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Commodus was the 6th Roman Emperor from the Antonine dynasty. He was born on
31 August AD 161. He was known as Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antonine
Augustus. He reigned the Roman Empire from AD 180 to AD 192. Pertinax was his
successor. He was the son of the philosopher Marco Aurelius.
He had the best education that could be get in that time, but he was not hard-
working as his father, it can be said that he was a lazy aristocrat who did not have
much interest in the state affairs. While he and his father were working together on
a campaign on the northern border in AD 178 and AD 179, Marco Aurelius died and
Commodus returned in Rome to take the throne.He did not undertake any
significant political or military ventures. He simply indulged in worldly pleasures
while letting the others do the political and military affairs.
Because he was easy to manipulate with and he did not led a strong policy, his
court developed numerous plots against him so in AD 182 there was an attempt for
his assassination by his sister Lucilla who believed that she and her husband Lucius
Ver were unjustifiably taken out of Marco`s throne list.
After these events which clearly marked him, Commodus declared himself as
Hercules the son of Zeus and asked that this name was made official and he asked
to be declared as a god which was done as he ordered. After the large fire in Rome,
the temple of the goddess Vesta, the temple of peace and a part of the Palace were
ruined in AD191. After these events, he renamed the city as Colonia Lucia Annia
Commodiana and he renamed the months with the following names: Lucius, Aelius,
Aurelius, Commodus, Augustus, Herculeus, Romanus, Exsuperatorius, Amazonius,
Invictus, Felix, Pius. The names of the months represeneted his whole name
together with the titles he had. The legionnaires were renamed as Commodianae,
the Senate was named as Commodus` happy state, the fleet that was bringing
grain form Alexandria was named as Alexandria CommodianaTogata. All the Romans
had to add Commodianus to their names, the day when the reforms started was
named as Dies Commodianus. He often fought in the gladiator`s arena against
beasts, mentally unstable gladiators and he would always win.
Diocletian (latin: Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus, Diocletianus) was a Roman emperor. He
was known as Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus. He ruled with the Roman Empire from AD
285 to AD 316. The modern history considers his reign to be the mark of end of military
emperors and the beginning of the late antiquity. He appointed his friend Maximian to be his co-
emperor, giving him the task to rule with the western part of the empire. After the win in the
battle in Syria in AD 293, he appointed Galerius for his co-emperor as well. Maximian appointed
Constantius Chlorus I for his co-ruler.
The reign of the Empire was divided:
Diocletian ruled with the Asian part of the Empire, Tracia and Egypt.
Galerius ruled with the Balkans.
Maximian ruled with Italy, Recia, Spain and Africa,
Constantius Chlorus I ruled with Galia and Britain.
He was the greatest persecutor of the Christians from AD303. The most famous victim of his
persecution was the bishop St. Duj.
In his reign, the Roman Senate lost the meaning. Diocletian proclaimed himself as a son of
Jupiter and asked from everyone to respect him as a living God. That is how in the Roman
Empire, the period of Domination ended and started the period of Principate. In AD 316, the
emperor poisoned himself.
Justinian I (latin: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus, May 11 483- November 13/14 565)
He was a Byzantine ruler from Macedonia and he was the emperor of the East Roman Empire
(from AD 527 to AD 565), a Christian and an orthodox theologian. He wanted to reestablish the
power and the greatness of the Roman Empire which had been weakened by the incursions of the
barbarian tribes. He is well-known for the expansion of the Empire on three continents (Europe,
Africa and Asia), mainly with the military expedition of Velissarios, as well as for his marriage
with the Empress Theodora who was considered as his adviser.
The history remembers him as the greatest codificator of the classic Roman law by introducing
the Justinian laws. He was one of the most significant people in the late antique and the period of
prosperity in Byzantium ended with him, until IX century when it was restored.
His greatness was related to his deep connection with the Orthodox religion. He believed and
lived in accordance with his religion. While the fast he did not eat bread, neither drank wine, he
ate vegetables and drank water once in two days.
He built a lot of forts and restored the old ones, he also built beautiful churches among which the
greatest one is St. Sofia in Constantinople (AD537). He collected and implied the Roman rules.
He issued very strict laws against immorality and depravity. He created a church song which was
used in the liturgy starting from AD 536. He convened the Fifth Ecumenical Council in AD 553.
He fought those who were not Christians in his country.

Marco Aurelius
Marco Aurelius (April 26 121 March 17 180), Roman Emperor (161-180) and a philosopher.
He wrote the work Considering yourself in aphoristic form in 12 books. He was the last ruler
with which the period of Pax era Novels ended and after his death there was a period of
instability and internal crisis in the Roman Empire. He ruled together with his stepbrother Lucius
Verus until the death of Lucius in AD 169. Both of them were successful in their reign and they
brought stability in Rome and they were successful in the military expeditions as well. An
instance of that is the German intrusion in the Roman territory near the river Danube where
Marco and Lucius won. After this battle when Lucius died, Marco promoted himself as a
successful ruler and general. After that he was writing his work Considering yourself (Please
find the Latin name!!) which brought him great fame. He died in AD 180 in the Camp near the
river Danube on a military expedition together with his son Commodus who became the new
Emperor after his father`s death.