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FF Suggested APS-C Suggested

Relative Aperture Angular Exposure Time Exposure Time


Aperture Clear Aperture Area Area (seconds) = (seconds) = Astro Lens Lenses Ian Norman Uses
Lens Focal Length (mm) (f/number) Diameter (mm) (mm^2) (radians^2) 500/Focal Length 360/Focal Length Score Mirrorless and Rangefinder Third Party DSLR Canon Nikon Fuji Micro 4/3 Sony Currently (Canon EOS 6D) Lenses Ian Norman Uses (Fuji X)
16mm/1.4 16 1.4 11.4 103 1.19 31 23 3,826 Fujinon XF 16mm/1.4
12mm/1.6 12 1.6 7.5 44 1.85 42 30 3,400 Hyperprime 12mm/1.6
50mm/0.95 50 0.95 52.6 2,176 0.15 10 7 3,252 Leica 50mm/0.95 Noctilux M Mitakon 50mm f/0.95
21mm/1.4 21 1.4 15.0 177 0.76 24 17 3,180 Leica 21mm/1.4 Summilux M
23mm/1.4 23 1.4 16.4 212 0.64 22 16 2,967 Fujinon XF 23mm/1.4 Fujinon XF 23mm/1.4
24mm/1.4 24 1.4 17.1 231 0.60 21 15 2,869 Rokinon 24mm/1.4* Rokinon 24mm/1.4
35mm/1.2 35 1.2 29.2 668 0.30 14 10 2,834 Voigtlander 35mm f/1.2 II
17mm f/1.8 17 1.8 9.4 70 1.08 29 21 2,228 Olympus 17mm/1.8
12mm/2.0 12 2 6.0 28 1.85 42 30 2,176 Rokinon 12mm/2.0* Olympus 12mm/2.0
18mm/1.8 18 1.8 10.0 79 0.98 28 20 2,146 Sigma 18-35mm/1.8*
35mm/1.4 35 1.4 25.0 491 0.30 14 10 2,082 Sigma 35mm/1.4 Art* Fujinon XF 35mm/1.4 Fujinon XF 35mm/1.4
50mm/1.2 50 1.2 41.7 1,364 0.15 10 7 2,038 Canon EF 50mm f/1.2L
20mm/1.8 20 1.8 11.1 97 0.82 25 18 1,994
21mm/1.8 21 1.8 11.7 107 0.76 24 17 1,924 Voigtlander 21mm f/1.8 Ultron
16mm/2.0 16 2 8.0 50 1.19 31 23 1,875 Rokinon 16mm/2.0*
40mm/1.4 40 1.4 28.6 641 0.23 13 9 1,844 Voigtlander 40mm f/1.4 Nokton
56mm/1.2 56 1.2 46.7 1,710 0.12 9 6 1,830 Fujinon XF 56mm/1.2
18mm/2.0 18 2 9.0 64 0.98 28 20 1,738 Fujinon XF 18mm/2.0*
24mm/1.8 24 1.8 13.3 140 0.60 21 15 1,736 Sony 24mm/1.8 - E Mount
28mm/1.8 28 1.8 15.6 190 0.45 18 13 1,530
22mm/2.0 22 2 11.0 95 0.70 23 16 1,505 Canon EF-M 22mm f/2.0 Canon EF-M 22mm f/2.0
50mm/1.4 50 1.4 35.7 1,002 0.15 10 7 1,497 Sigma 50mm f/1.4 Art* Nikkor 50mm f/1.4G/D Sigma 50mm f/1.4
23mm/2.0 23 2 11.5 104 0.64 22 16 1,454
24mm/2.0 24 2 12.0 113 0.60 21 15 1,406 Fuji X100s 23mm/2.0 Sony 24mm/2.0 - A Mount
55mm/1.4 55 1.4 39.3 1,212 0.12 9 7 1,368 Zeiss Otus 55mm f/1.4*
35mm/1.8 35 1.8 19.4 297 0.30 14 10 1,259 Nikkor 35mm f/1.8G
40mm/1.7 40 1.7 23.5 435 0.23 13 9 1,251
7mm/2.8 7 2.8 2.5 5 3.55 71 51 1,246 Zuiko 7-14mm/2.8
8mm/2.8 8 2.8 2.9 6 3.09 63 45 1,237 Rokinon 8mm f/2.8 II
85mm/1.2 85 1.2 70.8 3,941 0.05 6 4 1,220 Canon EF 85mm f/1.2 L
10mm/2.8 10 2.8 3.6 10 2.36 50 36 1,184 Rokinon 10mm/2.8
11mm/2.8 11 2.8 3.9 12 2.08 45 33 1,149 Tokina 11-16mm/2.8*
12mm/2.8 12 2.8 4.3 14 1.85 42 30 1,110 Zeiss Touit 12mm/2.8
14mm/2.8 14 2.8 5.0 20 1.47 36 26 1,032 Rokinon 14mm/2.8* Nikkor 14-24mm/2.8G Fujinon XF 14mm/2.8* Rokinon 14mm/2.8 Fujinon XF 14mm/2.8
35mm/2.0 35 2 17.5 241 0.30 14 10 1,020 Canon EF 35mm f/2.0 IS
15mm/2.8 15 2.8 5.4 23 1.32 33 24 994 Zeiss 15mm/2.8 ZM Zeiss 15mm/2.8 ZE/ZF.2 Canon EF 15mm/2.8
16mm/2.8 16 2.8 5.7 26 1.19 31 23 956 Sony 16mm/2.8 - E Mount
17mm/2.8 17 2.8 6.1 29 1.08 29 21 921 Canon EF-S 17-55mm/2.8
50mm/1.8 50 1.8 27.8 606 0.15 10 7 906 Canon EF 50mm f/1.8 II Nikkor 50mm 1.8G
85mm/1.4 85 1.4 60.7 2,895 0.05 6 4 897 Rokinon 85mm f/1.4
18mm/2.8 18 2.8 6.4 32 0.98 28 20 887
19mm/2.8 19 2.8 6.8 36 0.90 26 19 855 Sigma 19mm/2.8
55mm/1.8 55 1.8 30.6 733 0.12 9 7 827
20mm/2.8 20 2.8 7.1 40 0.82 25 18 824 Sony 20mm/2.8 - E Mount
7.5mm/3.5 7.5 3.5 2.1 4 3.31 67 48 796
8mm/3.5 8 3.5 2.3 4 3.09 63 45 792 Rokinon 8mm/3.5 Fisheye
10mm/3.5 10 3.5 2.9 6 2.36 50 36 758
50mm/2.0 50 2 25.0 491 0.15 10 7 734
24mm/2.8 24 2.8 8.6 58 0.60 21 15 717
27mm/2.8 27 2.8 9.6 73 0.48 19 13 652
15mm/3.5 15 3.5 4.3 14 1.32 33 24 636
28mm/2.8 28 2.8 10.0 79 0.45 18 13 632
16mm/3.5 16 3.5 4.6 16 1.19 31 23 612
18mm/3.5 18 3.5 5.1 21 0.98 28 20 568
85mm/1.8 85 1.8 47.2 1,751 0.05 6 4 542
35mm/2.8 35 2.8 12.5 123 0.30 14 10 520
40mm/2.8 40 2.8 14.3 160 0.23 13 9 461
17mm/4.0 17 4 4.3 14 1.08 29 21 451
12mm/4.5 12 4.5 2.7 6 1.85 42 30 430
100mm/2.0 100 2 50.0 1,963 0.04 5 4 374
135mm/2.0 135 2 67.5 3,578 0.02 4 3 278
70mm/2.8 70 2.8 25.0 491 0.08 7 5 271
200mm/2.0 200 2 100.0 7,854 0.01 3 2 188
200mm/2.8 200 2.8 71.4 4,007 0.01 3 2 96
300mm/2.8 300 2.8 107.1 9,016 0.00 2 1 64
Use this link to SHARE THIS DOC: goo.gl/iU13yN Recommended Lenses

*Highly Recommended!

Cameras and Lenses in my current kit


Canon 6D Fuji X-T1 Canon EOSSony
M a7S
Rokinon 14mm/2.8
Fujinon XF 14mm/2.8Canon EF-MRokinon
22mm f/2.0
14mm/2.8
Rokinon 24mm/1.4
Fujinon XF 23mm/1.4Rokinon 12mm/2.0
Rokinon 24mm/1.4
Sigma 50mm Fujinon
f/1.4 ArtXF 35mm/1.4 Rokinon 35mm/1.4
Rokinon 12mm/2.0 Voigtlander 40mm f/1.4 Nokton
Rokinon 8mm f/2.8 Fisheye II

Click here for an interactive exposure calculator that will also output the astro lens score.

The "Astro Lens Score" is a number derived by multiplying the values of various lens/camera traits such as angle of view, clear aperture
size and maximum exposure time without star trails. It's an arbitrary number and is only useful for comparing lenses to each other for the
purposes of taking untracked astrophotos. Calculations use the sensor area of an APS-C sensor but the shutter time suggestions of a full
frame lens. Lenses with higher ratings will be able to make higher signal to noise ratio photographs directly proportional to their rating
numbers. In other words, a lens that scores 2000 would be capable of making a photograph with twice as much signal versus a lens with
a score of 1000. This chart is purposed merely as a way to more easily compare one lens to another without having to swirl your brain
around with f-stops and angles of view.

For example: A 24mm/1.4 scores about 2800 while a 24mm/2.0 scores about 1400. Based on these numbers, the f/1.4 lens should be
able to collect approximately 2x more light (1 stop) than the f/2.0 lens which is what we would expect just by comparing f/numbers.

Theses scores do not account for noise and thus are NOT directly comparable across differing sensor sizes or different cameras.
Differing cameras have differences in sensor quantum efficiency and these calculations only assume a single sensor size and exposure
length. Keep in mind that these scores also do not take into account the other aspects of a lens's performance such as resolution,
astigmatism, chromatic, coma, spherical aberration, distortion, build quality etc.

If you wish to compare lenses across different sensor sizes and account for aberration performance check out the other sheet
tabs for each sensor size.

Suggested exposure times are the maximum recommeded exposure duration without star trails. The number may vary from what's
shown here depending on your sensor resolution or where in the sky you are pointing your camera. This number is a good starting point,
but check for star trails and adjust. You want to use the longest exposure you can with out star trails to maximize your light gathering.

Rokinon, Samyang and Bower lenses are all identical lenses made by the same Korean manufacturer: Samyang

About the product links in this doc: I use affiliate links to the respective products that I mention on this page. If you decide to buy one of
these products, consider using the links in this article to support Lonely Speck. It won't cost you anything extra but Lonely Speck gets a
small commission to support the website.
By Ian Norman, Creative Commons, Attribution, Sharealike, International 4.0