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VILNIAUS PEDAGOGINIS UNIVERSITETAS

Loreta Andziulien
Sandra Kniuktait
Jolanta Vitkauskien

A COURSE OF MODERN ENGLISH

FOR FIRST YEAR STUDENTS

Part II

Vilnius, 2010
Acknowledgements

We would like to express sincere thanks to our colleagues from the Department of English
Language Didactics at Vilnius Pedagogical University for encouraging us to compile this
course and providing with their helpful guidance in the process of writing.

We owe our special thanks to the Doctor Jurga Cibulskien and Lecturer Jovita
Bagdonaviit for reviewing the course and giving their valuable and constructive advice.
We are also very grateful to the British Council for allowing us to use the texts and
activities from their website.

Finally, our thanks go to the students, with whose help the material has been piloted
throughout its development, and who have shown enthusiasm and creativity in performing
the set activities. We hope that the present course will motivate students to read, think,
discuss and write in English and will make learning English an exciting adventure.

Sandra Kniuktait
Loreta Andziulien
Jolanta Vitkauskien

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Contents

PREFACE ............................................................................................................................. 5
1. EDUCATION .................................................................................................................... 6
1.1. Secondary Education ................................................................................................... 6
1.2. Tertiary Education ..................................................................................................... 10
1.2. Tertiary Education ..................................................................................................... 11
2. ENTERTAINMENT ...................................................................................................... 13
2.1. Art .............................................................................................................................. 13
2.2. Theatre ....................................................................................................................... 17
2.2. Literature ................................................................................................................... 22
2.3. Music ......................................................................................................................... 24
2.3. Cinema ....................................................................................................................... 27
2.4. Sculpture .................................................................................................................... 29
3. HOMES AND HOUSES ................................................................................................ 30
3.1. The House and Furniture ........................................................................................... 30
3.2. Rental Services. A Case Study. ................................................................................. 38
3.2. Rental Services. A Case Study. ................................................................................. 39
4. FASHION ........................................................................................................................ 48
4.1. Fashion Industry ........................................................................................................ 49
4.2. Street Fashion ............................................................................................................ 56
5. FOOD............................................................................................................................... 58
5.1. You are What you Eat ............................................................................................... 58
5.2. Eat Well, Eat Healthily .............................................................................................. 64
5.3. Food and Cooking ..................................................................................................... 67
5.4 La Ratatouille. A Film-Based Class ........................................................................... 71
5.5 Eating Out ................................................................................................................... 74
6. PHRASAL VERBS: MAKE / DO ................................................................................. 79
6.1. Make .......................................................................................................................... 79
6.2. Do .............................................................................................................................. 80
References............................................................................................................................ 81

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Abbreviations used in the text

adj adjective
adv adverb
C countable noun
fml formal
infml - informal
n noun
phr phrase
phr v phrasal verb
prep preposition
sb somebody
sth something
U uncountable noun
v - verb

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PREFACE
A Course of Modern English has been designed for first year students of English Philology
to develop the four communicative skills through exposure to numerous vocabulary tasks,
listening and speaking activities, discussion of extracts from literary and non-literary texts
and writing activities. The aid is meant to develop students ability to use the acquired
knowledge creatively in their further studies as well as during their observatory and
teaching practices at school. It should encourage the processes of reflection, analysis and
evaluation of the learning and teaching processes as the target users of this aid have chosen
to follow the teacher training study programme.
Employing various methods that develop critical thinking through thought-provoking,
perception and reflection A Course of Modern English consists of six thematic parts:
Education, Entertainment, Homes and Houses, Fashion, Food and Phrasal Verbs
Make and Do.
Classroom techniques include discussions, reports on the course-related topics, role-plays,
case studies, problem solving activities, presentations project work as well as a film based
class. Students are encouraged to work individually, in pairs and in groups.
Competences developed in A Course of Modern English
General competences:
- existential (psychologically and socially conditioned) competence, i.e. formation of
personal views, values and beliefs while discussing various topics;
- socio-cultural/intercultural competence, i.e. disclosure of the realities in the systems of
education, eating, living and entertainment habits of the English speaking countries and
their comparison with such realities in Lithuania.
Communicative-language competences:
- linguistic competence i.e. knowledge, skills and abilities of acquiring pronunciation,
vocabulary and language use of Modern English language through mastering lexical units
and their combinations while classifying them according to the semantic relations;
- socio-linguistic competence i.e. ability to use and interpret language forms with
situational appropriateness (formal vs. non-formal in terms of communicative context: who
is communicating with whom, about what, where, on what purpose) in the four
communicative skills according to the four domains of language use (personal, public,
academic and occupational);
- pragmatic competence i.e. ability to receive and produce coherent and fluent discourse
with reference to differences in register, genre and type of text.
Ability to learn i.e. ability to self-evaluate ones progress and integrate the newly-acquired
knowledge and skills into the formerly built context of learning; ability to critically reflect
on the achievements and outcome of activity; ability to initiate and adequately interpret the
situation of learning.
Strategic competence i.e. ability and skill of planning, execution, evaluation and repair of
communication, application of compensation strategies.
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1. EDUCATION

1.1. Secondary Education

Discuss on the following issues:

1) What is the common present-day society attitude towards education?


2) What does education mean to you?
3) How can you define an educated person? How to become one?
4) How does the present-day education differ from the one of the previous generation?
Has it changed to the better or to the worse?
5) What, in your opinion, should be changed to improve the educational system in
Lithuania both at the secondary school level and at university level?

Explore the key words:

Education (n)
Educational (adj)
Educative (adj)
Educationalist/educationist (n)
Educator (n)

Typical collocations:

Education
Decent, excellent, first-class, good, high-quality, quality, well-rounded; poor;
compulsory; formal; classical; liberal; all-round (BrE), basic, general;
comprehensive (esp. BrE), public-school (= provided by the government)
(AmE), universal; early-childhood (esp. AmE), preschool; elementary, primary
(esp. BrE); secondary (esp. Br E); adult, continuing, further (BrE), higher,
adj ~ tertiary; college (esp. AmE), high-school (in the US), public-school (= private)
(in the UK), university; graduate, undergraduate (both esp. AmE); remedial
(AmE), special; in-service, professional, vocational; military, teacher; maternal,
parental; distance, online (both esp. AmE); AIDS, health; arts, music, science,
etc.; religious, theological; full-time, part-time; public, state; private; Catholic,
Christian, etc.; single-sex; bilingual, multicultural.
Acquire, get, have, obtain, receive; pursue; deliver, give sb, offer, provide (sb
verb ~ with); deny sb; lack; enter; continue, extend; leave; complete, finish; improve,
reform; promote; finance sbs, fund sbs.
Authority (in the UK), committee, department, ministry (in the UK), sector,
service, system; officer (esp. BrE), official; minister, secretary (both in the UK);
~ noun
policy; reform; reformer; bill; campaign, initiative, programme/program,
project, scheme (BrE); activities; facilities, materials, resources; budget,

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funding; spending; class, course, session; process; centre/center, college,
establishment, institution, provider/setting; community (esp. AmE), world;
expert, leader, specialist; requirement (AmE); levels, standards; loan (AmE)
(student loan in BrE)
prep ~ In ~ ; through ~ ; ~ about

1. Fill in the gaps with the words given in the list: educators, study for, quit, start, get
into, educational, educationalist, do well in, skive off, complete

1) Many children in Lithuania nursery school at the age of 6.


2) Peter ..in his final examinations and then .. Oxford University.
3) I cant exactly remember which year she ..her law degree.
4) Which degree are you .?
5) Watching television can sometimes be very .. .
6) A good knows how to combine theory and practice to make a lesson
successful.
7) Adult .differ from teachers at primary or secondary schools.
8) We used to ..school a lot.
9) At the age of 16, Robert decided to ..school what made his parents really
furious.

2. Fill in appropriate prepositions:

1) The students at this college are provided .a professional training.


2) A lot of students nowadays work and study at the same time. Consequently, they
dont go .all lectures.
3) Mary decided to sign .for the English language course next year.
4) Which grade is Peter ..?
5) Because of bad studying and other problems one of my classmates was dropped
. . School.
6) The principal is holding a meeting to consider the issue of expelling a few pupils
.our school.
7) Sorry, I cant go out this evening as Im working an essay which I have to hand
..tomorrow in the afternoon.
8) Sarah remembers the time when she crammed .her exams.
9) A lot of Lithuanian students nowadays apply ..foreign universities because of
the educational reform in our country.
10) Which university did you graduate ?
11) Im so glad I managed to get ..university this year.

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3. Write in an appropriate word the definition of which is given in the brackets.

1) The Education in Lithuania is .(that must be done because of a


law or a rule) up to the age of 16.
2) (connected with the job that needs special training or skill,
esp. one that needs a high level of education) schools nowadays dont have enough
students.
3) The school ..(gives, supplies) an excellent general education.
4) No one is ..(fml. to refuse to allow sb to have sth that they want or
ask for) an education because they are poor in this country.
5) Most (provided by the government) schools in our country are in bad
condition.
6) She went to college to (to keep doing sth without stopping)
her education.
7) We need to invest more in the higher education ..(a part of a
particular area).
8) I dont really approve the policy that has been adopted by the entire education
.(all the people that live/work in a particular area).
9) There are additional education .(sth that you need) for nurses
of this course.
10) The department has launched a new health education ..(a series of
planned activities that are intended to achieve a particular educational aim).

4. Give an antonym for the following:

1) good education
2) full-time education
3) state education
4) provide sb with education
5) enter education

5.Write a synonym for the following:

1) basic education
2) distance education
3) public education
4) complete education
5) special education

6. Explain the following phrases:

1) all-round education
2) in-service education

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3) to deliver education
4) education official
5) education facilities

7. Write in an appropriate word the first letter of which is given:

Children in Britain must a. school from the age of 5 (4 in Northern Ireland) until
they are 16. Before the s.. of f schooling, many children attend
n.. schools or nursery c. attached to pschools. In addition,
some parents elect to s their children to p.. (fee-paying) nursery s.
or k. . In England and Wales, many primary schools also operate early
a. policy where they a children under 5 into what are called
r.. classes.

Children first attend the i school or department. 7 they move to the j.


school and the usual age for transfer from junior to s.. school is 11 (12 in
Scotland). In some areas, however, first schools take p.. aged 5 to 8, 9 or 10, and
pupils within the 8 and 14 age range go to middle schools.

8. Answer the following questions:

1) How many different types of schools were mentioned and what are the differences
between them?
2) What is the initial stage of schooling in Lithuania? Does it differ a lot from the one in
Britain?

9. Find out what boarding schools are; choose one and present it.

10. In groups design a boarding school for Lithuanian children, present the building
with all its amenities, teachers and their qualification, think about the curriculum,
food and free time activities.

11. Put the following paragraphs in the right order.

(1) Specialist schools, which only operate in England, give pupils a broad secondary
education with a strong emphasis on technology, languages, arts and sports. There are
over 330 specialist schools. They charge no fees and any secondary school can apply
for specialist school status.
(2) A small minority of children attend secondary modern schools. These schools provide a
more general and technical education for children aged 11 16.
(3) Over 85 per cent of secondary school pupils go to comprehensive schools. These take
children of all abilities, and provide a wide range of secondary education for all or most
of the children in a district from the age of 11 to 16 or 18.

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(4) City Technology Colleges (CTCs) aim to give boys and girls a broad secondary
education with a strong technological and business slant. They are non-fee-paying
independent schools, set up by the Government with the help of business sponsors who
finance a large proportion of the initial capital costs and develop links with the schools.
There are now 15 such colleges in operation in England and Wales.
(5) There are also other types of secondary school. Grammar schools offer mainly
academic education for the 11 to 18-year age group. Children enter grammar schools on
the basis of their abilities, first sitting the '11' plus or entrance examination. Grammar
schools cater for four per cent of children in secondary education.

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1.2. Tertiary Education

Discuss on the following issues:

1) How many universities are there in Lithuania?


2) How do they differ from secondary schools?
3) Do you like learning at university? Why (not)? Do you miss anything from school?
What? Do you think there should be done something (specify what) to improve your
university education?
4) What do you think about the current educational reform?
5) Do you think it is better to study abroad than in Lithuania? Why (not)? Which abroad
university would you like to study at and why?

1. Explore the university terms:

BA, MA, PhD lecture doctor professor (Prof.) dean


be/have/do a ~ deliver/give a ~ doctoral professorial
earn/receive/be attend a series of doctorate professorship
awarded/get/hold ~s
a~
a~
room/hall/theatre
to ~ on sth
lecturer

Explain the difference between:

1) lecturer teacher;
2) course degree;
3) term year;
4) department chair;
5) campus buildings.
6) rector dean
7) faculty - department

2. Read the text and use an appropriate verb form in the brackets:

The University of Oxford ...............(be) the first university .......................(be established) in


Britain. Dating from the 12th century, it .......................(organize) as a federation of colleges
which .............(govern) by their own teaching staff known as 'Fellows'. The oldest college,
University College, ....................(found) in 1249. Other notable colleges include All Souls

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(founded in 1438), Christ Church (founded in 1546 by Cardinal Wolsey), the college chapel
of which is also Oxford Cathedral, and Lady Margaret Hall (founded in 1878), which was
the first women's college.

Today Oxford University ..................(make up) of 39 separate colleges, of which one is for
women students only, and the rest take both men and women.

In 1209, scholars running away from riots in Oxford ....................(set up) the first academic
community in Cambridge. The University also .......................(organise) as a federation of
colleges; the oldest, Peterhouse, dates from 1284. The largest college, Trinity,
...........................(found) by King Henry VIII in 1546.

Scotland also boasts a number of long-established universities. By the end of the Middle
Ages Scotland had four universities at Edinburgh (founded in 1583), Glasgow (founded
1451), Aberdeen (founded 1495) and St Andrew's (founded 1411) compared to England's
two!

The University of Wales was founded in 1893. It ........................(consist) of six colleges,


the the oldest one being the University of Wales, Lampeter, founded as St David's College
in 1822.

The Queen's university of Belfast was founded in 1845 as one of the three 'Queen's
Colleges in Ireland'. It ......................(receive) its charter as a separate university in 1908.

3. What do the following numbers from the text refer to?

1) 1249;
2) 39;
3) 1209;
4) 4;
5) 6.

4. Find the definition of the following:

1) a federation of colleges;
2) teaching staff;
3) notable colleges;
4) a college chapel;
5) an academic community;
6) charter.

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2. ENTERTAINMENT

2.1. Art

Explore the key words:

Art (n) Artist (n)


(The) arts (n) Artistic (adj)
A work of art (phr) Artistry (n)

Typical collocations

adj ~ verb ~ ~ art


Great, high/commercial, Create, produce/display, Gallery, museum/exhibit (AmE),
fine/abstract, conceptual, exhibit, feature, exhibition, show/collection/buyer,
figurative, showcase/buy, collector, consultant, critic, curator,
representational, purchase/collect/view/app dealer, director, historian, professional,
visual/ancient, classical, reciate publisher/aficionado, connoisseur,
medieval, modern, enthusiast, expert, lover/object, treasure,
modernist, work (usually artwork)/book, magazine,
postmodern/animation, print/academy, college,
digital, graphic, school/studio/form/style/movement/histor
installation, performance, y/market/auction, fair/community, scene,
pop/cinematic, video, world/therapy
sacred/avant-garde,
contemporary, cutting-
edge/20th century,
original/folk,
traditional/public/African,
Jpanese, Western,
etc./comic, cover/clip

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1. Read the text and do the tasks below:

Art has not always been what we think it is today. An object regarded (1) as art today
may not have been perceived (2) as such when it was first made, nor was the person who
made it necessarily regarded as an artist. Both the notion (3) of art and the idea of the
artist are relatively modern terms.

Many of the objects we identify as art today Greek painted pottery, medieval manuscript
illuminations (4), and so on were made in times and places when people had no concept
(5) of art as we understand the term. These objects may have been appreciated (6) in
various ways and often admired, but not as art in the current (7) sense.

ART lacks (8) a satisfactory definition. It is easier to describe it as the way something is
done the use of skill and imagination in the creation of aesthetic (9) objects,
environments, or experiences that can be shared with others rather than what it is.

The idea of an object being a work of art emerges (10) together with the concept of the
Artist, in the 15th and 16th centuries in Italy.

During the Renaissance, the word art emerges as a collective (11) term encompassing (12)
painting, sculpture, and architecture, a grouping given currency by the Italian artist and
biographer Georgio Vasari in the 16th century. Subsequently, this grouping was expanded
(13) to include music and poetry which became known in the 18th century as the Fine
Arts. These five Arts have formed an irreducible (14) nucleus from which have been
generally excluded the decorative arts and crafts, such as pottery, weaving,
metalworking, and furniture making, all of which have utility (15) as an end.

But how did Art become distinguished from the decorative arts and crafts? How and why is
an artist different from a craftsperson (16)?

In the Ancient World and Middle Ages the word we would translate as art today was
applied to any activity governed by rules. Painting and sculpture were included among a
number of human activities, such as shoemaking and weaving, which today we would call
crafts.

During the Renaissance, there emerged a more exalted perception of art, and a concomitant
(17) rise in the social status of artist. The painter and the sculptor were now seen to be
subject to inspiration and their activities equated (18) with those of the poet and the
musician.

In the latter half of the 16th century the first academies of art were founded, first in Italy,
then in France, and later elsewhere. Academies took on the task of educating the artist
through a course of instruction that included such subjects as geometry and anatomy. Out

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of the academies emerged the term Fine Arts which held to a very narrow definition of
what constituted art.

The institutionalizing of art in the academies eventually provoked a reaction to its strictures
(19) and definitions in the 19th century at which time new claims (20) were made about the
nature of painting and sculpture. By the middle of the century, modernist approaches were
introduced which adopted new subject matter and new painterly values. In large measure,
the modern artists rejected, or contradicted the standards and principles of the academies
and the Renaissance tradition. By the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th,
artists began to formulate the notion of truth to ones materials, recognizing that paint is
pigment and the canvas a two-dimensional surface. At this time the call also went up for
Art for Arts Sake.

In the early 20th century all traditional notions of the identity of the artist and of art were
thrown into disarray by Marcel Duchamp and his Dada associates. In ironic mockery of the
Renaissance tradition which had placed the artist in an exalted authoritative position,
Duchamp, as an artist, declared that anything the artist produces is art. For the duration of
the 20th century, this position has complicated and undermined (21) how art is perceived
but at the same time it has fostered (22) a broader, more inclusive (23) assessment of art.

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2. Answer the questions:
1. How did people in the ancient times understand art? Does this understanding
match the present-day perception of the term?
2. How is art defined in the article?
3. When did the concepts of art and artist first appear?
4. What did the term art in the Renaissance include? What is Fine Arts? Does it
differ from crafts?
5. How was the artist treated in the Renaissance?
6. When did first art academies appear? What was their aim?
7. Did the term art change in the 19th century? How?
8. How did people understand art in the 20th century?
9. What is your understanding of art? Work with a partner and give a definition of the
term. Produce a spidergraph of the concept art.

3. Find the suitable word from the text to match the given definitions:

1. including everything
2. considered to be similar or connected
3. connected with beauty
4. thought of
5. statements
6. idea
7. the amount of usefulness
8. a severe criticism
9. to gradually make sth or sb less strong or effective
10. became larger
11. understood how good or useful sth was
12. involving a group
13. helped the idea, feeling, skill develop over a period of time
14. happening together as a result of sth
15. doesnt have
16. pictures or patterns painted on a page of a book, esp. in former times
17. understood
18. including everything
19. someone skilled at a particular craft
20. perception
21. appears
22. happening or existing now
23. including a wide range of ideas or objects
24. cannot be made smaller or simpler

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2.2. Theatre

1. Read the text and answer the questions below:

In many parts of the world, and not only in the UK, going to the theatre is seen as an
activity which only a very few people do.

Theatre is not often seen as being a pastime that many ordinary people do. Ordinary
people watch TV, or go to the cinema, or go out to eat with friends. The theatre is for rich,
upper class intellectuals.
Like a lot of clichs, there is some truth in this. Theatre tickets are quite expensive. They
cost more than cinema tickets. Theatres which show new plays are usually only in big
cities.

However, even though this is true, there are a lot of theatre companies who are challenging
this idea. And the way they are challenging this idea is by working with schools. In the UK,
many theatre companies now have an educational department. Companies such as
Complicit, Northern Broadsides and Shared Experience go into schools and help students
to understand and enjoy the plays they do.

One company that has made educational work their speciality is the David Glass Ensemble.
The work they do, however, is quite different. The David Glass Ensemble run an ongoing
project called The Lost Child. The Lost Child is not a play which they travel around
the world to perform. The Lost Child doesnt even have a script. What exactly is The
Lost Child then?

The Lost Child is a series of activities which actors from the David Glass Ensemble do
together with children who are in difficult situations. They have worked with refugees and
victims of child abuse all over the world, mostly in South East Asia, but also in Europe and
South America.

Three or four actors from the company spend a period of time, usually three or four weeks,
starting from games, drawing and singing to develop the childrens confidence and give
them a sense of security. Out of the childrens drawings, and from talking to them, the
actors identify some of the childrens problems and ideas, and then they develop a play
based on these ideas. Sometimes they have made short films. Sometimes the plays are a
series of sketches and songs. Sometimes the plays tell one story.

Children who have taken part in The Lost Child almost always end up with a better sense
of security, and feel more confident about themselves. They can show that they have
intelligence and creativity, no matter what has happened or is happening in their lives. They
also have more interest in theatre and film.

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In Shakespeares day going to the theatre was an activity which everyone did. There were
expensive seats for the rich people, and other people could buy a cheap ticket to stand up
and watch the play. (This still happens at the rebuilt Globe theatre in London a theatre
which is exactly the same as it was in Shakespeares time. The Globe, of course, also has its
educational department). Even though todays world is very different, companies like the
David Glass Ensemble are helping to create a situation in which the theatre is for everyone.

1. What is the main purpose of project The Lost Child? How does this educational project
work? What are the usual results achieved by the projects all around the world?
2. In your opinion, could it be helpful for Lithuanian children? What are difficult situations
for them?
3. How important is theatre in your life? What are your favourite performances?

2. Read another article and do the tasks below:

Theatre Superstitions

Theater people are superstitious. There are lists of things that are prohibited when you are
in a theater, things you must not do, otherwise the performance will go terribly wrong. For
example, no actor would ever say the word Macbeth in a theater it would bring certain
disaster. Actors, instead, call it The Scottish Play and the title character the Scottish
Lord in order to avoid pronouncing the word. Whistling in a theater is also forbidden
because it brings bad luck to the whistler. And in case you have forgotten, NEVER wish an
actor good luck! tell them to break a leg. Why? Backstage sent artistic intern Jack
Tamburri on the hunt of the origins of these superstitions, and he came back with the
following list. If youre not superstitious, then read on, Macduff...
Tell them to break a leg, not good luck!
This bizarre phrase has a number of purported meanings

1) If the havocwreaking spirits (Sprites) heard you ask for something, they were reputed to
try to make the opposite happen. Telling someone to break a leg is an attempt to outsmart
the Sprites and make something good happen.

2) To break a leg was to hope the actor would have so many curtain calls that his trousers
would be creased permanently.

3) In Shakespeares time, to break meant to bend. So, bend your leg, means take a lot of
bows.

4) One popular etymology derives the phrase from the 1865 assassination of Abraham
Lincoln. John Wilkes Booth, the actor turned assassin, leapt to the stage of Fords Theater
after the murder, breaking his leg in the process. The logical connection from this event to
wishing someone good luck is none too clear, but such is folklore.

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5) Evidently, in the days of early vaudeville, the producers would book more performers
than could possibly perform in the given time of the show, since bad acts could be pulled
before their completion. In order to ensure that the producers didnt start paying people
who hadnt actually performed, there was a general policy that a performer did NOT get
paid unless they actually appeared onstage. So the phrase break a leg referred to breaking
the visual plane of the legs, or curtains that lined the side of the stage. In other words,
Hope you break a leg and get onstage, so that you get paid.

6) It came from the understudies telling their primaries to break a leg enough times that it
came to be considered bad luck if they didnt say it.

7) In Ancient Greece, people didnt applaud. Instead, they stomped for their appreciation
and if they stomped long enough, they would break a leg. Or, some would have it that the
term originated during Elizabethan times when, instead of applause the audience would
stomp their chairs and if they liked it enough, the leg of the chair would break.

Were in the dark.


You never say a theater is closed, but instead that it is dark. If you say a theater is
closed, you can invoke plagues, Puritans or embezzlement. A dark night (when there is no
performance) is normal and healthy.

Whatever you do, dont turn off the Ghost Light.

Every theater has a Ghost Light, a light that is left onstage which is never turned off. Its
there to guide the first and last person into and out of the theater. For centuries, a myth has
held that the light is protection from spirits, because if the theater ever went completely
dark, lonely and resentful ghosts would realize everyone had gone and proceed to cause all
sorts of mischief.

No whistling!
In the olden days, stage hands were outofwork sailors (theaters and ships share a
profusion of ropes) who communicated with complex whistles. So, if you were walking
around stage whistling a tune, you could accidentally call down a sandbag onto your head!

The Scottish Curse.


Dont say Macbeth, or even quote that play, in a theater. Ever. Theater people believe it
will bring disaster. In actual fact, Constantine Stanislavski, Orson Welles and Charlton
Heston all suffered some catastrophe during or just after a production of The Scottish
Play. In 1849, more than 30 New Yorkers were killed when rioting broke out during a
performance of the play. Abe Lincoln read it the night before he was assassinated. If
someone else quotes from The Scottish Play inside a theater, you must utter the words
Angels and ministers of grace defend us! Then the offender must leave the house, turn
around widdershins (counterclockwise) three times, swear and knock to be readmitted.

19
The superstition seems to have arisen, in part, from the plays depiction of witchcraft, still a
vital (though contested) belief in 1606, when the play was first performed. Like Marlowes
Doctor Faustus, in which staged incantations were occasionally reported to have raised real
devils, The Scottish Play was believed to flirt dangerously with the Powers of Evil,
bringing catastrophe down upon productions over the succeeding centuries.

Those seeking rational reasons for the Scottish Curse have pointed to several features of
the play as conducive to accidents: dim lighting and stage combat chief among them.
Authentic productions often use broadswords, which are heavy and difficult to wield deftly,
capable of inflicting considerable blunt trauma. Moreover, as Shakespeares shortest and
one of his most popular plays, Macbeth has often been a lastminute addition to a
companys repertoire when the company is in financial straits late in the season. Therefore,
it can be dangerously underrehearsed, and it can portend the closing of the company
(which probably would have closed regardless which play was chosen).
And many, many more

Wearing the colors blue and yellow will cause actors to forget lines. Wearing green is
unlucky. There should be no peacock feathers inside a theater. No real flowers, mirrors or
jewelry should ever be used on stage. You should use a rabbits foot to apply makeup. You
should never clean your makeup box. You should NEVER wear brandnew makeup on
opening night. Never place shoes or hats on chairs or tables inside the dressing rooms.
Always exit the dressing room left foot first. Absolutely no knitting in the wings. Never
open a show on a Friday night. And never speak the last line of a play before the opening
night.

http://www.britishcouncil.org/learnenglish-central-themes-archive-page.htm

3. Are the statements true or false?

1. Actors are more superstitious than most people.


2. Not performing Macbeth is bad luck.
3. Wishing an actor break a leg has its origins in accepting applause from the
audience.
4. You should not give an actor flowers either before or after a play.
5. Flowers will die quickly and give some actors problems.
6. Knitting can harm other actors and their clothes.
7. Mirrors and jewelry can reflect light and so cause problems.
8. You should not hurt an actor before s/he takes the stage for the first time.
9. If you whistle, an actor could lose his or her job.
10. Ghosts only roam about the theatre on Monday nights.

20
4. Answer the questions:
1. What are the theatre superstitions? Explain them.
2. What are the possible origins of the phrase Break your leg?
3. Why do you think actors are so superstitious?
4. Do you believe in any superstitions? Why yes/no?

5. Fill in the gaps with the following words from the texts: challenge, abuse, confidence,
security, superstition, prohibit, outsmart, attempt, crease, bow, derive, invoke, embezzle,
resentful, mischief, profusion, riot, assassinate, inflict, blunt.

1. A good teacher ought to students to think about the urgent


environmental issues.
2. She always had an abundance of and seemed to fear no one.
3. Williams ..his position as Mayor to give jobs to his friends.
4. Strict ..measures were in force during the Presidents visit.
5. The old .. that walking under a ladder is unlucky means nothing to
me.
6. Smoking is strictly inside the factory.
7. All ..to control inflation have failed.
8. The lizard can .. any predators by leaving its tail behind to
confuse them.
9. Dont sit on my paper, you will . it!
10. He ..........................before a king.
11. Hesome comfort from the fact that he wasnt the only one to
fail the exam.
12. His earlier novels . a romanticized picture of life in the
countryside.
13. She had $10,000 by falsifying accounts.
14. The house was overflowing with a .of strange ornaments.
15. His daughters became increasingly of his authority.
16. Ethnic tension led to a massive race..
17. Helenas eyes flashed with amusement and..
18. Jan was straightforward and .. as always.
19. The plot to . the President failed due to the timely interference
of FBI.
20. The judge the severest possible penalty.

21
2.2. Literature

Discuss on the following issues:

1) What kind of books do you like reading?


2) Do you prefer paperback or hardback books?
3) Is reading becoming more or less popular? What might be the possible reasons for
such a situation?
4) Do you think online reading will replace books? Why (not)?
5) Which books are best-sellers now?
6) What is your favourite book? Is there a book which made some kind of influence on
you?

Typical collocations

adj. ~ of ~ verb ~ prep.


classical, contemporary, ciece, read, study, ~ about/~
modern/popular/great/African work teach/publish/write concerning/~
American, Russian, etc./19th on/~
century, 20th century, etc./feminist; regarding
Extensive, vast,
Literature
voluminous/current, existing,
recent/published/growing/historical,
medical, scientific, etc./professional
(esp. AmE), scholarly/promotional,
sales

1. Give an appropriate word the definition of which is given in the brackets:

1) He has a degree in (of the present time or resent times, syn. contemporary)
English Literature.
2) Scientists publish a number of (connected with academic study, syn.
academic) literature works on the threats of global warming.
3) Have you read the (of the present time) literature on the issue of teaching
writing to the secondary school students.
4) For the next lecture we have to read a piece of (supporting the belief that
women should have the same rights and opportunities as men) literature.
5) The newly employed managers in this department have to read quite a lot of
(connected with selling products) literature.

22
2. Fill in an appropriate preposition:

1) I picked some literature about my course paper.


Theres an extensive literature the subject.
2) This literature work is based real life facts.
Have you studied any of the current literature science and natural history.
3) There has been an interesting book published the issue we are now dealing
with.

3. Make adjectives from the following nouns:

1) extent
2) scholar
3) promotion
4) profession
5) medicine
6) history
7) vast
8) existence
9) growth
10) science

4. Explain the following phrases:

1) voluminous literature 9) astute reader


2) compulsive reading 10) best-selling book
3) mandatory reading 11) forthcoming book
4) bedtime reading 12) influential book
5) compelling reading 13) readable book -
6) fluent reader 14) prolific author
7) reluctant reader 15) eminent writer
8) omnivorous reader

23
2.3. Music

Discuss on the following issues:

1) Why do we listen to music?


2) How does music affect our emotions?
3) Do you think that it is possible that music affects the way we speak? What can it
copy?
4) When and where do you listen to music on a typical day?
5) Do you listen to different kinds of music at different times of day?
6) What music would you play..?
1 If you were feeling sad and you wanted to feel more cheerful?
2 If you were feeling depressed and you wanted to feel even worse?
3 If you were feeling furious about something and you wanted to feel even
angrier?
4 If you were feeling nervous or stressed and wanted to calm down?
5 If you wanted to create a romantic atmosphere for a special dinner?

1. Match the antonyms:

(1) light music (a) sweet music


(2) live music (b) secular music
(3) liturgical music (c) quiet music
(4) classical music (d) serious music
(5) loud music (e) recorded music
(6) soft music (f) contemporary music

2. Match the synonyms:

(1) compose (a) religious


(2) create (b) funky
(3) mainstream (c) write
(4) church (d) traditional
(5) cool (e) orchestral
(6) instrumental (f) produce

3. Explain the following phrases:

1) music charts
2) music event
3) music critic
4) music promoter

24
5) music library
6) music education
7) music therapy
8) music industry
9) to read music
10) to make music

4. How do you understand the following phrases and what situations could you use
them in?

1) in time to the music


2) music and song
3) the sound of music
4) a style of music
5) words and music

5. Use the phrases in the sentences bellow:

1) Are you coming to the evening of English ?


2) He made up the for the song.
3) Her was eclectic.
4) They did their exercises .
5) . drifted through the open window.
6) What does their local band play?

6. Match the given sayings to their explanations bellow:

1) Blowing his own trumpet


2) Face the music
3) Good ear for music
4) Music to my ears
5) Out of tune

a) news or information that you are very pleased to hear;


b) to praise your own abilities and achievements;
c) able to recognize the music tones;
d) not be in agreement with somebody or something; not to play the right music tones;
e) to accept and deal with criticism or punishment for something you have done.

25
7. Use those sayings in the given sentences:

1) The President is with the public opinion.


2) He is always . he tells everyone how wonderful he is.
3) The news was . it was exactly what I wanted to hear.
4) The others all ran off, leaving me to .
5) Some of the children in the school choir sang in the concert last week.
6) He has a . as soon as he hears something he can recognize the tune.
7) I dont like people who keep .this makes them look funny as boasting is
always visible.
8) I really understood that it was all my fault, thats why I .
9) In my childhood I wanted to play the piano but the teacher said that I didnt
.
10) When students tell me how well they performed during exams this news is
.

8. Find the appropriate ending for the sentences given bellow:

1) Music is one of the activities


2) It has surprising benefits
3) Listening to music or playing an instrument
4) Music has the power to enhance
5) Recent findings show that listening
6) Mozarts music and baroque music
7) The simultaneous left and right brain action maximizes
8) Easy listening music or relaxing classics improves
a. reading and literacy skills.
b. activates the left and right brain.
c. can actually make you learn better.
d. that involves using the whole brain.
e. learning and retention of information.
f. to any music that is personally enjoyable has positive effects on cognition.
g. the duration and intensity of concentration in all age groups and ability levels.
h. for language learning, improving memory and focusing attention.

26
2.3. Cinema

1. Read the text and answer the questions below:

Dont just sit there, participate!

Film producers are usually in it for the money, whatever they might say about wanting to
produce great art or entertainment. But when Jeff Skoll, founder of Participant
Productions, says he wants his films to change the world, you somehow believe him. After
all, he doesnt exactly need the money.

Skoll, together with a university colleague, founded eBay, and consequently is now a
billionaire. When he left eBay in 2000 he turned his sights to philanthropic projects. He
had long harboured a dream to write stories which would change the world, but then
realised he could use his wealth to hire writers. And what better way to get those stories
out to the public than to make them into films?

Participant Productions came into being in 2004, and now has its first batch of successful
films under its belt. Syriana, starring George Clooney as an American spy, looks at how
Americas dependence on Middle Eastern oil results in global violence. Another George
Clooney film, Goodnight, and Good Luck, which the actor also directed and co-wrote, is a
drama about Senator Joseph McCarthy and his attempts to censor American television
news. In 2007 An Inconvenient Truth, the film presented by Al Gore about the climate
crisis, won Academy Awards for Best Documentary Feature and Original Song.

The first film to come out, North Country, was less successful at the box office than the
Clooney films, but still critically acclaimed. Starring Charlize Theron, it tells the story of a
woman working as a miner, and the sexual harassment she and her female colleagues face.

Hollywood has seen a spate of political films, such as Munich, The Constant Gardener
and Blood Diamonds, and it could be said that Participant is jumping on the bandwagon.
Nobody else, however, is doing what Skoll is doing. Participant works in partnership with
activist groups and organises a specific campaign to tie in with each film. Its community
website (participate.net) helps people get involved by taking part in group blogs as well as
the campaigns.

For North Country the company has set up a campaign to end sexual harassment and
domestic violence, and the website has downloadable information kits. Goodnight, and
Good Luck is tied in with a campaign to promote better reporting of the news, which
encourages people to write in with news stories from their neighbourhoods. Syrianas
campaign is Oil Change, which aims to reduce dependence on oil by informing people
about ways they can make a difference as individuals.

27
Are these campaigns having any effect? Its too early to say, but if the number of people
visiting the website is anything to go on then the message is getting across that people can
participate and films can be a vehicle for social change.

http://www.britishcouncil.org/learnenglish-central-themes-archive-page.htm

1. Fill in the gaps with the following words: harbour, batch, acclaim, harassment, spate,
kit, domestic, result in, depend on, come out, tie in with, set up, get across

1) I think he .. some sort of grudge against me.


2) This project .. the language research he is doing.
3) The second . of student essays was due in.
4) We have recorded a new album and it .in the spring.
5) Cyclists should carry a repair .
6) His last play was by the critics as a masterpiece.
7) We encourage anyone who has been the subject of racial to report it.
8) The gives some insight into the life of the Victorians.
9) A sudden change in temperature will inevitably . rain.
10) The .. of burglaries is directly related to the economical crisis.
11) Rebels .. an independent state within the country.
12) What message are you trying to .to the consumer?
13) His future how well he will do in this exam.

2. Explain the difference between:

1) the cinema/the movies;


2) to promote/to release a film;
3) to write/to produce a film;
4) to download/to rent a film;
5) a series/a sequel.

3. Fill in appropriate prepositions:

How often do you go the cinema?


Do you find it difficult to sit the cinema when a film is long?
What is the cinema now?
What do you think is more difficult: to work a series or to work a sequel?
Why do you think film directors cut some scenes from their films?
Who stars you favourite film? What location is it filmed ?
Do you know any actor or actress Lithuania who works Hollywood?
Where are most of the films based real war facts set ?

28
2.4. Sculpture

Read the text and supply each blank space with one word only:

........ thousands ........ years mankind has ........ using sculpture ........ a primary means .....
artistic expression. ..... fact, long ........ the first record of history ........ recorded, sculpture
was ........ used ........primitive civilizations to document .....world in ........ they lived.
Sculpture was often ........ to represent any number of occurences ........ people's lives .....
the very beginning. Sculpture was used ........ document the passage of time .....
environmental changes. Sculpture was ........ used to represent societal concerns, ........ as
religion, politics, and morality.

Sculpture has long been ........ of the most popular ..... of fine arts. In ....., sculpture was
considered an ..... form long before patrons of the art saw an inherent beauty in the other
......of arts, even drawing. Sculpture was believed to ........ one of the ........ representations
of human form and ........ such was viewed as the ultimate artistic creation.

Sculpture is ........ as popular today ........ ever. Although the look of sculptures ........
changed dramatically ...... the centuries, it will forever remain one of ........ most popular art
forms. Perhaps this art continues to ..... in popularity because the nature of sculpture has
continued to evolve .....time. The subject ........ of sculpture as never remained stagnate
but has always found ..... new and varied subject or theme........ was previously unused.

Perhaps the popularity and apparent fascination of sculpture ........ never ..... explained.
However, it is apparent ........ the artistic medium of sculpture ...... unique. Above ......,
sculpture allows the artist .....have an intimate relationship ..... the work ........ created.
Each time the sculptor uses ........ hands to create a unique work ..... art, whether or not
the materials or subject matter continue ........ evolve.

29
3. HOMES AND HOUSES

3.1. The House and Furniture

1.Test: Bet Loss Gain

Read the statements carefully and decide whether it is true or false. You must bet between
10 and 100 points for each statement, e.g. if you are 100% sure that the given statement is
either true or false, you bet 100 points. In case you are not sure at all, you bet the minimum
10points.When you finish the test, check the answers and count the total losses and gains
.If you have marked the statement as true and bet, say, 20 and the statement appears to be
true, you gain 20 points, but if the statement appears to be wrong, you loose 20 points.
Count the grand total, i.e. total gains minus total losses.
Statement True False Bet Gain Loss

1. Most monks live in an abattoir.


2. You drain dishes on a draining board.
3. He kept his school books in a hammock on his back.
4. Make yourself at home means feel comfortable.
5. A dormer is window that is sticking out from a sloping
roof.
6. Urbane means to do with towns or cities.
7. A Council housing is a place where people go to get
advice.
8. Finish is the official language in Finland.
9. A squat is an empty building where people start living
without the owners permission.
10. A rosary has something to do with gardening.
11. Vintage means showing the best and most typical
characteristics of a particular thing, especially from the
past.
12. A hod is used by a bricklayer.
13. A terraced house is a separate house with one or a
few terraces. .
14. Theres no one living in this building its derelict.
15. Showcase means to show the best of something.
16. Flank means to be at the side of smth.
17. Wicker is a mean person who very often behaves in a
wicked way.
18. Mantelpiece is a shelf above a fireplace.
19. Monogram is the same as one gram.
20. Shutter is a lock on the gate.

Total losses/gains:
Grand total:
(Gains minus losses)

30
2. Analyze the following types of houses:
A detached house is not joined to any other house.
A semi detached house is joined to one other house.
A terraced house is joined to several houses to form a row.
A cottage is a small house in the country or in a village.
A bungalow is a house with only one store.
A ranch house is a house in the US in which all the rooms are on the same level, with a
roof that does not slope much.
A villa is a large house with big gardens or a rented house in a holiday resort.
A mansion is a very large expensive house.
A squat is an empty building where people start living without the owners permission.
A hovel is a very poor, dirty house or flat in a bad condition.
A Council housing is provided by the state for people who cannot afford to buy their own
homes.
High-rise flats are flats in a tall, modern building with lots of floors.
A block of flats is a building that consists of different levels and has several apartments on
each level.
A dormitory is a large building at college or university that consists of separate rooms
where students live.
A penthouse is a luxury flat at the top of a building.
A bedsit/ a studio flat is a small apartment with one main room (bedroom and a living
room all in one).
A time-share is a holiday flat or a house where you have the right to live one or two weeks
a year.

3. Complete the following table about the types of accommodation:

Accommodation What kind of person would live Would you like to live
there? there? Why?
Monastery
Convent/nunnery
Penthouse
Squat
Palace/castle
Wigwam
Igloo
Old peoples home
Barracks
Chalet
Motel
Council housing
Caravan

31
Old hut
Cave
Kennel

Typical Collocations
home (n)
Boyhood, childhood, family, marital, matrimonial, natural, parental/ native/ permanent,
temporary/ comfortable, luxurious, luxury, magnificent, nice, pleasant/dream/ humble/
happy, secure, stable, supportive/
Broken, single-parent
Middle class, working class
Detached, semi-detached, terrace/ terraced/ rented/ council/ country, island, mountain,
riverside, seaside, suburban, valley, village
adj~
Holiday, weekend
Caravan, mobile, motor
Ancestral/stately
Forest/winter
Legendary/ spiritual
Care, charity, childrens, convalescent, foster, nursing, old peoples, remand,
residential, rest, retirement/ purpose-built
Arrive, come, get, go, make your way/ bring sb./sth., take sb./sth., be away from, leave/
v~ abandon, find, give (sb/sth)
Provide(sb with)/ run
Address, number/ buyer, owner/ownership/ purchase/ sales/ background, conditions,
environment, life, situation
Area, base, country, district, state, town,/territory, turf
Improvement, maintenance, repairs/ extension/ loan/ help
~n Appliance/ computer/ furnishings/ contents/ comforts
Insurance/security/ entertainment/ use/ user/ trial
Student, study/ tutor/ work, worker
Baking, cooking/nursing, treatment/ movie, video/ consumption/ market/ affairs,
news/port, waters
prep~ At~, away from ~, back~, in your own ~
~prep ~ of
A home from home, home-grown, home-made, welcome home, make yourself at home,
phr
feel at home
homeless (adj.)
v~ Be/ become, end up, find yourself / leave sb., make sb, render sb.
adv~ Officially/ intentionally, voluntarily
homesick(adj.)
v~ feel/be/ get/ become/ make sb. homesick
adv~ Desperately, terribly, very/ a bit, a little

32
4. Fill in the gaps with collocations

1. It is unusual for young people over 25 to still live in the ..


2. She left her in Germany and went to Israel.
3. The lock-up garage provides a for your car.
4. Hes from a, his parents are no longer together. More and more
children in the school are from -.. ..
5. He used to spend the summer painting in his .
6. These birds are in danger of becoming extinct as their .. disappears.
7. The mudflats offer a .. to thousands of migrating swans.
8. People . their . and headed for the hills.
9. He came from an appalling
10. My grandmother has a .. who comes and cleans twice a week.
11. Make sure you insure your .. for an adequate amount.
12. He claimed he had bought the cigarettes for , not to sell them.
13. They hope to sell as many computers on the .. as they export.
14. Come in and . while I finish getting dinner ready.
15. I havent lived in Liverpool for long but I already there.

5. Where does the practice of a housewarming gift come from? Read the
explanations and fill in the gaps with the given words (A) and the necessary
prepositions (B): owners, human being, objects, foundations, animals (2x), housewarming,
humans, presents.

A. The practice of a .gift originates from a time when a


.sacrifice was made if a new building was being constructed. The victim was buried
in the of the building and left to die. Later generations used rather
than ...... and later still ..were buried rather than ... In
modern times we now bring .............., to keep happy both the . and the genius1
who presided over2 that particular plot of land.

B. THOR, the Norse God .. Thunder, was very fond .. iron, and his practice grew ..
the hope that it would stop him getting angry. Iron was also supposed to have power to
keep witches .., .. the 17th century nearly all houses had a horseshoe nailed .. the
threshold3.

1
Genius in Roman mythology men had a kind of guardian angel that looked after their fortunes.
2
Preside over sth. to be in charge of a situation, especially a formal meeting or a trial.
3
Threshold the entrance to a room or building, or the area of floor or ground at the entrance.

33
6. Do you believe that horseshoes are meant to bring luck? Are you aware of any other
superstitions? What does walking under the ladder mean?
7. Have you ever heard of IKEA? Listen to Ikea song by Jonathan Coulton and fill in
the missing words. www.youtube.com/watch?v=KTJEtMSuMqg
Long ago in days of yore
It all began with a god named Thor
There were Vikings and boats
And some plans for a ..
It's not a bodega, it's not a .
And they sell things for smaller than mine
As if there were apartments smaller than mine
Ikea: just some and some .and a handful of Norsemen
Ikea: selling ..for college kids and divorced men
Everyone has a ..
But if you don't have a home you can buy one there
So rent a car or take the bus
Lay your cash down and put your trust
In the land where the ..folds to a much smaller size
Billy the .. says hello
And so does a whose name is Ingo
And the . is a ladder-back birch but his friends call him Karl
Ikea: just some oak and some pine and a .of Norsemen
Ikea: selling furniture for kids and divorced men
Everyone has a home
But if you don't have a home you can .. one there
Ikea: plywood, brushed steel
Ikea: meatballs, tasty
Ikea: Allen wrenches
All of them for ..
All of them for .
I'm sorry I said Ikea sucks
I just bought a table for . .
And a . and a ..
And a and some . for you
I was a doubter just like you
Till I saw the American dream come ..
In New Jersey, they got a goddamned Swedish parade
Ikea: just some oak and some pine and a handful of Norsemen
Ikea: selling furniture for college kids and . Men

34
Everyone has a home
But if you don't have a home you can buy one

8. Discuss what you like and what you do not like about the place you live. What
things would you like to have done to improve your room, flat or house?

How would you describe the place shining with elegance?

9. Read these descriptions of the interior design, imagine what kind of house would
host such elegance. What kind of people would be the owners of this property?
Would you like to live in such a place? Why/why not?

Elegance

A beloved wedding gift of monogrammed4 sterling silver5 mint julep6 cups sits below a
framed antique Italian watercolour. The eighteenth-century French candlestick is a
memento from her first trip to France. An Italian painted corner clock from the seventeenth
century carefully keeps time in the dining room. A predesign for a tapestry, the Italian
cartone on canvas was created in Florence in the 1920s and is accented by an Italian
candelabra7.The sitting room holds many storied8 collections. A souvenier from the Sunday
market, an eighteenth-century painted French chest sits between two carved Italian side
chairs found in Lille. The eighteenth-century French painted desk faces a view framed by
curtains made of vintage9 monogrammed bed linens. The nineteenth-century English corner
cabinet displays antique porcelain and Italian architectural pieces.

The rich red walls of the sitting room are painted with a faux 10 finish11.A side table
showcases12 a collection of miniature Italian boxes picked up over the years during her
journeys. A pair of French chairs in the family room flanks13 a 1775 mahogany14 table. The
airy15 master bath contains scents from the South of France: lavender wands16 and rich bath
oils. A pair of cozy wicker17 chairs borders the pine fireplace mantelpiece18 in the master

4
Monogram- a symbol, usually formed from the first letters of a persons names joined together, which is
sewn or printed on clothes or other possessions.
5
Sterling silver- silver of a fixed standard of purity.
6
Mint julep- an alcoholic drink containing whisky, crushed ice, sugar and pieces of mint.
7
Candelabra- a decorative holder for several candles or lights.
8
Storied- famous.
9
Vintage- of high quality or lasting value, or showing the best and most typical characteristics of a particular
type or thing, especially from the past.
10
Faux- not real, but made to look or seem real.
11
Finish- a type of paint which is slightly shiny when it dries.
12
To showcase- to show the best of sth.
13
To flank- to be at the side of smth.
14
Mahogany- a dark red-brown wood used to make furniture.
15
Airy- with a lot of light and space.
16
Wand- a thin stick.
17
Wicker- made of very thin pieces of wood twisted together.

35
bedroom. An antique French ledger19 rests atop20 a vintage tray painted by her
grandmother. The French marble-top drop-off desk is filled with English porcelain and
family portraits. A gift to her at 12, this Virginia-made bed was given to her by her
grandparents and is covered with a collection of crisp antique linens.

10. What makes this description sound elegant and makes one visualize the place?
How can you prove that this text is an imagery? Find epithets that are used to
describe the interior or pieces of furniture.

11. Paraphrase the sentences in a more elegant way using the words or phrases from
the text:

1) This picture reminds her of her first trip to China.


2) There is a clock in the dining room.
3) There are many famous collections in the sitting room.
4) An eighteenth-century painted French chest is between two Italian side chairs.
5) The desk is in front of the window.
6) You can see antique porcelain and Italian architectural pieces in the corner cabinet.
7) A side table shows the best of her collection of miniature Italian boxes.
8) There are a few chairs at the side of the table.
9) A few chairs are next to the fireplace.
10) Theres a book on a tray painted by her grandmother.

12. Complete the names of these things that you find around the house:

Outside the house: g--e, d--ve, f----r b-d, l-w-, p--h, f---t g-rd-n, po--, gr--nh-
---, sh-d.
Parts of the house: c-l--r,
l-u-ge, r--f, l-n-i-g, a--ic, s-a-r-a-e.
Inside the house: r-d-a-or, c-e-t of d-a-e-s, m-n-e-p-e-e, r-g, w-r-r-be, d-e-s-
ng t---e, c--k--.

18
Mantelpiece- a shelf above a fireplace, usually part of a frame which surrounds a fireplace.
19
A ledger a book in which things are regularly recorded, especially business activities and money received
or paid.
20
Atop- on or at the top of.

36
13. Using a dictionary to help you out, find the word that is different from the other
three and explain why:
Wardrobe, double bed, shower, bedside table. Hand rail, banister, extension, staircase.
Shutter, net curtain, Venetian blind, roller Washing machine, tumble dryer,
blind. laundry basket, linen basket.
Side plate, crockery, dinner plate, soup bowl Gate, fence, hedge, slab.
Mantelpiece, cushion, fireplace, screen. Cutlery, fork, knife, spoon.
Sink, drain, bathtub, pane. Cellar, lawn, loft, lounge.
Eaves, gutter, dormer window, porch. Pond, drive, hearth, patio.

14. Using your dictionary match each job with the thing you need to do it:

1. You sweep the floor with a .......................................... Vacuum cleaner


2. You switch on a when its too hot. Brush
3. You keep your clothes tidy on a ................................... Extractor
4. You drain the glasswear on a ....................................... Chopping board
5. You make your chair comfortable with a ..................... Mop
6. You dry up with a ......................................................... Hanger
7. You keep warm under a ................................................ Cushion
8. You knock on the door with a ...................................... Remote control
9. When you fry you switch on an .................................... Napkin
10. You change channels with a ......................................... Teatowel
11. You clean a carpet with a ............................................. Duvet
12. You wash the floor with a............................................. Draining board
13. You protect your clothes while you eat with a ............. Fan
14. You cut up food on a .................................................... Door knocker

15. Write a letter of complaint about poor hotel service. Swap letters with another
student and write a reply.

E.g. In your brochure you said the hotel had a swimming pool.

16. Projects
Visit a stately home21 website and make notes about it to bring to the next
class. Describe the home.
Find a house on the Internet, print out the description and bring it to the class.
In pairs, role-play a conversation between the estate agent and a prospective
buyer.

21
Stately home a large impressive house of historical interest, especially one that the public may visit

37
17. Choose one of the characters to be the story teller and write a story:
A homeless cat
A mouse in the palace
A parrot in a cage
A ghost in a castle
A noble person in a portrait on the wall
A flea in the flea market

38
3.2. Rental Services. A Case Study.

1. Look at these notices and discuss what service this company offers. Who might be
interested in their service and in what case?

A complete temporary Temporary guest furniture package,


household good package including: Queen size bed (160x200cm)
including: Master bedroom, + mattress, 2 night tables, 2 bedside
dining table and chairs, tv + dvd lamps. Chest of drawers + clothing rack,
player, Modular cornersofa + double bed linen set. (2 pillows, 2 fitted
coffeetable, kitchen appliances, sheets, 1 duvet with 2 covers).
uplighter,. Cleaning set, dining
set etc.

Temporary garden furniture package, including: 1 garden table + 4 garden


chairs.

2. Read the e-mail and answer the questions:

Dear Mr. Smith,

Following the choices made by Mrs. Smith I send you our first offer. You will notice we are above the
foreseen budget.
But no worries, this can be resolved.
Examples: The Electrical appliances can be changed with other models, such as TV, dishwasher, etc. Maybe
you need to erase some items here and there, but you will see that it is not very difficult.
The list of items is very big, and therefore a lot of changes can be made.
If you need my assistance on anything, please do not hesitate to contact me.
Looking forward to your reply

Kind regards,
John Sanders
Account Manager
Furniture Rental Services

1. What does John Sanders do? What company does he work for?
2. What is the issue that he refers to in the e-mail? What offer does he speak about?
3. What does the emoticon in the first line imply?
4. What problem is being mentioned in this e-mail?
5. What are the suggested ways of solving the problem?

39
3. In groups analyse the attachment to rental contract and answer the questions.

Item Qty Description Price pp. Total in Euro (per


month)
Living & Dining Room
1. 1 Table Alcos 11 11
2. 8 Chairs 2 16
3. 1 Chest of drawers Perlato 24 24
4. 1 China Cupboard Perlato 44 44
5. 1 TV cupboard 19 19
6. 2 Side cupboards Perlato 30 60
7. 1 Side table Perlato 19 19
8. 1 Sofa Ambassador 156cm blue 45 45
9. 1 Sofa Ambassador 130cm blue 38 38
10. 1 Pouf Ambassador blue 15 15
11. 1 Longchair ambassador 148cm blue 38 38
12. 1 Coffee table 7 7

Master Bedroom
13. 1 Bed Yalta 180cm 25 25
14. 2 Nightstand Yalta 8 16
15. 1 Slattered board 180cm 7 7
16. 1 Make-up table Yalta 15 15
17. 1 Bench Yalta 8 8
18. 1 Mirror Yalta 10 10

Boys Room
19. 2 Bed Screen 90cm, incl Lights 16 32
20. 2 Slattered board 90cm 3 6
21. 2 Mattress Ambiance latex 10 20
22. 1 Desk 130cm 14 14
23. 1 Wardrobe 15 15
24. 1 Bookshelves 10 10
25. 2 Desk chair Race yellow and red 16 32
26. 1 Drawer unit 5 5
Furniture rent per month: 551 Euro, incl.21%VAT

Electrical appliances
27. 1 Side by side LG American inox 85 85
28. 1 Oven/stove Siemens Ceramic 42 42
29. 1 Dishwasher Bosch inox 41 41
30. 1 Kitchen robot Kenwood 35 35
31. 1 Microwave Siemens 10 10
32. 1 Coffee machine Krups 6 6
33. 1 Toaster Siemens 5 5
34. 1 Washing machine Miele 51 51
35. 1 Dryer Miele 30 30

40
36. 1 Vacuum cleaner LG 6 6
37. 1 Iron Calor Pro Express Turbo 10 10
38. 1 Ironing board Calor Helix 11 11

Audio Visual
39. 1 TV Samsung HD 48 in. diameter 103 103
40. 1 Home cinema Samsung 10 10

Garden
41. 1 Table Royal Garden 190cmx105cm 18 18
42. 1 Bench Royal Garden 8 8
43. 6 Chair Royal Garden 5 30
44. 6 Cushion 2 12
45. 1 Serving trolley Royal Garden 14 14
46. 1 Party BBQ Barbercook 12 12
47. 1 BBQ utensil set 1 1

Kitchen utensils
48. 1 Food scale digital 1gr. 2 2
49. 1 Saucepan with lid 2 2
50. 1 Steaming insert 1 1
51. 1 Serving deep frying pan glass lid 28cm 2 2
52. 1 Fish pan 3 3
53. 1 Knife set 9pieces grand gourmet 22 22

Varia
54. 1 Weight scale digital body master 5 5
55. 2 Net curtains Living 420cm 11 11
56. 1 Ceiling lamp 13 13
57. 1 Wall light 3 3
58. 4 Standing lamp 2 8
59. 1 Standing lamp Design 16 16
Electrical appliances/audio/garden rent per month: 628 Euro, incl.21%VAT

1. What colour will dominate in the living room? What makes you think so?
2. What has Mrs. Smith definitely forgot to order for her Master bedroom?
3. How many children are there in the family? What gender?
4. What is Side by side LG in line 27?
5. What make is a dishwasher?
6. How would you characterize the Smiths?
7. What is VAT?

4. Decide on the necessary changes to be made not to exceed the monthly budget of
800 euros per month. If you decide to change one or another item with another model,
ask the teacher for the price. Support your opinion.

41
5. Read the following e-mails and answer the questions:

Dear Mrs. Smith,


In attachment I send you the 3rd offer based on the changes you have made.
This resulted in 9 eurocents above budget which I erased with pleasure
Please inform if you accept the offer so we can order at factory.
Looking forward to your reply.

Kind regards,
John
PS: if you accept the offer, and we order at factory, you can still make
changes till the end of this week without any problem.

Dear Mrs. Smith


I have enclosed the Dyson DC20 Allergy which is available on the Belgian Market. The DC15 is
made for the German market.
I erased the curtains.
This means there is still 3 Euro budget left. Can you inform me what you want to add again?
Looking forward to your reply.
Kind regards,
John Sanders
Account Manager
Furniture Rental Services

1. Did the Sanders manage to squeeze into the budget of 800euros?


2. How many times did Mrs. Sanders change her mind?
3. What item was replaced by the Dyson DC20 Allergy?
4. What, do you think, will be rented for the 3 Euro budget left? Argument your
opinion.

42
6. Analyse another e-mail and discuss what problem might have occurred. Then write
an e-mail to which this e-mail might be the answer.

Dear Mrs. Smith,


We will come over to collect: TV standing lamps coffee machine 4chairs and stove.
We will deliver temporary: TV uplighters coffee maker and stove (electrical).
Concerning the sofas, we have ordered new slatted boards.
Concerning the desk chair, we have ordered a new wheel.
For the last two items we will come over for repairs ourselves.
I contacted the supplier and we still do not have an exact time of delivery yet.
As soon as we hear from the suppliers and everything will be delivered to our warehouse, I
will contact you immediately.
Kind regards,
Mary Kelly
Logistic Manager

7. Imagine there is a miracle rent agency where one can rent the commodities shown
in the table below. The owners of this agency will only stock the items if they are
convinced there is a demand. Choose three items each you would like to rent and try
to find for each at least three other potential customers. The aims is to get the owners
to stock all the items you have chosen.

Name of commodity Second Third Fourth


customer customer customer
1. More free time
2. An automatic house-cleaning robot
3. Perfect health
4. More patience
5. Memory of a genius
6. A well paid job in England
7. An ideal family life
8. Perfect health
9. A talent for making money
10. Knowledge of six foreign languages

8. What do these words have in common?

Owner, rent, landlord/landlady, deposit, tenant, bills

43
9. What is the difference in meaning between these words?

Homework, housework, household


To rent, to hire, to let, to lease

10. Work out the meanings of these words, and then check the dictionary for the
definitions and possible collocations:

Lease (v)
Lessor (n)
Lessee (n)

11. Study the lease agreement and match titles with appropriate sections.

Guarantee with regards to the goods


Other obligations of Lessee
Object of the lease and term of the agreement
Prices
Disputes
Early termination

LEASE AGREEMENT UK/10.358


Andrew Smith
This agreement is entered into by and between Andrew Smith hereinafter referred to as
Lessee and Rental Services hereinafter referred to as Lessor. The parties hereto hereby
consent and agree as follows:

Article 1:
Lessor leases to Lessee, who accepts the goods identified in the attachment to this
agreement. The lessor knows that the goods shall be lodged with Andrew Smith. Lessee
guarantees that the goods shall be returned to Lessor upon the termination of the present
agreement. This agreement is entered into for a term of 35 months, beginning on
01.03.2010 and ending on 01.02.2013.

Article 2:
[]The amount of the monthly rent is payable in advance by transfer on the first day of
each month to Lessors bank account number []
[.] The rent also includes the following services: the goods shall be delivered at the place
where lessee wants to use them; they shall be removed by Lessor upon the termination of
the present agreement; Lessor shall see to it that, if necessary, the goods are assembled at
the beginning of the term of lease and dismantled upon the termination of the present
agreement; insurance against water, fire and storm.

44
[..] The connection to the mains (water, gas, electricity, TV and radio-distribution) is
included in this agreement provided the necessary taps and connection points are available.
The installation, transfer, renovation, adjustment and repair and the corresponding costs
incurred as a result, are not included in this agreement. Lessor shall invoice the costs,
payable in cash, to Lessee at the end of the works.

Article 3:
Lessor guarantees that goods leased are new and in perfect condition. Any defect during the
term of this agreement shall be repaired by Lessor and at Lessors expense, provided the
defect is not caused by Lessees improper use of the goods.
Following items are not subject to the Rental Services guarantee and only valid for a
factory guarantee: GPS, Photo camera, Bicycle, BBQ, Satellite dish and receiver.

Article 4:
Lessee may resolve the early termination of this agreement on legal grounds, subject to a
months notice to Lessor. The early termination of this agreement entitles Lessor to the
compensation. In case of termination before month 29 the compensation equals 1/3 of
remaining rent up to month 29 plus 1/3 of remaining rent up to month 35. In case of
termination after month 29 the compensation equals 1/3 of remaining rent up to month 35.
Custom-made items, mattresses, kitchen-, bed- and bath linen, curtains and wall-to-wall
carpeting are not subject to the early termination regulation and therefore need to be paid in
full.
The failure to pay the rent or to pay the rent regularly when due shall result in the
immediate termination of the agreement at Lessees expense. In that case the compensation,
as mentioned hereinbefore, shall be due by right and without further notice of default.
Arrears of rent shall automatically and without notice of default bear an interest of 1.5% per
month.

Article 5:
Lessee shall use the goods with due care and diligence. In the event of the failure to fulfill
this obligation, Lessor may demand [.].

Article 6:
In the event of the dispute, the Courts of Brussels shall have sole jurisdiction. []

In witness whereof the parties have executed and signed this agreement on 28.02.2010 in so
many originals as there are parties.

Lessee Lessor

45
12. Give the synonyms to the given words:

Lodge(v) Rent(n)-
Repair(v)- Costs-
Custom-made- Condition-
Diligence- Guarantee-
Invoice- On legal grounds-

13. Link the word in the first column to the one that has the same meaning:

Arrears Flaw
Defect Unpaid, owed
Default Authority
Dispute Failure to pay
Jurisdiction Debts
Due Argument

14. Link the word in the first column to its antonym:

Deliver Tenant
Due care Lessee
Assemble Improper use
Lessor Dismantle
Landlord Remove

15. Fill in the necessary prepositions or particles: to (2x), over, without, in (2x), at (2x),
on, under, from, of, frost, against.

1. The premises shall be handed . the lessee . good repair.


2. The lessee shall not plant the trees and bushes . the lessors agreement.
3. The lessor shall arrange for the common areas to be cleaned .. the expense of the
lessee.
4. What equipment is located . the rented premises.
5. The house should be maintained .. perfect condition throughout the period of the
lease.
6. All repairs should be carried out the tenants responsibility.
7. We should arrange for the protection .. pipes, taps and fittings . frost.
8. Have you insured your house .. fire?
9. Damage of any kind detected in the communal areas shall be charged .. all tenants
of the building.
10. The monthly rent shall be fixed an amount of 875,24euro.

46
16. Choose a word from the list below and use it in the given sentences: drainpipes,
wear and tear, rent, premises, lease, lessor, lessee, repairs, chimneys, waste, transfer, in
advance, gutters, sub-let.

1. The amount shall be payable .. within the first five days of every
month, by deposit or bank . to the postal bank.
2. The . shall pay the first months . and charges before taking over
the
3. During the entire period of the , the lessee shall pay the consumption and
standing charges for water, gas, electricity and telephone.
4. Both the and the lessee may terminate the lease at any time.
5. On expiry of the lease the lessor shall undertake to return the property and the
furniture to the condition recorded in the initial statement except for normal
and aging.
6. The lessor will have the right to proceed with such work and .. at any
time.
7. The lessor shall have the swept, the cleaned and household
.. removed.
8. Who will ensure that domestic, rainwater and sewage .. are not obstructed.
9. He/she shall not transfer his/her lease or . all or a part of the premises.

17. Discuss which responsibilities are of a Lessor and which ones are of a Lessee:

Indoor/outdoor paintwork
Replacement of broken window panes
Maintenance of the garden, trees and bushes
Tree pruning
Chimney sweeping
Door lock changing
Roof repairs
Sewage problems
The leaky toilet

18. Imagine you have just moved into a new house, but there is something weird about
it. Tell your partner what happened and what were you doing at that time. Did the
lights go out when you were watching TV? Did a mirror come off the wall when?
Set your imagination free.

19. Write instructions to leave the removal men who are helping you to move house.
Tell them where everything is at the moment and where you would like it in your new
home. Warn them about any particularly important or fragile items.

47
4. FASHION

Explore the key words

Analyse the words below (give their meanings, derivatives, pronunciation and
collocations):
fashion (n)
clothes (n)
wear (v, n)
design (n, v)
style (n)
adj~ v~ ~v ~n prep~ phr
fashion current, latest, modern, be, be in / change statement / model / after the ~ Changes in
(n) new / growing / become, show / shoot / of / ~ for / fashion / the
changing, passing / come into / magazine / scene / ~ in fashion of
high / designer / fall out of, capital / business, the day / the
female, street, youth / go out of / industry, market, height of
architectural, cultural, be out of / trade, world / fashion / the
intellectual come back company, house, world of
into / label / retailer, fashion
introduce, shop / design
set, start / photography /
follow, keep designer, editor,
up with, photographer /
keep pace accessory, clothes,
with garment / victim

clothes beautiful, elegant, put (back) shop / designer / in ~ a change of


(n) fancy, fine, lovely, on / remove basket / sense clothes
nice, pretty / cheap, / change /
expensive / clean, fresh make/ dry,
/ dirty, disheveled, iron, mend,
ragged, shabby, soiled / wash / wear,
tight / baggy, ill-fitting, have on /
loose, sloppy / put on / take
designer, fashionable, off
trendy / dowdy, nerdy,
old-fashioned / second-

48
hand / comfortable,
sensible / best,
evening, formal, smart
/ casual, everyday,
ordinary/ outrageous,
strange, wacky /
outdoor, outer/ baby,
maternity, mourning,
night, riding, school,
sports, work/ civilian,
plain

4.1. Fashion Industry

1. Do you agree that fashion is an important part of our lives? Why yes/no? Think
about styles, designs and trends not only in clothes, but also in other spheres cars,
homes, furniture, books, hobbies, et. Is it a kind of vanity and snobbishness, or a way
of self-expression?

2. Read this article and choose the best heading for it:

1. The fashion industry loses millions a day through illegal copying.


2. Flattery or piracy? The fashion industry cant decide.
3. The fashion industry unite in its fight against copying.

The audience gasps. Fashion editors scribble notes. Cameras flash. As the model sashays
down the catwalk, its clear to everyone that this is going to be the must-have dress of the
season. And long before the applause has died down, photos of the dress have been sent to
manufacturers, who will then copy and produce knockoff versions for a fraction of the
designers price tag.

Blatant theft of ideas, or flattering imitation and extra publicity? The fashion industry, and
even designers themselves, cannot decide whether the massive knockoff industry is a good
or bad thing. Some fashion houses are taking retailers to court for selling copies that they
say are too close to the original article. They argue not only that they are losing sales, but
that copies inferior in quality affect their reputation. Designer bag companies in particular
claim that poorly made knockoff bags that fall apart all too soon have a negative effect on
their image.

Other designers feel that the proliferation of cheap copies in high street stores can only be a
good thing. They argue that those who buy a 50 euro imitation would never be able to
afford the 5,000 euro original anyway, and that a design that is copied by all popular

49
retailers increases the profile of the fashion house that produced it. Everyone knows who it
has been copied from, and so no harm is done. There is also a theory that copying benefits
the fashion industry by increasing creativity. As new designs rapidly become popular
trends, designers have to come up with even newer ideas to keep the real fashionists happy.

Counterfeiting, which involves the blatant copying of brand names and logos, is of course
outlawed. So would it be possible to legislate against the greyer area of knockoffs?
European designers have some protection under law, but that hasnt stopped a thriving
knockoff business in high street stores. Designers in the US have no protection at the
moment, as fashion design is historically considered a craft, not an art, and outside the
scope of copyright protection. Policing copyright on fashion would be particularly difficult.
Knockoff versions can be in the shops within two or three days of a fashion show, before
the original is even available for sale, so how can you prove who had the idea first?

http://www.britishcouncil.org/learnenglish-central-themes-archive-page.htm

3. Answer the questions:

1) What is the position of the fashion houses based on when they say that knockoff
businesses are harmful to them? Why do the others think that it is beneficial?
2) What kind of copying activity is clearly outlawed? How could you explain the
phrase the greyer area of knockoffs?
3) Why dont designers in the USA have any copyright protection? Why is policing
copyright on fashion so difficult?
4) What is your opinion about counterfeit production? Do you buy any of it? Would
your attitude change if you were a designer or a producer?

4. Get ready to speak about the latest fashion tends. Express your personal attitude
to them.

5. Fill in the gaps with the following words from the text: gasp, scope, scribble, tag,
blatant, flatter, legislate, inferior, knockoff, available, proliferation, rapidly,
counterfeit, thrive, involve, outlaw.

1) The audience . at the splendour of the costumes.


2) This machine is technically .. to the Western models.
3) Every day each of us make decisions which .. taking a chance.
4) The politics of the country is really beyond the .. of tourist
book like this.
5) In her sixties, she was not able to catch up with the .. changing
world of computer technologies and lost her job.
6) Certain countries have .. the sale of alcohol.
7) I . her phone number in my address book.

50
8) the bottles now, or you will forget which one is which.
9) The former Soviet Union authorities used to exercise .. abuse of
power with their own citizens.
10) There are plans to . against computer related crimes.
11) The .. of nuclear weapons has made the diplomatic
international relationships even more important.
12) He .. her, saying how beautiful her eyes were.
13) The police officers were looking for .. money.
14) He makes huge amounts of money selling .. paintings of
famous authors.
15) The university is trying to make more accommodation for
students.
16) Free market economy, in which businesses can normally . ,
experienced a very heavy financial blow in 2008.

6. Read the text and decide whether the statements below are true or false:

Skinny Models

One of Spain's most prestigious fashion shows has agreed to ban overly skinny models
from taking part. The organisers of Madrid Fashion Week are using the Body Mass Index -
a calculation based on height and weight - to reject models that are too thin.

The Spanish fashion industry is taking a stand against waif thin models. Madrid Fashion
Week may not be equal to the catwalks of Paris or New York, but organisers are turning
away women they say are too underweight. Last year's fashion parade led to protests from
medical associations and women's rights groups, who complained that the participants were
unhealthily skinny.

In response to pressure from the local government, the Association of Fashion Designers
has agreed to use a calculation known as the Body Mass Index, based on weight and height
to reject excessively thin models from this year's show. The World Health Organisation
says a person's BMI should be between eighteen-and-a-half and about twenty-five.
Organisers of Madrid Fashion Week have decided to ban underweight models who have a
BMI of less than eighteen.

The Association of Fashion Designers says thirty per cent of would be participants fail this
test, including Spanish top model, Esther Canadas, who reportedly has a BMI of fourteen.
At this year's fashion week, models as thin as Esther Canadas will be offered medical
treatment. Madrid's local government says it wants to set a more positive, healthy image of
beauty for teenagers to follow. Spain's Anorexia and Bulimia Association says if designers
refuse to follow these voluntary restrictions the government should legislate to ban thin
models.

51
Danny Wood, BBC News, Spain

1. The Spanish fashion industry want very slim models in their shows.
2. A lot of people criticised the organizers of last years fashion show because the
models were too fat.
3. The Association of Fashion Designers says that if models are too thin they wont be
allowed in this years show.
4. All the models who want to be in this year show are going to be allowed to
participate.
5. The local government in Madrid wants young people to be fit, healthy and beautiful
without having to diet a lot.
6. Spains Anorexia and Bulimia Association says that there should be laws against
using very thin models.

7. Match the phrases from the text with their definitions:

taking a stand against neglected, as if not having enough food or care; here,
thin and delicate like a model
waif not allowing to participate
catwalks openly opposing
turning away too thin to be healthy or fit
unhealthily skinny narrow stages that models walk along in fashion shows
to reject excessively thin models not to accept models who are too slim
would be participants to adopt a law not allowing
reportedly to establish, to cause to exist
to set those who would like to take part
to legislate to ban according to what is said

8. Split into three groups. Group A is a representative of the London fashion industry,
Group B is the spokesperson for the international Anorexia and Bulimia Association
and Group C is a fashion model. The three groups are going to have a discussion
about todays topic. At first, each group brainstorms questions and possible answers
(about for example, who makes fashion, are there pressures to be thin, what sells
clothes, is skinny healthy, how does it feel to be an anorexic teenager, how does it feel
to be a model who has to stay slim? etc.), then, in groups of three, one fashion rep, one
Anorexia spokesperson and one model discuss the issues and finally report the main
ideas or conclusions of the discussions.

9. Prepare a report about a famous fashion model (for example, his/her background,
family, education, career achievements, any additional to modeling activity, such as
charity, business enterprises, etc., future plans) and present it in class.

52
10. Discuss on the following issues and read the text:

Advertisings New Age

1) What are the ways to advertise fashion? Which are the most eye catching and
effective nowadays?
2) Does advertising inform or actually manipulate peoples opinions?
3) Is it important to you to buy branded products? Is branding helpful to manufacturers
or customers? How?
4) Does advertising increase the costs of products? Why yes or no?

MENLO PARK, CALIFORNIA Advertising is of interest to everyone, not just marketers.


After all, its advertising that pays for much of the content that many of us see (including
this newspaper). But it also tells us about new products and spurs companies to improve
their products and services. Of course, theres good advertising and bad advertising (and
good and bad products).

Fortunately, advertising will (and must) change in a way that will accentuate the good and
reduce the bad because advertisers will increasingly need consumers help in getting the
word out, and consumers wont support bad products. (Thats a slightly Utopian
overstatement, but there is some truth in it.)

Of course, sometimes I have a hard time explaining what I mean when I say that
advertising must change. It needs to move from sending messages to passive consumers
to sponsorship, product placement and conversations with active consumers. The traditional
skills of advertising will give way to those of public relations.

Advertisers often look at me with a blank expression when I try to explain this.

So I use metaphors: imagine you sell sports shoes (are you listening, Nike?). Youre not
going to intrude on people having dinner in a restaurant, but you might well show up at a
ball game, handing out free sneakers to the coolest-looking kids and joining in the festive
atmosphere. Or think of all the marketers whose brands are popular: people actually pay to
wear their branded T-shirts especially if the marketer is sponsoring a cause they believe
in.

Now I have a practical example. Last week, I met Suzanne Xie, a recent graduate in
economics from the University of Chicago. Her parents, Chinese immigrants, were
engineers, and they encouraged her to go into a safe, prestigious career, so she joined a
New York investment bank after graduation. But little more than a year later, just before
the financial meltdown, she and co-founder Richard Tong took an even riskier route a
start-up.

53
They recently moved from New York to Palo Alto, California, to see if they could make a
go of their start-up idea a style-oriented photo-sharing site with a twist. But just shoving
some ads and affiliate links onto the page didnt make much sense to these 24-year-olds, so
they applied a little bit of business-model smarts rather than technical innovation, and
looked for ways to involve clothing vendors in their community.

Thus was born Weardrobe. Young women post photos of themselves and their looks and
get style inspiration from others. It's real people wearing real clothing. The most influential
users get a direct line to the brands, and starting next week will be able to borrow the latest
fashion releases from the Weardrobe closet. Some vendors, such as American Apparel,
have already seen the value of their clothes being modeled by real people, and have started
showcasing their products by linking to photos of Weardrobe users.

In a few weeks, Xie and Tong hope to announce a retail partnership. The most trusted and
active members will get to borrow, wear, and pose in clothing from this brand. The sooner
they return the items, they sooner they get a new item. Of course, this will add complexity
and logistical challenges to the business, but its also likely to add revenue to the bottom
line.

And for brands, its an opportunity to place product directly in the hands of fashion
influencers. Product placement has traditionally been seen as a way to get celebrities and
models to wear branded clothing, but Weardrobe believes in the power of what Xie calls
micro product placement. She says, This sort of micro product placement takes the
success of Doves Campaign for Real Beauty a step further, allowing clothing companies to
reach young women whom others follow. Imagine having a bunch of real girls who like a
brand so much that they wear and style it for free!

And, of course, aspiring models and stylists will see Weardrobe as a place to be discovered
(just as MySpace and YouTube have become such places for performers).

My point here is not to predict Weardrobes success, but to show the kind of creativity and
experimentation that makes California such a great place to visit after six months in Russia
and a week in New York.

Each marketer needs to think of a message and a platform appropriate to its niche.

Financial firms are sponsoring sites such as Wesabe and Mint.com, where users supply
their own financial data and get relevant, extremely targeted advice from vendors. RealAge
does the same for consumers. Its advertising base is a little heavy on vitamin supplements,
since pharmaceutical companies are extremely constrained in how they can advertise.

And it neednt be just online. The companies that are sponsoring power outlets in airports
are another example of this kind of creativity. They are sponsoring something of value and

54
something relevant to their core customer base. Meetup (I should disclose that I am on its
board) is a company that lets marketers sponsor face-to-face get-togethers of like-minded
people; Huggies (diapers) sponsors stay-at-home Meetups and offers free diapers;
American Express sponsors small-business Meetups and helps cover members fees.

Of course, its neither easy nor obvious. Advertisers are looking for one big idea. But
thats the point. Media are fragmenting, and so are advertising and marketing platforms.
Advertisers will need to work harder to get the attention of their core audience. What they
still dont understand is that consumers dont want just to give attention; they want to get
attention. In these new communities sponsored by brands, its possible for them to get
attention from other members while reflecting a little glory onto the brands that sponsor
them.

www.project-syndicate.org 2009

11. Answer the questions

a) What benefit does advertising bring to the consumer?


b) How should advertising change according to the author?
c) What does the example with sports shoes explain?
d) Could you describe the way Weardrobe works? Why does the author
predict its success?
e) How can Weardrobe be compared to YouTube?
f) What are the examples of business sponsorship in the article?

12. Pick out at least 10 words from the list below and write a paragraph about fashion
advertising: spur, support, overstatement, public relations, blank, intrude, sneakers,
meltdown, encourage, start-up, shove, affiliate, apply, vendor, pose, revenue, aspiring,
brand, niche, relevant, targeted, constrain, predict, fragment, core.

55
4.2. Street Fashion

1. Read the text and prepare a similar article on Lithuanian fashion (famous
designers, fashion events, street fashion trends, etc.).

UK Fashion

Currently riding on a high again for its fashion, Britain has some of the most cutting-edge
designers around. The British Fashion Pack', including John Galliano,Stella McCartney
and Alexander McQueen, is creative, original and often controversial. Big fashion houses
such as Chanel, Givenchy and Chloe snap up the hottest new talent . Love them or hate
them, they keep the rest of the fashion world on its toes and celebrities like Sadie Frost,
Gwyneth Paltrow and Kate Moss very well dressed.

Off the catwalk, Britain is still riding on the Cool Britannia' vibe it enjoys overseas all
that is vintage, all that is heritage, all that is the New Mod'. London's Carnaby Street was
the original home of British fashion in the 1960s and it's alive again with concept stores for
vintage, street and sports brands like Puma, Ben Sherman, Fred Perry and Lambretta. There
are loads of 2nd hand clothes stores around Covent Garden and Portobello market for cool
rejects. Away from the capital, city centres like Manchester and Leeds are home to
individual boutiques original, up-to-the-minute designs.

All this cutting-edge fashion ensures that young Brits are a pretty well-dressed bunch. City-
centre institutions like French Connection, Oasis and Next are cheerfully mobbed at
weekends. You'll soon notice a few distinct tribes label-conscious clubbers (Cockfighter
and Libertine for boys, Preen and Marc Jacobs for girls), Gentry Geezers' clad in Burberry,
Pringle and Hacket, and outdoor types who won't go anywhere without a Berghaus fleece.

Those keen on snapping up the latest threads for less will find bargain-priced designer
outlets at various locations around the country. The best place for good value latest trends
is Top Shop, with branches nationwide. Also try H&M for high street copies of catwalk
pieces for men and women .

London Fashion week held in February and September is the main UK fashion event
attracting the glare of the world's style gurus. Hobbs Show in Bristol around March is
another well-known fashion-fest showcasing raw new talent.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/

56
2. What is the difference between being fashionable and stylish? What is your
attitude to 2nd hand stores?
3. Are you fashion conscious? If money was not limited what clothes (style, trend,
colour, shape, etc.) would you wear this season and what kind of outfit would you
recommend to your boyfriend/girlfriend this spring? Use the following clothes
vocabulary for the descriptions: suit, shirt, tie, dress, blouse, skirt, (tank)top, coat
jacket, T-shirt, trousers, jeans, shorts, jumper, cardigan, sweatshirt, romper suit, nappy,
swimming trunks, bikini, swimsuit, nightdress, pyjamas, dressing gown, boxers, y-
fronts, bra, pants, knickers, stockings, tights, vest, shoes, sandals, high heels, boots,
Wellingtons, slippers, socks, belt, handbag, headscarf, scarf, sunglasses, watch, gloves,
hat, bracelet, necklace, ring, earrings, buttons, studs, etc.

4. Fill in the gaps with the following words from the texts: ban, waif-like, refuse,
cutting-edge, snap up, vintage, reject, boutique, mob, clad, fleece, outlet, bargain,
glare, stud.
1) Peter has been .. from driving for a year.
2) If you see a good dictionary for under 10$ you should . it up
immediately.
3) Teenage girls often try to emulate fashion models.
4) I . to take part in anything that is illegal.
5) These shoes are a at 22$
6) He by the army because of his bad eyesight.
7) The information highway is a .. of the electronic
revolution.
8) I never buy clothes in .. , I think it is too snobbish and
expensive.
9) His latest film is . Spielberg.
10) The actress . by doting fans.
11) Benetton has retail . in every major European city.
12) A model . in silk and lace closed the show.
13) Leather jackets with ..around the collar and cuffs are in this season.
14) She was wearing a trendy white . for the walk in the park.
15) The sun ..though the car windscreen.

57
5. FOOD

5.1. You are What you Eat

1. Read the proverbs and comment on them:

He who eats fast works fast (Lithuanian proverb)


Eat little, sleep sound (Iranian proverb)
He that eats till he is sick must fast till he is well (English proverb)
The more you eat, the less flavour, the less you eat, the more flavour (Chinese proverb)
The belly rules the mind (Spanish proverb)
After dinner sit a while, and after supper walk a mile (English saying)
Talk doesnt cook rice (Chinese proverb)

2. Listen to David Collets ideas on food and choose the correct answer:

1. David Collet:
a) knew a lot about food when he was a child
b) believes traveling has helped him to understand food more
c) talked about food all the time when he was a child

2. In his childhood he used to eat fish and chips or baked beans on toast
a) regularly with his family at the table
b) and watch TV at the same time
c) less than twice a week

3. David believes that chocolate:


a) gives energy to the brain
b) makes you more intelligent
c) takes energy away from the brain

4. David believes snacking:


a) makes you depressed
b) is better than eating a full meal
c) is not always bad for you

5. David thinks that managing your own food can


a) help you to control other people
b) control your life
c) help you achieve your goals

58
6. Tyrosine is
a) found in rich food
b) found in food with a lot of protein
c) a kind of nut

7. David states that caffeine


a) can help you to become more alert throughout the day
b) makes you immediately depressed
c) is a short term measure to make you feel good

8. David mentions that scientists believe that


a) we should always be concerned about what we eat
b) eating the wrong food can cause stress
c) the pleasure we get from eating food may help you feel better

3. Read the text and check whether your answers are right. Find the places in the text
that prove your choice.

I remember as a child growing up in Britain having fish and chips or baked beans on toast
at least twice a week on my lap while watching my favourite cartoon. Of course I enjoyed
my food but it wasnt something I often talked about. Now, Im not blaming my culture for
my lack of interest in food at an early age. Perhaps my silence was due to the fact that I
didnt know anything about food. How many children know that prawns only turn pink
when they are cooked and that tuna does not come from a can? Now after having lived in
Southern Europe, Asia and Australia I find myself talking about food all the time. The
world has seduced my taste buds and opened my mouth.

Food thats plain and simple is often the best but not always so. For many of us food is a
need. For others, food is a friend. Yet to some others food is an enemy. Cravings grip us at
all the wrong times while we struggle to follow a strict diet that turned all our favourite
desserts into mortal sins. There are others who regard food as an investment. To them, food
has some kind of special powers that can control their lives, for better or for worse. If thats
the case, its time to change and make food work for us.

Lets start by using food the way you would use a pencil or a pair of scissors. We begin
using food as a tool. Like tools, some food works well for some tasks and some is specially
designed to accomplish others.

Lets say youre feeling down. You had a tough day or a tiff with a best friend that drove
you round the bend. You decide to treat yourself to a bar of chocolate nothing like
chocolate to perk you up. Unfortunately youre setting yourself up for a higher dose of the
blues. Thats because chocolate bars have a hefty amount of fat and sugar which takes a
long time to digest and can draw energy away from your brain and caffeine which will

59
temporarily boost your mood and alertness but send you crashing back down as soon as its
effect starts to wear off.

Does this mean snacking is a bad idea when youre feeling down? Not at all. You just have
to do it wisely. In place of a chocolate bar, have a slice of toast with chunky marmalade.
Then instead of fat and caffeine youve just given yourself a dose of vitamin C that has
been shown to fight depression. In addition, marmalade is loaded with the type of sugar that
spurs the release of mood-lifting chemicals in the brain.

The next time you have an important meeting that requires mental processing, try some
brain processing food that looks like this: tuna salad on whole wheat bread, green salad
with tomatoes, a handful of nuts, bananas, and a glass of skimmed milk. Tuna, bananas,
nuts and whole wheat bread are high in vitamin B6, which has been scientifically proven to
help preserve cognitive skills. Protein-rich food contains a nutrient called Tyrosine, which
studies have shown, are linked to clear thinking and alertness. Greens such as broccoli and
spinach naturally contain loads of vitamins and iron. Lack of these nutrients can lead to
fatigue and difficulty in concentrating.

Having said all that, lets not be too stressed about what we eat. Many scientists these days
believe that indulging in lifes little pleasures may actually help improve your health
because of the psychological lift it gives you. There is a lot of truth in the old saying that a
little of what you fancy does you good.
( http://www.britishcouncil.org/learnenglish-central-magazine-food-2.htm )

4. Answer the questions on the text:

1. What nationality is the author?


2. When is food a need? When is it a friend? When does it become an enemy?
3. What has changed the authors attitude towards food?
4. Why desserts are referred to as mortal sins?
5. How can we use food as tool?
6. What is meant by a higher dose of the blues?
7. If you needed some brain processing food, what would you have?
8. What helps preserve cognitive skills?
9. What is the message of the text? Do you agree with the saying that a little of what
you fancy does you good? How can you comment on that?

Typical Collocations

food(n)
adj~ Delicious, excellent, good, superb, tasty, wonderful/ favourite, decent/ adequate,
enough, sufficient
Ample/ basic, everyday, staple

60
Plain, simple/ exotic, specialty/ fine, gourmet, quality
Cheap/ bad, poor, unhealthy/ healthy, nourishing, nutritious, proper, the right,
wholesome
Diet, health/ rabbit
Fast, junk, snack, takeaway/ hot/ cold/ raw, uncooked/ leftover/ rotten/ fresh/ natural/
organic/ frozen/ canned, tinned/ processed/ convenience, ready-made, ready-prepared/
fatty, fried, starchy, stodgy
High- calorie, rich/ sugary, sweet/ savoury, spicy/ Greek, Indian, etc.
Vegetarian/ genetically modified/ animal, vegetable/ solid
Baby/ cat, dog, fish, pet/ hospital, party, prison, pub, restaurant/ imported
quant. Portion, plate/ morsel, scrap
v~ Consume, eat, have/ enjoy, like/ live on/ be off, go off
Avoid, cut down on, cut out, be/go short of, run short of/ be without, go without, live
without
Offer(sb), give sb, provide(sb with),serve(sb),supply (sb with)/ feed sb/sth(on)
Handle/ cook, do, make, prepare/ smell, taste/ cut (up)
Pick at/ play with/ chew/ swallow/ bolt, gulp (down)/ digest/ order
Grow/ import/ beg (for), hunt for, look for, search for, scavenge for/ find/ keep, store/
put out/ share
~v Smell, taste/ be in short supply, be short/ run out
~n Resource, source, supply/ supplies/ stuff
Crop, plant/ product/ consumption/ intake/ preparation/ hygiene, safety/ scare
Distribution/ crisis, shortage/ rationing, rations/ industry, market/ manufacturing,
production/ company, manufacturer, producer/ market, outlet, retailer, shop, store,
supplier
Prices/ bill/ policy/ poisoning/ additives/ colouring/ processor/ chain
prep~ For~, without~
phr Food and drink, food and water, food and wine, a smell of food, a supply of food, the
taste of food

5. Fill in the gaps with the given words: chain, staple, adequate food, proper, animal,
fatty, vegetable, solid, short, scraps, keep, product, scare, finest, genetically modified.

1. Everyone has the right to and clean water.


2. Retail prices of . foods remain unchanged.
3. Our restaurant serves the .. food.
4. Lack of food led to much illness among seamen.
5. She is trying to cut down on . foods.
6. Campaigners are challenging the safety of food.
7. Omnivores22 are able to eat .. or .. food.
8. The baby refuses to swallow any food.
9. They moved from village to village begging . of food.
10. food fresher for longer with our new sealable containers.

22
Omnivores an animal that is naturally is able to eat plants and meat

61
11. We have strikes, food is and the queues grow longer.
12. The labels on food give a lot of information about their nutritional content.
13. There has been a food .. over salmonella in eggs.
14. Plankton is at the bottom of the marine food . .

6. Fill in the gaps using appropriate prepositions or particles: off, with, at, of, down, to,
on (2x), for, up.

1. I dont understand people who live junk food.


2. The dog has gone its food.
3. The city was under siege23 and began to run short .. food.
4. Thanks international aid, the town had been supplied food for nine
months.
5. She fed her baby . wholesome food.
6. Please cut .. the food .. your baby sister.
7. He had lost his appetite and picked . his food.
8. She told her kids not to gulp .. their food.

7. Cover the right-hand column and explain to your partner the meanings of the
words in the left column, your partner may help you with an explanation (if
necessary).

Wholesome Good for you physically or morally


Containing all the natural substances in the grain with nothing
Wholemeal
removed
Synthetic ingredients Made from artificial substances
Not using artificial chemicals in the growing plants and
Organic food
animals for food and other products
A substance in foods such as fruit, vegetable and brown bread,
Fibre which travels through the digestive track in bulk making the
muscles of the intestines24 work efficiently
Rabbit food Lettuce and other raw vegetables normally found in salads
Genetically modified, i.e. the genes (DNA) of a natural
GM
product have been altered in some way
Free-range Relating to farm animals that are not kept in cages
Refers to products such as coffee, tea or chocolate marketed in
such a way that the small farmer sin developing countries who
Fair Trade
produce them get the profits rather than large multinational
companies
Anorexia A serious illness often resulting in dangerous weight loss, in

23
Siege the surrounding of a place by an armed force in order to defeat those defending it
24
Intestines - a long tube through which food travels from the stomach and out of the body.

62
which a person does not eat or eats too little because they fear
becoming fat
Foods produced from farming, e.g., dairy produce, agricultural
Fresh produce
produce
Substances added to food to improve its taste or appearance or
Food additives
to preserve it

8. Which of these words: sample, gobble sth up (informal), fast, munch, nibble (on) sth,
pick at sth, wolf sth down (informal), devour (written), be dieting/be on a diet mean the
following:

To eat sth very quickly


To eat sth with quite big movements of your mouth
To take small bites and eat only a little of sth
To only eat a little bit of your food because you are not hungry
To be eating less than normal in order to become thinner
To not eat for a period of time, often for religious reasons
To taste a small amount of food in order to decide whether you like it

9. Read the extract of an article and work out what staple food it speaks about

is closely connected to the culture of many societies. Hindu and Buddhist religions
use . as a religious offering. Burmese folklore uses . as a central part of their
creation story; the gods gave the first people of Burma . seeds and directed them to
Burma, where the . would grow well. A Chinese proverb says that precious things are
not pearls and jade25 but the five grains, of which . is the finest. Chinese myth tells
how, after severe floods, there was nothing to eat and the people were starving. One day
they saw a dog coming across the fields, and hanging onto the dogs tail were bunches of
long yellow seeds. The seeds grew into .. and the people survived.
.. is a staple food for many countries. In parts of Africa and Asia, many poorer urban
families get over half their daily calories from .. As the world population increases,
can ..keep up? To meet growing demands, production has to be raised by at
least 70% over the next three decades.

10. What is the staple food in your country and some other countries? Are there any
myths or legends connected to it? Prepare a presentation on e. g. British, Chinese,
Mexican, French food/cooking/cuisine.

25
Jade a precious green stone from which jewellry is made

63
5.2. Eat Well, Eat Healthily

1. Do you take any vitamin supplements? Why/why not? What do you know about
vitamins?

2. Read the text and mark:

(+) the things that are already known to you


(-) that are new to
(? the ideas that you have doubts about

3. Compare with your partner what you have marked differently and have a group
discussion on issues you have doubts about.

For a healthy body, try vitamins!

Eating a variety of foods is the best way to assure a balanced diet. The nutritional value of
foods (how rich they are in vitamins and minerals) depends as much on the nature of the
products, how fresh they are and the particular time of year, as it does on the way they are
stored, prepared and cooked. The more vitamins we eat, the healthier we are! It is
recommended that we eat at least 5 portions of fruits and vegetables a day. So the more
nutritional food we eat, the better it is for our health.

The human body is incapable of producing vitamins. It is therefore essential to eat a wide
variety of foods and to adopt some simple rules of thumb to better preserve the vitamins in
food, and to prepare and cook food correctly. Heres a quick lesson on vitamins

Nowadays, in industrialized countries, real nutritional deficiencies are a rear occurrence.


However, we can still suffer from a lack of vitamins in our diet. Vitamin deficiency is a
result of our modern lifestyles. Leading a busy life can mean that we dont always have the
time to exercise properly. In addition to that, our poor eating habits also contribute to an
unhealthy lifestyle (for example, snack or junk food eaten at lunchtimes and in the evenings
are not particularly nutritional and are laden with calories). Indeed, the increasing number
of processed foods is another one of the reasons for vitamin deficiencies in our diet.

As a result, we need to concentrate on getting more vitamins into our diet.

Lets now take a look at the variety of vitamins that exist and where they can be found in
our food.

64
Anti-oxidant vitamins
These include carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E. They help slow the effects of ageing
(skin, eyes, and nervous system) and can help reduce heart disease and cancer. Beta-
carotene has another important role: it compensates for a lack of vitamin A.

Vitamin B9
This helps combat anaemia and reduces the risk of foeta26l deformities during pregnancy. A
lack of vitamin B9 is the most common deficiency in the modern diet.

Vitamin A and Vitamin D

Vitamin A plays an important role in growth and eyesight. Vitamin D is important for the
absorption and retention of calcium in our systems.

4. Where do we find these vitamins? Vitamin A, B9, C, D, E and Carotine.

Found in fruit and vegetables, such as carrots, watercress, spinach, broccoli and berries.
Found in berries and vegetables, such as cabbage, peppers and spinach.
Found in vegetable oils and oleaginous27 grains (e.g. soy beans, peanuts).
Found in green vegetables, beans, lentils, cereals and vegetables.
Found in dairy products (milk, butter etc).
Found in oily fish, eggs and liver.

5. Vocabulary extension

Find in text opposite of: Find an expression that means A rule that
1. Capable ............................................. you use for doing or explaining things,
2. Incorrectly......................................... that is based on experience
3. Healthy .............................................
Find synonyms of: Find synonyms of:
1. Dietary ..............................................
1. Fight (v) ....................................
2. Shortage ............................................
2. Abnormality ............................
3. Overloaded with ...............................
3. To be important .......................
4. Getting older .....................................
4. Inclusion ..................................
5. Preservation .............................
Find a collocation in text 1 that means Foods Explain the meaning of the collocation a
which are changed or treated as part of an rear occurrence
industrial operation

Fill in the particles/prepositions Give the noun of grow .........................


Compensate a lack

26
foetus(n) a young human being or animal before birth, after the organs have started to develop; foetal(adj)
27
oleaginous - containing, producing, or like oil

65
6. Food has an impact on our physical and emotional health. Have you ever heard any
of the following advice? Do you agree with the following statements? Why/Why not?

Lettuce or milk can make you sleepy.


To stop feeling sleepy you should eat peanuts or dried fish.
To keep your teeth clean you should eat apples often.
Garlic helps you not to catch a cold.
Eating chocolate makes you fat and gives you spots.
Chocolate contains the essential minerals iron and magnesium

7. Which do you think is tastier or healthier?

Strawberry flavoured yoghurt or strawberry flavour yoghurt


Farmhouse chicken or free-range chicken
Raspberry jam or raspberry flavoured jam
Cherry ice-cream or ice-cream with cherries
Orange drink or orange juice

8. Imagine that you are going camping in a remote area for three days with your
partner. Decide what you will take, following these instructions:

The maximum weight of food and drinks that you can take is six kilos between you,
including water.
Choose from: milk 1litre-1kg, fruit juice 1litre-1kg, tin of sardines -125g, packet of
biscuits- 400g, tin of baked beans 500g, 6 apples 1kg, 6 oranges -1kg, bar of
chocolate 100g, bread 250g, cereal 350g, bottled water 1litre 1kg, peanut
butter 500g, tin of vegetables 500g, packet of soup 100g, pasta 500g, pasta
sauce 500g.
Say what you will take in possible or probable circumstances (for example, if you
want to eat hot food) and discuss alternatives (e.g. if we took this we could take that
but we couldnt take that). Say how much or how many of the items you could
carry.

9. Express your ideas in writing:

Will the concept of eating food because its tasty go out of fashion?
Junk food is also changing.
Can GM food help to avoid famine?
This is the first time when people do not know what they eat

66
5.3. Food and Cooking

1. Revise the vocabulary of food

You start: Yesterday I went shopping and bought a packet of biscuits. Your neighbour
continues Yesterday I went shopping and bought a packet of biscuits and a carton of
juice and so on. Make use of the list of containers:

a packet of a box of a piece of


a carton of a jar of a bunch of
a tube of a bowl of a loaf of
a pint of a bag of a slice of
a tin of a bottle of a pinch of

2. What do these verbs have in common? What is the difference between them?

Boil, fry, deep fry, stir fry, grill, roast, bake, steam, poach, simmer
Pickle, cure, smoke, marinate

3. Work in small groups. Choose the odd one out and take turns to explain your
decisions.

1. cabbage, orange, potato, onion. 7. box, bottle, tin, jar


2. lemon, grapefruit, grape, lime 8. cows, chicken, sheep, fish
3. fridge, cooker, microwave, toaster 9. rice, wheat, potatoes, pasta
4. Indian, Spanish, French, Italian 10. slice, chop, mince, mash
5. bread, cake, pie, pudding 11. bacon, eggs, tomatoes, toast
6. scramble, boil, fry, roast 12. venison, game, cod, quail

4. In pairs, describe to each other the differences between the members of these
groups.

1. prawn, lobster, crab, shrimp


2. garlic, leek, onion, spring onion
3. beef, lamb, pork, venison
4. soup, broth, stew, curry
5. hamburger, sandwich, hot dog, wrap or wrapper

67
5. Read the recipe which is jumbled. Put the paragraphs in order. Work out the
meanings of the underlined words, use a dictionary if necessary.

Mackerel rolls with watercress ketchup and flatbreads is not only quick and easy, but it
makes a great accompaniment to all sorts of dips and sauces (and, rolled out even thinner
than below, makes a good base for canap or finger food).

Serves: 4
4 medium mackerel fillets, boned but skins left on
salt and freshly ground black pepper
olive oil, for brushing
2 tbsp chopped basil
2 tbsp pitted black olive rings

Ketchup Breads
3 tbsp olive oil 225g (oz) self-raising flour
2 small onions, peeled and very finely chopped 2 tbsp good quality olive oil
1 garlic clove, peeled and very finely chopped 4 tbsp chopped mint
300 ml (10 fl oz) water 4 tbsp natural yoghurt
vegetable stock cube
2 tbsp light soy sauce
2 tbsp runny honey
1 level tbsp corn flour, slaked in 2 tbsp cold water
255g (9oz) watercress
3 heaped tbsp frozen peas
3 tbsp mayonnaise
a squeeze of lemon juice

a. Add 85g (3oz) of the watercress and all the peas, and cook for a further 1-2 minutes
until the watercress is softened. Pour into a large tray or bowl over ice and water to
cool as quickly as possible. This will keep the deep green colour.
b. Once cooled, spoon the cooled mixture into a liquidizer, add the remaining
watercress and blitz for a good 3-4 minutes, or until very smooth. Whisk in the
mayonnaise and lemon juice, and chill.
c. To start the ketchup, heat the olive oil in a large saucepan, then add the onion and
garlic and cook for 5 minutes to soften. Next add the water, stock cube, soy and
honey, bring to the boil and cook for 5 minutes. Then thicken with the corn flour,
stirring it in well.
d. Lay out the mackerel fillets on your work surface, season well with salt and pepper,
and brush with olive oil. Sprinkle on a little chopped basil and a few rings of olive.
Roll up and secure with a wooden cocktail stick. Brush with more oil.
e. Preheat the oven to 200 C/400 F/Gas 6, or the grill to a moderate to high heat.

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f. Pop the breads straight on the hot dry griddle or frying pan and cook on each side
for about 4-5minutes, or until slightly puffed and blistered. Leave to cool then and
cut into wedges or strips.
g. Place the rolls into the pan and cook for 2-3 minutes. Do not overcook. Serve the
rolls with the breads and the watercress ketchup.
h. Meanwhile, for the breads, preheat a griddle or frying pan. Mix the self-raising
flour, some salt, the oil, mint and yoghurt together to form loose dough (using a
little water if needed). Roll out to about 1 cm (1/2 in), or possibly slightly thinner;
do not overwork.
i. Heat a non-stick, heatproof pan, and add a touch of oil.

1.2..3.4.56.7.8..9.

6. Here is another recipe. Fill in the gaps with the following verbs: release (2x), heat,
fry, place, add, close (2x), stir, cook (2x), open, arrange, trim, transfer, sprinkle, pour,
drain, lower.

Lancashire Hotpot
.. off any excess fat from the lamb. . the oil in the cooker and quickly
.. the meat until evenly browned. . off any excess fat. . with
flour and .. . .. the stock, carrots, celery, onions, herbs, salt and pepper.
.. the cooker. As soon as the steam starts to release, . the heat and
.. for 20minutes. . steam. the cooker. .. the
potato slices over the top. cooker and .. for further 10minutes.
pressure. Carefully hotpot to a warmed oven-proof dish with the
potatoes on top. over the melted butter and under a pre-heated grill
until the potatoes are golden brown.

7. Study the words and add to the lists with the words from both recipe texts

Products Adjectives Verbs of cooking Kitchenware


Venison, offal, game, Cured, smoked, Soak, sift, knead, Knife sharpener,
quail, cod, aubergine, lean, crisp, glaze, peel, slice, slicer, pressure
courgette, cranberry, wholegrain, grate, pour, whisk cooker, meat
gooseberry, prune, whole/semi- tenderizer, slotted
quinoa, caraway, skimmed/skimmed, spoon, colander,
ginger, cloves whipped grater, food
processor, blender,
toaster, teapot,
corkscrew.

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8. In pairs, role-play a conversation between a shopkeeper and a customer who has
forgotten the name of the thing he/she wants. The customer chooses a kitchenware
object and has to describe it to the shopkeeper. The shopkeeper has to try to work out
what it is. Then change roles. Now the client wants a product and the name of it is on
the tip of the tongue: Have you got one of those things that

9. Work in small groups. The teacher will tell you the kind of meal you are going to
cook. Agree on a shopping list of all the things you need for this meal. When you have
finished, look at the other groups lists and try to guess the occasion they are
preparing for:

A Sunday meal for five people A picnic in the park


A romantic dinner for two A full English breakfast
A meal for a fitness fanatic A childs birthday party

10. In pairs or in groups of three, write a shopping list of the ingredients you will need
for a three-course Sunday dinner, taking charge of one course each. Write the menu.

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5.4 La Ratatouille. A Film-Based Class

1.What is Haute cuisine? What does the word ratatouille mean? Does it sound
delicious?
You will watch La Ratatouille. Might the meaning of the title be ambiguous? What
does it associate with?

2. While watching the episodes note whose words are these and what is meant by that.

If you get picky about what you put in the tank, your engine is going to die.
A cook makes. A thief takes.
Food always comes to those who love to cook.
Anyone can cook but that doesnt mean that anyone should.
If he wishes to swim in dangerous waters, who are we to deny him?
Our reputation is hanging by a thread as it is.
Hes stolen food and hit the road.

Part 1 Introduction. Scenes 1-3/ 10min.

3. Watch the beginning of the film and finish the sentences:

1. The best food in the world is made in .....................................................................


2. The name of the restaurant is...................................................................................
3. The title of the famous cookbook is ........................................................................
4. Remys first problem is ...........................................................................................
5. Remy has a highly developed sense of ....................................................................
6. Remy says if you are what .., then I want to eat the good
stuff.
7. Remys dad thinks that food is ................................................................................
8. Burny, melty, not really smoky, ba-boom, zap kind of taste is ............................
9. Cheese Tome de chevre de pays would go beautifully with ....................................
10. Remy and his brother get the feeling that the necessary spice for the mushroom is in
the kitchen. This spice is .........................................................................................
11. The cause of Gusteaus death was ...........................................................................

What do you think is going to happen next?

Part 2. Cooking soup. Scenes 7-9/10min. (10-11/12min optional)

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4. Watch a few more scenes and fill in the gaps with the given words: since, harsh,
quarter, point, bold, squeeze, draw, playing.

1. .. and . this man after you put him in the duck press to . the
fat out of his head.
2. What are you at?
3. She made a of telling you so.
4. Perhaps Ive been a bit .. on our new garbage boy.
5. Hes taken a .. risk and we should reward that.
6. .. you have expressed such an interest in his cooking career, you shall be
responsible for it.

Will Linguini get rid of the rat? Whats going to happen next?

Part 3. Colettes advice. Scenes 13, 14-16/16min.

5. While watching the following episodes pay attention to Colettes advice, find
information inaccuracies and correct the statements.

1. Keep your table clear.


2. Keep your hands and arms far from the body.
3. Keep your apron clean.
4. Swallow the recipe.
5. Have the last pick of the day.
6. How do you tell how good bread is without tasting it? - The smell of the crust.
7. Haute cuisine is snooty28, so a customer must also be snooty.

How will Linguini become the owner of this restaurant? Will it become clear who the
real cook is? If yes, how?

Part 4. Egos review. Scenes 24-29, 30/17min.

6. Watch the rest of the film. Fill in the gaps using the right derivative of the word
given in brackets. What is the moral of this review?

In many ways, the work of a critic is easy. We risk very little, yet enjoy a position over
those who offer up their work and their selves to our (judge). We thrive 29 on
negative (critic), which is fun to write and to read. But the bitter .. (true) we
critics must face is that in the grand scheme of things, the average piece of junk is
(probable) more . (meaning) than our criticism designating30 it so. But there are

28
Snooty treating people as if they are not as good or as important as you are
29
Thrive to enjoy sth or be successful at sth, especially sth that other people would not like
30
Designate to describe sth in a particular way

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times when a critic (true) risks something and that is in the .. (discover) and
defence of the new. The world is often .. (kind) to new talent, new .. (create).
The new needs friends. Last night, I experienced something new, an extraordinary meal
from a .. (singular) ..(expect) source. To say that both the meal and its .
(make) have challenged my preconceptions31 about fine . (cook) is a gross
..32 (state). They have rocked me to my core. In the past, I have made no secret of
my disdain33 for Chef Gusteaus . (fame) motto, Anyone can cook. But I realize
only now do I .. (true) understand what he meant. Not everyone can become a great
artist, but a great artist can come from anywhere. It is difficult to imagine more humble34
origins than those of the genius now cooking at Gusteaus, who is, in this critics opinion,
nothing less than the finest chef in France. I will be returning to Gusteaus soon, hungry for
more.

31
Preconception an idea or opinion that is formed before you have enough information or experience
32
Understatement - a statement that makes sth seem less important, impressive, serious, etc. than really is
33
Disdain the feeling that sb/sth is not good enough to deserve your respect or attention
34
Humble showing you do not think that you are as important as other people

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5.5 Eating Out

1. In pairs, describe your last visit to a restaurant in detail: when and where, the food
and drink, who you were with, the decor, the waiter, the music, what you talked about, the
other people there.

2. Look at the Menu. Is this an ordinary menu or somehow special? Any idea what
event might be coming up?

The menu
Moon Club aperitif:
To include sparkling wine & hors doeuvres
Seated:
Foie gras with brioche, sweet onion delight a lorange

Coquilles Saint-Jacques with our Chefs touch of world spices***


Buffet:
Choose among our Chefs six recommended exquisite delights:
Duck a lorange
Hip of Beef
Young wild boar
Stuffed turkey
Salmon filet
Rolled filet of sole
Including a variety of assorted vegetables, rice, potatoes, etc
To include white & red wines served on all tables---
Dessert:
Complete your meal with our fabulous buffet of sweet desserts
Cheese platters
Coffee, tea and mints
Midnight:
Champagne will be served with party favours

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Which words are of the French origin? Look up for the correct pronunciation of these
words.
What is Buffet in this context?
What are mints?
What are party favours?
Find synonyms of:
Carbonated, with bubbles, bubbly, fizzy -
A starter
Fabulous
Exquisite -
Assorted -

3. Scan the texts and decide whether they come from a cook book, a tourist guide, a
newspaper or leaflets. Then read the texts more attentively and explain the meanings
of the underlined words and collocations. Use a dictionary if necessary.

1) Dine in Elegance at a Five-Star Restaurant

Hawaii restaurants have reinvented the menu with creative new cooking called HawaiI
Regional cuisine. Island chefs use local products and the freshest ingredients to prepare
exquisite dishes that are edible works of art. These beautifully presented platters are then
garnished with fresh organic greens and delicious sauces.
Maui has many fine dining options, serving everything from HawaiI Regional Cuisine, to
savory Italian meals or to spicy Thai dishes. Most menus do a great job of incorporating
fresh island fish and locally grown produce. The results are delicious! Your taste buds
wont be disappointed.

2) Dine at a Restored Plantation Home

Established in 1935, the Kilohana plantation estate is surrounded by beautiful grounds and
gorgeous views. This 35-acre historic site is also home to unique shops, art galleries and
exceptional dining at Gaylords Restaurant.

3) Stop off at the Local Bakery for Fresh Hot Bread

Looking for a truly Molokai mobettah experience? In the quaint town of Kaunakakai,
locals and visitors alike line up outside the famous Kanemitsu Bakery to get fresh hot
bread, straight from the oven. You can get your bread slathered with jelly, butter or cream
cheese and sprinkled with cinnamon. Its great if you want a late-night snack. During the
day tasty treats range in flavor from apricot-pineapple to mango, but the classics remain the
regular white, cheese, sweet and onion-cheese breads.

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4) Try Fresh Malasadas in Honokaa

What is malasada? A malasada is a Portuguese treat that has been adopted as a local
favourite. This fried-dough pastry is cooked until brown and crispy, and then rolled lightly
in sugar to create the perfect Portuguese donut (without a hole). If youre having a hard
time imagining it, stop at historic Honokaa Town and try a fresh malasada at Tex drive-in.
Visitors can see how they are made and then take a few for the road. Also, you might be
lucky enough to attend the Saturday Farmers Market, where you can sample fresh local
produce.

5) Feast your Eyes on a LUau

While youre on Maui, take some time to go to an authentic luau, or Hawaiian feast. Most
luau celebrations are filled with plenty of good and quality entertainment, including
Polynesian dancing, hula performances and exiting fire dancers. At a luau, you can sample
some of Hawaii authentic dishes, such as the tasty kalua pig that is cooked in an imu, a pit
filled with hot lava rocks.
Laulau is also another Hawaiian dish you might find at a luau. It is a combination of salted
butterfish, pork and chicken, wrapped in layers of taro leaves and ti leaves, and then
steamed to perfection. Other foods include poi, chicken long rice, haupia (coconut
pudding) and lomilomi salmon (chopped tomatoes, onion and salmon all mixed together).
Come on, let the feasting begin!

4. Vocabulary extension

Find a noun in text 1 that means a list of all Find a word in text 1 that means suitable or
the kinds of food that are available for a safe for eating..
meal, especially in a restaurant Opposite of it.
The word that describes food good enough
Finish a sentence using this word: to eat, though not excellent .
Is there any fish ..? Someone who eats a lot, not much, only
particular things, e.g. Ive never been a big
.
Find an informal noun in text 1 that means Find a collocation in text 1 that means small
vegetables with large green parts of the surface of your tongue with
leaves which you can taste things .
.
Find the prepositions missing in these Find an adjective in text 3 that means
expressions from texts1 and 2,: attractive because of being unusual and
Platters garnished .. greens especially old fashioned
Serving everything regional ..
cuisine .. Italian meals Complete the word family.
this site is home . unique shops Adverb:

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Explain the meaning of the last expression Uncountable noun: ..

Explain the meaning of the expression in Find the prepositions/particles missing in


text 3 these expressions/phrasal words from text 3
straight from the oven Looking .. truly experience
and of some other expressions visitors line outside
straight from the horses mouth You can get your bread slathered .
keep a straight face jelly and sprinkled . cinnamon
be straight with sb Treats range .. flavour .
apricot . mango
Find a countable noun in text 4meaning a In text 4 find a synonym of takeaway
restaurant that you can visit without getting
out of your car
Find a verb in text 4 that means to taste In text 5 find an antonym of fake
Find an adjective in text 5 that means Find the prepositions missing in these
delicious... expressions from text 5
Complete the word family. Steamed .. perfection
Noun: filled quality entertainment
Verb: . wrapped . layers
Negative adjective: .
Person:

5. Find the sentences in the text that contain the following patterns. Explain their
meanings and use them in your own sentences.

To be home to sth.
To have a hard time doing sth.
To be lucky enough to do sth.
To take some time to do sth.

6. Choose the suitable word/expression. Make your own sentence with the other
word/expression.

1. These berries are eatable/edible, but those are poisonous.


2. We were offered a simple but tasteful/tasty meal.
3. Help yourselves to the buns. They are straight from the oven/straight from the
horses mouth.
4. They were taken to a small fishermen village and had a unique opportunity to
sample/pick at the local food.
5. I find the French kitchen/cuisine the most delicious.

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7. A portion of food for thought

Future restaurants might be named after the physical or emotional state they hope to create.
Their menus will list the benefits of each dish and drink. Some restaurants have already
started this concept, and list the nutritional content of their dishes on the menus.

Lets take the restaurant Winners as an example. Their menu would list dishes specifically
designed to help you win sports competitions. There would be 'Night-before Vegetable
Lasagne', a pasta dish with extra layers of spinach pasta for slow-burning energy, rich
tomato sauce full of vitamin C and soft, easy-to-digest vegetables. All this would be topped
with a little fresh cheese just enough to help you get a good nights sleep, but not enough
to give you nightmares!

Or you could choose the 'Go-faster Salad', which is a large bowl of mixed raw vegetables in
a light salad dressing, giving you energy without making you gain weight. The vegetables
are carefully chosen to include plenty of natural vitamins and minerals.

(From www.britishcouncil.org/learnenglish.uk)

What kind of dishes do you think would be on the menu at the Clever Caf (which
sells food thats good for your brain)?

8. Work in small groups. Think of a name for your restaurant and create the menu
that would reflect the name of that restaurant. The types of restaurants:
a steak house
a vegetarian caf
an expensive French eatery
a motorway service station restaurant
a seafood restaurant, etc.

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6. PHRASAL VERBS: MAKE / DO

Look up in your dictionaries the meanings, definitions, derivations and collocations of


the verbs MAKE and DO.

6.1. Make

Analyse the following phrasal verbs:

Make away with sth to steal something: Thieves made away with thousands of dollars
worth of jewelry.

Make for to move towards sth, or move in a particular direction: We made for London as
fast as possible.

Make sb/sth into sth 1) to change sth so that it has a different form or purpose: We can
make your room into a study. 2) to change someones character, job or position in society: a
film that made her into a star overnight.

Make sth of sb/sth 1) to understand sth in a particular way, or have a particular opinion
about sth: What do you make of this latest idea? 2) to use the chances, opportunities you
have in a way that achieves a particular result: I want to make sth of my life.

Make off leave quickly, especially in order to escape.

Make off with sth to take sth that does not belong to you: Two men attacked him and
made off with his wallet.

Make out 1) to be only just able to see, hear, or understand sth: I can scarcely make out
his writing. 2) to understand someones character, or what they think, feel, want: Susan is a
strange girl I cannot make her out at all. 3) make out a bill, cheque: Make a cheque out to
Bob & Co Ltd.

Make sth over to officially and legally give money and property to someone else: He
made over the whole estate to his son.

Make towards to start moving towards sth: He made towards the door.

Make up 1) to invent a story, explanation in order to deceive sb: I think they are making
the whole thing up. 2) to invent the words or music for a new song, story, etc.: We even
made up a funny song about it. 3) to put special paint on sbs face in order to change the
way they look: They made her up as an old witch for the last act of the play. 4) to prepare
or arrange sth by putting things together: I could make up a bed for you on the couch. 5) to

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combine together to form a particular system, group, etc.: Women make up only 30% of the
work force. 6) to work at times when you do not usually work so that you do work that you
should have done: I am trying to make up the time I lost when I was ill. 7) to become
friendly with someone again after you have had an argument: Have you made up with Jane
yet?

Make up for 1) to make a bad or unpleasant situation seem better, by providing sth
pleasant: That weekend made up for all the disappointments that I had had. 2) to have so
much of one quality that it does not matter that you do not have enough of sth else: What
Lisa lacked in experience she made up for in enthusiasm.

6.2. Do

Analyse the following phrasal verbs:

Do away with sth to get rid of sth, so that it does not exist any longer: The government
has done away with free eye tests for everyone.

Do for used to ask someone what arrangements they have made for a particular thing:
What will you do for transport tonight?

Do sth out to make a room look nice by decorating it: The room was beautifully done out
in pastel colours.

Do over - 1) to decorate a room, wall. 2) to do sth again because you did it wrong the first
time: Your homework is full of mistakes, youd better do it over.

Do up to fasten or tie: The skirt does up at the back.

Do with to need or want sth: I could do with a drink.

Do without to manage live without sb or sth: I cannot afford a car so I guess I will just
have to do without.

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References

1. Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture. Longman Group Limited, 1992.
2. Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. Bloomsberry Publishing Plc,
Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2002.
3. May P. Knockout. Oxford University Press, 1999
4. McCarthy M. and ODell F. English Collocations in Use. Cambridge University Press,
2006.
5. McCarthy M. and ODell F. English Vocabulary in Use. Advanced. Cambridge
University Press, 2005.
6. McCarthy M. and ODell F. English Vocabulary in Use. Upper-intermediate.
Cambridge University Press, 2003.
7. McCarthy M., ODell F. English Phrasal Verbs in Use. Cambridge University Press ,
2004.
8. Oxford Collocations Dictionary for Students of English. Oxford University Press, 2003.
9. Oxford Guide to British and American Culture for Learners of English. Ed: Jonathan
Crowther. Oxford University Press, 1999.

Internet

http://www.britishcouncil.org/learnenglish-central-themes.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/
http://www.project-syndicate.org/

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