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Inestabilidad gears

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18 просмотров9 страницInestabilidad gears

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Jian Lin

Mem. ASME John Deere Product Engineering Center, Waterloo, IA 50704-8000

Robert G. Parker

Mem. ASME Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University, 206 W. 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 e-mail: parker.242@osu.edu

Mesh Stiffness Variation Instabilities in Two-Stage Gear Systems

Mesh stiffness variation, the change in stiffness of meshing teeth as the number of teeth in contact changes, causes parametric instabilities and severe vibration in gear systems. The operating conditions leading to parametric instability are investigated for two-stage gear chains, including idler gear and countershaft conﬁgurations. Interactions between the stiffness variations at the two meshes are examined. Primary, secondary, and combination instabilities are studied. The effects of mesh stiffness parameters, including stiffness varia- tion amplitudes, mesh frequencies, contact ratios, and mesh phasing, on these instabilities are analytically identiﬁed. For mesh stiffness variation with rectangular waveforms, simple design formulas are derived to control the instability regions by adjusting the contact ratios and mesh phasing. The analytical results are compared to numerical solu- tions. DOI: 10.1115/1.1424889

1

Introduction

Vibration and noise reduction is a major concern in powertrain and gearing applications. A primary source of gear vibration and noise is the dynamic excitation from the changing stiffness of the meshing teeth. The mesh stiffness associated with elastic tooth bending varies as the number of teeth in contact changes. The parametric excitation from the time-varying mesh stiffness causes instability and severe vibration under certain operating conditions. Experiments 1,2 have demonstrated the large amplitude vibra- tion induced by parametric instability where the gear mesh fre- quency equals twice the natural frequency primary instability or the natural frequency secondary instability . Furthermore, mesh stiffness variation directly affects tooth deﬂections and transmis- sion error. To a large extent, gear resonance excited by harmonics of transmission error arises fundamentally from mesh stiffness variation 3,4,5,6 . Therefore, determination of operating condi- tions of parametric instability and identiﬁcation of design param- eters that minimize their occurrence are crucial to the design of quiet gear chains. Parametric instability in general dynamic systems has been studied extensively. Literature reviews of parametrically excited systems can be found in the work of Ibrahim and Barr 7 and Nayfeh and Mook 8 . For a single pair of gears, Bollinger and Harker 9 determined instability conditions using a single degree- of-freedom Mathieu equation model. Benton and Seireg 1 ex- perimentally simulated instabilities under parametric excitations and demonstrated the damage of parametric instability on gear teeth. Other researchers 3–5,10–13 also investigated gear para- metric instability for single mesh systems. When forcing excita- tion and clearance nonlinearity interact with parametric excitation, complicated phenomena are observed in single mesh gear models 3–5 . For gear systems having multiple degrees-of-freedom, it is surprising to ﬁnd little work on parametric instability in the pub- lished literature. Tordion and Gauvin 14 and Benton and Seireg 15 studied the same two-stage gear systems Fig. 1 a but reached conﬂicting conclusions on the conditions causing instabil- ity. Furthermore, their results do not agree with those obtained herein by analytical and numerical methods. In short, the existing analysis on parametric instability is scarce, inconsistent, and in- complete for multi-mesh gear systems. The objective of this study is to systematically analyze the op-

Contributed by the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received August 2000; Revised September 2001. Associate Editor: L. A. Bergman.

erating conditions leading to parametric instability in two-mesh, multi-gear systems Fig. 1 . The two meshes can have different mesh frequencies, amplitudes of mesh stiffness variation, contact ratios, and mesh phasing. The study applies a perturbation method to determine instability conditions and numerically veriﬁes the results. The effects of contact ratios and mesh phasing on the stability boundaries are expressed in simple formulas that allow designers to suppress particular instabilities by properly selecting parameters. This analysis reveals errors in previous analyses of the same system 14,15 and, in contrast with these works, yields conclusions consistent with numerical methods. The two-stage gear systems and mesh stiffness modeling are introduced ﬁrst. The instability conditions are then derived. Three cases having various mesh frequency relationships and amplitudes of mesh stiffness variation are studied separately. Finally, the analytical and numeri- cal results are compared with two previous studies through a benchmark example, clarifying major differences in these prior works.

2 Two-Mesh Gear System Models

Two-stage gear trains have three-gear and four-gear conﬁgura- tions Fig. 1 . Only rotational vibrations _{} _{1} , _{} _{2} , _{} _{3} relative to the rigid body gear rotations are considered. The input shaft has tor- sional stiffness k _{L}_{0} and is anchored to a body rotating at constant speed e.g., drive motor . The intermediate shaft connecting gears 2 and 4 is assumed rigid, which is reasonable for the typical case of gears 2 and 4 being immediately adjacent or made from one piece. The tooth meshes are modeled as linear springs with stiff- nesses k _{L}_{1} , K _{L}_{2} . Contact loss due to parametric instability, which is critical for calculation of vibration amplitude, is not the focus of the work. The gears have base radii r _{i} , i 1,2,3,4. The equivalent

masses are m _{1} I _{1} /r ^{2} ,

1

m _{2} I _{2} /r _{2} ^{2} , and m _{3} _{v}_{I} _{3} /r ^{2} , where I _{i} are

3

the moments of inertia of the gears and their connected shafts, _{v} r _{4} /r _{2} for four-gear trains, and _{v} 1 for three-gear chains. The

equivalent stiffnesses are k _{0} k _{L}_{0} /r ^{2} , k _{1} k _{L}_{1} , and

k _{2} _{v} ^{2} k _{L}_{2} .

1

The shaft/gear rotations are measured by the base radius deﬂec- tions x _{1} _{1} r _{1} , x _{2} _{2} r _{2} , and x _{3} _{3} r _{3} /v. The system stability is governed by the free vibration equation

(1)

where q x _{1} ,x _{2} ,x _{3} _{} ^{T} . M diag(m _{1} ,m _{2} ,m _{3} ) is the inertia matrix. The stiffness matrix is represented by a mean value K _{0} and a variational part K _{v} (t) as

Mq¨ K _{0} K _{v} _{} t q 0

68 Õ Vol. 124, JANUARY 2002

Copyright © 2002 by ASME

Transactions of the ASME

Fig. 1 Two-stage gear system with „a… four gears and „b… three gears. k _{L}_{1} , k _{L}_{2} denote mesh stiffnesses and Z _{2} , Z _{4} denote number of gear teeth. k _{L}_{0} is the torsional stiffness of the an- chored shaft.

K 0 k g1 k 0

^{k} g1

0

K v t k v1

^{k} v1

0

k g1

^{k} g1 ^{} ^{k} g2

k _{g}_{2}

k v1

^{k} v1 ^{} ^{k} v2

k _{v}_{2}

g2

0

^{k} g2

k

v2

0

^{k} v2

k

(2)

where k _{g}_{i} and k _{v}_{i} (t) are the mean and time-varying components

of the

The variational parts k _{v}_{i} (t) are periodic at the mesh frequency

_{i} and expressed in Fourier series as

mesh stiffnesses, k _{i} (t) k _{g}_{i} k _{v}_{i} (t) Fig. 2 .

of mesh stiffnesses k _{i} „t…Äk _{g}_{i} ¿k _{v}_{i} „t…. c _{i} are

contact ratios, k _{g}_{i} are average mesh stiffnesses, and p _{i} T _{i} are phasing angles.

Fig. 2

Modeling

Journal of Vibration and Acoustics

k _{v}_{i} _{} t 2k _{a}_{i} _{}

s 1

^{a} ^{} i ^{s} ^{} sin s _{i} t b ^{} _{i} ^{s} ^{} cos s _{i} t ,

i 1,2

(3)

where 2k _{a}_{i} is the peak-to-peak amplitude of k _{v}_{i} Fig. 2 . The mesh frequencies _{1} and _{2} are related by _{1} R _{2} , where R

Z _{2} /Z _{4} and Z _{2} ,Z _{4} are the numbers of teeth on gears 2 and 4 Fig. 1 a . Note R 1, _{1} _{2} for three-gear systems Fig.

1 b . Mesh stiffness variation is obtained through measurement,

calculation, or simple speciﬁcation e.g., sinusoidal or rectangular wave . For spur gears, rectangular waves are often used to ap- proximate the mesh stiffness alternating between n and n 1 pairs of teeth in contact 16 . In this study, the k _{v}_{i} are speciﬁed as rectangular waves with variational amplitudes k _{a}_{i} , periods T _{i} _{i} /2 , contact ratios c _{i} , and phasing angles p _{i} T _{i} Fig. 2 b . Thus,

^{a}

^{b}

^{} i ^{s} ^{}

^{} i ^{s} ^{}

2

_{} sin _{} s c _{i} 2p _{i} sin _{} s c _{i} ,

_{s}

2

_{} cos _{} s c _{i} 2p _{i} _{}_{} sin _{} s c _{i} _{}

_{s}

(4)

in 3 for s 1,2,••• . Without loss of generality, one can specify

p _{1} 0, p _{2} h h is called mesh phasing . In practice, the ﬁrst three or four Fourier terms reasonably approximate the mesh stiffness variation. For the time-invariant case, the eigenvalue problem associated with 1 is

(5)

where _{i} are the natural frequencies. The vibration modes _{i} are normalized as ^{T} M I with _{1} , _{2} , _{3} _{} . Applying the modal transformation q u and using 3 , Eq. 1 becomes

K _{0} _{i} _{i} ^{2} M _{i}

u¨

3

_{n} ^{2} _{n} u _{n} _{}

r 1

s 1

_{} 2 _{1} _{} D _{n}_{r}

s

^{} sin s _{1} t E _{n}_{r} ^{} cos s _{1} t

s

2 _{2} _{} F _{n}_{r} ^{} sin s _{2} t G _{n}_{r} ^{} cos s _{2} t u _{r} 0,

s

s

n 1,2,3

where _{i} k _{a}_{i} /k _{g}_{i} ,

of the matrices

(6)

^{(}^{s}^{)} are elements

i 1,2 and D _{n}_{r}

^{(}^{s}^{)} ,E _{n}_{r}

^{(}^{s}^{)} ,F _{n}_{r}

^{(}^{s}^{)} ,G _{n}_{r}

D ^{} ^{s} ^{} k _{g}_{1} ^{T} a

a

s

1

s

1

0

F ^{} ^{s} ^{} k _{g}_{2} ^{T} a

a

s

2

s

2

0

a

a

s

1

s

1

0

0

00

a

a

s

2

s

2

0

0

00

E ^{} ^{s} ^{} k _{g}_{1} ^{T}

G ^{} ^{s} ^{} k _{g}_{2} ^{T}

00

0

0

b

b

s

1

s

1

00

0

0

b

b

s

2

s

2

0

b

b

s

1

s

1

0

b

b

s

2

s

2

(7)

Equation 6 is a set of coupled Hill’s equations subjected to multi-frequency parametric excitations from two gear meshes. Parametric excitations give rise to instabilities when harmonics of the excitation frequencies are close to particular combinations of the natural frequencies. Three types of instability are of most interest: 1 primary instability _{i} 2 _{p} , 2 secondary instabil- ity _{i} _{p} , and 3 combination instability _{i} _{p} _{q} , where _{p} , _{q} are different natural frequencies. Plots of the excitation mesh frequency _{i} versus the amplitude of the stiffness varia- tion k _{a}_{i} illustrate the instability regions under operating conditions for example, Fig. 3 . Perturbation methods 8,17,18 are used in this study to determine the boundaries separating the stable and unstable regions. Floquet theory and numerical integration are used to validate the analytical ﬁndings.

JANUARY 2002, Vol. 124 Õ 69

Fig. 3 Instabilities regions when _{1} Ä _{2} Ä , _{1} Ä _{2} Ä ; — analytical solution;*** numerical solution. The parameters are from Table 1 and c _{1} Äc _{2} Ä1.5, hÄ0.

3 Conditions of Parametric Instability

Parametric instability depends on the frequency, amplitude, and shape of the parametric excitations. In gear systems, these factors are directly associated with the operating speed and gear design parameters such as contact ratio, facewidth, diametral pitch, pres- sure angle, material properties, and so on. The corresponding model parameters are the stiffness variation amplitudes k _{a}_{1} , k _{a}_{2} ,

mesh frequencies _{1} , _{2} , contact ratios c _{1} ,c _{2} , and mesh phasing

h.

In practice, the variation amplitudes k _{a}_{i} are small compared to the average mesh stiffnesses k _{g}_{i} _{i} 0.5 according to a simple approximation 16 . At this point, _{1} _{2} is speciﬁed; the case of _{1} _{2} is discussed later. Using the method of multiple scales, the solution of Eq. 6 is expressed as

(8)

where t. Substituting Eqs. 8 into 6 and collecting terms of the same power in yields

u _{n} u _{n}_{0} _{} t, u _{n}_{1} _{} t,

n 1,2,3

u¨ n0 ^{2} _{n} u _{n}_{0} 0

n 1,2,3

(9)

^{2} u _{n}_{1} 2 ^{} ^{u} ^{n}^{0} _{t} 2 _{}

r 1

3

u¨ n1 _{n}

s 1

^{D} nr

s

^{} sin s _{1} t E _{n}_{r} ^{} cos s _{1} t

s

(10)

The general solutions of Eq. 9 are

(11)

The symbol cc represents the complex conjugate of preceding terms. Substitution of Eq. 11 into 10 yields

^{} ^{F} nr

s

^{} sin s _{2} t G _{n}_{r} ^{} cos s _{2} t _{} u _{r}_{1}

s

n 1,2,3

u _{n}_{0} A _{n} _{}_{}_{} e ^{i} ^{} n ^{t} cc

70 Õ Vol. 124, JANUARY 2002

u¨ n1 ^{2} _{n} u _{n}_{1} 2i _{n} e ^{i} ^{} n ^{t} ^{} ^{A} ^{n}

3

r 1

s 1

s _{} _{e} i _{}_{} _{n} s _{1} t ^{A} r ^{} ^{D} nr

_{} _{e} i _{}_{} _{n} s _{1} t _{}_{} _{i}_{E} nr

s _{} _{e} i _{}_{} _{n} s _{1} t _{} _{e} i _{}_{} _{n} s _{1} t _{}

^{} ^{F} nr

s _{} _{e} i _{}_{} _{n} s _{2} t _{} _{e} i _{}_{} _{n} s _{2} t _{}_{} _{i}_{G} nr _{} _{e} i _{}_{} _{n} s _{2} t

s

e ^{i} ^{}^{} n ^{} ^{s} ^{} 2 ^{} ^{t} _{}_{}_{} cc

n 1,2,3

(12)

Three different mesh conditions are examined.

3.1 Three-Gear Systems: Equal Mesh Stiffness Variations.

In three-gear systems Fig. 1 b , the two meshes have the same mesh frequencies _{1} _{2} . We consider the case where the gear facewidths and material properties, which primarily deter- mine mesh stiffness for a given number of teeth in contact, are such that the amplitudes of mesh stiffness variation are the same at the two meshes ( _{1} _{2} ). The contact ratios and mesh phasing are allowed to differ between the two meshes, however. In practice, the contact ratios are changed using center distance, diametral pitch, pressure angle, tooth addendum, and other param- eters. The mesh phasing depends on the layout of the gears and the numbers of teeth. The parametric instability when s is close to _{p} _{q} is con-

sidered. Let s _{p} _{q} , where is a detuning parameter to be determined. Elimination of terms leading to unbounded re- sponse in Eq. 12 requires

^{¯}

2i _{p} A _{p} / A

q ^{D} pq

s

s ^{} ^{} ^{F} pq

^{} ^{i} ^{E} pq

s

s ^{} ^{} ^{G} pq

^{} e ^{i} ^{}^{} 0

(13)

(14)

The nontrivial solutions of Eq. 13 and 14 have the form

(15)

where a _{p} ,a _{q} are complex constants and the below are roots of the associated characteristic equation

^{¯}

2i _{q} A _{q} / A

p ^{D} qp

s

s ^{} ^{} ^{F} qp

^{} ^{i} ^{E} qp

s

s ^{} ^{} ^{G} qp

^{} ^{i} ^{}^{} 0

A _{p} a _{p} e ^{} ^{i} ^{}^{} ,

A _{q} a _{q} e ^{} ^{i} ^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}

1

_{2} ^{2} _{p}_{q}

s _{} 1/2 _{} _{,}

^{} ^{} pq ^{s} ^{}

1

^{} p ^{} q D ^{p}^{q}

s ^{} ^{s} ^{} ^{} ^{F} pq

^{} ^{2} E _{p}_{q}

s

s ^{} ^{} ^{G} pq

^{} ^{2} _{}

(16)

(s)

pq

From Eq. 15 and 16 , A _{p} and A _{q} are bounded when ^{2}

and unbounded when ^{2} _{p}_{q}

stability regions are

^{(}^{s}^{)} . Thus, the boundaries of the in-

^{1} _{s} _{}_{} _{p} _{q} _{p}_{q}

^{} ^{s} ^{}

(17)

For single mode instabilities (p q), Eq. 17 becomes

^{2} ^{} ^{p}

s

s _{p} ^{}^{} ^{D} ^{p}^{p}

s

s ^{} ^{} ^{F} pp

^{} ^{2} E _{p}_{p}

s

s ^{} ^{} ^{G} pp

^{} ^{2} _{} ^{1}^{/}^{2} ,

s 1,2,

(18)

As an example, Fig. 3 shows the boundaries for primary (s

secondary (s 2), and combination (p q,s 1) instabili-

ties. The parameters are given in Table 1 and c _{1} c _{2} 1.5, h 0.

Floquet theory 8 is used to determine the actual instability re- gions denoted by * in the ﬁgures. The method to compute the fundamental matrix and numerically determine stability are given in 19 . The ﬁrst-order approximations from Eq. 17 agree well with the numerical solution, even when is not small. In Fig. 3, the instability region around 2 _{3} is much larger than that of the primary instabilities around 2 _{1} and 2 _{2} . This is explained by examining the vibration modes. From Eq. 17 , the primary

1),

instability boundary slopes are governed by _{p}_{p}

D, E, F, G in Eq. 7 yields the diagonal terms

^{(}^{s}^{)} . Expansion of

Transactions of the ASME

Table 1

Parameters of an example system in Fig. 2

^{D}

^{E}

^{} ^{} ^{k} g1 ^{}^{} 1p ^{}^{} 2p ^{} ^{2} ^{a}

s

pp

s

pp

^{} ^{} ^{k} g1 ^{}^{} 1p ^{}^{} 2p ^{} ^{2} ^{b}

1 ^{s} ^{} ^{,}

1 ^{s} ^{} ^{,}

^{} ^{} ^{K} g2 ^{}^{} 2p ^{}^{} 3p ^{} ^{2} ^{a} _{2}

s

^{F} pp

s

^{G} pp

s

^{} ^{} ^{k} g2 ^{}^{} 2p ^{}^{} 3p ^{} ^{2} ^{b} _{2}

s

(19)

where _{1}_{p} , _{2}_{p} , _{3}_{p} are the element rotations in mode _{p} . _{1}_{p} _{1}_{p} _{2}_{p} is the relative tooth deﬂection of the ﬁrst mesh in mode _{p} . Similarly, _{2}_{p} _{2}_{p} _{3}_{p} represents the modal deﬂec- tion in the second mesh. For the primary instability boundary around 2 _{p} , insertion of Eq. 19 into 16 yields

^{} k _{g}_{1} _{1}_{p}

1

^{} pp

2

a

1

^{1} ^{} k _{g}_{2} _{2}_{p}

2

^{a} 2

^{1} ^{} ^{2}

(20)

The mesh deﬂections _{1} , _{2} in each mode can be observed from the mode shapes Fig. 4 . The two meshes in _{} _{1} are both in phase and have smaller _{1} , _{2} than those of _{3} , where the two meshes

k _{g}_{1} _{1}_{p}

2

b

1

^{1} ^{} k _{g}_{2} _{2}_{p}

2

^{b} 2

2

^{1} ^{} _{} ^{2} _{} / _{p}

Fig. 5

ratios and mesh phasing. The parameters are in Table 1. ---c _{1}

Äc _{2} Ä1.5, hÄ0.5; —c _{1} Ä1.1, c _{2} Ä1.9, hÄ0.9; -"-"-"- c _{1} Äc _{2} Ä1.5,

Comparison of instability regions for various contact

hÄ0.

of its primary instability regions is between that of _{1} and _{3}

^{(}^{1}^{)} 11 ). In addition, the mesh deﬂections in a vibra-

^{(} ^{} 33

^{(}^{1}^{)} ^{}^{} 22

(1) _{}_{}

are both out of phase. Thus, 33 (1) (1) and the instability bound-

11

aries around 2 3 have larger slope than those around 2 1 . Mode

2 has one mesh in phase and the other out of phase, so the size

tion mode are related to the modal strain energy U 1 k 1 2 1 /2,

U 2 k 2 2 2 /2. Examination of Eq. 20 shows that vibration modes

with more strain energy in the meshes have larger instability re-

gions and are more susceptible to parametric excitations. The

above results apply for mesh stiffness variations of arbitrary

shape.

For mesh stiffnesses having rectangular waveforms, one can

clearly identify the effects of contact ratios and mesh phasing on

the instability regions. Use of Eq. 4 in 20 yields

1

2

4

2

4

k g1

sin 2 c 1 k g2

sin 2 c 2

pp

1p

2p

2

2

2k g1 k g2 1p

sin c 1 sin c 2 cos c 1 c 2 2h

2p

2

(21)

p 2

The minimum value (1) pp 0 is obtained when sin c 1 sin c 2

0 and the unstable region vanishes. This is achieved for integer

contact ratios c 1 , c 2 where the number of tooth pairs in contact

remains constant and mesh stiffnesses are time-invariant. For

given, non-integer c 1,2 between 1 and 2, (1) pp is minimized by

setting cos(c 1 c 2 2h) 1 or c 1 c 2 2h 1,3. By properly

choosing the contact ratios and mesh phasing, the parametric in-

stability regions can be dramatically reduced. Figure 5 compares

the instability regions for three cases. The most severe condition

for primary instabilities dash-dot lines is c 1 c 2 1.5 and h

0, which maximizes (1) pp in 21 . This condition is markedly

improved by changing the phasing h 0.5 so that c 1 c 2 2h

1 dashed lines . When the contact ratios are close to integers

solid lines, c 1 1.1, c 2 1.9, h 0.9 , the primary instability re-

gion becomes even smaller.

For secondary instabilities (s 2), similar analysis yields

2

2

4

2

4

k g1

sin 2 2c 1 k g2

sin 2 2c 2

pp

1p

2p

2

2

2k g1 k g2 1p

sin 2c 1 sin 2c 2

2p

Fig. 4 Vibration modes for the time-invariant system with parameters in Table 1

Journal of Vibration and Acoustics

cos 2 _{} c _{1} c _{2} 2h _{}

_{p} ^{} 2

1

(22)

JANUARY 2002, Vol. 124 Õ 71

when

sin(2c _{1} )sin(2c _{2} )cos

h 1, the conditions for maximal secondary instability regions are c _{1} , c _{2} 1.25,1.75 _{} and h 0. The secondary instability re- gions vanish for sin 2c _{1} sin 2c _{2} 0 or c _{1} , c _{2} 1,1.5,2 _{} . As a second choice, setting cos 2(c _{1} c _{2} 2h) 1 with the sign op- posite to sin(2c _{1} )sin(2c _{2} ) also reduces these instabilities, that is, c _{1} c _{2} 2h 0.5,1.5 _{} when c _{1} , c _{2} are both below or above 1.5, and c _{1} c _{2} 2h 0,1,2 _{} for other c _{1} , c _{2} . For combination instabilities (p q,s 1),

Maximum _{p}_{p}

^{(}^{2}^{)} (k _{g}_{1} _{1}_{p}

2

2

k _{g}_{2} _{2}_{p}

) ^{2}

occurs

2(c _{1} c _{2} 2h) 1. For 1 c _{1}_{,}_{2} 2 and 0

^{} k _{g}_{1}

1

^{} pq

2

^{} 1p ^{} 1q

2

2

2

sin ^{2} _{} c _{1} k _{g}_{2}

^{} 2p ^{} 2q

2

2

sin ^{2} _{} c _{2}

2k _{g}_{1} k _{g}_{2} _{1}_{p} _{2}_{p} _{1}_{q} _{2}_{q} sin _{} c _{1} sin _{} c _{2} cos _{} c _{1} c _{2}

2h _{}

_{} _{2} _{} p _{} q _{}

4

(23)

Depending on the sign of the product _{} _{1}_{p} _{} _{2}_{p} _{} _{1}_{q} _{} _{2}_{q} , the extreme regions of a combination instability can be achieved by adjusting

c _{1} , c _{2} , and c _{1} c _{2} 2h.

Unfortunately, the primary, secondary, and combination insta- bility regions cannot be minimized at the same time. The condi-

tions reducing the primary instability regions dashed lines, Fig.

5 result in large combination instability regions, and vice versa

dash-dot lines . Depending on speciﬁc applications, a trade-off may be made to reduce multiple instability regions, though none are true minima solid lines . Adjusting contact ratios and mesh phasing is clearly an effective means to minimize instability re- gions and avoid resonances under operating conditions.

3.2 Four-Gear Systems: Equal Mesh Stiffness Variations.

Two-stage countershaft systems Fig. 1 a have two different mesh frequencies _{1} R _{2} , which means more instability re- gions than three-gear systems. We consider the case where the gear facewidth and material are such that the mesh stiffness am- plitudes are identical at the two meshes ( _{1} _{2} ), although the contact ratios and phasing are not restricted. Depending on the ratio R Z _{2} /Z _{4} , the parametric instability regions associated with _{1} and _{2} may overlap each other. For R m/ j m, j are inte- gers , the s j instabilities single mode and combination of _{1} and the s m instabilities of _{2} occur simultaneously. Because their instability regions are typically the largest, the interactions involving either m or j 1 are of most interest. When R m, 1/m for integer m, the s 1 instabilities from one mesh decouple from the s m instabilities of the other mesh. In this case, instability occurs when s _{1} or s _{2} is close to _{p} _{q} , but these instability boundaries can be calculated indepen- dently. For s _{1} _{p} _{q} _{1} , the terms leading to unbounded response in Eq. 12 are eliminated for

^{¯}

2i _{p} A _{p} / A

s q ^{D} pq

^{} iE _{p}_{q}

s

^{} e ^{i} ^{} 1 ^{} 0

(24)

^{¯}

2i _{q} A _{q} / A

s p ^{D} qp

^{} iE _{q}_{p}

s

^{} e ^{i} ^{} 1 ^{} 0

(25)

Expressing the solutions as

_{a}_{n}_{d}

examining , the condition separating bounded and unbounded solutions of Eq. 24 and 25 is

_{A} _{p} _{} _{a} _{p} _{e} ^{} ^{i} ^{}^{} _{,}

_{A} _{q} _{} _{a} _{q} _{e} ^{} ^{i}^{(} ^{}^{}^{} ^{)} ^{}

_{1} ^{1} _{s} _{}_{} _{p} _{q} ^{} ^{D} ^{p}^{q}

^{} ^{s} ^{} _{} ^{2} E _{p}_{q} s ^{} ^{2}

p q

_{}

(26)

Similarly, the boundaries for instabilities associated with s _{2} _{p} _{q} _{2} are

_{2} ^{1} _{s} _{}_{} _{p} _{q} ^{} ^{F} ^{p}^{q}

^{} ^{s} ^{} _{} ^{2} G _{p}_{q} s ^{} ^{2}

p q

_{}

(27)

Use of Eqs. 4 and 19 in 26 and 27 yields

72 Õ Vol. 124, JANUARY 2002

1 _{p} _{q}

s

2 _{p} _{q}

s

^{2} ^{} ^{k} g1 ^{} 1p ^{} 1q

s ^{2} _{p} _{q}

^{2} ^{} ^{k} g2 ^{} 2p ^{} 2q

s ^{2} _{p} _{q}

sin _{} sc _{1} ,

sin _{} sc _{2}

(28)

The stability regions associated with each mesh frequency depend on the individual contact ratios but are independent of mesh phas- ing as the two mesh excitations are uncoupled. For primary and combination instabilities (s 1), maximum regions occur when

and minimum regions require c _{1} c _{2} 1,2 _{} . For

secondary instabilities (s 2), the maximum and minimum con- ditions are c _{1} c _{2} 1.25,1.75 _{} and c _{1} c _{2} 1,1.5,2 _{} , respec- tively. Figure 6 a shows the instability regions for R 3/5. The

boundaries associated with _{1} instabilities near 2 _{3} , _{2} _{3} , _{1} _{3} , and _{3} are determined by Eq. 26 . The primary insta- bility associated with _{2} 2 _{3} _{2} occurs at _{1} R _{2} R(2 _{3} _{2} ) in Fig. 6 a . When R m or 1/m for integer m, the parametric excitations from the two meshes interact. Consider the case with R 1/m, where the s m instabilities caused by _{1} overlap with the pri- mary instabilities caused by _{2} . Considering instability of the p-th mode where _{1} 2 _{p} /m _{1} and _{2} m _{1} 2 _{p} m _{1} , the terms leading to unbounded response in Eq. 12 vanish for

c _{1} c _{2} 1.5

^{¯}

2i _{p} A _{p} / A

p ^{D} pp

^{m} ^{} ^{} ^{F} pp

1

^{} ^{i} ^{E} pp

^{m} ^{} ^{} ^{G} pp

1

_{}_{} _{e} im _{1} _{} _{0}

(29)

Bounded solution of Eq. 29 is ensured for

(30)

For example, when _{2} 2 _{1} (R 1/2), the boundaries for _{1} secondary instabilities overlapping with _{2} primary instabilities are

^{2} D _{p}_{p}

1

^{m} ^{} ^{} ^{F} pp

1

^{} ^{2} E _{p}_{p}

^{m} ^{} ^{} ^{G} pp

1

^{} ^{2} _{} / _{} m _{p} ^{2}

_{1} _{p}

2 _{p} ^{}^{} ^{D} ^{p}^{p}

1 ^{} ^{2} ^{} ^{} ^{F} pp

^{} ^{2} E _{p}_{p}

2

1 ^{} ^{} ^{G} pp

^{} ^{2} _{} ^{1}^{/}^{2}

(31)

Figure 6 b shows instability regions in the ( _{1} , ) plane for R 1/2. Note the instability at _{1} _{3} couples with the instability at _{2} 2 _{3} , and the combined instability region is much larger than the case without interaction Fig. 6 a . Using Eqs. 4 and 19 in 31 , the slopes of these boundaries are

2

_{1} k _{g}_{1}

4

^{} 1p

2

sin ^{2} _{} 2c _{1} k _{g}_{2}

4

^{} 2p

sin ^{2} _{} c _{2}

2

2k _{g}_{1} k _{g}_{2} _{1}_{p}

2

^{} 2p

sin _{} 2c _{1} sin _{} c _{2}

cos _{} 2c _{1} c _{2} 2h ^{1}^{/}^{2}

^{2}

_{p}

(32)

Minimization of _{1} requires c _{1} 1,1.5,2 _{} and c _{2} 1,2 _{} for 1 c _{1}_{,}_{2} 2. The instability region can also be reduced by adjusting

the phasing h according to cos(2c _{1} c _{2} 2h) 1 with sign the same as sin(2c _{1} ). The primary instability regions under _{1} (s 1) do not coincide with any other instability regions, so these instability boundaries are calculated from Eq. 26 with p q. Other overlap situations are possible, such as the _{2} secondary instability (s 2) overlaps with the _{1} fourth instability (s 4), but the interaction between these higher instabilities is typically weak and the instability regions are much smaller. Combination instabilities can be analyzed similarly.

3.3 Three and Four-Gear Systems: Unequal Mesh Stiff-

ness Variations. This general case allows all parameters of the two mesh stiffnesses to differ. In contrast with prior cases, the gears may have differing facewidths and material properties such that the amplitudes of stiffness variation at each mesh vary inde-

pendently ( _{1} _{2} ). The contact ratios and mesh phasing are un-

Transactions of the ASME

Fig. 6 Instabilities regions when _{1} ÄR _{2} , _{1} Ä _{2} Ä . „a… R Ä3Õ5, „b… RÄ1Õ2. The parameters are in Table 1 and c _{1} Äc _{2} Ä1.5, hÄ0.*** denotes numerical solutions.

restricted. The design of one mesh must account for dynamic in- teractions with the mesh stiffness variation of the other. When R m, 1/m for integer m, there is no interaction between the parametric excitations from the two meshes. The _{1} instabili- ties are only affected by _{1} and their boundaries in the ( _{1} , _{1} ) plane are s _{1} _{p} _{q} _{1} _{1} with _{1} determined by Eq. 26 . The _{2} instabilities are only affected by _{2} and their boundaries in the ( _{2} , _{2} ) plane are s _{2} _{p} _{q} _{2} _{2} with _{2} deter- mined by Eq. 27 . When R m or 1/m for integer m, a mode may be simulta- neously driven to instability by both mesh excitations. In this case, the ﬁrst mesh instability regions can be signiﬁcantly affected by the presence of _{2} and vice versa. Closed-form boundaries of the

form for

primary instability _{1} 2 _{p} _{1} _{1} _{2} _{2} for inde-

pendently varying _{1} , _{2} are cumbersome. Alternatively, simple yet accurate approximations for the instability boundaries are ob-

Journal of Vibration and Acoustics

Fig. 7 Instabilities regions when _{1} Ä _{2} . „a… _{1} versus _{1} and _{2} ÄCÄ0.3. „b… _{1} versus _{1} , _{2} and the solid line indi- cates vanishing of the combination instability. The parameters are in Table 1 and c _{1} Äc _{2} Ä1.5, hÄ0.

tained by presuming a linear variation of the boundaries in the ( _{1} , _{1} ) plane for given _{2} . To construct this linear approxima- tion, one point is calculated under the condition _{1} 0, _{2} C and a second point is obtained at _{1} _{2} C. From Eq. 27 , the pri- mary stability boundary limits for _{1} 0, _{2} C are

_{1} 2 _{p}

1 _{} p ^{}^{} ^{F} pp

C

^{} ^{2} G _{p}_{p} 1 ^{} ^{2} _{} ^{1}^{/}^{2}

(33)

From Eq. 18 , the stability boundary limits for _{1} C, _{2} C are

_{1} 2 _{p}

C

_{} p ^{}^{} ^{D} pp

1 ^{} ^{1} ^{} ^{} ^{F} pp

^{} ^{2} E _{p}_{p}

1

1 ^{} ^{} ^{G} pp

^{} ^{2} _{} ^{1}^{/}^{2}

(34)

An example is for the primary instability when R 1, C 0.3. Connecting the two points obtained from Eqs. 33 and 34 yields the instability boundaries, which agree well with the numerical solution Fig. 7 a . Assembling the ( _{1} , _{1} ) planes for various

_{2} C

generates three-dimensional plots of _{1} versus _{1} , _{2}

Fig. 7 b . The parametric excitation in the second mesh dramati- cally changes the shapes of the instability regions. Notice that the second parametric excitation widens the primary instability region

for small _{1} compared to monofrequency excitation Fig. 3 . In

JANUARY 2002, Vol. 124 Õ 73

contrast, the combination instability at _{1} _{2} _{3} disappears near _{1} 0.23 in Fig. 7 a . In other words, an otherwise unstable system is stabilized by the presence of a second parametric exci- tation. The solid line in Fig. 7 b indicates points where the _{2} _{3} combination instability vanishes.

4 An Example

The two-stage gear system Fig. 1 a studied by Tordion and Gauvin 14 and Benton and Seireg 15 is used as an example. These two papers come to markedly different conclusions as dis- cussed below. The system parameters are given in Table 1 and c _{1} 1.47, c _{2} 1.57. In keeping with the published work, the double-tooth contact mesh stiffness

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