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ANSUIEEE

C37.101-1985

An American National Standard


IEEE Guide for
Generator Ground Protection

Sponsor
Power System Relaying Committee of the
IEEE Power Engineering Society

Secretariat
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc
National Electrical Manufacturers Association

Approved December 17,1981


IEEE Standards Board

Approved February 4,1983


American National Standards Institute

0 Copyright 1985 by

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc


345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA
N o part o f this p u blication may be reproduced in any form,
in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the publisher.

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Foreword

((ThisForeword is not a part of ANSI/IEEE C37.101-1985, IEEE Guide for Generator Ground Protection.)
This guide was prepared by the Generator Ground Protection Working Group of the Rotating
Machinery Subcommittee of the Power System Relaying Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering
Society.
The Institute is indebted t o those individuals who gave so freely of their time and contributed so
willingly and cooperatively t o this guide. Particular credit goes t o K. Winick and G. Paradis, past
Chairman of the working group, whose sustained efforts made this guide possible.
This guide is intended to enable one t o determine the protection requirements for a specific
application.
The Standards Committee on Power Switchgear, C37, which reviewed and approved this guide,
had the following personnel at the time of approval:
C.L. Wagner, Chairman John D.Hopkins, Secretary
J.E. Beehler, Executive Vice-chairmanof High-Voltage Switchgear Standards
W.E. Laubach, Executive Vice-Chairman of Low-Voltage Switchgear Standards
S.H.Telender, Executive Vice-chairmanof IEC Activities
Organization Represented Name of Representative
Association of American Railroah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vacant
,Association of Iron and Steel Engineers, .................................. J.M. Tillman
Electric Light and Power Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K.G. Adgate
J.E. Beehler
R.L. Capra (AZt)
H.G. Darron
H.F. Frus
K.D. Hendrix
R.L. Lindsey ( A l t )
E.E. Ramm ( A l t )
F.R. Solis
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ............................. M.J. Beachy ( A l t )
R.N. Bell ( A l t )
H.H. Fahnoe
R.E. Friedrich
M. J. Maier
C.A. Mathews ( A l t )
D.C. Musgrave ( A l t )
G.W. Walsh
M.F. White
National Electrical Manufacturers Association .............................. A.P. Colaiaco
R.W. Dunham
D.G. Portman
G.A. Wilson
W.R. Wilson
'Tennessee Valley Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Robert C. St. Clair
Testing Laboratory Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L. Frier
E.J. Huber
R.W. Seelbach ( A l t )
US Department of the Army. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Robert H. Bruck
US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edward M. Tomsic
US Department of Defense, Defense Communications Agency .................... Vacant
U S Department of the Navy, Naval Facilities Engineering Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.M. Hannemann

At the time this guide was approved the members of the Generator Ground Protection Working
Group were as follows:
A.C. Pierce, Chairman
H. DiSante C.H. Griffin
E. J. Emmerling C.L. Wagner

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At the time this guide was approved, the members of the Rotating Machinery Protection Subcom-
mittee were as follows:
R.F. Archart, Chairman
G.R. Nail, Vice Chairman/Secretary
M.S. Baldwin J.A. Imhof A.C. Pierce
F.G. Basso L.E. Landoll* C.M. Shuster
J. Berdy J.R. Latham W.H. VanZee
J.L. Blackburn N.E. Nilsson** F. VonRoeschlaub
B. Bozoki G.C. Parr C.L. Wagner?
E. J. Emmerling C.J. Pencinger J.E. Waldron
R. J. Fernandez R.C. Zaklukiewicz
*Liaison to Rotating Machinery Committee
**Liaison from Rotating Machinery Committee
?Liaison to Power Generation Committee

When the IEEE Standards Board approved this guide on December 17,1981 it had the following
membership :
Irvin N. Howell, Jr, Chairman Irving Kolodny, Vice Chairman
Sava I. Sherr, Secretary
G.Y.R. Allen Jay Forster Frank Rosa
J.J. Archambault Kurt Greene Robert W. Seelbach
James H. Beall Loering M. Johnson Jay A. Stewart
John T. Boettger Joseph L. Koepfinger William E. Vannah
Edward Chelotti John E. May Virginius N.Vaughan, Jr
Edward J. Cohen Donald T. Michael* Art Wall
Len S. Corey John P. Riganati Robert E. Weiler
*Member emeritus

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Contents
SECTION PAGE
:I. Introduction .............................................................. 7
2. References ...............................................................
3. Summary of Protection Schemes .............................................. 7
4. Generator Connections. ..................................................... 1c
5. GroundingMethods ........................................................ 11
5.1 Method I, Distribution-Transformer Grounded (High Resistance). ................. 1 2
5.2 Method 11, Neutral-Resistor Grounded (High Resistance) ........................ 1 2
5.3 Method 111, Neutral-Resistor Grounded (Low Resistance). ....................... 12
5.4 Method IV, Neutral-Reactor Grounded (Low Inductive Reactance) ................ 1 2
5.5 Method V, Ground-Fault Neutralizer Grounded (Tuned Inductive Reactor). ......... 1 2
5.6 Method VI, Grounding Transformer Grounded (High Resistance) ................. 1 2
5.7 Method VII, Grounding Transformer Grounded (Medium Resistance) .............. 13
5.8 Method VIII, Ungrounded ............................................... 13
6. Protective Schemes ......................................................... 13
6.1 Scheme 1,Ground Overvoltage-Complete Shutdown ......................... 14
6.2 Scheme 2, Ground Overvoltage-Permissive Shutdown. ........................ 15
6.3 Scheme 3, Ground Overvoltage-Alarm and Time-Delay Shutdown ............... 16
6.4 Scheme 4, Ground Overvoltage-Alarm .................................... 16
6.5 Scheme 5S, Startup Ground Overvoltage-Complete Shutdown. ................. 16
6.6 Scheme 6, Ground-Fault Neutralizer Overvoltage- Alarm and Time-Delay
Orderly ShuMown..................................................... 17
6.7 Scheme 7, Wye-Broken-Delta Voltage Transformer (VT), Ground
Overvoltage-Complete Shutdown ........................................ 18
6.8 Scheme 8S,Startup Wye-Broken Delta Voltage Transformer (VT), Ground
Overvoltage-Complete Shutdown ........................................ 19
6.9 Scheme 9, Secondary Connected Current Transformer (ct), Time-Delay
Ground Overcurrent-Complete Shutdown ................................. 19
6.10 Scheme 10, Primary Connected Current Transformer (ct), Time-Delay
Ground Overcurrent-Complete Shutdown ................................. 20
6.11 Scheme 11,Instantaneous Ground Overcurrent-Alarm or Complete
Shutdown,orBoth .................................................... 20
6.12 Scheme 12, Generator Leads Ground Overcurrent-Complete Shutdown. .......... 21
6.13 Scheme 13,3-Wire Generator Leads Window Current Transformer (ct),
Instantaneous Ground Overcurrent-Complete Shutdown ...................... 22
6.14 Scheme 14,4-Wire Generator Leads Window Current Transformer (ct),
Instantaneous Ground Overcurrent-Complete Shutdown ...................... 23
6.15 Scheme 15, Generator Percentage Differential-Complete Shutdown. ............. 23
6.16 Scheme 16, Generator Percentage Differential and Polarized Neutral
Overcurrent-Complete Shutdown ........................................ 23
6.17 Scheme 17, Delta-Connected Generator, Generator Percentage
Differential- Complete Shutdown ........................................ 24
7. Protective Device Function Numbers ........................................... 25

FIGURES
Fig 1 Scheme 1,Ground Overvoltage-Complete Shutdown. .......................... 14
Fig 2 Scheme 2, Ground Overvoltage-Permissive Shutdown .......................... 16
Fig 3 Scheme 3, Ground Overvoltage-Alarm and Time-Delay Shutdown ................ 1 6

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SECTION PAGE

Fig 4 Scheme 4. Ground Overvoltage-Alarm ...................................... 16


Scheme 5s. Startup Ground Overvoltage-Complete Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7
Fig 5
Fig 6 .
Scheme 6 Ground-Fault Neutralizer Overvoltage- Alarm and Time-Delay
Orderly Shutdown ...................................................... 17
Fig 7 Scheme 7. Wye-Broken-Delta VT. Ground Overvoltage-Complete Shutdown . . . . . . . . 18
Fig 8 Scheme 8s. Startup Wye-Broken-DeltaVT. Ground Overvoltage-Complete
Shutdown ............................................................ 19
Fig 9 Scheme 9. Secondary Connected ct. Time-Delay Ground Overcurrent-
Complete Shutdown .................................................... 19
Fig 10 Scheme 10. Primary Connected ct. Time-Delay Ground Overcurrent-

Fig 11 .
CompleteShutdown ....................................................
Scheme 11 Instantaneous Ground Overcurrent-Alarm or
Complete Shutdown. or Both .............................................
20

21
Fig 1 2 Scheme 12. Generator Leads Ground Overcurrent-Complete Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Fig 13 Scheme 13. 3.Wire Generator Leads Window ct. Instantaneous Ground
Overcurrent-Complete Shutdown ......................................... 22
Fig 1 4 Scheme 14. 4.Wire Generator Leads Window ct. Instantaneous Ground
Overcurrent-Complete Shutdown ......................................... 23
Fig 15 Scheme 15. Generator Percentage Differential-Complete Shutdown ............... 24
Fig 16 Scheme 16. Generator Percentage Differential and Polarized Neutral
Overcurrent-Complete Shutdown ......................................... 24
Fig 17 Scheme 17. Delta-Connected Generator. Generator Percentage Differential-
Complete Shutdown .................................................... 25

TABLS
Table 1. Generator Connections. Generator Grounding Methods. and Protective
SchemeNumbers ...................................................... 8
APPENDIXES
Appendix A Generator-Ground Protection; Other Practices ............................ 27
Appendix B Generator Ground Protection Examples ................................. 33
Appendix C Bibliography ...................................................... 42
APPENDIX FIGURES
Fig A1 Scheme A. 3rd Harmonic Neutral Voltage .................................. 28
Fig A2 Scheme B. 3rd Harmonic Terminal t o Ground Residual Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Fig A3 Scheme C. 3rd Harmonic Ratio Differential Quantities ........................ 30
Fig A4 Scheme D.Neutral or Residual Voltage Injection ............................. 30
Fig A5 Scheme E. High-Impedance Generator Differential for Phase or
GroundFaults ....................................................... 31
Fig A6 Scheme F. Residual High-Impedance Generator Differential .................... 32
Fig A7 Scheme G. Residual High-Impedance Generator Differential and Generator
Percentage Differential ................................................. 32
Fig B1 Typical Generator Ground Protection One Line Diagram ....................... 33
Fig B2 Phase to Ground-Fault Symmetrical Component Equivalent Circuits .............. 34
Fig B3 Phase to Ground-Fault Capacitive Reactance Equivalent Circuits and
PhasorDiagrams ...................................................... 36
Fig B4 Relay and Fuse Coordination Curves ...................................... 40

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An American National Standard

IEEE Guide for


Generator Ground Protection

1. Introduction [2] IEEE Std 143-1954,IEEE Application


Guides for Ground-Fault Neutralizers, Ground-
This guide has been prepared to aid in the ing of Synchronous Generator Systems, Neutral
application of relays and relaying schemes for Grounding of Transmission Systems.
the protection of synchronous generators for
single-phase-to-ground faults in the stator wind- [3] GROSS, E.T.B. Sensitive Generator
ing. The guide is not intended for the selection Ground-Fault Protection, Proceedings American
of generator or ground connection schemes. Power Conference, ~0136,1974,pp 1031-1035.
The information included in the main body is
limited to those generator connections, ground- [ 41 GROSS, E.T.B., and GULACHENSKI, E.M.
ing practices, and protective schemes generally Experience of the New England System with
used in North America. Generator Protection by Resonant Neutral
Appendix A provides information on some of Grounding. IEEE Transactions on Power A p -
the protective schemes in use elsewhere in the paratus and Systems, vol 92, Jul/Aug, 1973,
world and on schemes which are not in wide- pp 1186-1194.
Npread use throughout North America. [ 51 IEEE COMMITTEE REPORT. Potential
Appendix B provides examples of how to Transformer Application on Unit Connected
calculate ground overcurrent and overvoltage Generators. IEEE Transactions o n Power Ap-
relay settings for the various protective schemes paratus and Systems, vol 91, Jan/Feb 1972,
(and how to coordinate them with voltage trans- pp 24-28.
former secondary fuses.
Appendix C is a bibliography of available
literature on the ground-fault problem from
which source material was drawn.
3. Summary of Protection Schemes
Recommended protective schemes and the A summary of recommended protective
arrangements in which they may be applied schemes is given in Table 1, which is a matrix
are indicated in Table 1.The use of this table of generator connections, generator grounding
is described in Section 3 with supporting in- methods, and the scheme numbers which iden-
formation provided in subsequent sections. tify the protective schemes. The following ex-
planation has been prepared as an aid for its use.
2. References Across the top of the table, heading the
six columns (A-F), are one-line diagrams cover-
When the following standards are superseded ing most, if not all, of the significant variations
by an approved revision, the latest revision of generator-transformer-buscircuit-breaker ar-
shall apply. rangements that might be encountered in a
[ 13 ANSI/IEEE C37.2-1979,IEEE Standard present-day electric utility or industrial power
Electrical Power System Device Function Num- system. These diagrams are discussed in Sec-
bers. tion 4 of this guide. Vertically, along the left

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ANSI/IEEE
C37.101-1985 IEEE GUIDE FOR

X
x
z

x
I."
w vz
w -
a:

ZC
2 1
O b
0:
U Y

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ANSI/IEEE
GENERATOR GROUND PROTECTION C37.101-1985

side of the table, heading the eight rows example, in the case of the generator connec-
(I-VIII), are one-line diagrams of approved tion illustrated in the diagram of column A
grounding methods for electric generators with the grounding connection of row I,
covered in IEEE Std 143-1954 E21.l These scheme 8s is intended to detect any single-
diagrams will be explained and discussed sub- phase-to-ground fault in the generator or its
sequently. The individual boxes in Table 1 list leads during startup or shutdown procedures
by scheme number (1, 2, 3, etc), the diffe,r- while field excitation is applied, but with the
ent applicable ground-fault protective schemes main circuit breaker open. In the box (D-
that apply for a given generator connection, VIII) the protective scheme represented by
and a given grounding method. For example, scheme 17 is intended for protection during
the box under column E and row 111 indicates the time that the main breaker is closed and
that protective schemes 10, 11, 14,15, and 16 the machine is running normally. In general,
may be applied for single-phase-to-ground fault startup and shutdown proctection for single-
protection of a wye- connected generator. The phase-to-ground faults is indicated only in
neutral is grounded through a low resistance, those applications where a high-impedance
and the main leads are connected directly to a grounded or an ungrounded generator is con-
grounded system through a circuit breaker. nected directly to a grounded system, or where
Those boxes which are crossed out and con- excitation is applied to a machine early in the
tain no protection scheme numbers represent startup cycle or is removed late in the shut-
cases that are either not practical or not recom- down cycle. This startup and shutdown pro-
mended. For example, under column D, a tection is generally not intended to coordinate
deltaconnected generator has no neutral avail- properly with system protection. For this
able, so boxes under column D (associated with reason, it should be removed from service at
rows I, 11,111, IV, and V) are crossed out. Also, the time the unit is synchronized to the system.
the box under column E (and associated with This is usually performed automatically when
row V) is crossed out because the use of a the main breaker is closed.
tuned-resonant grounding method, in the The protective scheme numbers in Table 1
neutral of a wyeconnected generator directly are arranged in the boxes with the running pro-
connected to a grounded system, is a misappli- tective schemes listed first, and the startup
cation. protective schemes-where they apply-listed
The protective scheme numbers in the boxes last. Within each box, the schemes within the
refer to protective schemes that are completely brackets are the most widely used and recom-
illustrated and described in Section 6 of this mended. The remainder of the schemes are
guide. In some boxes, there are some numbers listed in numerical sequence.
that are followed by the suffix S, such as 5s It should be recognized that the bracketed
in box (D-VI). The suffix S indicates that the recommendations are based on the anticipated
protective scheme represented by that scheme performance of the schemes and not on other
number designation is suitable for use only factors that might relate to the integrity of the
when the machine is running and disconnected generator itself. For example, while schemes 1
from the system, but with field excitation and 7 in box (A-I) could provide essentially the
applied. This type of protection utilizes protec- same order of protection for generator single-
tive devices that are not tuned to normal system phase-toground faults, the fact that scheme 7
frequency, so that they offer sensitive protec- requires voltage transformers on the generator
tion over a wide range of frequencies. Thus, leads may reduce the overall reliability of the
schemes designated with the suffix S are suit- generator. Thus, scheme 1 might be more
able for the protection of machines during desirable than scheme 7, but they are both
and shutdown. Protective scheme num- indicated in the table to have the same order
bers without the suffix S represent schemes of merit as far as the protection afforded for
that are indexed to provide protection only single-phase-to-ground faults is concerned.
during operation at rated frequency. For No attempt is made in Table 1 t o indicate
primary or backup schemes. It is suggested that
descriptions of all schemes applicable to a given
lThe numbers in brackets correspond t o the refer- situation be considered, and, unless overriding
ences listed in Section 2 of this guide. circumstances dictate otherwise, that one of

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ANSI/IEEE
C37.101-1985 IEEE GUIDE FOR

the bracketed schemes be used for the primary meamre the current in the resistor during a
protection, and another high-rated scheme be ground fault in the generator stator or its as-
used for backup or alternate protection. sociated circuits.
The generator connections illustrated in In this same diagram, terminals designated X
column F are very similar to those in column and Y are connected across the resistor. If the
A. The difference is only in the use of low-side operating coil of a voltage relay is connected t o
circuit breakers in the diagram of column F. A these terminals, it will measure the voltage
comparison of the applicable protective schemes developed across the resistor (which is propor-
between columns A and F will indicate that tional to the current through the resistor)
they are nearly all the same. Because of the during ground faults in the generator-stator
low-side circuit breakers in the diagrams of winding or its associated circuits.
column F, field excitation might normally be Again, in grounding method I, the current
applied to the unit when it is turning at, or transformer in the neutral lead of the generator
very near to, rated frequency. Under these con- ground connection (in series with the primary
ditions, the need for startup or shutdown pro- winding of the distribution transformer) has its
tection is minimized. secondary winding terminating at points W and
Section 5 describes grounding methods I- Z. A current-operated relay, connected to these
VIII. The different grounding methods head up terminals, will measure the current in the gen-
the rows in Table 1 along the left-hand side. erator neutral during ground faults in the
The diagrams in the column are intended to generator-stator winding or its associated cir-
indicate the different grounding methods and cuits. The terminal points R. S, X. Y, W, and 2
the means for interfacing with the protective are the interface connections to the protective
relay schemes. The diagrams in row I have both schemes. The same is true in grounding methods
a neutral point N and a ground point in the 11-VI. Reference to these connections will
primary circuit, as do those in rows 11-V. The show that not all the grounding methods pro-
point N in the grounding method diagram con- vide the same opportunities for protection. For
nects to the point N in the generator-connec- example, in method IV, only a neutral-current
tion diagram with which it is applied. For transformer is indicated with secondary con-
example, if any grounding method, I-V, is used nections to terminals W and Z.
with any generator connection illustrated in
columns A, B, E, or F, the generator neutral N The diagrams for each of the protective
in question is grounded through the neutral schemes in Section 6 indicate to which termi-
connection shown in the grounding method nal points (R, S. W, etc) they connect. For
diagram. In the case of the deltaconnected ma- example, protective scheme 1 will be found to
chines of columns C and D, no neutral point have input connections labeled X and Y. This
indicates that protective scheme 1 is always
exists, so grounding method VI or VII should
connected to terminals X and Y, regardless of
be used. This includes a wye-broken delta-
connected distribution-transformer bank with a the grounding method with which it is used.
secondary resistor. The wye (Y) windings are From Table 1,it will be noted that protective
connected to the associated-generator main scheme 1may be used with grounding methods
leads. Finally, row VI11 indicates an ungrounded I, 11, and VI, since all of these have interfacing
machine which is grounded only through the terminals labeled X and Y. Similar comments
system to which it may be connected. apply to the other protective schemes and the
In Table 1,the diagram for grounding meth- interfacing terminal designations.
ods also indicates the interface between the pri-
mary circuits and the protective schemes. An
example of this is that grounding method I
shows a distribution transformer with a secon-
4. Generator Connections
dary resistor. In series with the secondary of The six different classes of generator connec-
the distribution transformer is a current- tions illustrated in Table 1are intended to be
transformer primary winding. The secondary representative of connections in common use
winding of this current transformer terminates today. While the connections of the two dia-
at terminals labeled R and S. A currentaperated grams in column A are different, the arrange-
relay, connected to these two terminals, will ments are such that the same protective schemes

10

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ANSI/IEEE
GIENERATOR GROUND PROTECTION C37.101-1985

may be applied to both. The criteria here is The circuit arrangements of connection D
that a single-phase-to-groundfault in a generator and E indicate generators connected directly to
will not produce any significant zero-sequence the system bus without any interposing stepup
current or voltages in the system, nor will a transformer. In general, these will be relatively
similar fault in the system produce any signifi- small generators and they will be connected to
cant zero-sequence quantities in the generator a grounded (in contrast to an ungrounded)
circuit. power system. As indicated in Table 1,the delta
In connection A, if two units are paralleled on machine of connection D requires the scheme
one transformer delta winding (as in the case of method VI or VI1 for grounding while that
of' a cross compound machine, or machines of connection E uses a suitable neutral ground-
with two-stator windings per phase), the m e ing method. In these applications, each machine
kind of protective schemes could be used as if has individual protection.
OK@ one unit were connected t o the trans- The circuit arrangements in the diagrams of
farmer. In general, for these applications, only connection F are the same as those in A, ex-
one neutral is grounded. Where machines are cept that the former utilize individual generator
connected to separate low-voltage transformer circuit breakers on the low side of the power-
windings, each unit is grounded separately and , transformer banks. Here again, the delta-wye
has its own protective scheme. If tripping is (A-Y) connections of the transformers provide
employed, each protective scheme should zero-sequence isolation between the generators
initiate shutdown of all generators connected and the system. In general, each generator will
to a common transformer. have individual grounding and protection. While
The generator connections of column B indi- the low-side circuit breakers permit switching
cate that the unit stepup transformer is any of individual generators, the protective schemes
autotransformer, with either a wounddelta available cannot distinguish between faults in
tertiary or a phantom tertiary. In either case, the different generators connected to a com-
the autotransformer provides a direct zero- mon delta winding. However, if different time
sequence connection between the generator delay settings are utilized on the individual
and the system so that the system grounding ground relays, the units will be sequentially
will provide zero-sequence current for ground tripped until the fault is cleared. This will
faults in the generator. Also, the generator will establish the fault location. For this reason, a
provide zero-sequence current for faults on the fault in any one machine may result in the loss
system. of all generators connected to a common delta
It is important to recognize in connection B winding.
that the wound or phantom tertiary of the
main transformer will be a source of ground-
fault current for generator faults. With this
arrangement, even with the generator-neutral 5. Grounding Methods
ungrounded and the main circuit breaker open, This guide describes protection for six of the
substantial fault current could flow for a ground seven grounding categories covered in IEEE Std
fault in the stator when the generator is running 143-1954 [2]. The seven categories described
with field excitation applied. in IEEE Std 143-1954[2] are: solid, resistor,
Connection C is similar to A, except that the reactor, distribution transformer, ground-fault
generator(s) is connected in delta (A) rather neutralizer, grounding transformer, and un-
than in wye (Y).Here, as in connection A, the grounded, Protection for solidly grounded gen-
deltaconnected winding of the power trans- erators is not considered in this guide. These
former provides zero-sequence isolation be- machines can be protected for ground faults by
tween the generator and the system. Such delta- conventional differential and overcurrent relays.
connected generator units have no neutral avail- IEEE Std 143-1954 [2] considers high-,
able, so that grounding is obtained by the use medium-, and low-resistance grounding as a
of a scheme as illustrated in Table 1,method single category. This guide lists them as separate
VI. In general, one common grounding equip- grounding methods, since each requires a dif-
ment is employed regardless of the number of ferent type of protective scheme. Thus there
generator units that are connected to a given are eight grounding methods given in Table 1.
transformer winding. They are

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ANSI/IEEE
C37.101-1985 IEEE GUIDE FOR

I Distribution-Transformer Grounded (High age transformer voltage ratings are selected on


Resistance) the same basis as those for the distribution trans-
I1 Neutral-Resistor Grounded (High Resis- former in Method I. The W-Z current-trans-
tance) former ratio is generally selected to be unity.
I11 Neutral-Resistor Grounded (Low Resis-
tance) 5.3 Method 111, Neutral-Resistor Grounded
IV Neutral-Reactor Grounded (Low Inductive (Low Resistance). Method I11 illustrates a low-
Reactance) resistance grounding arrangement. This type of
V Ground-Fault Neutralizer Grounded (Tuned grounding method pennits fault current many
Inductive Reactor) times higher than those produced by methods
VI Grounding-Transformer Grounded (High I and 11. In the case of the low-resistance
Resistance) grounding methods, the single-phase-to-ground
VI1 Grounding-Transformer Grounded (Medi- fault current is high enough t o operate the
um Resistance) standard generator differential relays for faults
VI11 Ungrounded in the stator, except for those near the neutral
end of the machine.
5.1 Method I, Distribution-Transformer 5.4 Method IV, Neutral-Reactor Grounded
Grounded (High Resistance). GroundingMethod (Low Inductive Reactance). Method IV illus-
I utilizes a distribution transformer with a pri- trates a low inductive-reactance grounding
mary-voltage rating equal to, or greater than, arrangement. This type of grounding method
the line-to-neutral voltage rating of the gen-
permits fault current many times higher than
erator, with a secondary rating of 120 V or
those produced by Methods I and 11. In the
240 V. The distribution transformer should
case of low inductive-reactance grounding
have sufficient overvoltage capability so that
methods, the single-phase-to- ground fault cur-
it does not saturate on phase-toground faults
rent is high enough to operate the standard
with the machine operated at 105% rated volt-
generator differential relays for faults in the
age. Secondary resistors are usually selected so
stator, except for those near the neutral end
that for a single-phase-to-ground fault at the
of the machine.
terminals of the generator, the power dissipated
in the resistor is equal to, or greater than, the 5.5 Method V, Ground-Fault Neutralizer
zero-sequence reactive voltampere loss in the Grounded (Tuned Inductive Reactor). Method
zero-sequence capacitance of the generator V illustrates the ground-fault neutralizer ar-
windings, its leads, and the windings of the rangement. In this grounding method, a distri-
transformers that are connected to the gener- bution type transformer with a ratio selected,
ator terminals. This arrangement is considered as in Method I, is used with a secondary reac-
to be high-resistance grounding, and it limits tor. The ohmic value of this secondary reactor
the maximum single-phase-toground fault cur-
is selected so that, when reflected into the
rent to a value in the range of approximately
3-25 primary amperes. This is not of sufficient primary circuit, its reactance is equal to of 4
the zero-sequence capacitive reactance of the
magnitude to operate standard generator differ-
circuit from (and including) the generator, to
ential relays. In general, the W-Z current trans-
(and including) the delta windings of the asso-
former will have a ratio of unity and the R-S ciated power transformers. This type of ground-
current-transformer ratio is usually selected so ing limits the single-phase-to- ground fault
that its secondary current will be approximately current to values that will not sustain an arc.
equal to the primary current in the generator It is applicable only where the zero-sequence
neutral.
capacitance of the circuit does not change
significantly for different system conditions.
5.2 Method 11, Neutral-Resistor Grounded Thus, it may not be readily applied to units
(High Resistance). Grounding Method 11is func- arranged as in Fig F, such as when low-side
tionally equivalent to that of Method I. In breakers are applied.
Method 11, the resistor is sized directly to limit
the single-phase-to-ground fault current to the 5.6 Method VI, Grounding Transformer
same magnitude as in Method I, without the use Grounded (High Resistance). Grounding Meth-
of a distribution transformer. However, the volt- od VI uses three distribution transformers with

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ANSI/IEEE
GENERATOR GROUND PROTECTION C37.101-1985

ratios selected as in Method I. The primary wind- and voltage transformer secondary circuits
ings of these are connected to the generator leads should be grounded in a way that is consistent
in Y, while the secondaxies are connected in with accepted practices for personnel safety.
broken A with a resistor. As in the case of Protective schemes that are used to protect
Method I, the resistor is selected so that, for a generators employing high resistance and reso-
single-phase-to-ground fault at the terminals of nant grounding methods (grounding methods
the generator, the power dissipated in the re- I, 11, V, and VI) are generally sensitive enough
sistor is equal to, or greater than, the 3-phase to detect phase-toground faults in the second-
zero-sequence reactive voltampere loss in the ary, and in the primary circuits of voltage
zero-sequence capacitance of the generator transformers connected to the generator leads.
windings, its leads, and the windings of the If the wye- connected secondary circuit of these
transformers connected to the generator voltage transformers is grounded at one of the
terminals. This grounding method is used on phase leads, rather than at the neutral point,
A-.connected generators. and if the neutral point is not wired out, the
possibility of a phase-to-neutral fault is ex-
5.7 Method VII, Grounding Transformer tremely remote. If this is the case, the relays
Girounded (Medium Resistance). Grounding employed in these protective schemes need not
Method VI1 uses either a zig-zag transformer or be coordinated with the voltage-transformer
a Y-A transformer. The primary windings of secondary fuses. However, coordination with
these are connected to the generator leads, the primary fuses is still required.
with a resistor connected from the transformer A complete discussion of voltage-transformer
neutral to ground. The effective grounding fusing is given in [5], Appendixes B3,and B4.
impedance is selected to provide sufficient
current for selective ground relaying. Usually, a generator is cleared without any
intentional delay once the ground fault is
5.8 Method VIII, Ungrounded. Finally, if no detected. The risk of continuing operation with
grounding of any sort is employed on the leads low-impedance grounding is extensive core
or neutral of the generator, this is termed un- damage, while the risk with high-impedance
grounded and is noted in row VIII. grounding is the possibilitjj of a second fault.
In grounding Methods I-V, the neutral-cur- The majority of existing generators having
rent transformer is shown to be connected resonantigrounding methods are not tripped
between the fault-limiting device and ground. immediately, but an alarm is actuated and an
This current transformer could be located on orderly shutdown is started. Field experience of
either side of the fault-limiting device, depend- over 385 years with generators (prior to 1979)
ing on the preference of the user. The insula- has shown no case of a second fault develop-
tion level of the current transformer should be ing even though there have been at least seven
compatible with the possible voltage to which ground faults, all of which were allowed to
it may be exposed. exist during a delayed tripping. See [3] and
r41.
When immediate tripping is used, it includes
6. Protective Schemes the main and field circuit breakers, and the
turbine stop valve or gates. Because a sudden,
The protective schemes listed by number in complete shedding of load can be a severe
Table 1 are illustrated and described in the fol- shock to the mechanical systems of the unit,
lowing pages. The electrical characteristics of including the steam system, it is sometimes
the relays represented by the device function necessary to employ an orderly shutdown
numbers in the figures illustrating each scheme rather than an immediate trip. In such cases,
are defined in Section 7. upon detection of a stator ground fault, the
The methods employed for grounding and generator is either automatically or manually
fusing the secondary circuits of voltage trans- unloaded at a safe rate before tripping the
formers and the methods for grounding current- circuit breakers. All the protective schemes
transformer secondary circuits are not generally that follow - except schemes 2, 3, 4, and 6 -
the same for all installations. For this reason no indicate complete and immediate shutdown of
secondary fuses or ground points are indicated the unit. Schemes 2, 3, and 4 illustrate three
in the illustrated figures. However, all current possible variations in the shutdown procedures

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ANSI/IEEE
C37.101-1985 IEEE GUIDE FOR

that may be employed to effect an orderly For the case of grounding method I, a single-
shutdown. While the use of these schemes can phase-to-ground fault at the generator terminals
significantly increase the possibility of extensive will produce full phase-to-neutral voltage across
damage to the generator, they can be used the primary of the distribution transformer.
where necessary. However, they should only be For the case of grounding method 11, this same
used in conjunction with high-resistance or fault will produce the same voltage across the
resonant-grounding methods, where ground neutral resistor. For the case of grounding
fault current is severely limited. method VI, the phasor sum of the phase-to-
In some instances, such as in cross- compound ground voltages applied to the primary windings
machines, field excitation is applied as these of the three distribution transformers during a
machines are brought up to speed. In these single-phase-to-ground fault at the terminals of
applications, or where field excitation is per- the generator will be equal to three times the
mitted to remain on the unit as it is shut down, full phase-to-neutral voltage of the generator.
or both, additional protection may be required In every case, the voltage appearing at the
during these periods. Schemes intended for use terminals of the operating circuit of device
in such applications are designated with the 59 will be the primary voltage divided by
suffix S. Table 1indicates where these schemes the voltage transformer ratio or the distribu-
may be applied when necessary. tion transformer ratio. Since the voltage rise
from the generator neutral to its terminals is
6.1 Scheme 1, Ground Overvoltage-Complete
uniformly distributed, the voltage appearing
Shutdown. Protective scheme 1 may by used across the grounding device for a single-phase-
for single-phase-to-ground fault detection on
to-ground fault on a stator winding will be
high-resistance grounded generators that are
roughly proportional to the distance from the
connected to the system through A-Y-con-
neutral as a percentage of the total winding.
nected transformers. Table 1 indicates that this
includes grounding methods I and I1 for Y-con- The voltage pick-up setting of device 59 shall
nected generators and grounding method VI be high enough so that it will not operate on
for A-connected generators. fundamental frequency voltages produced by
All three of these grounding methods limit normal system imbalances, or 3rd harmonic
the available fault current for singlephase-to- voltages generated by the machine under full-
ground faults in the generator stator windings, load conditions. So as to permit a sensitive
the generator leads, and the delta windings of pick-up setting for device 59 it should be in-
the associated transformers to extremely low sensitive t o 3rd harmonic voltages by design.
levels. The voltage measured across the ground- In general, relays are available that make it
ing resistors at terminals X-Y provides an indi- possible to safely set device 59 to detect
cation of the existence of a fault in this zone. single-phase-to-ground faults as close as 2% to
Fault detection in these applications is 10% from the neutral end of the winding, de-
achieved by connecting the operating circuit of pending on the ratio of the voltage or the
a very sensitive overvoftag9 rehy (device 59) distribution transformers that are used. To
across terminals X-Y. The magnitude of the ensure that the relay will not operate on the
voltage seen by this device depends on the fault system imbalance, the relay voltage should be
location and the ratio of the distribution trans- measured at machine full load.
former in the case of grounding methods I and Phase-to-ground faults on the transmission
VI, or the ratio of the voltage transformer in system produce zero-sequence voltage in the
the case of grounding method 11. grounded-Y-connected high-voltage winding of
the main power transformer. This voltage is
capacitively coupled to the generator zero-
Fig 1 sequence network by the interwinding capa-
Scheme 1, Ground Overvoltage citance of the transformer. If the transformer
Complete Shutdown is solidly grounded, the zero-sequence voltage

>
in the Y-connected winding will be quite low.
xO-----l

59- 86 - COMPLETE
SHUTDOWN
Because the impedance of the generator-ground-
ing device is small (in comparison t o that of the
interwinding capacitance), most of this voltage
will be across the transformer interwinding ca-

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ANSI/IEEE
GENERATOR GROUND PROTECTION C37.10 1-198 5

pacitance and very little of it across the genera- occurs in the protected zone, the generators are
tor grounding device. tripped in sequence until the faulted unit is
Phaseto- ground faults on the station-service removed. The remaining units, if any, are per-
distribution system will also be capacitively mitted to continue in service. If the fault is in
coupled to the generator zero-sequence net- the transformer A winding, all the units and
work. However, because the auxiliary trans- the transformers are ultimately tripped. This
former is small and the distribution voltage is type of application often helps to pinpoint the
low, coupled zero-sequence voltage from this fault location. As an alternate method, all gen-
source is seldom a problem, even though these erator relays may be set alike. Reports on such
systems are typically high-resistance grounded. applications indicate that, for some faults in
If the main power transformer is not solidly the generator windings, the relay associated
grounded, or the effect of inter-winding coup- with the faulted generator will operate to clear
ling cannot be evaluated, some short time delay the unit before any of the others can trip.
should be used to prevent false generator trips However, for faults near the terminals of a
for faults on the transmission system. In any generator, this approach can result in tripping
case, time delay will be required to coordinate all the units.
with the generator-voltage transformer fuses A third approach is to supervise the tripping
for phase-to-ground faults in the voltage trans- of the relay in the broken A with the auxiliary
formers (VTs) or their secondary leads. Ap- contact of the generator breakers, such as in
pendix B provides an example of relay-fuse scheme 8s. For faults in either generator, only
coordination. Device 59 should be capable of the generators are tripped. For faults on the
withstanding the maximum applied voltage for bus or in the transformer, the broken-A relay
the time required to shut down the generator. trips the transformer high-side breakers after
During a ground fault, device 59 operates and both generator breakers trip.
energizes a lockout relay, device 86. The lock- In general, the overvoltage relay employed in
out relay initiates a complete shutdown, which protective scheme 1 will not provide sensitive
includes tripping the main and field breakers protection at frequencies significantly below
and closing the turbine stop valves or gates. rated frequency. Thus, if field excitation will
For the case of two generators, where each is be applied during the periods when the machine
connected directly to a separate delta winding is brought up to speed or shut down, a protec-
of a common step up transformer, separate re- tive scheme similar to that described under
lays are required. Each relay should shut down scheme 5s or 8s should be considered in addi-
both machines. For the case of cross-compound tion to scheme 1.
machines, or machines with double stator The major advantage of scheme 1is that, due
windings, only one stator winding is normally to its sensitive relay settings, ground faults in
grounded and only one relay is required. When the stator may be detected to within 2% of the
two or more machines, with each having its neutral point. The major disadvantage of this
own low-side circuit breaker, are connected to scheme is that it can respond to faults in the
the same transformer primary A winding, each voltage transformer primary and secondary
machine is usually grounded so that one relay circuits, and total coordination with the asso-
is required for each machine. Each relay trips ciated fuses may not be possible. An example
only its associated unit. It is advisable to pro- related to the application of scheme 1-including
vide a protective scheme such as that illustrated coordination between the voltage transformer
in scheme 7, so as to protect the transformer A fuses and the protective relay-is provided in
winding. This relay should trip the transformer Appendix B.
high side and all the generator breakers. In such
applications, a fault in any machine, or the A
winding of the transformer, will be detected by 6.2 Scheme 2, Ground Overvoltage-Permissive
all the relays, so that complete selectivity is not Shutdown. This variation of schemes 1and 7
generally possible. Some users apply all the utilizes the same 59 and 86 devices and settings,
generator relays at the same pickup setting but tripping of the main and field circuit break-
but adjusted to operate with different time ers is supervised by position switches on the
delays. The scheme 7 relay is set less sensitively turbine stop valves. The advantage of this
and with the longest time delay. If a fault scheme is that it prevents full load rejection

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ANSI/IEEE
C37.101-1985 IEEE GUIDE FOR

86 ably more than rated voltage applied to device

Y d
- - 59 86
TURBINE
STOPVALVE
59 for an extended period of time, an additional,
less sensitive, but higher rated 59H device is
also employed.
The 59 relay should be set exactly as in
scheme 1 or 7. Device 59H should be set to
TRIP MAIN AND
FIELD BREAKERS
pick up at a voltage level below the continuous
BY WAY OF VALVE rating of device 59.Also, the continuous rating
POSITION SWITCH of the 59H device shall be capable of continu-
ously withstanding the voltage it will be sub-
Fig 2 jected to for a single-phase-toground fault at
Scheme 2, Ground Overvoltage- the generator terminals. With this arrangement,
Permissive Shutdown if the fault voltage on device 59 exceeds its
capabilities, the 59H device will operate to in-
sert a resistor and reduce the voltage on device
with its accompanying overspeed condition.
The fact that it permits a longer fault duration 59 to a safe value.
and the additional complexity of its tripping NOTE: If device 59 can withstand the maximum fault
voltage t o which it may be continually exposed, a 59H
circuits are its disadvantages. This arrangement device is not required.
may result in considerably more than rated
voltage applied to the 59 device for a pro- Fig 4
longed period of time. Because of this, a con- Scheme 4, Ground Overvoltage-Alarm
tact on device 86 is employed to interrupt the
circuit to the overvoltage relay. xo I I

6.3 Scheme 3, Ground Overvoltage-Alarm and


Time-Delay Shutdown. This variation of
schemes 1 and 7 utilizes the same overvoltage
relay but provides for an immediate alarm with
a prolonged time-delay trip. If device 59 can-
not continuously withstand the maximum
voltage to which it may be subjected during a
single phase-to-ground fault at the generator
terminals, then this scheme shall be modified
6.5 Scheme 5S, Startup Ground Overvoltage-
by the inclusion of a 59H device as in the case Complete Shutdown. As indicated by the suffix
of scheme 4. S, this scheme is intended for stator ground-
If a more orderly shutdown is desired, device
fault detection during the time that the pro-
86 is connected to trip the turbine stop valve,
tected machine is disconnected from the system
which in turn, by way of a valve position and running with field excitation applied. It
switch, trips the. main and field breakers as in
serves a particularly important function when
scheme 2. applied to high-resistance or resonant-grounded
Fig 3 Y or A-connected units (see Table l), because
Scheme 3, Ground Qvervoltage- the single-phase-to-ground fault protection
Alarm and Time-Delay Shutdown normally provided for these applications is
relatively insensitive except at frequencies at or
COMPLETE near rated value. Device 59S, used in scheme
7 2 4 8 6 -

$59- 59x 1 SHUTDOWN 5S, should have a relatively constant voltsper-


hertz response down to its dc pickup. As a
result the relay will be more voltage sensitive
Y d ALARM as the frequency is decreased. Such a device
will tend to provide the same level of protec-
6.4 Scheme 4, Ground Overvoltage-Alarm. tion over a wide range of frequencies as the
This variation of schemes 1 and 7 utilizes the generator is brought up to speed or shut down,
same 59 device but provides only for alarm. Be- while maintaining an essentially constant volts-
cause this arrangement may result in consider- per-hextz.

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ANSI/IEEE
GENERATOR GROUND PROTECTION C37.101-1985

-
fault at the terminals of the generator. A relay

$ 59s
COMP LETE
86 -o SHUT DOWN
setting example is given in Appendix B.
If the 59s device is not capable of withstand-
ing the maximum voltage to which it may be
subjected for the time duration required to
shut down the unit, some arrangement should
be used to de-energize 59s after device 86 has
Fig 5 operated. A contact on device 86 could serve
Scheme 55, Startup Ground this purpose.
Ovewoltage-Complete Shutdown This scheme has the advantage of providing
high speed sensitive protection during startup
The operating coil circuit of the sensitive in- and shutdown procedures that may otherwise
stantaneaus overvoltage relay (device 59s) may not be obtainable. It has the minor disadvantage
be connected to terminals indicated as X-Y in that it will generally not coordinate with volt-
grounding methods I, 11, V, and VI illustrated age transfo+ner fuses. However, because the
in Table 1. The relay operating circuit is con- machine is not loaded during the period of
nected by way of an auxiliary switch (52/b) on time that this protection is in service, this
the associated circuit breaker, so that the pro- limitation should not be a major consideration.
tection is in service only during the time that
the circuit breaker is open.
NOTE: In ring bus and breaker-and-a-halfarrangements, 6.6 Scheme 6, Ground-Fault Neutralizer Over-
auxiliary switches from each of the two associated voltage- Alarm and Time-Delay Orderly Shut-
circuit breakers shall be connected in series.
down. This scheme is generally employed for
Because the protection afforded by this the protection of units that are grounded by
scheme is available only during those periods means of the ground-fault neutralizer method.
that the generator breaker(s) is open, there is This is indicated as grounding method V in
no need for coordination with other protective Table 1.
devices during external faults. Also, the rela- The ground-fault neutralizer method of
tively constant volts-per-hertz sensitivity of the grounding limits the single-phase-to-ground
relay tends to provide immunity to small mag- fault current in the machine stator windings
nitudes of 3rd harmonic voltages that might and connected equipment to magnitudes so
be present during startup or shutdown pro- low that an arc cannot be maintained. This
cedures. The combination of these two effects grounding method severely restricts fault
permits the use of a sensitive setting on device damage, so that long time delays, permitting
59s. Typical pickup settings are in the range orderly shutdown of faulted units, are deemed
of 3% to 5% of the maximum voltage that can justifiable. However, it should be recognized
be developed for a solid single-phase-toground that this grounding scheme in no way alters

Fig 6
Scheme 6, Ground-Fault
Neutralizer Overvoltage- Alarm
and Time-Delay Orderly Shutdown

RES
59x
-
I-
59x
59H - 59X --+2 -e 86 -w
TURBINE STOP
VALVE

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ANSI/IEEE
C37.101-1985 IEEE GUIDE FOR

the probability of a second ground fault occur- allel with a resistive component R, which
ring prior to shutdown. A second fault could represents the losses associated with the
produce high fault current. capacitance of the system. In practice, R, is
Protective scheme 6 is a variation of protec- appreciably greater than R,. When the tunable
tive scheme 1. It employs the same 59 device reactor is adjusted so that the reactance of the
as scheme 1, and all the comments regarding tank circuit becomes almost infinite, then the
settings and sensitivities made in scheme 1 zero-sequence network is reduced to: Z, =
apply equally to scheme 6. Because of the ab- R, = R.
sence, or near absence, of fault current, device The zero-sequence network impedance of the
59 only operates an alarm. However, because ground-fault neutralizer is 30-50 times greater
device 59 may not be able to withstand pro- than the resistance used in high-resistance
longed operation with significant overvoltage grounding. For a line-to-ground fault, the zero-
applied, device 59H is included. Device 59H is sequence network reduces to the grounding
an instantaneous overvoltage relay, which is impedance R in series with the arc fault im-
not as sensitive as device 59, and it can with- pedance, 3Rf. Since the per-unit voltage
stand higher voltages continuously. Device 59H appearing across the grounding device is
is set to pick up at a voltage level somewhat R/(R + 3Rf), it can be seen that, for the same
below the continuous rating of device 59. relay setting, the resonant grounding system
Because of the higher setting, operation of will detect much higher resistance faults.
device 59H indicates a fault that is significantly
remote from the neutral of the generator. For 6.7 Scheme 7,Wye-Broken-Delta Voltage Trans-
such a fault, both the 59 and 59H devices pick former (VT) Ground Overvoltage-Complete
up and sound an alarm. However, device 59H Shutdown. This protective scheme should not
energizes auxiliary relay 59X which in turn be confused with grounding method VI illus-
deknergizes the voltage operating circuit of trated in Table 1. Grounding method VI em-
device 59, energizes a timer (2),and continues ploys three distribution transformers connected
the alarm. The timer, set to operate in approxi- grounded wye-brokendelta with a resistor in
mately 1 h, is intended to permit an operator the brokendelta circuit. This grounding ar-
to affect an orderly shutdown of the unit be- rangement acts to provide a high-resistance
fore any automatic action is taken by way of ground for deltaconnected generator, its leads,
device 86. The recording voltmeter in this and the primary windings of the two trans-
scheme monitors the small but discernible formers connected to it. On the other hand,
zero-sequence voltage that is always present the ground-fault detection illustrated in scheme
across the neutralizing reactor. Reductions in 7 is intended to detect ground faults in the gen-
this voltage (from normal readings) indicate erator stator winding and the associated cir-
short circuits to ground at or near the gen- cuits rather than to provide a ground for the
erator neutral terminal. An increase in voltage system.
readings indicates insulation deterioration and Protective scheme 7 is a variation of protec-
a probable incipient fault. Operation of 59H tive scheme 1.It employs the same 59 device as
inserts a resistor in series with the recording scheme 1, and all comments regarding settings,
voltmeter to change the scale so that the higher sensitivities, advantages, and disadvantages
fault voltages can be recorded.
The advantages of this scheme are essentially Fig 7
the same as those afforded by scheme 1. How- Scheme 7,Wye-Broken-Delta VT,
ever, with a ground-fault neutralizer, the im- Ground Overvoltage-Complete
pedances of the zero-sequence network will Shutdown
reduce to a parallel circuit of Z, and Z,, where
GENE RAT0 R
Z, is comprised of the reactive component of LEADS
the tunable reactor shunted by a resistive 0 0 0
component R, which is representative of the I-
-c u * J c*JsJ VOLTAGE
reactor losses [ 31 . The phase-to-ground capaci- TRANSFORMER
tive impedance, Z,, of the system is comprised
of an imaginary component which represents
the phase-to ground capacitive reactance, in par-

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ANSI/IEEE
GENERATOR GROUND PROTECTION C37.101-1985

made in scheme 1 apply equally to scheme 7. GENE RAT0 R


LEADS
The basic difference in the two schemes is that
in scheme 1, a fault is sensed by the voltage
across the neutral-grounding device, whereas in
scheme 7, the voltage measured across the
brokendelta secondary windings of the voltage 1 2,59s
transformer provides this indication. For ex- -
52 LS6
---c COMPLETE
ample, during a single-phase-toground fault on b SHUTDOWN
the generator leads, the phasor sum of the phase-
to-ground voltages applied to the primary
Fig 8
windings of the three voltage transformers will Scheme 8S, Startup Wye-Broken-Delta
VT, Ground Overvoltage-Complete
be equal to three times the phase-to-neutral
voltage of the generator. The voltage appearing Shutdown
at the terminals of the 59 device operating
circuit will be the primary voltage, divided by from the system and running with field excita-
the voltage transformer ratio. tion applied.
Protective scheme 7 could be used instead of
scheme 1 in any system using grounding 6.9 Scheme 9, Secondary Connected Current
methods I and I1 and generator connections A Transformer (ct), Time-Delay Ground Over-
atnd F. Its use is generally limited to the case current-Complete Shutdown. Protective
where two or more machines, each with its scheme 9 may be used for single-phase-to-
own low-side circuit breaker, are connected to ground fault detection on generators that are
the same transformer primary delta winding. high-resistance grounded through distribution
Scheme 1 is usually used for the individual transformers and are connected to the trans-
machine protection, while scheme 7 is used for mission system through delta-wye connected
the protection of the delta transformer winding transformers.
and the associated bus. This application is dis- Scheme 9 measures the current through the
cussed under scheme 1, and a relay setting ex- secondary resistor (instead of the voltage across
ample is given in Appendix B. the resistor as in scheme 1)to detect generator
As Fig 7 indicated, device 59 is connected to ground faults. A very inverse timedelay over-
a separate set of broken-delta secondary wind- current relay is connected to the secondary
ings of the voltage transformers, whose primar- terminals R-S of a current transformer, which
ies are connected to the generator terminals. is connected in series with the resistor as shown
If such separate secondary windings are not in grounding methods I and VI. A 5 kV or
available, a set of auxiliary voltage transform- 15 kV current transformer (ct) with a ClOO
ers, connected grounded wye-brokendelta may relaying accuracy classification will provide a
Ire used in conjunction with the normally avail- conservatively rated current source. The current
able wye-connected windings of the voltage transformer ratio is usually selected so that
transformers. It should be noted that full line- relay current is approximately equal to the cur-
to-line voltage appears across each voltage rent in the generator neutral.
transformer (VT) during a ground fault; there- Since the current through the resistor is di-
fore, they shall be rated accordingly. A loading rectly proportional to the voltage across the
resistor may be placed across the broken delta resistor, schemes 1 and 9 should be equal in
to prevent possible ferroresonance. sensitivity. However, the voltage relay used in

6.8 Scheme 8S, Startup Wye-Broken-Delta Volt- Fig 9


age Transformer (VT), Ground Overvoltage- Scheme 9, Secondary Connected
Complete Shutdown. This scheme is identical ct, Time-Delay Ground
in purpose and function to scheme 5S, except Overcurrent- Complete Shutdown
that it is used when scheme 7 is used instead of
scheme 1 for primary ground-fault protection.
As indicated by the suffix S, it is inteded for COMPLETE
51---* 86--+
stator ground-fault detection during the time SHUTDOWN
that the protected machine is disconnected S

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ANSI/IEEE
C37.101-1985 IEEE GUIDE FOR

scheme 1 is, by design, very insensitive to


harmonic voltages, while the overcurrent relay 51 - - + 86 - - -w CO MP LETE
of scheme 9 is not. Therefore, the overcurrent SHUTDOWN
relay of scheme 9 shall be set somewhat less
sensitively than the scheme 1 voltage relay.
However, this disadvantage is offset by the fact Fig 10
that the overcurrent relay will provide some Scheme 10, Primary Connected ct,
protection at reduced frequencies, while the Time-Delay Ground Overcurrent-
tuned overvoltage relay will not. Complete Shutdown
Scheme 9 is essentially a variation of scheme
1 and the application discussion for scheme 1 imum phase-to-phase fault. If so, the generator
also applies to scheme 9. Appendix B provides neutral-current transformer ratio will be rela-
an example of relay setting calculations and tively high (typically 400/5), and the generator
voltage transformer fuse coordination for both ground relay shall be coordinated with the
schemes.
other system ground relays. This method will
6.10 Scheme 10, Primary Connected Current permit sensitive high-speed ground relaying for
Transformer (ct), The-Delay Ground Over- feeder faults, but has the disadvantage of
current-Complete Shutdown. Scheme 10 is a allowing the possibility of serious generator
variation of scheme 9 , except that the current damage.
transformer supplying current to the generator These same comments apply generally to
ground relay is connected in series with the column B, if the machine is grounded using the
generator grounding impedance, instead of in low-reactance grounding method IV. Since
the secondary of a distribution transformer. It there is a direct path for zero-sequence current
will be noted that this scheme may be used from the generator neutral through the auto-
with a wide variety of grounding methods such transformer to the system, the generator ground
as high resistance, low resistance, low reactance, relay should be set somewhat insensitively.
and tuned reactance. This prevents incorrect operations for system
If the generator being protected is isolated faults. Since the fault-current levels may be
from the network by the delta winding of the high, this may result in considerable damage
generator stepup transformer, and if the when a ground occurs near the high-voltage
grounding impedance is high so that the maxi- terminals of the unit being protected. This
mum ground fault is limited to 25 A or less, damage may be reduced if a scheme 11instan-
then the same principles of protection described taneous ground overcurrent unit is included as
under schemes 1and 9 are applicable to scheme an integral part of the generator overcurrent
10. In this scheme, a highaccuracy current ground relay.
transformer with a 5/5 ratio should be used so
as to match the ground relay current to the 6.11 Scheme 11, Instantaneous Ground Over-
generator neutral current; the setting calculation current-Alarm or Complete Shutdown, or
example of Appendix B will apply. Scheme 10 Both. Scheme 11 is an instantaneous overcur-
may be applied in conjunction with scheme 1 rent relay that may be used in conjunction
and will provide an excellent backup for the with either scheme 9 or 10. When used in con-
failure of device 59 or ita associated auxiliary junction with scheme 9, this device will provide
tripping relay 86. for high-speed tripping of all ground faults in
Certain low-impedance grounding applica- the transformer delta windings and bus work
tions of scheme 10 may permit ground-fault connected to the generator terminals. It also
current of hundreds or even thousands of provides high-speed protection for all faults in
amperes. This is particularly true in those cases the first 50% to 70% of the generator stator
in which the generator is connected t o the sys- winding, measured from the high-voltage end
tem, as in Table 1,col E. If grounding method of the machine. Thus, device 50H may be valu-
I11 is utilized, it may mean that the generators able in limiting machine damage, particularly in
are the only source of ground-fault current on the case of nearly simultaneous ground faults
the system, and the generator grounding re- on two different phases. However, if it is
sistors may be sized to limit the maximum desired to coordinate the generator ground
ground fault to some value less than the max- relaying with the generator voltage transformer

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ANSI/IEEE
GENERATOR GROUND PROTECTION C37.10 1-1985

I as is required. When device 50L is applied in


this manner, it will not only detect faults near
the generator neutral that may not be sensed
by device 51 of scheme 10, but will also serve
as an alarm for feeder faults. This may be use-
ful in some instances, particularly in the case of
Fig 11
a stuck breaker. These same comments apply
Scheme 11,Instantaneous Ground
generally to other generator connections, such
Overcurrent-Alarm or Complete
Shutdown, or Both as in column B, where the machine is not iso-
lated from the system by means of the delta
winding of a generator stepup transfromer.
fuses, scheme 11 may have to be connected to 6.12 Scheme 12, Generator Leads Ground
the alarm only, This will still serve the purpose Overcurrent-Complete Shutdown. Protective
of assisting in the determination of fault loca- scheme 12 may be used for grcjund detection
tion, since any fault that does not operate for generators that are connected at generator
scheme 11 is probably located inside the gen- potential to a grounded system. Table 1 indi-
erator itself, and not in any externally con- cates that this includes grounding methods I,
nected equipment. 11, VII, and VI11 for wyeconnected generators,
To prevent incorrect operation for faults on and grounding methods VI, VII, and VI11 for
the high-voltage side of the generator main delta-connected generators. Scheme 12 may
step-up transformer, device 50H should be set also be used for ground detection on unground-
for not less than three times the scheme 9 over- ed generators (grounding method VIII) that are
current relay tap setting. If device 50H is con- connected to the system through an autotrans-
nected to trip, it should be connected to the former with either a wound delta tertiary or a
same auxiliary tripping relay as device 51 of phantom tertiary.
scheme 9. Unit ground-fault protection is provided by
It should be noted that on most generators, an instantaneous and an inverse time overcur-
even when a ground fault is cleared with high rent relay. They are supplied from current
speed, ground-fault current may continue to transformers in each phase which, connected
flow for several seconds, due to the slow rate in parallel, provide a residual current to the
of generator voltage decay. If the fault is ex- relays. The current transformers are positioned
ternal to the generator, however, and a gen- on the generator side of the generator synch-
erator breaker is provided (column F), then ronizing breaker.
operation of scheme 11 will isolate and clear There are two system conditions which should
the fault. This could prove to be of great value be satisfied with this relay application. First,
in preventing machine damage in the case of a with the three individual current transformers
phase-to-phase-to-ground fault in a main summed, some lack of symmetry is inevitable.
step-up or station service transformer. This false residual current should be considered
If scheme 11 is used in conjunction with
scheme 10, it should, in general, be used for
a l m purposes only, particularly in those cases Fig 1 2
where the generator ground relay shall be co- Scheme 12, Generator Leads Ground
ordinated with other ground relays external to Overcurrent%omplete Shutdown

-
the generator protective zone. For example, if
the generators of column E are grounded using
method 111, the time overcurrent relay (51) of
scheme 10 may be set somewhat insensitively TO
NI
1
. LEADS
TO WYE
so as to coordinate properly with feeder SYSTEM. j - j OR DELTA-
ground relays. If so, some restricted faults may CONNECTED
not be detected, and the generator ground
relay will not trip. Device 50L of scheme 11
can usually be set to detect these faults. When
arl alarm is received (due to a scheme 11relay
51 L

50L
86 - GENE R A T 0 R

COMPLETE
SHUTDOWN
operation), the operator may take such action U

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*-
ANSI/IEEE
C37.101-1985 IEEE GUIDE FOR

when selecting and setting the overcurrent re- COMPLETE


TO GENERATOR 5 0 G v SHUTDOWN
lays. The relays should coordinate for the maxi-
BREAKER
mum values of residual current possible during TO WYE
an external system phase fault with maximum OR DELTA-
infeed from the generator. Secondly, the relays CONN ECTED
should coordinate for the generator zone cap- GENE RAT0 R
IU
acitance to ground-current contribution during SING LE
SYSTEM
an external system ground fault. CUR RENT
The pickup of the instantaneous relay 50L TRANSFORMER
shall be set above the maximum current pos-
sible from either of the aforementioned. This Fig 13
restriction does not apply t o the inverse time Scheme 13,3-Wire Generator Leads Window
overcurrent relay 51L because of its inherent ct, Instantaneous Ground Overcurrent-
time-delay characteristics. This instantaneous Complete Shutdown
relay will operate faster than the time overcur-
rent relay; however, it shall be set less sensi- tage is that a window ct is subject to negligible
tively. secondary residual error current. The ct win-
The fault current detected by this scheme is dow should be physically sized to be no larger
the system contribution to a generator fault than needed to accommodate the generator
and not the contribution from the generator leads. This reduces any error current to a negli-
itself. When the unit is operating while discon- gible value from flux unbalance in the ct.
nected from the system, the ground-fault cur- Experience indicates that precise centering of
rent is limited below damage levels by the high- the generator leads in the centroid of the ct is
resistance grounding method. It is not feasible not critical.
to attempt to recognize a ground fault in the With the system grounded, and the generator
zone under these conditions by overcurrent ungrounded or high-resistance grounded, the
relaying which is supplied from residually con- generator will contribute very little or no
nected current transformers sized to carry ground-fault current to an external fault.
generator full-load current. Consequently, a Therefore, the instantaneous relay device 50G
voltage relay across the ground resistor, con- can be set safely to a low value. A medium
nected to the alarm or trip is more appropriate. accuracy class ct with a ratio of 50/5 or 100/5
The advantage of scheme 12 is that the three is typical. An instantaneous relay setting of
separate current transformers can also be used 10-15 primary amperes has been found to be
for phase overcurrent relaying for overload or secure for ungrounded generators. A slightly
phase-fault protection. higher setting may be required for a high-
resistance grounded generator. For a ground
6.13 Scheme 13, 3-Wire Generator Leads Win- fault on the generator side of this ct, the
dow Current Transformer (ct) Instantaneous grounded system will provide current to
Ground Overcurrent- Complete Shutdown. operate the instantaneous relay. In this case,
This relay scheme is a variation of scheme 1 2 ct output results from the ground current in
but makes use of a window-type current trans- one generator lead producing flux in the ct
former which surrounds the phase leads to the which is not balanced out by the correspond-
generator. This limits the scheme to relatively ing flux produced by current in the other
small generators based on the availability of generator leads.
window current transformer sizes. The current The ability of this scheme to recognize ground
transformer (ct) measures the ground (zero faults at various locations in the generator
squence) current in the generator leads during stator, relative to the generator neutral, is re-
a ground fault. Unbalanced current in the gen- lated to the type of system grounding. For
erator leads which do not contain any ground example, if the system limits the available
(zero sequence) current will not appear in the ground current to 400 primary A, and if the
current transformer output. This type of instantaneous relay is set for 10 primary A, the
application has the advantage of allowing a ct relay can see a generator stator winding fault to
ratio less than the ct rating required to carry within 2.5% of the neutral. If the available
generator full load. Another important advan- ground-fault current from the system is higher,

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ANSI/IEEE
GENERATOR GROUND PROTECTION C37.101-1985

the relay can see generator stator faults even Ground Overcurrent -Complete Shutdown.
closer to the neutral. However, it is important This relay scheme, often referred to as a gen-
to note that the instantaneous relay is essen- erator self- balancing differential ground relay
tially a definite time device while heating at scheme, makes use of a window-type current
the fault is proportional to 12t. Thus, greater transformer which surrounds the generator
sensitivity to stator faults near the generator phase leads and the generator neutral lead. This
neutral is obtained at the expense of increased scheme is similar in principle to scheme 13.
burning for ground faults near the generator The generator neutral lead passes through the
terminals due to higher fault current. current transformer, and is connected t o point
During external ground faults, capacitive N toward the generator breaker side of the ct.
ground current (zero-sequence current) will Point N is then connected to the particular
flow in the relay. The capacitance between the method of generator neutral grounding. With
ct and the generator is usually small, but it this arrangement, the ct output to device 50G
should be considered. This may have an in- is a measure of the ground current coming
fluence on the relays pickup and therefore the from the system and the generator for a ground
sensitivity of the scheme. The major capacitance fault in the generator. For a ground fault in the
to ground considerations are cables, buses, system external to the generator, current will
surge capacitors, and the generator windings. not flow in device 50G.
If this capacitive ground current is significant,
a time overcurrent relay, device 51G,should be
used. This will provide the same primary ampere TOGENERATOR SHUTDOWN
sensitivity with a short time delay.
It is important to note that window type cts
(sometimes called doughnut cts) used in this
type of application do not have much iron. The
purpose for that is to keep the physical size of
the ct small, so as to fit into certain space
SINGLE
limits in switchgear. As a result, such cts have CURRENT
a poor saturation characteristic. It is necessary To
TRANSFORMER
to test such a ct with its associated relay METHOD
burden to determine the primary ampere
pickup sensitivity of the package. For example, Fig 1 4
one suppliers package, which consists of an Scheme 14,4-Wire Generator Leads Window
instantaneous plunger type relay and a 10/1 ct, Instantaneous Ground Overcurrent-
turns-ratio window ct, is guaranteed to pick up Complete Shutdown
at 15 primary A with the relay set for 0.5 sec-
ondary A. Ideally, the primary ampere pickup
is 0.5.10/1= 5 primary A. Also, it is very im- 6.15 Scheme 15, Generator Percentage Differ-
portant to note that when an induction over- ential-Complete Shutdown. Protective scheme
current relay is-used, the published timecurrent 15 is the conventional generator percentage
characteristics of the relay are not valid for this differential protection for phase-to-phase faults.
application. Here again, device 51G should be If the generator is connected to a solidly
tested as a system to determine its actual time- grounded system-either directly or through an
current characteristics. This is particularly autotransformer -10% generator differential
important when coordinating a device 51G relays will detect phase-to-ground fault within
relay, with backup ground relays so that for 10%to 15% of the generator neutral.
ground faults in the generator device 51G will 6.16 Scheme 16, Generator Percentage Differ-
operate first. The backup ground relays usually ential and Polarized Neutral Overcurrent-
are connected to higher accuracy cts that per- Complete Shutdown. Protective scheme 1 6 is
mit the published time-current characteristic the conventional generator percentage-differ-
curves to be followed. entia1 protection with the addition of a current
polarized product type overcurrent relay. The
6.14 Scheme 14, 4-Wire Generator Leads Win- relay is connected with its operating cod in the
dow Current Transformer (ct) Instantaneous neutral of the differential relay circuit, and its

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ANSIIIEEE
C37.101-1985 IEEE GUIDE FOR

COMPLETE
r - - + 86 - - +
I
SHUTDOWN

--
1 LOW REACTANCE
e.. OR
0 LOW R ESI STANCE
e
h
e
0
e

GENE R A T 0 R

Fig 1 5
Scheme 15, Generator Percentage
Differential- Complete Shutdown

polarizing coil is energized from a current connected generator. If the generator is con-
transformer in the generator neutral. This relay nected to a solidly grounded system that en-
provides additional sensitivity for phase-to- sures sufficient ground current to reliably
ground faults in the generator stator winding operate the differential relays, no other ground-
and prevents operation on current transformer fault protection is required. However, if
error current for external phase-to-phase and under contingency system conditions, suffi-
three-phase faults. A polarized relay provides cient ground current cannot be ensured, differ-
greater sensitivity without excessive burden to ential protection should be supplemented by
the operating coil. sensitive ground-fault protective schemes such
as scheme 12 or 13. Scheme 55 or 8s may be
6.17 Scheme 17, Delta-Connected Generator, used to detect generator grounds when the
Generator Percentage Differential-Complete
machine is running with its circuit breaker
Shutdown. Protective scheme 17 is the con- open.
ventional differential protection for a delta-

Fig 16
Scheme 16,Generator Percentage Differential and Polarized Neutral
Overcurrent- Complete Shutdown

COMPLETE
r--+86---~
I SHUTDOWN

LOW R EACTAN CE
e OR
LOW R ESISTANCE
F
0 - - l a + \
e W e

GENERATOR

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ANSI/IEEE
GENERATOR GROUND PROTECTION C37.101-1985

COMPLETE
,----+86--+
I SHUTDOWN

Fig 17
Scheme 17,Delta-Connected Generator,
Generator Percentage Diffwential-
Complete Shutdown

7. Protective Device Function Numbers desensitize this device to 3rd harmonic current
because of its relatively high pickup setting.
All of the different protection schemes illus-
trated in Figs 1-17 and described in Section 6 Device 50L. This is a standard instantaneous
utilize protective relays that are represented or overcurrent relay. Its range of pickup adjust-
designed by device function numbers. It is the ment is such that it can be set to pick up above
purpose of this section to define, in broad any false residual current resulting from current
terns, the required characteristics of the relays transformer saturation during faults beyond
designated by these numbers. Specific defini- the generator main circuit breaker.
tions for device numbers are found in ANSI/ Device 51. This is a sensitive time overcurrent
IEEE C37.2-1979, [I]. relay, the time delay of which is inversely
Device 2 . This is a dc operated auxiliary time- related to the magnitude of the input current
delay relay. The range of adjustment, if any, to the device. The sensitivity of this device to
should be selected to accommodate the desired fundamental current is such that, in conjunc-
time delay. tion with the current transformer to which it is
Device 27. This is an instantaneous 3rd har- connected , it will detect single-phase-to-ground
monic undervoltage relay. faults in the generator stator winding to within
Device 50G. This is an instantaneous overcur- a few percent of the distance to the neutral of
rent relay that is designed in coordination with the winding. The sensitivity of this relay to
the associated toroidal current transformer to 3rd harmonic current should be such that the
have a very sensitive pickup capability. maximum 3rd harmonic current that flows in
Device 50H. This is an instantaneous overcur- the generator should not cause it to operate.
rent relay having a pickup range that encom- This relay should be capable of coordinating
passes the magnitude of fault current that would with the primary and secondary fuses that are
result for a single-phase-to-ground fault at the used with any voltage transformers connected
terminals of the generator. There is no need to to the generator leads, where such coordination

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ANSI/XEEE
C37.101-1985 IEEE GUIDE FOR

is desired. Examples of fuse and relay coordina- normal conditions. The purpose of the 59H
tion are found in Appendix B. device is to protect the associated device 59
Device 511. This is a time delayed overcurrent during a single-phase-to-ground fault that pro-
device that is only sensitive t o lower than fun- duces voltage in excess of its continuous rating.
damental frequencies. Device 591. This is an instantaneous overvolt-
Device 51L. This is a standard time overcur- age relay, very sensitive to the fundamental
rent relay, the time delay of which is inversely frequency voltage and to somewhat lower
related to the magnitude of the input current. frequencies, but insensitive to the 3rd and
The pickup range is such that the relay can be higher harmonics. See Device 59 for additional
set to pick up above any false residual current information.
resulting from current transformer saturation Device 59s. This device is intended to provide
during faults beyond the main circuit breaker for protection against single-phase-to-ground
of the generator. faults during the time that the generator is not
Device 59. This is a time delay overvoltage connected to the system. This includes those
relay that is designed to be very sensitive to intervals when the machine is being brought up
fundamental frequency voltage but insensitive to speed or being shut down, with field excita-
to 3rd and higher harmonics. The sensitivity tion applied. During these periods the machine
to fundamental frequency voltage should en- voltage magnitude and frequency will be below
able the device to detect single-phase-to-ground normal. For this reason the 59s device should
faults to within a few percent of the distance have a pickup characteristic that is essentially
to the neutral end of the winding. In general, proportional to frequency. Because the relay is
the relay will not be suitable to detect faults only in service when the main circuit breaker
at, or very close to, the neutral point. Because of the machine is open, no coordination with
this relay will be able to detect phase-to- other protective devices is required, and a high
ground faults in the primary and secondary speed, sensitive relay may be applied. A device
circuits of any voltage transformer connected having a constant volts/hertz pickup is desir-
between the generator leads and ground, the able for this application.
time delay associated with it should be suitable Device 59T. This is an instantaneous over-
to coordinate with the voltage transformer voltage relay sensitive to the 3rd harmonic
primary and secondary fuses. In some cases, component.
because of the sensitivity of this relay, it may Device 59X. This is an ac operated, self-reset
not be able to withstand, for a prolonged multicontact auxiliary relay.
period, the maximum value of voltage to which Device 86. This is a hand reset, multicontact,
it may be exposed in the event of a single-phase- dc operated auxiliary relay.
to-ground fault at the generator terminals. This Device 87. This is a conventional generator
should be investigated if this device is used for percentage differential relay.
alarm purposes, or if the tripping is delayed by Device 87H. This is a very sensitive, high-
some external time delay for any reason. impedance phase and ground differential relay,
Device 59C. This is an ordinary instantaneous whose sensitivity is independent of the load
overvoltage relay having a pickup range of 50% current and requires no coordination with
to 70% of nominal terminal voltage. Its purpose external relays and devices.
is to monitor fundamental frequency voltage at Device 87N. This is basically a sensitive, short-
the terminals of the generator to determine time, product-type time overcurrent relay with
when the main generator breaker has closed or two coils: an operating coil, and a polarizing
when field excitation has been applied. coil. The relay operates when the current in the
Device 59D. This is an instantaneous 3rd har- two coils have the proper relative phase angle,
monic voltage differential relay. and the magnitude of the product of the current
Device 59H. This is an overvoltage relay with in the two coils exceeds the pickup setting.
no intentional time delay required. It should Device 87". This is a very sensitive, single
have a pickup range at a fundamental frequency element, high-impedance differential relay mea-
voltage somewhat lower than the continuous suring the residual ground differential quantity.
rating of the associated 59 device. It should not The relay sensitivity is independent of load cur-
operate as a result of the maximum zero- rent and requires no coordination with external
sequence harmonic voltage present during relays and devices.

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ANSI/IEEE
GENERATOR GROUND PROTECTION C37.101-1985

Appendixes
(These Appendixes are not a part of ANSI/IEEE C37.101-1985, IEEE Guide for Generator Ground Protection.)

Appendix A
Generator Ground Protection; Other Practices

It is the purpose of this Appendix to identify damage to the machine because the second
briefly other reported generator ground-fault ground fault can give rise to a short-circuit cur-
protective relay schemes which are nonstandard, rent not limited by the normal grounding
special, unique, or not extensively used in the impedance. This condition is aggravated if the
United States at this time. These schemes are first ground fault occurs close to, or at, the
interpretations of available documentation or neutral of the generator, as all ground relays
combinations thereof, and are included as a operating from the neutral point voltage or
matter of information only. current become inoperative. Furthermore, if
Where explicit application details may be the second ground fault occurs in the same
missing in this Appendix, it is anticipated that winding, the generator differential relay may
the interested reader will pursue necessary also become inoperable since this condition
application details from other sources. The can be regarded as an internal turn-to-turn
listed references from which the information fault. This fault is detected, for example, by
included in this Appendix has been drawn, pro- a negative sequence current relay and-if
vide some guidance for that purpose. large enough-by overcurrent back-up relays.
Although desirable, instantaneous detection
is not generally available for this type of fault.
Al. Ground-Fault Relays for the Complete The schemes reviewed involve the use of
Generator Stator Winding (1)Third harmonic neutral voltage
(2)Third harmonic terminal to ground re-
In the group of generator protective ground sidual voltage
relays that are covered by this Appendix, there (3) Third harmonic ratio differential quanti-
are schemes that provide 100% coverage of the ties
stator winding for ground faults. These designs (4) Neutral or residual voltage injection
use different measuring quantities in addition There are often differences in tripping
to, or in lieu of, those previously discussed in philosophy for 100% relays versus other
the guide. They do not necessarily use the gen- ground-fault relays with respect to the fault
erator ground-fault current contribution for location. These practices consider the amount
detection of the ground fault. For example, the of ground-fault current flowing and the capa-
lack of generator 3rd harmonic neutral voltage bility of the machine to cope with the fault
or an increase in the terminal 3rd harmonic current. Some utilities may elect to trip the
residual voltage, or both, are used in some of machine regardless of the location of the
these relay schemes to detect ground faults or ground fault in the stator winding or the size of
deterioration of the insulation close to the the machine. Others may trip large baseload
neutral. In other schemes, an additional voltage units with the conventional ground-fault relay
source is connected to the generator neutral to only, and the alarm with the relay that detects
produce a detectable flow of current upon the faults in the neutral region, so as to permit
occurrence of a ground fault anywhere in the inspection and possible repair during normal
generator stator winding. shutdown for maintenance.
The importance of detecting ground faults If a second ground fault develops, the risk of
close to the neutral point of the generator is more severe damage is accepted in order to
not dependent on the need to trip because of maintain service. However, it is generally
fault-current magnitude, since it may be negli- desirable to trip the machine regardless of fault
gible and will not, in general, cause immediate location if there are no means for instantane-
damage. If a second ground fault occurs, the ous detection and tripping of double ground
two ground faults combined can cause severe faults.

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ANSI/IEEE
C37.101-1985 IEEE GUIDE FOR

Fig A1
Scheme A, 3rd Harmonic Neutral Voltage

A l . l Scheme A, 3rd Harmonic Neutral Volt- approximately 1%of 3rd harmonic voltage is
age. This scheme uses relay element 27 to detect generated by the machine. This 3rd harmonic
the lack of 3rd harmonic voltage at the neutral voltage is distributed betaween the terminal
point in addition to the fundamental neutral capacitance and the grounding impedance of
overvoltage element 591. It offers the advantage the machine.
of not requiring any additional HV equipment A broken-delta-connected secondary-voltage
other than that needed for conventional transformer winding provides the input to the
ground-fault detection schemes for single-stator 3rd harmonic overvoltage relay 59T, which
generators. The scheme can also be used for measures the residual 3rd harmonic to ground
cross compound and split winding machines by zero-sequence voltage at the machine terminals.
adding a second voltage transformer and 3rd The relay is set above the maximum machine
harmonic relay to monitor the 3rd harmonic or system 3rd harmonic voltage possible at the
voltage at the neutral of the ungrounded stator machine terminal during normal generator
winding. The scheme also provides protection operation.
when the main breaker is open, provided that The 3rd harmonic terminal overvoltage relay
the terminal voltage is above the set level on will operate for a ground fault in the vicinity of
relay 59C. Typically, not more than 1%of 3rd the neutral of the stator winding. Upon occur-
harmonic voltage with reference to rated volt- rence of a fault, the major impedance for the
age is needed, and normally 10%-30% of the 3rd harmonic current will be the terminal
stator winding from the neutral point towards capacitance of the machine, since the grounding
the machine terminal can be protected. This impedance is short circuited to ground by the
offers excellent overlap with the conventional fault. The 3rd harmonic voltage generated by
95% overvoltage relay 591, which is a required the machine will be redistributed, with the major
part of the scheme to provide full protection. portion appearing at the machine terminal.
Since the 3rd harmonic component increases
A1.2 Scheme B, 3rd Harmonic Terminal to with the machine output current and during
Ground Residual Voltage. Like scheme A, external faults on the power system, time co-
scheme B supplements the conventional 95% ordination with other system relays is often
relay 591, to provide 100% protection for necessary. Full generator stator winding ground-
ground faults in the generator stator winding. fault protection is only ensured when the
This scheme is also intended primarily for high- generator output current is above a certain
impedance grounded machines, provided that value.

28

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ANSI/IEEE
GENERATOR GROUND PROTECTION C37.101-1985

I--

+ +
COMPLETE
SHUTDOWN

Fig A2
Scheme B, 3rd Harmonic Terminal to
Ground Residual Voltage

To ensure J l stator coverage, two relays are testing in conjunction with commiswning. The
required in scheme B. The relay settings have 3rd harmonic differential relay 59D detects
t o be determined during commissioning, after ground faults near the neutral, while relay 591,
tests have been completed. Normally, good which measures the fundamental neutral volt-
overlapping protection can be expected only age, protects the upper portion of the winding.
when the machine is heavily loaded. The differential relay sensitivity is maximum
for a fault at the neutral point and decreases
A1.3 Scheme C, 3rd Harmonic Ratio Differen-
proportionally as the fault location moves
tial Quantities. Like schemes A and B, this
toward the line terminals. At some point on
scheme also supplements the conventional 95%
the winding, the difference between the neutral
relay to provide 100% coverage for ground
and terminal 3rd harmonic voltages is equal to
faults in the generator stator winding. This
the relay setting. Double ground faults tend to
scheme was also designed primarily for high-
reduce the sensitivity for the differential relay,
impedance grounded machines.
and multiwinding machines offer application
Scheme C utilizes the fact that the 3rd har-
difficulties that require careful consideration.
monic residual voltage at the terminals of a
machine increases, while the 3rd harmonic A1.4 Scheme D, Neutral or Residual Voltage
voltage at the neutral decreases, for a fault Injection. Schemes using voltage injection at
near the neutral. It was formerly believed that the neutral, or residually in the broken-delta
the ratio of the 3rd harmonic residual voltage voltage transformer (vt) secondary, can detect
to the neutral 3rd harmonic content is nearly ground faults anywhere in the stator winding
constant for all load conditions on an unfault- of the generator, including the neutral point.
ed machine. However, experience has recently Full ground-fault protection is available when
proven that the ratio of 3rd harmonic current the generator is on turning gear and during
is not constant over the load range of the startup, if the injected voltage souce does not
machine. This complicates the application of originate from the generator. Certain schemes
this type of relay and may necessitate a reduced inject a coded signal at a subharmonic frequency
sensitivity setting and overlap between the two which can be synchronized with the system
relay functions 591 and 59D. The settings for frequency (for example, rated frequency).
both relays should be determined during field This coding improves the security of the relay

29

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ANSI/IEEE
C37.181-1985 IEEE GUIDE FOR

Fig A3
Scheme C, 3rd Harmonic Ratio Differential Quantities

system, without sacrificing dependability, Schemes injecting fundamental frequency


when compared to other injection schemes. voltage require relatively large signal power due
For proper relay performance, the scheme is to the lower impedance involved. System dis-
dependent on a reliable subharmonic source, turbances at the fundamental frequency can
usually derived from the station battery. The cause false operation unless precautions are
use of subharmonic frequencies may offer taken to provide additional security. However,
improved sensitivities due to the higher-imped- these schemes may still provide 100% protec-
ance path of the generator capacitances at tion.
these frequencies. Such frequencies are not A feature of neutral injection schemes is that
normally present at the generator neutral. they provide 100% ground-fault protection

Fig A4
Scheme D, Neutral or Residual Voltage Injection

30

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ANSI/IEEE
GENERATOR GROUND PROTECTION C37.101-1985

independently of the 95% ground-fault protec- loop impedance in parallel with the relay, plus
tion schemes. In addition, some of these injec- a margin. The margin is determined by the
tion schemes are self-monitoring. The majority relay engineer, based on the manufacturers
of these injection schemes are independent of recommendations for the relay involved. Also
load current, system voltage, and frequency. note that the calculated setting shall not ex-
In applying neutral injection schemes, con- ceed 50% of the saturation voltage of the
sideration should be given to the additional current transformers to which relays are
neutral transformer required. This transformer connected. The high-impedance relay is nor-
should be designed so as not to interfere with mally provided with overvoltage protection in
the insulation coordination of the generator the form of nonlinear resistors in parallel with
system. the relay. Depending on the resistor size, short
circuiting of the differential circuit following
A2. Restricted Ground-Fault Relays relay operation may be required to prevent
damage.
A2.l Scheme E, High-Impedance Generator
Differential for Phase or Ground Faults. Scheme A2.2 Scheme F, Residual High-Impedance
E uses a high-impedance differntial relay, device Generator Differential. Scheme F is a variation
of scheme E, which uses a separate single high-
87H, for phase- and ground-fault protection.
The use of high-impedance differential relays impedance element to detect ground faults only
for phase faults in generators provides addition- in the machine. Two alternate connections are
shown. The first uses all phase-current trans-
al security against malfunction due to current
formers on both sides of the machine, the
transformer (ct) saturation during external
faults. These relays also provide high-speed second uses a neutral-current transformer on
tripping and, in many cases, provide excellent the neutral side of the machine. The same set-
ting procedures are used as described under
ground-fault coverage of the stator winding.
scheme E.
Normally, a sensitivity of approximately 1%
of rated current can be obtained, which means A2.3 Scheme G, Residual High-Impedance
that the coverage for ground faults is dependent Generator Differential and Generator Percent-
upon the grounding impedance. Relays which age Differential. Scheme G is a variation of
operate for current between 1mA and 200 mA schemes E and F for the detection of both
are available. Since the relay does not restrain phase and ground faults. Ground-fault protec-
on the load current, the same sensitivity is tion is provided by a single high-impedance
maintained for all load conditions. element connected in the neutral of the con-
These relays are usually set with a voltage value ventional percentage restraint phase differential
equal to the calculated maximum secondary relays. The same setting procedures are used as
through fault current times the maximum ct described under scheme E.
Fig A5
Scheme E, High-Impedance Generator Differential
for Phase or Ground Faults
COMPLETE
r - - + 86 - - *
I
SHUTDOWN

I t I

0 e.
.
GROUNDING

-
7
0
e
W
, -
N I
/ - \
I I n . i
- 1 IMPEDANCE

G ENE RATOR

31

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ANSI/IEEE
C37.101-1985 IEEE GUIDE FOR

COMPLETE
r + 86--+
I SHUTDOWN
I
lI
A
I I . I

I/I
0 . 0 0 .
7 7 .
0 W W
0
0 7 7 . 4 - I
-
0
0 vv W
0 W
+ y
W
. 7
0

GENERATOR
COMPLETE
r +86-- +
I
SHUTDOWN

GROUNDING
IMPEDANCE
1 w

GENE RAT0 R

Fig A6
Scheme F, Residual High-Impedance
Generator Differential

COMPLETE
r
I
- T -e 86 - - * SHUTDOWN

87. J

-
0
0
0
0 . .

o c ,
e
0
-
W

W
.-

I
\-/
v
P

- .W
-
-
W

a
W
.

7
0
0
-
GROUNDING
- IMPEDANCE
*

GENE R A T 0 R

Fig A7
Scheme G, Residual High-Impedance Generator Differential and
Generator Percentage Differential

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ANSI/IEEE
GENERATOR GROUND PROTECTION C37.101-1985

Appendix B
Generator Ground Protection Examples

A 974 MVA, 22 kV generator is unit-con- Fault current and voltages are calculated by
nected to a 345 kV transmission bus and two methods: symmetrical component analysis,
grounded through a distribution transformer and with the aid of phasor diagrams.
as shwon in Fig B1. The phase-to-ground capa- B1. Symmetrical Components Solution. With
citive reactance of the generator, transformers, symmetrical components, phase-to-ground
lads, and associated equipment is 6780 Per faults are calculated by the posi-
phase. The distribution is rated tive, negative, and zero-sequence networks in
13 280 V - 240 V. The secondary resistor is series as shown in Fig B2(a) and solving for
0.738 a.The secondary resistance reflected to
Io. Thus, the equivalent positive and negative
the primary circuit is (R secondary) (turns -
sequence impedances of the system and the
ratio squared).
-
zero-sequence imDedance of the generator are
R, = 0.738 (->' = 2260 a extremely small,-as compared to the neutral
resistor equivalent circuit and the distributed

Fig B1
Typical Generator Ground Protection
One Line Diagram

345 kV SYSTEM

4
1
AUXILIARY BUS

24 000 V-120 v
- -
\Lmo
24000 V -I20 V
975 MVA
22 kV
75 k V Ar/min
1800

13 '280 V -240 V 59s SCHEME5S


R, = N 2 R

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ANSI/IEEE
C37.101-1985 IEEE GUIDE FOR

I
21a! Zq BUS

Q El,

I
E l , -GENERATOR SOURCE

E, - SYSTEM SOURCE
(a)

Fig B2
Phase to Ground-FaultSymmetrical Component Equivalent Circuits
(a) Symmetrical Component Equivalent Circuit
(b) Reduced Symmetrical Component Equivalent Circuit

34

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ANSI/IEEE
GENERATOR GROUND PROTECTION C37.101-1985

zero-sequence capacitance, and therefore can B2. Phasor Diagram Analysis. The single line
be neglected. For a unit-connected generator, diagram for the equivalent phase-to-ground
the zero-sequence network is open at the A capacitance of the generator windings, bus
winding of the power transformers and consists duct, and generator step-up transformers is
of the generator neutral resistor and the phase- shown in Fig B3(a). In a balanced three-phase
to-ground capacitance of the generator windings system, the neutral current will be zero, as
and associated equipment. The equivalent illustrated in Fig B3(b). The capacitive current
circuit will then be that shown in Fig B2(b). in each phase is
Io = Ion + Ioc I& 12700@"
ICX= -=
Io = total zero-sequence fault current -jX, 6780/-90"
= 1.87/90 A
Ion = zero-sequence current flowing in the neu-
=--E;. - 12700/240"
tral resistor
Io, = zero-sequence current flowing in the dis- ICY -jX, 6780/-90
tributed capacitance = 1.87/330" A
The total fault current If is equal t o 310, which E,
is equal to In + I,. In=-- - 12700/120
-jXc 6780/-90
= 1.87/210 A
The current through the generator neutral is
The sum of the current is
I, = I a + Icy + IC,
I, = 1.87/90 + 1.87/330" + 1.87/210
The fault-current contribution from the capa-
=o
citance is If we place a line-toground fault on phasex
between the generator stator terminals and the
bushings of the generator stepup transformer,
the equivalent circuit will be shown in Fig B3(c)
Elg = generator phase-to-neutral voltage and B3(d).
To obtain the fault current If, the following
Elg=22 OOO/fi=12 700 V loop equations may be written
R, = 2260 Cl AI:Ex-11(-jXc)+12(-jXc)-Ey=O
In = 12 700/2260=5.62 A
A2 : &-Ey-Il(-jXc)+12( -jXc)=O
B1: Ey+Il(-jXc)-Iz(-jX,)-I,(-jX,)-E,=O
B2: ~-Ez+Il(-jX,)-21,(-jXc)=0
If = 5.62 + j5.62 = 7.95/45" A
C1: -ISRn-Ex=O
In is the current flowing in the generator
neutral for a single phase-to-ground fault at the c2 :
I --
-I&
generator terminals. The current I, flowing in 3 - Rn
the distribution transformer secondary wiring
and through the resistor is the generator neutral Adding Eqs A 2 and B2
current multiplied by the turns ratio of the I&-E,-I,(-jX,)=O
distribution transformer.
E,-&
Is = 5.62
13 280
-= 311 A I, = -
240 -jXc

The voltage across the secondary resistor is Substituting for I2 in Eq A2


2E,-Ey-E,
VR = IsR = 311 0.738 I1 = ---3Ex
= 229.5 V -jXc -jXc

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ANSI/IEEE
C37.101-1985 IEEE GUIDE FOR

- q VOLTAGE
TRANSFORMER

SYSTEM

Fig B3
Phase to Ground-Fault Capacitive Reactance Equivalent Circuits and Phasor Diagrams
(a) Equivalent Single Line Diagram
(b) Normal Resistor Current During Balanced Load Conditions

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ANSI/IEEE
GENERATOR GROUND PROTECTION C37.101-1985

From Figs B3(c) and B3(d): Xc = 6780 52


If= I1 - 13
Icy = I2 - I1
In = -4
= 12 700g0 V
Ey = 12 700/240 V 12 700/240" -12 7 0 0 p
Ez = 12 70O/12O0V ICY = 6780/-90
R, = 2260 !2 = 3.24/300 A

G EN E RAT0 R
STEP UP
TRANSFOR MER

>
-
-

''-jXc
iIC
c 'n

VOLTAGE
v R, = 2260
TRANSFORMER

(d)

Fig B3 (Continued)
Phase to Ground-Fault Capacitive Reactance Equivalent Circuits and Phasor Diagrams
(c) Equivalent Network During Fault
(d) Loop Current Network for the System During Fault

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ANSI/IEEE
C37.101-1985 IEEE GUIDE FOR

E,-& 12 700@' 12 700@"


I& = -I2 = - If = (6780a') 22604'
-Jxc +

12 700/120' -12 700@" If = 5 .&2/90' + 5 .62B0


la = 6780/-90'
If= 7.95/45" A
= 3.24/240"
Also from Fig B3(c):
IC = Icy + Icz I f = In - I c = 5.62@' -5.62/270'
= 3.24/300' + 3.24KO'
I f = 7.95/45' A
I C = 5.62/270' A
Figure B3(e) illustratesthe phase relationships
The current in the generator neutral is
of the current. The current through the primary
4 - 12700@' of the grounding transformer is 5.62 A. The
In = -I3 = R, - 678OLQ' secondary voltage is 229.5 V, and the resistor
current is 311 A.
In = 5.62@' A
B3. Relay Applications
From Fig B3(d) the total fault current is the B3.1 Scheme 1Relay Settings. The relay (de-
sum of the capacitive and neutral current. vice 59) is a low pickup timedelayed voltage
relay designed to be insensitive to 3rd harmonic
3E, E, voltages. The relay is rated 67 V continuously
I f = Il - I3 = -+ -
-JXc Rn and 140 V for 2 min and should be set at 5.4 V

-'c
If = 7.95 A

/
TOTAL FAULT CURRENT

IC = 5.62 A
CAPACITIVE CURRENT

Fig B3 (Continued)
Phase to Ground-Fault Capacitive Reactance Equivalent Circuits and Phasor Diagrams
(e) Current Relationships During Fault

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ANSI/IEEE
GENERATOR GROUND PROTECTION C37.10 1-1985

pickup and 10 time dial. Since the generator As calculated earlier, the maximum generator
voltage is uniformly distributed along its stator neutral fault current is 5.62 A. This will produce
winding (0 V at the neutral and 12 700 V to 311 A in the secondary resistor and 311/50 =
ground at its terminals), the voltage across the 6.2 A in the ground overcurrent relay.
relay will be proportional to the percentile of The overcurrent relay should be set as sensi-
the winding that is faulted. The 59 relay with a tively as possible without introducing the possi-
5.4 V setting will detect single-phase-toground bility of false tripping. When the unit is on line,
faults to within there will be a small neutral current due to
system unbalance and generated harmonics,
5*4 100 = 2.35% principally in the 3rd. This neutral current will
229.5 vary directly with generator load so the maxi-
of the generator neutral, or 97.65%of the stator mum relay current will flow when the machine
winding measured from the terminals will be is operating at full load. This current can be
protected. The fault current for single-phase-to- expected to be less than 0.5 A. Actual field
ground faults on the unprotected 2.35%of the measurements on 29 hydro and 59 thermal
winding will be 0.0235 7.95 = 0.187 A and units ranging in size from 15 MW to 950 MW,
will decrease to zero at the neutral. showed relay current from 0.1 A - 0.6 A with
B3.2 Scheme 5s Relay Settings. If scheme 5 s a mean value of 0.3 A.
is applied to provide protection during warm- It is important that the current in the ground
up, the relay selected should be a plunger type relay operating coil be measured with the unit
relay with a 7 V-16 V pickup range. The relay running as near full load as possible.
is set at 7 V. At 60 Hz and rated generator volt- This value should not exceed 75% of the
age, this setting protects 97% of the winding. ground relay tap setting. Assuming a maximum
During warm-up, the machine is operating at operating current of 0.3 A, the generator ground
reduced frequency and voltage. The amount of overcurrent relay may be set on the 0.5 A tap.
the winding protected will vary with generator This setting will provide protection for all but
voltage; however, because a plunger type relay 0.5 100/6.2 = 8.1%of the generator winding,
has essentially a constant volts per hertz char- or 91.9%of the winding will be protected.
acteristic, maximum stator protection will be Since a voltage may exist at the generator
obtained. neutral when a fault occurs on the high-voltage
B3.3 Scheme 7 Relay Settings. In this scheme, side of the generator stepup transformer, some
voltage transformers with two secondary wind- time delay should be provided for the time over-
ings rated 24 000 - 120/120 V are connected current unit. Otherwise, the machine will be
grounded wye-grounded wye-broken delta. For incorrectly tripped for a transmission system
a fault at the generator terminals, E, = 12 700 V. fault. A time dial setting of 3.5 to 4.0 will
The voltage across the overvoltage relay con- usually prove adequate if a very inverse relay
nected in the broken delta will be 3E0/N = is used.
3 12 700/200 = 191 V. This application will
require that the relay has a continuous rating
of 199 V. If the 24 V tap and 10 time dial are B3.5 Relay - VT Fuse Coordination. The sen-
used, this relay will coordinate closely with the sitive relaying used to detect phase-to-ground
primary-voltage transformer fuses and will faults on the generator stator winding will also
detect single-phase-to-ground faults to within detect phase-to-ground faults on the secondary
(24/191) 100 = 12.6% of the neutral. The leads of the voltage transformers, if the voltage
primary current at relay pickup will be 1.0 A transformers are connected Y - Y with both
(12.6% 7.95 = 1.0). This is satisfactory for a neutrals grounded. Figure B1 shows the voltage
backup relay to scheme 1. transformers protected with 0.5 A current
B3.4 Scheme 9 Relay Settings. Scheme 9, limiting fuses. Current limiting fuses are not
using an overcurrent relay scheme, may be required for the maximum phase-to-ground
used instead of scheme 1. The grounding trans- fault current of 7.95 A calculated in this ex-
former has a ratio of 13 280 to 240, or 55.3 to ample; however, phase-to-phase fault current
1. A 25040-5 current transformer will provide exceeds the interrupting rating of an ordinary
relay current approximately equal to generator voltage transformer fuse of this size by far.
neutral current. Resistors in series with ordinary 0.5A voltage

39

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ANSI/IEEE
C37.101-1985 IEEE GUIDE FOR

100

50

20

10

2
v)
0
z
0
0
W
rA
z
W
f
+
0.5

0.2

0.1

0.05

0.02

0.01
0.05 0.1 0.2 0.5 1 2 5 8 10 20 50 100

P R I M A R Y G R O U N D F A U L T C U R R E N T I N AMPERES

Fig B4
Relay and Fuse Coordination Curves

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ANSI/IEEE
C37.101-1985

transformer fuses may be used to limit multi- fault at the generator terminals was 7.95 A and
phase fault current to within the interrupting relay volts 229.5 for schemes 1 and 5s. The
rating of the fuse. ratio of relay volts to primary ground-fault
Figure B4 shows both relay and fuse time- current is 28.9 to 1. This same ratio holds for
current characteristics plotted in terms of total fault current less than maximum. In scheme 7,
phase-to-ground fault current at the generator the relay volts are 191 for the maximum
terminals or the primary terminals of the voltage ground-fault current of 7.95 A. The ratio for
transformer. Since the voltage transformer this relay is 24 to 1.
ratio in this example is 24 000 V-120 V, In scheme 9,the relay current is 6.2 A for a
secondary fuse characteristics are plotted on maximum ground-fault current of 7.95 A. The
the basis that 200 A secondary current is equal ratio of relay current to total ground current is
to 1A primary. 0.78 to 1.
The voltage relays of protection schemes 1, Using the aforementioned ratios, the relay
5S, and 7 have volt-time characteristics. In and fuse characteristics are plotted on a com-
order to plot these characteristics in Fig B4, mon current base in Fig B4. For problems asso-
volts shall be converted to equivalent primary ciated with voltage transformer grounding on
ground-fault amperes. In this example, the ground-fault neutralizers scheme 6, see [ 5 3 .

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ANSI/IEEE
C37.101-1985 IEEE GUIDE FOR

Appendix C

Bibliography [BlO] STADLER, H. New Developments on


Generator Protection. Brown Boveri Review,
vol53, no 11/12,1966, pp 791 -794.
C1. Analysis of Ground Fault Transients
[ B l ] ALACCHI, J. Zero-Sequence Versus Re- [B111 VAN C. and WARRINGTON, A.R. Pro-
sidual Ground-Fault Protection. Power, vol tective Relays, Their Theory and Practice, vol
115, no 10, Oct 1971, p 97. 1. London: Chapman & Hall, Ltd 1968, p 181.
[B12] WANNER, R. Protection of Large Gen-
[B21 A-A* Grounding erators. Brown &)veri Review, vol 58, no 7,
and Practices. Electrical Engineer, vol 64, Mar 1971, pp 257-264.
1945, pp 92-99.
[B13] ZUROWSKI, E. The Protection of Large
[B3] PETERSON, H.A. Transients in Power Power Station Generating Units. Siemens Re-
Systems. New York: Wiley, 1951. view, Feb 1965.

rB41 PETERSON, H.A. Critical Analysis of C3. Generator Ground Fault Protection
Rotating Machine Grounding Practice. General [ B141 AIEE COMMITTEE REPORT. Present
Electric Review, Apr 1942. Day Grounding Practices on Power Systems.
AIEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and
[B51 WATERS, M.,and WILLHEW R. Neu- Systems, ~0166,1947,pp 1525-1548.
tral Grounding in High-Voltage Transmission,
Part 2. New York: Elsevier Publishing CO, [B15] BERMAN, J., KRIPSKY, A., and
1956, pp 266 -649. SKALKA, M. Protection of Large Alternators
Connected to Step-up Transformers Against
the Consequences of Earth Faults in the Stator
[B61 WSZNIEWSK1, A* Effect O f Grounding Winding. CIGRE, 34-02,1972.
Method of Star Connection in Unit Generator
Transformer on Values O f Grounded Short [ B16] Electrical Transmission and Distribution
Circuit OVervo~t~ges,fizeglud Electrotech- Reference Book, Westinghouse Electric Corpor-
n iczny . ation, East Pittsburgh, PA, 1950, pp 655-665.
[B17] GROSS, E.T.B. Ground Relaying of
C2. Generator Protection Generators in Unit Connection. Electrical
Engineering, vol72, Feb 1973, p 115.
[B7] GANTNER, J. New Developments in the
Protection of Large Turbo-Generators. IEE Mar [B18] PAZMANDI, L. Stator Earth Leakage
1975, pp 64-70. (England) ,c Protection for Large Generators, CIGRE, 34-
01,1972.
[B8] GANTNER, J., and WANNER, R. The
Protection ov Very High Power Turbo-Gener- [B19] RAJK, M.N. Ground Fault Protection
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