A) Ge > Sn > Pb
4+ 4+ 4+ formation of
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A) SiF4 B) SiH 4
B) Ge 2+ < Sn 2+ < Pb 2+
C) H 2 SiF6 D) H 2 SiF4
C) Pb 2+ > Pb 4+ ,Sn 4+ > Sn 2+
9. The correct order of increasing C O
D) All are correct statements bond length of CO, CO3 -2 and CO2 is
4. Bond energy is highest for A) CO3 -2 , CO2 , CO B) CO2 , CO3 -2 , CO
C) CO, CO3 , CO2 D) CO , CO2 , CO3 -2
A) Sn - Sn B) C - C 10. On heating K 4 [Fe(CN)6 ] with concentrated
C) Si - Si D) Ge - Ge H 2SO 4 , the product formed will be
5. Which of the following is cross link formation A) CO B) HCN C) CO 2 D) (CN) 2
linkage in silicones? 11. Which statement is false:
A) Water gas is a mixture of hydrogen and
CH3 2 Si O carbon monoxide
O B) Producer gas is mixture of carbon monoxide
A) CH3 3 Si O B) | and nitrogen
C) Water gas is a mixture of water vapour and
D) Natural gas consists of methane, ethane and
gaseous hydrocarbons
O 12. Carbon suboxide C3O2 may be obtained by
| CH 3 heating :
CH Si CH 2 A) Maleic acid with P4O10
| 2
C) O D) | B) Malonic acid with P4O10
| CH 3 C) Oxalic acid strongly
D) None of these
150 Narayana Junior Colleges

13. Consider following statements: 20. In sheet silicate number of oxygen atoms
I: In diamond, each carbon atom is linked involved in sharing are
tetrahedral to four other carbon atoms by sp 3 A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) 0
bonds 21. CCl4 is stable towards hydrolysis in water
II: Graphite has planar hexagonal layers of carbon whereas SiCl4 is easily hydrolysed by water
atoms held together by weak van der Walls because
forces A) carbon is more electropositive than silicon
III: Silicon exists only in diamond structure due B) CCl4 is covalent whereas SiCl4 is ionic
to its tendency to from p p bonds to itself. C) Silicon has a 3d orbital available for further
In this: coordination with water whereas carbon has no
A) Only I and II are correct d- orbital for bonding
B) Only I is correct D) carbon has high catenation capacity
C) Only II and III are correct 22. Purest form of silica is
D) All are correct statements A) Quartz B) Flint
14. Pyrene (a fire extinguisher) is C) Sand stone D) Keiselguhr
A) SiCl4 B) CCl4 23. CH 3 2 SiCl2 on hydrolysis and on
C) GeCl4 D) CHCl3 subsequent polymerisation will produce:
15. Chemically zeolites are
A) Aluminio silicate CH 3 CH 3
| |
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B) Calcium alumino silicate

C) Hydrated sodium alumino silicate CH 3 Si O Si CH 3
A) | |
D) Alkyl silicates
CH 3 CH 3
16. SiO2 can be dissolved in
A) HNO3 B) HF C) H 2 SO4 D) HCl
17. Trisilyamine (SiH 3 )3 N is B) CH 3 2 Si O
A) trigonal pyramidal and acidic
B) trigonal pyramidal and basic C) O CH 3 Si O
2 n
C) trigonal pyramidal and neutral
D) trigonal planar and weakly basic D) CH 3 Si O Si CH 3
18. In SiF62 & SiCl62 which one is known and 24. Which of the following type of compound is
why ? used to increase the hardness of the silicone
A) SiF62 because of small size of F polymer ?
B) SiF62 because of large size of F A) R2 SiCl2 B) RSiCl3
C) SiCl62 because of small size of Cl C) R3 SiCl D) R3 SiHCl
D) SiCl62 because of large size of Cl 25. The Silicates, in which three oxygen atoms
19. In silicon dioxide of SiO 4 -4 are shared is
A) Each silicon atom is surrounded by four A) Pyro Silicate
oxygen atoms and each oxygen atom is bonded B) two dimensional Sheet silicate
to two silicon atoms.
C) Linear chain silicate
B) Each silicon atom is surrounded by two
oxygen atoms and each oxygen atom is bonded D) three dimensional silicate
to two silicon atoms. 26. Silly putty is
C) Silicon atom is bonded to two oxygen atoms. A) Silicate B) Silicon polymer
D) There are double bonds to two oxygen atoms. C) silicon boride D) one form of silicon

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27. Which is incorrect statement about silicones? 35. The silicate ion in the mineral kinoite is a
A) they are repeating units ( SiO4 ) in silicates chain of three SiO 44 tetrahedral that share
B) they are synthetic polymers containing corners with adjacent tetrahedral. The
repeated R2 SiO units
mineral also contains Ca 2 ions, Cu 2 ions
C) They are formed by hydrolysis and on
subsequent polymerisation of R2 SiCl2 and water molecules in 1:1:1 ratio. The
D) silicones are used as a lubricants mineral is represented as
28. When SiO2 reacts with sodium carbonate, A) CaCuSi3O10 H 2O
the gas evolved is
B) CaCuSi3O10 2H 2O
A) CO2 B) O2 C) CO D) O3
29. Water glass is C) Ca 2 Cu 2Si3 O10 2H 2 O
A) Calcium silicate D) Ca 3Cu 5Si 4 O10 2H 2 O
B) Sodium calcium silicate 36. Which of the following statements is correct?
C) Sodium silicate A) Graphite is thermodynamically more stable
D) Magnesium silicate than diamond
30. The phenomena etching on glass is due to B) Diamond is thermodynamically more stable
the formation of than graphite
A) SiF4 B) H 2 SiF4 C) Graphite has such a high thermodynamically
C) H 2 SiF6 D) H 2 SiO3 stability that diamond spontaneously chages into
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31. The structure and hybridisation of Si in graphite under ordinary conditions.

Si(CH 3 ) 4 is D) Graphite and diamond have equal
A) pyramidal, SP2 B) Tetrahedral, SP 3 thermodynamic stability.
C) Angular, SP 2 D) Octahedral, SP 3 d 37. Silicones are a group of organosilicon
32. Which of the follwoing is used for the polymers containing
absorption of CO ? A) Si - O - Si linkages
A) Conc.H2SO3 B) Conc.KOH B) Si - Si linkages
C) Ammonical solution of AgNO3 C) Si - C - Si linkages
D) Ammonical solution of CuCl
D) O - Si - Si - O linkages
33. | X gas Y gas z gas 38. H2SO4 is not used for preparation of
COOH CO2 from marble chips because
Y and Z both are polar and neutral, X is
nonpolar and acidic. Z gas is condensed and A) it does not react
liquid formed having pH= 7. The B) huge amount of heat is evolved
hybridisation state of X, Y, Z are respectively C) the reaction is vigorous
A) sp, sp 2 ,sp3 B) sp2 ,sp 2 , sp3d D) calcium sulphate formed is sparingly soluble
C) sp,sp,sp3 D) sp2 ,sp 2 ,sp3 and gets deposited on marble chips which stops
34. Which of the following statement is correct? further reaction
A) C - F bond is stronger than Si - F because 39. On heating potassium ferrocyanide with
C - F bond length is shorter than that of Si - F concentrated sulphuric acid produces a
B) C - F bond is weaker than Si - F bond because neutral gas A. The gas A on treament with
of less difference in electronegativity caustic soda under high pressure proudced
C) Si - F bond is stronger than C - F bond B. What are A and B respectively
because of double bond character due to back
bonding from F to Si. A) CO 2 , Na 2 CO3 B) SO2 , Na 2SO4
D) Si - F bond is stronger than C - F bond due
to more difference in electronegativities.
152 Narayana Junior Colleges
40. A silicate anion in a mineral is a linear chain 46. In the following sub questions, choose the
of three silicate tetrahedral units that share correct answer from among the following
at corners. The silicate mineral contains possibilities and select correct code of your
answer (Answer of 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively)
A 2 and B2 ions. The formula of that
1) The most stable low valent halide (1)
mineral is
GeCl2 (2) SnCl2 (3) PbCl2.
A) A 2 B2Si 3O10 B) A 2 BSi3O9 2) A non existing halide (1) SnCl4 (2) PbCl4
C) AB2Si3O9 D) AB3Si3O8 (3) PbI4 .
41. _____ is the compound which can remove 3) A purely acidic oxide (1) PbO2 (2) SnO2
(3) SiO2
both oxygen and nitrogen of the air when
4) Thermally most stable hydride (1) NH3
passed over it at 10000 C ? (2) PH3 (3) AsH3.
A) CaC2 B) CaCl 2 A) 3, 2, 1, 3 B) 1, 3, 3, 1
C) 3, 3, 3, 1 D) 1, 1, 1, 3
C) CaCN 2 D) Ca CN 2 Strongoxidising agent
X acid
47. Graphitie oxidation
42. Select incorrect statement?
A) Mellitic acid is benzene hexa - carboxylic acid D Y , Y is :
e h yd ra ti o n

B) Pb reacts with HI to form PbI4 A) C3 O2 B)CO C) CO2 D) C12 O9

C) Pb dissolves in acid as well as in base 48. K 4 Fe CN 6 dil.H 2SO4 gas G1
D) Diamond is unreactive but graphite forms
K 4 Fe CN 6 conc.H 2SO 4 gas G 2
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CF n with F2
gas G1 and G2 are respecitvely.
43. C60 (fullerene) has the shape of a soccer ball, A) CO, CO2 B) HCN, CO
consider the following statements: C) HCN, HNC D) HCN, CO2
I. Fullerene is an allotrope of carbon 49. Which of the following is formed when CO
II. Fullerene has 5 and 6 membered rings is absorbed in cuprous chloride in ammonia
III. All carbons in fullerene are solution?

sp 2 hybridised. A) Cu CO 3 Cl B) CuCl CO H 2 O 2
Identify the correct statements: 2
C) CuCl 4 D) CuCO 3
A) I only B) III only
C) I,II and III D) I and II only 50. The silicate anion in the mineral kinoite is a
44. Which of the following occurs as a chain of three SiO4 tetrahedron, that share
consequence of inert pair effect ? corners with adjacent tetrahedra. The
a) SnCl2 acts as a reducing agent charge of the silicate anion is:
b) SnCl4 acts as an oxidising agent A) 8 B) 4 C) 6 D) 2

c) SnO2 is amphoteric 51. H 2 C 2 O 4 GasA GasB liquidC
d) PbO2 is an oxidant Gas A burns with a blue flame and is oxidised
e) CCl2 is unstable but PbCl2 is stable to gas B.
NH3 ,
A) a,d,e B) d,e GasA Cl2 D E
C) a,b,c,d,e D) a,b,c A,B,C and E are
45. Find out ratio of alkylgroup, silicon and A) CO2 , CO, H2O, HCONH 2
chlorine in alkyl substituted chloro silicon
B) CO, CO2 , H2 O, NH2 CONH 2
which is used in formation of cyclic silicons
which have four oxygen atom C) CO, CO2 , COCl 2 , HCONH 2
A) 1 : 1 : 1 B) 2 : 2 : 1 D) CO, CO2 , H 2O, COCl2
C) 2 : 1 : 2 D) 1 : 1 : 2
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52. Amphibole silicate structure has x number 58. Silicones reple water due to
of corner shared per tetrahedron. The value a) the presence of alkyl group pointed towards
of x is: surface
1 b) strong Si O Si bonds
A) 3 B) 4 C) 2 D) 2 c) low surface area
d) high vander Waals forces
53. Graphite is a soft solid lubricant extremely
59. Which of the following is incorrect about
difficult to melt. The reason for this
anomalous behaviour is that graphite
A) froms intercalation compounds with alkali
A) is a non - crystalline substance
B) is an allotropic form of diamond
C) has molecules of variable molecular masses B) thermodynamically more stable than diamond
like polymers C) is paramagnetic due to delocalised
D) has carbon atoms arranged in large plated of electron clourd
rings of stronly bonded carbon atoms with weak D) thermal conductivity is less than diamond.
inter-plate bonds. 60.
CaO Coke A B
54. Carborundum on heating with caustic soda A H2O
in presence of air produces Then the incorrect statement is:
A) Na 2SiO4 H 2 A) Gas B burns with blue flame
B) Na 2SiO2 H 2 B) A is an ionic carbide
C) A is called methanide
C) Na 2SiO3 H 2 D) Z is acetylene gas
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D) Na 2SiO3 Na 2 CO3 H 2 O
55. The species present in solution when CO2 is
dissolved in water is/are:
61. Which of the following statements are
A) only H 2 CO3 correct?
B) CO 2 , H 2 CO3 , HCO 3 , CO 32 A) Graphite is thermodynamically more stable
than diamond
C) only H 2 CO3 , HCO 3
B) -graphite has layers arranged as ABAB
D) only CO 2 , H 2 CO3 sequence
56. SiO2 3H2 F2 X 2H2O C) -graphite has layer arranged as ABCABC
During the formation of X an intermediate
product Y is formed. Hybridisation of central D) The number of C-atoms per unit lattice of
atom in X and Y respectively: diamond is 8.
62. Which of the following is true about
A) sp3d 2 ,sp3 B) sp3d,sp3d 2
allotropes of Carbon?
C) sp3d,sp3 D) sp3d 2 ,sp 2 A) Graphite a good conductor of electricity
57. Which of the following reactions is not because free electrons are spread out in the
correct? structure and the
adjacent layers are held by weak Vander Waals
A) Al4C3 12H 2O 4Al OH 3 3CH 4
B) CaCN 2 3H 2 O CaCO3 2NH 3 B) In C-60, there are 12 pentagonal and 20
hexagonal faces
C) CaC2 2H 2 O Ca OH 2 C2 H 2
C) Graphite is thermodynamically more stable
D) BF3 3H 2O B OH 3 3HF (complete than diamond
D) In diamond each carbon undergoes SP3
hydrolysis of BF3 ) hybridisation and is three dimensional.
154 Narayana Junior Colleges

63. The one which is/are regarded as ionic 68. Silicones are group of organo silicon
carbide(s): polymer, select correct statement(s) about
A) C43 B) C 4 C) C22 D) C34 them.
64. Which of the following have cyclic silicate
structures? A) R 3SiCl produce very complex cross linked
A) Si6O1812 B) SiO3 n polymeric silicones on hydrolysis
C) SiO3 n
D) SiO44 B) Their water repellency arises because silicone
65. Which of the following do not represent
chain is surrounded by organic side groups
pyrosilicates ?
C) Their strength and inertness are related to their
stable silica like skeleton of
| | |
A) Si O Si O Si
| | |

D) Hydrolysis product of CH 3SiCl3 will block

the end of the straight chain produce by hydrolysis
of CH3 2 SiCl2
69. Which of the following statement is/are
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correct regarding the compounds of carbon

family elements?
A) Maximum co-ordination number of carbon is
C) commonly occuring comopounds is 4, whereas
that of silicon is 6.
B) The stability order of group 14 dihalides is
SiX2 GeX2 SnX2 PbX2
C) The order of boiling point of hydrides of group
14 element is CH 4 SiH 4 GeH 4 SnH 4
D) MeSiCl3 on hydrolysis and subsequent

66. The two dimensional silicates are condensation will produce Me Si OH 3

A) Talc B) Muscovite 70. Which of the following is/are correctly
C) Kaolinite D) Asbestos matched?
67. Which of the following statement(s) is/are
wrong A) Be3Al2 Si6O18 - cyclic silicate
A) Carborundum and Boron carbides are true
covalent compounds B) Be 2 SiO4 - neso silicate
B) Al4 C3 and Be2 C are ionic carbides and
evolve methane on hydrolysis C) Sc 2 Si 2O7 - pyrosilicate
C) Al4 C3 and Be2 C contain C -4 units and
evolve methane and acetylene respectively on D) Ca 3 Si 3O9 - cyclic silicate
D) Carborundum is used as abrasive
Narayana Junior Colleges 155

71. Which one of the following is/are correct 75. Which of the following statement(s) is/are
statement(s)? correct regarding graphite and inorganic
A) In willemite Zn 2 SiO 4 and phenacite graphite?

Be 2 SiO4 , the Zn and Be atoms have a A) All atoms in graphite as well as inorganic

coordination number of 4 graphite are sp 2 hybridised.

B) In forsterite Mg 2 SiO 4 , the Mg has a B) Graphite is not having any charge

coordination number of 6 separation like inorganic graphite.
C) Both are slippery in nature
C) Ultramarine - Na 8 AlSiO 4 6 S2
D) Both are conducting electricity but graphite
D) Sodalite - Na 8 AlSiO 4 6 Cl 2 is less conducting in nature compared to
72. Incorrect statements about silicates? inorganic graphite.
A) Sorosilicate has Si 2 O 7 unit
B) Spodumene is a silicate ore of lithium has COMPREHENSION TYPE
Si 2O5 n Passage I:
C) Amphiboles contain OH groups bonded to Silicates are metal derivatives of silicic acid.
silicate ion
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Silicates are formed by heating metal oxide or

D) Three oxygen atoms of SiO 44 tetrahedral units metal carbonate with sand .
are shared in cyclic silcates. Na 2 CO 3 Na SiO , Na SiO etc
Fused with Sand

SiO 2 4 4 2 3

73. Select the correct statement about A silicate in general has Si O bond and
silicates? possesses a complex network solid having silicate
A) Cyclic silicate having three Si atoms contain ion SiO 44 as the basic structural unit.These
six Si - O - Si linkages silicates occurs singly or by sharing oxygen atom
1 is small groups, in cyclic groups, in infinite chains
B) 2 over oxygen atoms per tetrahedron or infinite sheets giving different structures to
silicates such as chain silicates, ring silicates, cyclic
unit are shared in double chain silicate silicates, sheet silicates, three dimensional silicates
C) Si 2 O 5 n is formula of double chain etc.,
silicate 76. The general formula SiO3 n forms 2

A) ortho silicates
D) SiO 44 units polymerise to form silicate
B) pyro silicates
because Si atom has less tendency to form
bond with oxygen C) cyclic silicates
74. Which of the following statement(s) is/are D) three dimensional silicates
true? 77. Number of oxygen atoms in pyrosilicate is
A) The lattice structure of diamond and A) 8 B) 7 C) 6 D) 5
graphite are different 78. Which of the following is ortho silicate ?
B) Graphite is thermally more stable than
A) Al2 OH 4 Si2O5
C) Graphite is harder than diamond B) K A l Si3 O 8
D) Graphite is an impure form of carbon while C) Sc 2 Si 2 O7
diamond is a pure form D) Z rS iO 4

156 Narayana Junior Colleges

Passage II:
83. Which of the following is not the property of
Silicon. The element silicon has two allotropic
modification (a) Amorphous silicon (b) silicone?
Adamantine silicon. Athird allotropic modification A) They are thermally stable
has been observed and is of doubtful character
B) They are having high volatility
known as graphitoidal silicon. Amorphous silicon
is obtained by heating well-powdered quartz of C) They are having water repellant property
finely silica with magnesium powder in a fireclay D) They are electric insulators
which is suitable for the manufacture of crucibles.
84. To get the silicone of
SiO2 2Mg Si 2MgO
The product is washed with dilute HCl to wash R 3 S i O S iR 2 n S iR 3 ; having 4 Si
away MgO and then with hydrofluoric acid to
remove uncharged silica. - O-Si linkage, the unit taken is
79 Crystalline silicon may be obtained by
heating potassium silicon fluoride with A) 3 unit of R 3SiCl and 2 unit R 2SiCl2
A) Al B) C
C) Zn D) Both (A) and (C) B) 3 unit of R 2SiCl2 and 2 unit R 3SiCl
80. Silicon reacts with fused aqueous NaOH to
C) 2 unit of R 2SiCl2 and 2 unit R 3SiCl
A) SiO2 B) SiO22 C) SiO32 D) SiO
D) 4 unit of R 2SiCl2 and 2 unit R 3SiCl
81. When silica is heated with carbon then silica
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is reduced to Passage IV:

A) Si B) SiO C) SiO32 D) SiC
The vast majority of silicates are insoluble in
Passage III:
water, exept alkali metal silicate. The extreme
The silicons ae organosilicon polymers containing
Si-O-Si linkage. They are usually prepared by stability of silciates is due to teh donatin of extra
hydrolysis of alkylchlorosilanes, teh silanols electrons from O atoms into the vacant 3d-orbital
formed as intermediates on hydrolysis condense of Si. The SiO4 tetrahedral units may occur singly
by intermolecular elimination of water with the or may share one, two, three or four O atoms
formation of Si-O-Si linkage through comers giving rise to cycle groups, chains
82. infintie layers of infintie three dimensional frame
O S i C H 3 2 O S i C H 3 O S i C H 3 2 O
O 85. Anion Si3O 9x present in benitoite. Then x
O S i C H 3 2 O S i C H 3 O S i C H 3 2 O is
A) 5 B) 6 C) 7 D) 12
The above silicone can be obtained by
hydrolysis of which of the following? 86. Select incorrect option for Si 4 O11 n
A) CH 3 3 SiCl A) It is the formula of double chain silicate
B) It is non planar polymeric anion
B) CH3SiCl3 CH 3 3 SiCl
C) Each silicon is surrounded by 2.5 oxygen
C) CH3 2 SiCl2 D) None of the above
D) CH3SiCl3 CH3 2 SiCl2

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90. Match the column

A) Mg 3 B2 water p) Produce methane
87. Match the following:
Column I B) Mg 2 C3 water q) Produce alkyne
A) Si 2 O 7 C) CaC2 water r) Produce electron
deficient gas
B) SiO3 n

D) Be2 C water s) Produce compound

2n which is used as antacid
C) Si 2 O 5 n
D) SiO 2
t) One of the product is
Column II
p) Cyclic silicate 91. Match the following:
q) Two dimensional silicate Column I Column II
r) Three dimensional network
A) Kaolinite p) Sc 2 Si 2O7
s) Pyrosilicate
88. Match the following: B) Chrysotile q) Be3Al2 Si6O18
Column I
A) Density C) Beryl r) Mg 3 OH 4 Si 2 O5
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B) Melting point D) Thortveitite s) Al2 OH 4 Si 2O5

C) Electro negativity
92. Match the following:
D) Metallic character
Column I Column II
Column II
p) Increases from carbon to lead A) BF3 p) Dimeric
q) Decreases from carbon to tin and then B) AlCl3 q) Pyrene
increases (vapour phase)
r) Decreases from diamond to silicon and then
C) CCl4 r) Tetrahedral
s) Decreases from carbon to silicon and then it is D) SiCl4 s) p p back bonding
almost same t) Lewis acid
t) Decreases from carbon to lead 93. Match the following:
89. Match the following: Column I
Column I A) Two dimensional sheet silicate
A) CCl4 B) Pyroxene chain silicate
B) SiF4 C) Pyro silicate
C) PbH 4 D) Amphibole chain silicate
D) SiCl62 Column II
Column II p) SiO 3 n
p) Cannot be formed due to large size of 6n
surrounding anion q) Si 4 O11 n
q) is a saturated compound r) 3 - corner oxygen atoms of each SiO 44 units
r) is an unsaturated compound
are shared
s) is a strong reducing agent
s) non - planar
t) is a strong oxidizing agent
158 Narayana Junior Colleges

94. Match the column: and due to smaller size of F steric repulsion
Column I will be less.
A) Ca 2 Mg 5 Si 4 O11 2 OH 2 99. Statement I :- Carbonate and silicates are
B) Mg 3 OH 4 Si 2O5
Statement II :- Carbon and silicon have same
C) Ca 3Si 3O9 number of valence electrons
D) LiAl SiO3 2 100. Statement 1 : CH 3 3 SiCl produces polymeric
Column II silicons on hydrolysis and followed by
p) Cyclic silicate
q) Chain silicate condensation
r) Each tetrahedron share two oxygens with \
other tetrahedron Statement 2 :Silicon does not form Si 0 due
s) Sheet silicate /
t) Each tetrahedron share three oxygen atoms to less effective lateral overlapping of 3p-2p
per tetrahedron with other tetrahedron orbitals
101. Statement 1 : Diamond is extremely hard and
STATEMENT TYPE QUESTIONS non volatile substance
Statement 2 : In diamond strong C-C bonding
Each question contains STATEMENT 1
is present throughout the crystal.
(Assertion) and STATEMENT 2 (Reason).
Each question has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) 102. Statement 1 : The value of x of Si 4 O12 is 8
and (D) out of which ONLY ONE is cor-
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rect. Statement 2 : In Si 4 O12 every SiO4
(A) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True; tetrahedra unit having 2 oxygen shared and 2
Statement-2 is a correct explanation for oxygen unshared.
(B) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True;
103. How many oxygen atoms are expected to
Statement-2 NOT a correct explanation for
be shared by each SiO44 tetrahedra to form
a cyclic silicate ion Si3O96
(C) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is False
(D) Statement -1 is False, statement-2 is True 104. One of the calcium silicates is called
Wollastonite. The silicate present in the
95. Statement I :- C3 O2 has linear structure mineral has a plane projection structure as
Statement II :- Each carbon atom in C3 O2 is follows.
sp hybridized
96. Statement I :- SiCl4 reacts with water but
CCl4 does not react with water..
Statement II :- SiCl4 is ionic but CCl4 is
covalent. A A

97. Statement I :- CO2 is a gas, while SiO2 is

solid A
Statement II :- Carbon has no vaccant d
orbitals but silican has. What is the positive charge that has to be
98. Statement I :- SiF62 is known but SiCl62 in provided to compensate the negative charge
not known of silicate.
Statement II :- Interaction of F lone pair
105. Number of oxygen atoms in pyrosilicate is
electrons with Si is stronger than that of chlorine
106. What is the maximum covalency for silicon?

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107. The number of corner of O atom shared per

tetrahedron in 2D silicate is________ 21.C 22.A 23.C 24.B 25.B
26.B 27.A 28.A 29.C 30.C
108. The following compound (CH 3 )n Si (Cl )4-n on
hydrolysis and on subsequent 31.B 32.D 33.C 34.C 35.C
polymerisation gives a branched chain 36.A 37.A 38.D 39.C 40.A
silicone. What is the value of n? 41.A 42.B 43.C 44.B 45.C
46.C 47.D 48.B 49.B 50.A
109. Number of moles of free electrons
51.B 52.C 53.D 54.D 55.B
responsible for electrical conductnace of 12
56.A 57.D 58.A 59.C 60.C
g of graphite are
110. Number of oxides possible for carbon at 61.ABCD 62.ABCD 63.BCD
normal condition is 64.ABC 65.ABD 66.ABCD
111. Number of bonding electrons present in one 67.C 68.BC 69.ABC
molecule of neutral oxide of C is 70.ABCD 71.ABCD 72.BCD
112. In C60 xnumber of 6 membered rings are 73.BD 74.AB 75.ABC
present and ynumber of 5 membered rings COMPREHENSION TYPE
are possible then the difference of x & y is 76.C 77.B 78.D 79.D 80.C
/ are 81.D 82.D 83.B 84.B 85.B
113. Maximum no. of O atoms are bonded with 86.C
114. Sum of the number of oxygen shared in 87.A-s; B-p; C - q; D - r
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88.A-r; B-q; C - s; D - p
between two silicon atoms in Si3O 96 and
89.A-q; B-r; C - s; D- p
Si3O10 is: 90.A-rs; B-qs; C - q; D- pt
91.A-s; B-r; C - q; D - p
115. Consider the following silicates:
92.A-st; B-prt; C - qr; D - rt
(a) BaTi Si3O9 (b) ZnCa 2Si 2 O 7 93.A-rs; B-ps; C - s; D - qs
Then calcualte x y , where x and y are total 94.A-q; B-st; C - pr; D - qr
number of monovalent and divalent oxygen
95.A 96.C 97.B 98.A 99.D
atoms in both silicate respectively:
100.D 101.A 102.A
116. Consider following three compounds:
(i) C x O y (ii) C x O y 1 (iii) C x 2 O y 1 103.2 104.6 105.7 106.6 107.3
108.2 109.1 110.3 111.6 112.8
If x=y=1, then calculate the value of p q , 113.4 114.5 115.3 116.5
where p and q are total number of sp 2 and
sp hybridised carbon atoms respectively in HINTS
given three compounds.
SINGLE ANSWER 1. Pb4+ oxidises I - ion.
01.D 02.A 03.D 04.B 05.C 1
06.D 07.B 08.C 09.D 10.A 2. Reducing Power bond strength
11.C 12.B 13.A 14.B 15.C
16.B 17.D 18.A 19.A 20.B 3. Based on inert pair effect & stable electronic
160 Narayana Junior Colleges

1 The reaction is possible because Si has vacant

4. B.E d orbital and C does not have the same.
bond length
SiCl4 and CCl4 , both are covalent.
8. Si 4 HF
SiF4 2 H 2
2HF 104. Si3O9
H2SiF6 6
105. Si2O7

K 4 Fe CN 6 6 H 2 SO4 6 H 2O 108. CH 3SiCl3

10. 109. 1 mole
2 K 2 SO4 FeSO4 3 NH 4 2 SO4 6CO
CuCH 2
110. CO, CO2 , C3O2
12. CH 2 COOH 2 C3O2
111. C O 6e
16. SiO2 HF H 2 SiF6 2 H 2O
17. Due to back bonding
19. every silicon is bonded with four oxygen atoms PREVIOUS IIT QUESTIONS
24. Hydrolysis followed by co ndensation
polymerization of RSiCl3 produces 3-D cross- SINGLE ANSWER QUESTIONS
linked silicones which are hard
28. Na2 CO3 SiO2 Na2 SiO3 CO2 1. H3BO3 is [2003]
29. Na2 SiO3 A) monobasic and weak Lewis acid
57. BF3 molecule show partial hydrolysis B) monobasic and weak Bronsted acid
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4BF3 3H 2 O B OH 3 3 H BF4 C) monobasic and strong Lewis acid

Out of four moles of BF3 , only one moleof BF3 D) tribasic and weak Bronsted acid
gives the hydrolysed product. 2. (Me)2SiCl2 on hydrolysis will produce
B) (Me)2Si = O
61. (A) is correct. The free energy of diamond is
C) [O (Me)2SiO ]n
1.9KJmol 1 more than that of graphite
(B) and (C) are true (Factual) D) Me2SiCl(OH)
(D) The unit lattice of diamond consist of C-atom 3. Name of the structure of silicates in which
forming FCC and in alternate tetrahedral voids three oxygen atoms of [SiO4]4- are shared is
C-atoms are present and these are terahedrally [2005]
bonded to one C-atom at corner and three C- (A) Pyrosiliocate (B) Sheet silicate
atoms face centres. (C) Linear chain silicate
65. Pyro silicates = Si2 O76
(D) Three dimensional silicate
COMPREHENSION TYPE 4. How can the following reaction be made to
proceed in forward direction? [2006]
Cyclic silicates = SiO3 n

76. B(OH)3 NaOH NaBO2 Na[B(OH)4 ] H2O
77. Si2 O76 (A) addition of borax
78. ZnSiO4 (B) addition of cis1, 2diol
80. Si NaOH Na2 SiO3 H 2 (C) addition of Na2HPO4
81. SiO2 C SiC CO
(D) addition of trans1, 2diol
96. SiCl4 4 H 2O Si OH 4 4 HCl
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5. With respect to graphite and diamond, which PREVIOUS IIT KEY

of the statement(s) given below is (are) cor-
rect? [2012] SINGLE ANSWER
1) A 2) C 3) B 4) D 5) B 6) B
(A) Graphite is harder than diamond. MULTIPLE ANSWER QUESTIONS
(B) Graphite has higher electrical conductivity 7) BD
(C) Graphite has higher thermal conductivity than 8) A-q, B-s, C-p, D-r
(D) Graphite has higher C C bond order than 9) C 10) A 11) C
12) 6 13) 3
(A) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is true;
Statement 2 is a correct explanation for
Statement 1.
1. The central boron atom in boric acid, H3BO3 is
(B) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is true;
Statement 2 is not a correct explanation electron deficient.
for Statement 1. OH2
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(C) Statement 1 is true, Statement 2 is false. H2 O: + B(OH)3 B [B(OH)4] + H+

Base Acid
(D) Statement 1 is false, Statement 2 is true. HO OH
6. Statement 1 : In water, orthoboric acid be-
2. It appears at the first sight that Me2SiCl2 on hy-
haves as a weak monobasic acid, because
Statement 2 : In water, orthoboric acid acts drolysis will produce Me2Si(OH)2 which ulti-
as a proton donor. mately upon loss of water, will form Me2SI = O.
7. Statement 1:Boron always forms covalent But silicon atom, because of its very large size in
bond, because comparison to oxygen, is unable to form p-bond.
Statement 2 :The small size of B3+ favours Thus, the product of hydrolysis is polymeric in
formation of covalent bond. nature.
8. Statement 1:Pb+4 compounds are stronger
Me OH Me
oxidising agents than Sn4+ compounds. Si Si = O + H2O
Me OH Me
Statement 2 :The higher oxidation states for
the group 14 elements are more stable for the
heavier Me Me
members of the group due to inert pair effect. Me Si O Si
Me Me
9. The coordination number of Al in the crys-
talline state of AlCl3 is [2009] 3. Two dimensional sheet structures are formed
10. The value of n in the molecular formula when three oxygen atoms of each [SiO4]4 tet-
BenAl2Si6O18 is [2010] rahedral are shared.
4. cis1, 2diol forms chelated complex ion with
the product, [B(OH)4] causing the reaction to
proceed in forward direction.

162 Narayana Junior Colleges


+ B +



5. In Graphite each carbon is sp2 hybridized

with one delocalized electron. So it conducts
heat and electricity.


6. Statement 1 is correct but Statement 2 in-

correct. Orthoboric acid (H3BO3) is soluble in
water and
behaves as weak monobasic. It does not donate
protons like most acids, but rather it accepts OH
It is, therefore, Lewis acid, and is better written
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as B(OH)3.

B(OH)3 2H2O
H3O [B(OH)4 ] ; Pka 9.25
7. Both statements are true. Boron forms only co-
valent compounds (bonds) because small sized
B ion polarizes the corresponding anion largely.
8. In group 14 elements, the lower (and not higher)
oxidation states are more stable for heavier mem-
bers of the group due to inert pair effect.
Thus Pb4+ is less stable as compared to Sn4+ (lead
is heavier than Tin). Therefore Pb4+ acts as a
strong oxidising agent than Sn4+. Hence State-
ment 1 is false and Statement 2 is true. Thus
the correct answer is option (C).


9. Coordination number of Al is 6. It exists in ccp

lattice with 6 coordinate layer structure.
10. Total cationic charge = Total anionic charge
2n + 6 + 24=36

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