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Different Processes

Isobaric Isometric Isothermal

T = 0 but Q 0

Adiabatic Cyclic
T 0 but Q = 0 If clockwise heat engine
If counterclockwise heat pump
Carnot vapor cycle

The Carnot cycle is the most efficient cycle operating between two specified temperature limits



1-2 isentropic compression in a Pump
2-3 isothermal heat addition in a Boiler
3-4 isentropic expansion in a Turbine
4-1 isothermal heat rejection in a condenser

Limitation of Carnot Cycle

Process 1-2 : It is difficult to design a Pump that handles two phases.

Process 2-3 : Limiting the heat transfer processes to two-phase systems severely
limits the maximum temperature that can be used in the cycle
(374C for water)
Process 3-1 : The turbine cannot handle steam with a high moisture content
because of the impingement of liquid droplets on the turbine blades
causing erosion and wear.
Process 4-1 :
Rankine cycle: The ideal cycle
Heat addition and ejection are isobaric (and not isothermal- as in Carnot cycle)

Many of the impracticalities associated with the Carnot cycle can be eliminated by
superheating the steam in the boiler and condensing it completely in the condenser. The
ideal Rankine cycle does not involve any internal irreversibilities.

2 3

s=c s=c

p=c 4

h 3 - h 4 - v(P2 - P1 )
h3 - h2
Rankine cycle
To Increase the efficiency of the Rankine cycle

Superheating the steam to high temperatures (Increases Thigh,avg)

Increasing the boiler pressure (Increases Thigh,avg)
Reheating of steam
Lowering the condenser pressure (Lowers Tlow,avg)
Feed water regenerative heating
Super Heat Reheat Regenerative
Real vs. Ideal Cycle - Rankine Cycle
Major difference is irreversibilities in pump and turbine
Types of Cycles

Heat Engine - Rankine

Gas Power Systems - Brayton
Internal Combustion Engines- Otto, Diesel,Stirling, Atckison
Refrigeration- Vapor compression cycle
Heat Pump-
Air Conditioning
Brayton Cycle (Joule Cycle) A Reverse Brayton cycle is driven in reverse, via net work input,
Usually used in gas turbines and when air is the working fluid, is the air refrigeration cycle.
Its purpose is to move heat, rather than produce work.

The ideal cycle that the working fluid undergoes in the closed
loop is the Brayton cycle.
It is made up of four internally reversible processes:
1-2 Isentropic compression;
2-3 Constant-pressure heat addition;
3-4 Isentropic expansion;
4-1 Constant-pressure heat rejection.
Arrangement of an ideal two-stage gas-turbine cycle with intercooling, reheating, and regeneration.

For Conditions for Best Performance

Combined Cycle- Rankine and Brayton cycles

Combined cycles have higher efficiency than either independently- over 50% are reported
As Gas turbine needs high combustion temp to be efficient, vapor cycle can effectively use
rejected energy
Stirling Cycle

Similar to Otto cycle

replace adiabatic per isothermals
Used in Micro CHP
Vapor compression cycle