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ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION (RETP)

From the Conference of the United Nations Environment and Development

(UNCED) and the adoption of Agenda 21, began the interest among the

international community, and each government in particular, the creation of

Records Emissions and Transfer of Pollutants (RETP) as a fundamental tool for

environmental management of each nation. Thus, there is now broad international

experience on the subject, with PRTP programs implemented in most countries of

the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), such as:

Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) of the United States, National Pollutant Release

Inventory (NPRI) Canadian National Pollutant Inventory (NPI) of Australia, RETP

Mexico, among others. In parallel, the United Nations Institute for Training and

Research (UNITAR), in cooperation with the OECD, the World Health Organization

(WHO), United Nations Program for Environment (UNEP) and the United Nations

Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) have focused efforts to ensure that

developing countries introduce RETP as an effective tool in environmental

management.

Implementation in Chile

From 2002 he began the evaluation process for incorporating RETP in

environmental management, under the work program of the Commission for

Environmental Cooperation Chile Canada. To do a workshop was held with the

participation of international experts, yielded information on the experience of

Canada, Mexico and other RETP programs in the world. As a result of this

workshop, the need to develop the RETP in our country, generating in this way the

study "Situation Analysis and Feasibility to Establish a Registry Pollutant Releases


and Transfers in Chile", carried out between March and May was recognized 2003,

with contributions from Environment Canada, through the signing of a

memorandum of understanding between UNITAR, as implementing agency, and

CONAMA (the predecessor of the Ministry of Environment). This agreement was

generated in December 2002. Based on the results of this study, the National

Coordinating Team (NCT) was formed, consisting of representatives of public

sectors with competence in the matter, the private sector, civil society organizations

and academic sectors. The results of this study can be summarized into two; firstly,

identifying the uses of national RETP system and, secondly, the assessment of

national infrastructure available to implement the RETP in our country. These

results were presented at a workshop held in June 2003, along with other

international technical presentations by representatives of United States

Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Environment Canada and UNITAR.

Benefits RETP

The benefits of RETP for the country are evident, as it provides a set of critical

information for prevention and control of pollution, answering questions such as:

Where are generating emissions or environmental importance transfers?; What

chemicals are being released or transferred and how much?, among others. With

this information, government authorities can set priorities for reducing or

eliminating potentially harmful to the health of people and the environment

emissions. Moreover, Chile's participation in major international agreements such

as the Kyoto Protocol on greenhouse gases, the Montreal Protocol, related

Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the Stockholm Convention on

Persistent Organic Pollutants implies important commitments and obligations,


some of which have been met by this instrument, among which the development

and regular updating of emission inventories and / or monitoring of hazardous

chemical substances along their entire lifetime. Also, in the future, the application

of economic instruments such as tradable emission permits, both local and global

(carbon), require a lot of information emissions and operating conditions of

emission sources for management, which may be supported by the RETP. In this

sense, the information generated by the RETP allow identification of business

areas for the use of economic instruments. Note that the creation of a RETP

national character has also allowed the approval of various sectoral databases,

which has been generated comparable information. Moreover, its implementation

involves a balance on available throughout the country and a standardization of

methodologies for estimating emissions infrastructure, which are supporting the

generation of regulations, establishing base line emissions, generation prevention

and decontamination plans, determination of latent or saturated zones and

verification of compliance with environmental standards. The generation of

integrated emission data can improve the understanding of environmental quality

observed in the different media. For example, it is possible that measure the quality

of a water body chemicals from air pollution sources, analyzes it was not easy to

integrate, since that information is administered by state agencies sectoral

objectives are achieved. From RETP, generating a unique database of operating

conditions of the sources, which meets the different requirements of sectoral

information, which will be possible to move towards establishing a one-stop

reporting income is driven data, whose implementation has been widely

recommended by international experts who have supported the process of


generating PRTP in our country. Finally, the existence of a RETP publicly available

strengthens the public participation process and the "right to know" by the

community, something that is becoming global significance and is approached in

different conventions, for example, AARHUS 2. In short, the beneficiaries of RETP

correspond to all involved sectors: general public government, industry and whose

benefits can be summarized as follows:

Government

Allows public agencies to have updated information for environmental

management, including:

- Generate emission cadastres (uniform and comparable), determine or obtain

a level of magnitude of emissions of pollutants in different media. This lets

you sort emission sources according to the magnitude of emissions and thus

prioritize actions to reduce these emissions. In this sense, is obtained

specifically supporting the generation and evaluation of prevention and

decontamination plans.

- Compare the magnitude of emissions in different time periods, which

measures the degree of compliance with the objectives of reducing pollution,

because it can perform analysis of emission trends through indicators.

- Integrating RETP data with geographic information systems, which allows to

identify areas of environmental concern, since it is possible to determine the

spatial distribution of emissions at different levels of territorial organization of

the country.
- Determine the level of compliance with current environmental regulations,

support the process of creating new standards and evaluate the audit

processes.

- Simplify and streamline the procedures that enable the delivery of information

required. This is both a benefit for the State and for the industrial sector.

- Coordinate the environmental management of emissions and transfers of

pollutants of various agencies involved, in line with the State modernization

process of the same, thus making more efficient their actions.

- Facilitate the dissemination of information to the various bodies involved,

among which we can highlight other state institutions, companies and

associations of the productive sectors.

- Promoting education and citizen participation.

- Influence the modernization of key sectors of economic activity, especially

those who make intensive use of environmental goods and services as a tool

for environmental management.

- Facilitate the process of environmental impact assessment of future industrial

and nonindustrial, as it has integrated emission information (baselines),

geographic information centers disposal and / or treatment of waste.

- Improve management and transparency of the various agencies.

- Support the State in compliance with international agreements. Industrial

Sector Improving the efficiency of existing production processes, enabling

better use of materials and energy.

Industrial Sector
Improving the efficiency of existing production processes, enabling better use of

materials and energy. This is because it has been possible to identify leaks and

other inefficiencies that increase emissions. One can also mention the following

benefits:

- Support the implementation of environmental management systems and

certification thereof, such as ISO 14000.

- Reduce production costs resulting from the implementation of cleaner

alternatives and return to process materials considered waste. This has also

meant a decrease in the levels of emissions from point sources, according

to the experience of other countries that have already implemented the

RETP.

- Reduce emissions from point sources and fugitive product making changes

as: use of alternative chemicals, greater control of these and improved

efficiency of equipment used in production processes.

- Propose mitigation actions impact the environment or propose rightly,

compensating actions, improving the company-public-government

relationship.

- Reduce the number of reports that industry must deliver to the State.

- Improving the exchange of technologies within and between enterprises.

Public

In principle, people who are potentially exposed to risks from contaminants should

be assured access to the minimum information that allows them, or provide them,
choosing appropriate courses of action in addition to enable them making

decisions. As a result one can obtain the following benefits:

- Provide the public with information relevant to decision-making in

environmental matters.

- Involve citizens more actively to environmental management manner.

- Improve your quality of life through greater understanding of their

environment.

- Provide reliable information to the media (newspapers, radio and television),

educational institutions and research centers.

- Provide this information to welfare and security as hospitals, fire, police and

other agencies, which allow them to act with skill and speed in case of

emergencies.

- Improve the information available to academics and researchers, either for

education or research.

WHAT INFORMATION IS OBTAINED FROM RETP

The Register of Pollutant Release and Transfer is a database accessible to the

public, designed to capture, collect, organize, preserve and disseminate

information on emissions, waste and transfers of potentially harmful health and

environmental pollutants generated in industrial or non-industrial or transferred for

recovery or disposal activities. The data are collected Chile stationary sources

(factories) and mobile sources (transport). The registration covers emissions to air,

water and hazardous waste transported for treatment or disposal.

The key features of the RETP include:


- The collection of periodic information on releases and transfers of pollutants

from compliance with the emission standards in force in the country, to

identify changes over time;

- The use of estimation methods (eg, using material balance and estimation

factors) to generate information on releases and transfers;

- The use of common identifiers for chemicals, facilities and locations to

facilitate comparison and incrementing data;

- Digitalization of information to facilitate analysis;

- Dissemination of information for environmental management purposes.

1. How information is collected

The information supplied answers RETP obligations under various sectoral

regulatory bodies; for this information and ensure their transfer to the RETP

the Ministry of Environment has signed cooperation agreements.

In particular, the requirements of information that feed the RETP match:

Air-source component fixed

Since 1990, they began to apply direct measures for pollution control and

measurement system of contaminants was established in the city of Santiago. In

1998 the implementation of the Plan for Prevention and Atmospheric

Decontamination of the Metropolitan Region (PPDA) was initiated. The PPDA

contains actions to control emissions from industry, public and private transport,

contingency measures in days of events, incentives for the use of clean

technologies and improvement in the composition of fuels, among others. The

PPDA was designed with an implementation period of 14 years including at least


two reformulations 2000 and 2005. Moreover, in order to regain the levels of

environmental quality in areas surrounding mining sources, they implemented

decontamination plans, which set a timetable for reducing emissions and

operational plans for the protection of the population before the occurrence of

critical pollution episodes. Thus, we have generated a number of policy at national

and regional coverage that allowed to advance in environmental management. A

peculiarity of the RETP is also reported emissions of pollutants not regulated,

which allows for extensive information accessible to different sectors of the

population. Table regulations have national coverage and the Metropolitan Region,

through which the RETP information is collected and allow preparation of this

document.

- Substances that deplete the ozone layer (SAO):

Law No. 20.096 authorizes the establishment of import controls, production

and use of substances controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This law ensures

compliance with international commitments that Chile has taken regarding

reduction of consumption of substances that deplete the ozone layer and also

strengthens the mechanisms of information to the community about the

environmental effects of these substances and the ultraviolet (UV).

- Other relevant information at national level:

The Organic Law No. 17,374 of the National Institute of Statistics (INE)

empowers the institution to require information from both the public and private

sectors. In this context, the INE develops the Annual National Industrial Survey

(ENIA), which is transferred to the RETP and allows using fuel consumption

and production levels for the entire country's manufacturing industry over ten
workers, provide the background necessary to make estimates of emissions to

those establishments that are not subject to reporting by DS No. 138/2005

MINSAL. Importantly, data from this survey is protected by statistical

confidentiality and therefore the results can only be delivered to the PRTP

grouped by economic activity.

Component air-diffuse sources (mobile)

For mobile sources, SECTRA under the Ministry of Transport and

Telecommunications (MINTRATEL), developed the MODEM: Model calculations

Vehicle Emissions, which has been implemented in major cities and their results

were incorporated into RETP. Since 2009, an alternative methodology was

developed MODEM for those cities that do not have transport model, which

resulted in the addition of 10 new cities to RETP, totaling 27 cities for which

estimate their emissions.

Component liquid waste (emissions)

The SISS and DIRECTEMAR, according to their skills, possess appropriate legal

bodies for emissions information for discharges to marine waters, continental

surface and groundwater, the results allow incorporation RETP inventory level

liquid waste into nacional.A below points out the specific regulations:

- The discharge of liquid waste into surface marine and inland waters are

regulated through the DS No. 90/2000 of MINSEGPRES where Emission

Standard for Contaminants regulation is established.

- THE S.D. No. 46/2002 establishes the MINSEGPRES Emission Standard

Liquid Waste to groundwater.


- The D.S. No. 80/2005 establishes the MINSEGPRES Emission Standard for

molybdenum and sulfate effluent tailings discharged from the estuary Carn.

Component liquid waste (transfers)

The SISS has adequate rules for information transfer to discharge to drain. Then

the specific regulations states:

- S.D. No. 609/1998 of the Ministry of Works pub- Republics (MOP). Sets

Standard for Pollutant Emission Regulations associated with the discharge of

liquid waste into sewer systems.

Component solid waste (transfers)

The minimum health and they must undergo generation, possession, storage,

transport, treatment, reuse, recycling, disposal and other forms of disposal of

hazardous waste, security conditions are regulated through the DS MINSAL No.

148/2004 approving the Sanitary Regulation on Hazardous Waste Management. In

Title VII, on the Declaration and Monitoring System Hazardous Waste Regulation

indicates that holders of hazardous waste are subject to a Declaration and

Monitoring System of such waste, valid for the whole country, which aims to enable

HAA have full, current and timely information on the ownership of such waste, from

the moment they leave the establishment of generation until their arrival at a

disposal facility. To manage this information, MINSAL, assisted by CONAMA (the

predecessor of the Ministry), developed the Web system Declaration and

Hazardous Waste Tracking (SIDREP).

List of contaminants incorporated

During the implementation stage RETP design, and as defined in GNC, an initial

list of substances proposed for inclusion in the system, comprised of those


substances and parameters defined in the regulations and treaties and

international conventions by the country. As a result of that, has formed an

extensive list of contaminants. Physical parameters bacteriological type and

importance parameters include, basically those applied in the case of liquid

discharges contamination. Annex No. 3 the list of pollutants included in the RETP

is presented.

2. Thresholds for reporting and state sectors

Table 2 is given to know the definition of the reporting thresholds and sectors must

declare their emissions and discharges, which are incorporated in the RETP. Note

that the thresholds listed here correspond to the provisions of existing legislation.

Validation RETP information

Based on the agreements of CNG each sectoral agency within the remit of its

competence, has the task of determining the validity of the information to be

reported to RETP. In this sense, the Registry of Emissions and Transfer of

Contaminants and central administration have respected the technical criteria for

each service and, therefore, the information provided by each agency system has

been taken as official. The technical criteria and methods of validation or

verification of the accuracy of the information are the sole responsibility of each

agency under the responsibilities under current legislation.