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Change management or

change leadership?
Received (in revised form): 3rd February, 2003

Roger Gill
is Director of the Research Centre for Leadership Studies at The Leadership Trust and
Visiting Professor at the University of Strathclyde Graduate School of Business, where
he was formerly Professor of Organisational Behaviour and Human Resource
Management and Director of Executive Development Programmes. In addition to
academic appointments in the UK and the USA, he has worked as a management
consultant in the UK, the Middle East and Southeast Asia and as a human resources
manager in industry in the UK.

KEYWORDS: leadership, management, change

ABSTRACT This paper argues that, while change must be well managed, it also requires
effective leadership to be successfully introduced and sustained. An integrative model of
leadership for change is proposed, reflecting its cognitive, spiritual, emotional and behavioural
dimensions and requirements. The model comprises vision, values, strategy, empowerment,
and motivation and inspiration. The paper concludes with a brief account of the application
of the model in varied strategic change situations.

. . . there is no more delicate matter to take 2002). The reason for this, this paper
in hand, nor more dangerous to conduct, contends, is not necessarily poor
nor more doubtful in its success, than to set management of change but more likely a
up as a leader in the introduction of lack of effective leadership.
changes. For he who innovates will have for While change must be well managed
his enemies all those who are well off under it must be planned, organised, directed
the existing order of things, and only
and controlled it also requires
lukewarm supporters in those who might be
better off under the new. (Machiavelli,
effective leadership to introduce change
14691527) successfully: it is leadership that makes
Roger Gill
Director, Research Centre
the difference. This paper proposes a
for Leadership Studies, In the early sixteenth century, Niccolo` new model of leadership which is the
The Leadership Trust,
Machiavelli clearly understood the result of a three-year study of the
Ross-on-Wye, problem of change. In The Prince, he burgeoning literature on the subject and
Herefordshire HR9 7YH, UK points out the difficulty and risk involved which has been successfully applied in
Visiting Professor, in implementing change, in particular several organisations in a variety of
University of Strathclyde resistance to change and, at best, lack of sectors planning and implementing
Graduate School of
Business, 199 Cathedral commitment to it.1 Some 500 years later, strategic change. The model proposes
Street, Glasgow G4 0QU, this is still a familiar problem. As that the leadership of successful change
Andrew Mayo says, Our organisations requires vision, strategy, the development
Tel: 44 (0)1989 760705;
Fax: 44 (0)1989 760704;
are littered with the debris . . . of of a culture of sustainable shared values
e-mail: rwtgill@aol.com yesterdays [change] initiatives (Mayo, that support the vision and strategy for

Henry Stewart Publications 1469-7017 (2003) Vol. 3, 4, 307318 Journal of Change Management 307

change, and empowering, motivating and the result of the nave adoption of
inspiring those who are involved or management fads. Such fads frequently
affected. This behaviour reflects the deal with only one aspect of an
underlying dimensions and requirements organisations functioning without regard
of leadership: the cognitive, the spiritual, to their implications for other aspects.
the emotional and the behavioural. Lack of communication or inconsistent
messages and the resulting
misunderstanding of the aims and process
WHY MANAGEMENT IS NECESSARY of change lead to rumours that
BUT NOT SUFFICIENT demoralise people and to a lack of
Change programmes often fail because of commitment to change.
poor management: poor planning, A lack of commitment to change may
monitoring and control, lack of resources be due to a lack of compelling evidence
and know-how, and incompatible for the benefits of change. It shows itself
corporate policies and practices. Good in objections, unwillingness to consider
management of change is a sine qua non. options or look at process issues, and the
How change may be mismanaged is use of hidden agendas or delaying
well known. Change efforts may fail tactics. Top management itself may
because of poor planning, monitoring display a lack of commitment to change.
and control, focusing more on the Their commitment is evident in several
objective than on the steps and process ways: their unequivocal acceptance of
involved, a lack of milestones along the ownership and responsibility for success
way, and failing to monitor progress and of the change initiative, eagerness to be
take corrective action. Change efforts involved, willingness to invest resources,
often lack the necessary resources, eg willingness to take tough decisions when
budget, systems, time and information, required, awareness of the impact of
and the necessary expertise their own behaviour, a consistent
knowledge and skills. Corporate policies message, and the holding of regular
and practices sometimes remain the same reviews of progress.
and become inconsistent with the aims Change efforts that are purely
and strategies for change. For example, managerial in nature, especially those
the performance criteria used in appraisal that are mismanaged, result in a lack of
and reward policies may not support and dedicated effort, conflict between
reinforce a desired performance-driven, functional areas and resistance to change.
teamwork-oriented culture, resulting in a Resistance to change is a common
disincentive or lack of incentive to phenomenon. Kubr (1996) provides a
change behaviour. A large European good account of why people resist
study found that the most successful change. A cognitive and behavioural
organisations make mutually supportive reason is lack of know-how. A lack of
changes in terms of changes in roles, conviction that change is needed
governance structures and strategies questioning the meaning and value of the
(Whittington et al., 1999). change for individuals inevitably leads
Change is all too often regarded as a to a lack of motivation to change. Perhaps
quick fix. This fails to address the the most powerful forces of resistance to
implications of the change for the change, however, are emotional:
organisation as a whole and therefore
causes unforeseen and unacceptable dislike of imposed change
disruption. Change initiatives are often dislike of surprises

308 Journal of Change Management Vol. 3, 4, 307318 Henry Stewart Publications 1469-7017 (2003)
Change management or change leadership?

lack of self-confidence and confidence together or inspire change. In fact, [it]

in others: fear of the unknown and of probably had just the opposite effect.
inadequacy and failure and the
adverse consequences, such as share In his classic statements on management
price decline and blame and leadership, Kotter (1990a, 1990b)
reluctance of management to deal says that management produces orderly
with difficult issues (especially in the results which keep something working
case of managers approaching efficiently, whereas leadership creates
retirement) useful change; neither is necessarily better
disturbed practices, habits and or a replacement for the other. Both are
relationships: Weve always done it needed if organisations and nations are to
this way. Moving people from their prosper. He also says, however:
comfort zone means moving from
the familiar, secure and controllable to Managements mandate is to minimise risk
the unfamiliar, insecure and and to keep the current system operating.
uncertainly controllable Change, by definition, requires creating a
self-interest and shifts in power and new system, which in turn always demands
leadership. (Kotter, 1995a)
influence such as loss or change of
role in the organisation
Sadler (1997) concurs:
lack of respect and trust in the person
or people promoting change and
we have observed dramatic transformations
scepticism as a result of the failure of in British industry in recent times which
previous change initiatives. appear to be due more to inspirational
leadership than to good management as
The human and political aspects of traditionally conceived. British Airways
change are often not well thought under Colin Marshall, and ICI under John
through in change management Harvey-Jones are oft-quoted examples.
initiatives. Mulligan and Barber (1998)
speak of the yin and yang of change: Change, therefore, is primarily about
respectively the social and emotional leadership.
considerations (leadership) and the
technical aspects (management). McLagan
(2002) points out that taking a purely THE LEADERSHIP OF CHANGE
rational and technical approach to The keys to successful change, according
change, making sure its technically to an American Management Association
sound and offers economic advantage to survey (American Management
the organisation, tends to lead to the Association, 1994), are first and foremost
false assumption that the organisation will leadership, followed closely by corporate
naturally absorb it. Kotter (1995a) says: values and communication (Table 1).
If change is a process of taking an
In failed transformations, you often find organisation (or a nation) on a journey
plenty of plans and directives and programs
from its current state to a desired future
. . . [with] procedures, goals, methods, and
deadlines. But nowhere was there a clear
state and dealing with all the problems
and compelling statement [a vision] of where that arise along the journey, then change
all this was leading. Not surprisingly, most of is about leadership as well as
the employees with whom I talked were management. Leadership, in The
either confused or alienated. [The Leadership Trusts view, is about showing
managerial approach] did not rally them the way: using personal power to win

Henry Stewart Publications 1469-7017 (2003) Vol. 3, 4, 307318 Journal of Change Management 309

Alignment is displayed by a shared

Table 1 Keys to successful change: understanding, common orientation,
Survey of 259 senior executives in common values and shared priorities.
Fortune 500 companies in the USA Adaptability is displayed by
environmental sensitivity, tolerance for
% mentioning this contrary views, a willingness to
as important experiment, tolerate failure and learn
from it, and the ability to respond
Leadership 92
Corporate values 84
quickly to change organisational
Communication 75 agility. Both alignment and adaptability
Teambuilding 69 are needed (World Economic Forum,
Education and training 64 2000):

Alignment without adaptability results in

bureaucratic, sclerotic organisations that
cant get out of their own way . . .
the hearts and minds of people to work Adaptability without alignment results in
together towards a common goal (Gill, chaos and resources wasted on duplicate and
2001). The leadership of change, for the conflicting efforts.
chief executive, Hooper and Potter
(2000) say, means developing a vision of The former chairman of ICI, Sir John
the future, crafting strategies to bring that Harvey-Jones (1988), takes a radical view
vision into reality [and ensuring] that of alignment:
everybody in the organisation is
mobilising their energies towards the In the future the organisation will have to
same goals . . . the process we call adapt to the needs of the individual, rather
emotional alignment. It can be argued than expecting the individual to adapt to the
that the most difficult challenges facing needs of the organisation.
leaders today are making sure that people
in the organisation can adapt to change Nixon (2002) identifies big issues
and that leaders can envisage where the concerning global business leaders:
organisation is currently placed in the creating successful and sustainable
market and where it should be in the workplaces, the need to be good
future (Heifetz and Laurie, 1997). corporate citizens and at the same time
The case for alignment is made in a profitable, the gap between strategy
report by World Economic Forum (2000) makers and those not involved, products
in partnership with management that damage the quality of life, and a
consultants Booz Allen & Hamilton and yearning for meaning and balance in life,
the Center for Effective Organisations at uniting body, mind, heart and spirit.
the University of Southern California: Dubrin (2001) says that The
transformational leader . . . [helps] group
Alignment . . . galvanizes people around the
members understand the need for change
aspirations and objectives of the company.
People know what is to be done, and
both emotionally and intellectually. How
understand how they as individuals to meet the challenge of change can be
contribute to the whole. Adaptability enables understood more broadly using a new
the organisation to change rapidly and model of transformational leadership. This
effectively in response to external threats or model attempts to integrate the multiple
opportunities. dimensions and requirements of

310 Journal of Change Management Vol. 3, 4, 307 318 Henry Stewart Publications 1469-7017 (2003)
Change management or change leadership?

leadership the cognitive, spiritual, dimension of leadership concerns the

emotional and behavioural.2 yearning for meaning and a sense of
worth that animate people in what they
seek and do. Meaning and this sense of
THE DIMENSIONS AND worth depend on the vision and shared
REQUIREMENTS OF LEADERSHIP values to which one is party. William W.
Leadership theory has developed along George, chairman and CEO of
separate tracks that have never fully or Medtronic, Inc. one of the worlds
usefully converged. Nevertheless, each leading medical technology companies,
track provides a distinct dimension and based in Minneapolis and the
set of requirements for effective Academy of Managements 2001
leadership. These tracks are the study of Executive of the Year, argues that
cognitive or rational processes (cognitive people at work today seek meaning and
intelligence), the need for meaning and purpose in their work. When they find
worth in peoples work and lives it, [they] will buy into the companys
(spiritual intelligence), emotions or mission and make the commitment to
feelings (emotional intelligence) and fulfilling it (George, 2001). Dess and
volitional action or behaviour Picken (2000) quote Xerox PARC guru
(behavioural skills) in leadership (Gill, John Seely Brown as saying: The job of
2002). leadership today is not just to make
money: its to make meaning. Effective
leadership wins peoples souls.
The intellectual/cognitive dimension
and requirements of leadership
thinking The emotional dimension and
Strategic failure, especially in times of requirements of leadership feeling
rapid change, is often the result of the Effective leadership also requires
inability to see a novel reality emerging: well-developed emotional intelligence
the corporate mind is wedded to the ability to understand oneself and
obsolete assumptions that blind it to the other people, display self-control and
perception of change. Effective leadership self-confidence, and to respond to others
requires the intellectual or cognitive in appropriate ways. Emotionally
abilities to perceive and understand intelligent leaders use personal power
information, reason with it, imagine rather than positional power or authority.
possibilities, use intuition, make Emotional intelligence, in addition to
judgments, solve problems and make cognitive and spiritual intelligence, is key
decisions. These abilities produce vision, to identifying and promoting the shared
mission (purpose), shared values and values that support the pursuit of vision,
strategies for pursuing the vision and mission and strategies and to empowering
mission that win peoples minds. and inspiring people. Emotionally
intelligent leaders win peoples hearts.

The spiritual dimension and

requirements of leadership The behavioural dimension and
meaning requirements of leadership doing
Spirit, according to Websters Dictionary While the necessary behavioural skills of
and the Oxford English Dictionary, is a leadership include both using and
persons animating principle. The spiritual responding to emotion, for example

Henry Stewart Publications 1469-7017 (2003) Vol. 3, 4, 307 318 Journal of Change Management 311

through body language, they also saying that successful change begins by
comprise communicating in other ways [making] the status quo seem more
through writing, speaking and listening dangerous than launching into the
using personal power and through unknown. This is the basis for
physical behaviour, for example MBWA developing a vision for change.
(managing by walking around). Sylvie Jackson of Cranfield Universitys
Communication is the life blood of the Royal Military College of Science starkly
organisation and the oxygen of change illustrates how little vision figures in
within it. communication in organisations:

Total amount of communication going on

A NEW MODEL OF LEADERSHIP FOR to an employee in three months 2,300,000
CHANGE words or numbers. Typical communication
of a change vision over a period of three
Effective leadership of change reflects all
months 13,400 words or numbers.
of these dimensions of leadership. An 13,400/2,300,000 0.0058. The change
integrative model of leadership for vision captures only 0.58% of the
successful change needs to explain the communication market share. (Jackson,
following elements of effective leadership 2001)
practice: vision, values, strategy,
empowerment and motivation and The British government has identified
inspiration. Effective emotional and leadership as key to meeting the
behavioural leadership without valid challenges of change in public services
vision and strategic thinking can be (Performance Improvement Unit, 2001).
misguided, even dangerous. The Change starts with a vision: The
converse is impotent. Government has to present a clear
picture . . . of the kind of society it
[wants] from its reforms and stop being
Vision seen as a value-free zone, says health
Without vision, a people perish, one is secretary Alan Milburn. Prime minister
told in the Bible,3 and so does an Tony Blair responds: [New Labour]
organisation. The foundation of effective needs to rediscover its political vision . . .
leadership is defining and communicating building a Britain of opportunity for all
an appealing vision of the future. One of (Waugh and Morris, 2002).
the best definitions of a vision comes Vision needs to be meaningful, ethical
from the Oxford English Dictionary: and inspiring. Effective visions are
something seen vividly in the imaginable, desirable, feasible, focused,
imagination, involving insight, foresight flexible and communicable (Kotter,
and wisdom. A vision is a desired future 1995b). They are memorable and
state: this is the basis for directing the quotable. Senge (1990) sees vision as a
change effort. driving force, while Covey (1992)
Kotter (1995a) suggests that the describes vision as true north, providing
starting point in a successful change a compass. Vision helps to create
process is attaching a sense of urgency commitment, inspiration and motivation
and importance to change. Kotter says it by connecting and aligning people
is necessary to create dissatisfaction with intellectually and emotionally to the
the status quo and an understanding of organisation; and it is associated with
the need to change. He quotes a former organisational growth and success (Baum
CEO of a large European company as et al., 1998).

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Change management or change leadership?

A shared vision is key to successful The challenge of change has

change. Kakabadse (2002) reports the stimulated an emphasis on values-based
finding from a survey at Cranfield School leadership. OToole (1995) says that there
of Management of over 12,000 is a widespread belief among corporate
organisations that more than one-third of executives in the need to create strong,
directors have a vision of the future of shared values to unite people in a
their organisation that is different from fragmented world. The fear, though, is
those of their colleagues. Without a the danger of groupthink. Yet, if there
shared vision, there is no alignment. is one organisational characteristic that
Senge (1990) puts it this way: provides the glue in uniting people, it
is trust. As OToole suggests, trust
In a corporation, a shared vision changes emanates from leadership based on
peoples relationship with the company. It is shared purpose, shared vision, and,
no longer their company; it becomes our especially, shared values (OToole, 1995).
company. A shared vision is the first step in Bennis and Goldsmith (1997) point
allowing people who mistrusted each other out that Leaders walk their talk; in true
to begin to work together. It creates a leaders, there is no gap between the
common identity. theories they espouse and their practice.
Effective leaders are role models for
Kotter (1997) makes the point that, for corporate values: they set an example.
organisational change, only an approach Collins and Porras (1998) contend that
based on vision works in the long term. corporate values are not to be
He says a shared vision: compromised for financial gain or
short-term expediency.
clarifies the direction of change and Effective leadership entails identifying
ensures that everything that is done and promoting shared values. Shared
(new product development, values are a key feature of a strong
acquisitions, recruitment campaigns) is organisational culture (that includes
in line with it beliefs, attitudes and patterns of habitual
motivates people to take action in the behaviour) that supports a common
right direction, even though the purpose and engenders commitment to
initial steps in the change process may it. Values that are not shared can be
be painful to some individuals dysfunctional (Drucker, 1999). Shared
helps to align individuals and values create a sense of belonging and
coordinate their actions efficiently. may contribute positively to competitive
advantage (Deetz et al., 2000). Indeed, a
change orientation is one of the
Values and culture common values among the most admired
A Nepalese Buddhist mantra says: Open companies in the USA (Kets de Vries,
your arms to change, but dont let go of 2000), and firms have become more
your values. Values are principles held customer and stakeholder focused, more
dear in peoples hearts by which they time-competitive and more value-added
live (and sometimes die). Covey (1992) and quality focused (Cannon, 2000).
makes the distinction between personal Networks of power and influence and
values, which are intrinsic, and corporate horizontal relationships will replace the
values, which he regards as extrinsic formal hierarchies found in bureaucratic
guiding principles for behaviour organisations (Gill et al., 1998). New
throughout the organisation. organisational cultures will supplant

Henry Stewart Publications 1469-7017 (2003) Vol. 3, 4, 307 318 Journal of Change Management 313

bureaucratic cultures that are toilets among managers and

characterised by hierarchy, boundaries, employees through Business Involvement
internal orientation, control and the need Groups (BIGs) and training in
to avoid mistakes (Hastings, 1993). consultation processes. The outcome, by
Bureaucracy is a well-documented May 2002, according to Marks and
hindrance to developing a learning Spencers Helen Eaton, was a greater
culture. mutuality of interest at meetings, with
One of the problems of change during managers and staff beginning to work
mergers and acquisitions is that change is together on key business issues . . . [and]
exciting for those who do it and . . . more openness, honesty, trust and
threatening for those to whom it is done. professionalism as well as a clearer sense
The solution that worked for one of direction (Law, 2002).
company was to get people to participate Wendy Sullivan and her colleagues
in it. When ScottishPower acquired describe how aligning the values of the
Manweb and Southern Water in the people in the organisation and those
1990s, it created transition teams with of the organisation itself can help to
managers from the acquired company to bring about rapid change, citing the case
create shared values and human resource of Sellotape (Sullivan et al., 2002). The
policies and practices. company significantly improved business
Culture change programmes are about performance, with profitability increasing
changing hearts, minds and souls of from 3 per cent to 10 per cent over two
employees (Rajan, 2000). This takes a and a half years, and significant
long time, and it requires some luck: improvements in individual job
Amin Rajan says, The big bang satisfaction and fulfilment and in morale
approach has the potential to inflict . . . and teamwork.
collateral damage, although sometimes it
may be necessary. Bill Cockburn,
managing director of British Telecoms Strategy
UK operations, believes that in his Without strategies for change, vision is a
business, incrementalism does not work: dream. Strategies are ways of pursuing the
radical reinvention is required (Monks, vision and mission; they are informed by
2000). But, to be more effective, culture vision, mission and values. Strategic plans
change requires leaders to plan and are road maps of a changing terrain in
implement sequential, but incremental, which a compass (vision) is needed
changes. (Covey, 1992). Effective leadership entails
An example of a culture change developing, getting commitment to and
programme aimed at changing feelings of implementing rational business strategies
involvement, consultation and values is based on possible future scenarios for the
that experienced at Marks and Spencer. organisation. A key issue with the
Marks and Spencer fell from grace at the effectiveness of strategies is where their
end of 1998, with a drastic fall in ownership lies and commitment to them:
shareholder value. Under a new effective strategy development taps the
chairman, Luc Vandervelde, in early wisdom of people in the organisation
2000, a major initiative was introduced (Eden, 1993).
to revolutionise the corporate culture as William W. George of Medtronic says,
part of the recovery strategy. This Employees can adapt to major strategic
entailed improving consultation on shifts as long as the companys mission
key business issues rather than tea and and values remain constant (George,

314 Journal of Change Management Vol. 3, 4, 307 318 Henry Stewart Publications 1469-7017 (2003)
Change management or change leadership?

2001). This is an important factor in As for the best leaders, people do not
maintaining trust in top management. notice their existence.
Medtronic is completely reinvented The next best, the people honour and praise.
every five years in terms of its business The next, the people fear.
strategies. For example, between 1989 And the next, the people hate.
and 1994, the company was transformed But when the best leaders work is done, the
people say, We did it ourselves.4
from a pacemaker company into a
broader cardiovascular business, with
revolutionary new therapies during the Empowerment literally is giving people
following five years, and with further power. It is about making them able to
innovations likely over the next five to do what needs to be done in the change
ten years reflecting its Vision 2010. process. In practice, empowerment is
Meanwhile, mission and values have giving people the knowledge, skills,
remained, and will remain, constant. opportunity, freedom, self-confidence and
Innovation and change require structural resources to manage themselves and be
flexibility, but with the stability to accountable. Important aspects of
deliver products and services on time. empowerment are stimulating peoples
Peters (1993) calls this permanent intellects and imagination, in particular
flexibility. It is well established in the their creativity in the change process,
management literature that structure must risk taking and trust. Empowering people
serve strategy, not the converse. An for action in part entails getting rid of
example of how structures have changed obstacles to change, removing or
is the introduction of short-term, changing systems or structures that
high-performance teams, superseding undermine the vision, and encouraging
permanent functional or departmental risk taking, new ideas and innovative
teams and cross-functional teams. They activities (Kotter, 1995b).
come together for a specific purpose and, Bennis (1999) suggests that a
on achieving it, disband. The shrinking world with increasing
consequences are roles that frequently technological and political complexity
change and temporary and varied offers fewer and fewer arenas for
leadership roles. effective top-down leadership. The key
An effective strategy for change entails to real change, he says, is empowered
creating a guiding coalition putting teams. The need for rapid response and
together a group of people with enough innovation has created a culture of
power to lead the change and getting intrapreneurship in many companies.
it to work together as an effective team Innovation has become the province of
(Kotter, 1995a). Kotter also emphasises all employees, not just those in the
the need to use every method possible to product development department.
communicate constantly and explain the Encouraging intrapreneurship is an
new vision and strategy and ensure the example of empowerment.
guiding coalition models the behaviour General Electric successfully underwent
expected of all employees. extensive restructuring in the 1980s
under chairman and CEO Jack Welch, to
build a network of interrelated businesses
Empowerment with the aim of capturing top
Like so many aspects of leadership, market-share positions in their respective
empowerment is not a new idea. In the industries. The change process included
fifth century BC, Lao Tzu wrote: Work-Out, a way in which employees

Henry Stewart Publications 1469-7017 (2003) Vol. 3, 4, 307 318 Journal of Change Management 315

could participate in teams in the process, perceptions of honesty and competence

and Town Hall Meetings with all in leaders and from their ability to
employees to strengthen dialogue and inspire, say Kouzes and Posner (2002).
understanding in respect of the change Motivation and inspiration arise from
process and the new roles and work alignment of organisational goals with
habits that were needed. Managers had individuals needs, wants, values, interests
previously been appraised solely on their and aspirations and from the use of
ability to manage in a positive and appealing language.
command-and-control culture. Now, Motivation also arises from short-term
however, they were required to meet wins. Gaining short-term wins entails
ownership, stewardship and planning and creating visible
entrepreneurial goals. Performance improvements during the change process.
expectations and rewards were therefore It also entails visibly recognising and
realigned. As a result, GE strengthened rewarding people who made the wins
its position in several global markets and possible (Kotter, 1995a).
greatly increased its market value. Positive and appealing language is
Empowerment is also about involving characterised by framing the message and
people in the change process. People are crafting ones rhetoric. Framing the
much more inclined to support what message, Conger (1999) says, is
they help to create (and they resist what connecting your message with the
is forced on them). Myers (1993) writes: needs, interests and feelings of those
whose commitment you need and,
Study after study finds that when workers thereby, Goodwin (1998) says, making
have more control when they can help people feel they have a stake in common
define their own goals . . . and when they problems. Examples of framing language
participate in decision making their job are:
satisfaction rises.
linking the message with the benefits
Tom Cannon describes how for everybody involved
organisations have responded to the reflecting their values and beliefs
challenge of change (Cannon, 2000). talking in their language
They have created flatter structures matching body language with words
with more empowered employees who moving from I statements to we
are trusted more, expected to conform statements
to shared values and encouraged to be making positive comparisons of their
more entrepreneurial and innovative. situation with that of others
They have introduced flexible learning expressing confidence in peoples
programmes to enhance competencies ability to achieve.
in initiating and achieving successful
change. Rhetorical crafting of language consists
of giving examples, citing quotations,
reciting slogans, varying ones speaking
Motivation and inspiration rhythm, using familiar images, metaphors
Effective leaders motivate and inspire and analogies to make the message vivid
people to want to do what needs to be (Martin Luther Kings allusion to the
done. In any change process, the change jangling discords of our nation comes to
champions leaders must be mind), waxing lyrical and using
credible. Credibility comes from repetition.

316 Journal of Change Management Vol. 3, 4, 307 318 Henry Stewart Publications 1469-7017 (2003)
Change management or change leadership?

APPLYING THE LEADERSHIP MODEL Exemplary Leadership is Impossible

This integrative model of leadership has Without Full Inclusion, Initiatives, and
been successfully applied in leadership Cooperation of Followers, Organizational
development programmes in several Dynamics, 27, July, 71.
organisations concerned with change: a Bennis, W. and Goldsmith, J. (1997) Learning
to Lead, Nicholas Brealey, London.
manufacturing company, a private mental
Cannon, T. (2000) Leadership in the New
healthcare company, a public sector Economy, paper presented at The National
defence agency, the top management Leadership Conference, Leaders and
teams of two universities, a youth Managers: Fit for the Future, The Royal
charity, and an insurance and emergency Military Academy, Sandhurst, 24th May.
assistance company. Collins, J. and Porras, J. (1998) Built to Last,
Former US president Harry S. Truman Random House, London.
is on record as saying: Men make Conger, J. (1999) The New Age of
history and not the other way round. In Persuasion, Leader to Leader, Spring, 3744.
periods where there is no leadership, Covey, S. (1992) Principle-centered Leadership,
society stands still. Progress occurs when Simon & Schuster, London.
courageous, skilful leaders seize the Deetz, S. A., Tracy, S. J. and Simpson, J. L.
(2000) Leading Organizations Through
opportunity to change things for the
Transition, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
better.5 Change requires good Dess, G. G. and Picken, J. C. (2000)
management, but above all it requires Changing Roles: Leadership in the 21st
effective leadership. Century, Organizational Dynamics, 28(3),
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