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What Are Paving Bricks?

Paving bricks are the type that is manufactured to be laid flat on the ground. They
are different from the type made to be used vertically for walls and chimneys and
other construction projects. Paving bricks are designed to last when installed in the
ground. They can withstand both hot and cold temperatures, snow and rain, and foot

Brick pavers are used throughout commercial and residential buildings for use in
landscaping areas of high traffic. Pavers made from brick are less expensive than
other types of pavers, but hold up well under the most extreme conditions. They are
environmentally friendly due to the fact they are made from natural clay found in soil.
Brick pavers are an investment that will last a lifetime because there are not any
added dyes or pigments, leaving its integrity intact.

There are several uses for brick pavers, including driveways, sidewalks and patios.
They are very durable and can handle large amounts of weight without cracking or
becoming chipped. When brick pavers are manufactured, they are fired in a kiln,
giving them a rough, porous texture. This process gives them a non-slip surface,
making them ideal for use around a pool or pond, where water is likely to be present.
The large amounts of water and chlorine will not cause the color to fade, or the
bricks to erode.

Pavers made from brick are very low-maintenance, meaning they are easy to clean
and upkeep. Chemicals that are spilled on the pavers will not cause stains or
erosion. When oil, gas, food or debris dirty the brick, it can be easily cleaned with a
mild detergent and water, leaving it looking brand-new.

Some construction projects call for a larger masonry block than a standard brick, but
solid concrete blocks can be very expensive and very heavy. One common
compromise are largely hollow masonry blocks known as cinder blocks. These are
also sometimes referred to as concrete blocks, breeze blocks, or concrete masonry
units (CMUs), though these terms have nuanced differences among them. Cinder
blocks are generally lighter than solid concrete blocks, which makes them easier for
brick masons to place in position. The hollow spaces in the blocks also provide some
natural insulation or allow grout to be poured inside the rows of masonry.

Cinder blocks differ from concrete blocks in other ways besides their hollow design.
Concrete blocks are made from a slurry of Portland cement and small aggregate,
such as small stones or gravel. This makes them heavier and smoother than cinder
blocks, which are made from a combination of Portland cement and cinders, the
dusty remnants of burned coal. When bricklayers work with cinder blocks, they
generally use techniques similar to standard brick laying. The alternative rows of
blocks are carefully offset so that the second layer stabilizes the first. A line of mortar
is put down between each layer, so the actual dimensions of a standard cinder block
may be adjusted slightly to accommodate the mortar. Corners may be finished out
with half blocks, or interlaced to create a four-cornered structure.


Terracotta is a ceramic material that has been used for building construction and
decorative arts since ancient times in cultures around the world. The name literally
means "baked earth," is it made from natural clay, which gives it a characteristic
reddish-brown color. The color varies slightly depending on the clay used. Terracotta
may be glazed for extra durability or to provide color. It is a waterproof and very
sturdy material, and many ancient sculptures made from it are still in excellent
This ceramic was widely used in the decorative arts of ancient China, perhaps most
famously in the tomb soldiers of 2nd century BCE emperor Qin Shi Huangdi.
Terracotta vases and other sculptures are known from ancient Egypt, the
Mediterranean, the Middle East, West Africa, and Central and North America. Pipe
made from it was also one of the oldest materials used in plumbing


Porcelain is generally made of clay that has been heated in a kiln. This results in the
formation of a fusible material that has a whitish- translucent colour. Porcelain can
therefore by used in many ways such as in the manufacture of plates and also in
electrical insulation.

Porcelain is a type of pottery. It was named by the famous explorer Marco Polo when
he found some on his visit to China. The name porcelain comes from an Italian word
that means cowry shell. Thats because Marco Polo thought that the pottery looked
like the texture of a seashell!

Porcelain is made from ground up pieces of rock or minerals. They are grinded until
they become a powder and they are mixed with a form of clay. The mixture is then
heated to over 1400 degrees Fahrenheit, which is hotter than volcanic lava! Thats
way too hot to touch!

When it all cools, it becomes hard and shiny. Most of the time, if you shine a light
behind a piece of porcelain, you can see a faint, blurry trace of the light through the
pottery. Most porcelain is very fragile, meaning it can break easily, so you always
want to ask permission before you pick up a piece of it.


Stoneware is a type of clay that has been fired at extremely high heat to produce
durable, chip-resistant material that is capable of withstanding day-to-day use.
Numerous types of dishes, mugs, platters, bowls, and plates are made of it, mostly
due to its strength. It is occasionally decorated with a colored or clear glaze and then
refired, although some pieces are left undecorated. People frequently confuse it with
earthenware, which is a similar type of pottery. Earthenware is fired at a lower
temperature, thereby making it not as durable or well-suited for daily use.

The approximate temperature used for firing stoneware is 2,185 Fahrenheit (1,196
Celsius). It is typically strong enough to use in the oven and may look and feel like
pottery. A person who is unsure whether or not he has stoneware or earthenware
may be able to determine which one he has by looking at the bottom of the piece.
Earthenware is generally decorated on the bottom, whereas its rival is usually left
undecorated. When weighing the two pieces against each other, earthenware will
normally feel lighter.Stoneware is made by combining of different clay types along
with the flint, and sometimes stone. These substances are molded, and put into a
kiln to fuse the whole thing together


The term glazing can be used as a noun to refer to anything that is transparent. In
architecture it can refer to windows, or in cooking to a sugar-based syrup that coats
baked goods. The term is most often used in the arts and crafts world, where glazing
is a verb describing the process that adds a shiny, protective topcoat to pottery or

In ceramics, glazing adds a vitreous, or impervious, surface to the otherwise porous

material. Without a coat of glaze, most earthenware products would not be able to
hold water, and would absorb it, making them easy to damage. The glaze also adds
an element of decorative appeal to the item and can enhance the patterns beneath.

The exact origin and history of glazing is sketchy. Glazed pots from Japan dated to
about 8000 BC have been recovered during archaeological digs, while those
unearthed in China and Iran date from about 5500 BC. Due to this, Japan is often
credited as the birthplace of glazing, although this cannot be confirmed absolutely.
Glaze is typically made of a crystallized, glassy material, such as silica, mixed with
iron oxides. The material melts when heated, but maintains enough hardness to
keep from sliding off of the pottery. The length of the process varies slightly,
depending on which type of glaze is used as does the curing time. Glaze can be
found in both liquid and powder form. \


Ceramic tiles are tiles which are made from ceramic materials like earthenware and
porcelain. Tiles are simply flat slabs of material which can be used in a range of
applications, including flooring, countertops, roofing, walls, and showers. There are
numerous styles of ceramic tiles available, from terra-cotta roofing tiles used in
Mission-style architecture to delicate hand-painted porcelain tiles intended for
ornamental splashbacks in kitchens.

Numerous home supply stores stock ceramic tiles, along with tiles in other materials
like glass and stone. Tiles come in a range of shapes and sizes. They can be
square, octagonal, rectangular, or triangular, for example, and they may be very
thick, as is the case with tiles designed for flooring, or quite thin, in the instance of
ceramic tiles used to make trivets. Many stores are happy to order specialized tiles
with specific designs or colors for people who are not satisfied with the products on

Many people like to use ceramic tiles to make flooring. There are a number of
advantages to tile flooring. It tends to be extremely durable, and heating and cooling
systems can be installed underneath it to radiate through the floor. Many people also
find tile flooring aesthetically pleasing, and it is easy to clean, especially in situations
where drains are installed in the flooring, allowing people to essentially hose it down.

Tiles can also be used to line showers, pools, and bathtubs, to create countertops, to
make decorative accents both inside and outside homes, and for an assortment of
other purposes. Because tiles have such diverse uses, when you purchase ceramic
tiles, you should check to be certain that they are appropriate for your intended use.
Some tiles, for example, are not treated to withstand water, in which case they are
designed to be ornamental rather than functional, and others may have design
features like ribbed backs which make installation on certain services easier.

Ceramic tiles are often available in unglazed form as well as in glazed form. Some
unglazed tiles can be custom-painted and re-fired to set the glaze, while others are
ideal for situations in which porous tiles are needed, such as when making garden
walkways. If you are interested in making mosaic with ceramic tiles, many tile stores
are delighted to give you broken scraps and odd remainders of tiles, especially once
you establish a friendly relationship with them.


Glazed tile is a type of ceramic tile to which a glaze has been applied. After the glaze
is painted or sprayed on, the tile is filed at high temperatures, causing a chemical
reaction which makes the glaze vitrify, essentially turning into glass. The resulting tile
is resistant to water and stains because of the glaze, and it has an attractive look, as
a wide variety of colors and designs can be created with glaze, with finishes ranging
from extremely glossy to matte. Any store which stocks tile flooring will carry glazed
tile, typically in a range of configurations for people to choose from.

People have been making ceramic tile for centuries. Ceramic tile is made from clay
which is rolled out into a flat sheet and then cut into tiles which may be rectangular,
triangular, square, hexagonal, or anything in between. The resulting tiles are fired in
a kiln at a high temperature to harden them, making them durable and useful for a
range of purposes. If the tiles are glazed, the glaze is applied to the hard tiles after
this first firing and then the tiles are fired again at a temperature which varies,
depending on the type of clay and glaze used.

There are a number of advantages to glazed tile. One of the most obvious is that
these tiles do not require sealing from water, because they are already sealed; if a
watertight grout is used to lay a glazed tile floor, the floor will not need to be sealed
and then resealed as the sealant wears off. Glazed tiles can also come in a range of
textures, from more coarse matte tiles which are good for flooring since they provide
traction to high gloss, very smooth tiles which work well for countertops and

It is possible to find glazed tile which is glazed with a single color as well as
decorative tiles with designs like flowers, animals, and plants on them. Many people
like to mix their tiles to create patterns of color and shape which can be very
aesthetically pleasing. Glazed tiles can also be used to create mosaics, patterns
made from numerous individual pieces of tile.

In addition to being used for flooring and splashbacks, glazed tiles can be used to
create accents in walls and doorways, and as trivets for hot pots. They are also
typically oven safe, so some people like to use glazed tiles to heat food on, or on the
stove as a place to rest spoons and other utensils.


Vitrified tile is a tile that has undergone a certain process that gives it extremely low
porosity, and thus, very low water absorption. This makes the tile hard and strong, as
well as stain resistant. There are various benefits to using a high quality vitrified tile
over natural marble or granite tiles. Most of them involve the overall durability and
strength of the tiles, although they are often more attractive in the long run as well.

Vitrified tiles are man-made, so their quality can be guaranteed. Tiles that do not
meet quality standards are simply not packaged and sold. Marble and granite, on the
other hand, are natural. This means that some tiles may be better quality than
others, depending on the quality of the materials found.

Many builders choose to use vitrified tile because it is strong, water resistant, and
stain resistant. The treatment the tiles undergo gives them the ability to withstand
more use than marble or granite without losing functionality or appearance. Vitrified
tile also resists scratches and discoloration, while granite tile often becomes
yellowish after several years of use.

Consumers can purchase vitrified tiles for a variety of uses. Flooring, wall coverings
and dcor, back-splashes, and showers are all areas where one may use vitrified
tiles. They are resistant to water absorption, so they generally hold up better in wet
environments like bathrooms and kitchens than comparable granite or marble tile.

Vitrified tile is also usually easier to install than both marble and granite tile. While
laying marble tiles can be quite time consuming and tedious, vitrified tiles can be laid
within a few hours and used within 48 hours, depending on the size of the tile area
and the grout being used. This makes installation much more convenient for both tile
layers and homeowners who want to have full use of their homes as soon as

Much like marble and granite, vitrified tile is generally very attractive. It can be
coated with a high gloss finish, making it great for use as dcor and the overall
strength of the tile makes it functional. Various types of tile can be treated to become
vitrified, so colors and textures are not overly limited. In most areas, it can be found
in home improvement stores and flooring retailers.

When choosing a tile that will used for flooring or in any wet environment, it is
important to make sure the tile listed for those purposes. Floor tiles are generally
made thicker and more able to withstand higher levels of pressure and weight. Tiles
used for showers and sinks may be given additional treatments to make them better
able to handle moisture.

Stoneware is a type of clay that has been fired at extremely high heat to produce
durable, chip-resistant material that is capable of withstanding day-to-day use.
Numerous types of dishes, mugs, platters, bowls, and plates are made of it, mostly
due to its strength. It is occasionally decorated with a colored or clear glaze and then
refired, although some pieces are left undecorated. People frequently confuse it with
earthenware, which is a similar type of pottery. Earthenware is fired at a lower
temperature, thereby making it not as durable or well-suited for daily use.

The approximate temperature used for firing stoneware is 2,185 Fahrenheit (1,196
Celsius). It is typically strong enough to use in the oven and may look and feel like
pottery. A person who is unsure whether or not he has stoneware or earthenware
may be able to determine which one he has by looking at the bottom of the piece.
Earthenware is generally decorated on the bottom, whereas its rival is usually left
undecorated. When weighing the two pieces against each other, earthenware will
normally feel lighter.

There are many other possible advantages to using stoneware, as opposed to

earthenware, in the kitchen. Since earthenware porous, it generally does not hold
water well and is not usually considered waterproof. Stoneware is typically made to
be waterproof and may be useful in the garden as well. Although earthenware was
frequently used in the kitchen in the early 1700s, the pieces became mostly
decorative after the introduction of stoneware in the late 1700s.

Creating stoneware usually begins with giving the clay a distinct shape, either with
the use of a pottery wheel or by hand. After the desired shape has been formed, the
piece is normally left to dry out completely. Once dry, a clear or colored glaze may be
applied. Since some people prefer stoneware undecorated, that step is occasionally
skipped. The final step is firing the clay in a kiln.

Pottery is generally considered one of the oldest art forms. In the latter half of the
18th century, it allegedly became big business when places like the United States
and Europe competed fiercely with each other in the importing and production of
pottery. Spain, America, Holland, and England were some of the major producers of
pottery, and the average household usually had pieces produced in many different
locations due to the amount of global trading.


Earthenware is a type of pottery that is fired at low temperatures, which means that
its mineral components do not vitrify, or turn into glass. As a result, it is porous and
opaque, and it retains a rich clay color. Earthenware has been made for over 9,000
years all over the world, and it continues to be a popular type of pottery. Many
traditional pottery styles use it, including brightly colored Mexican pottery, Japanese
raku, and terra cotta.

The blend of materials in earthenware varies, depending on the region, but it

generally includes minerals such as quartz and feldspar, along with ball clay, a very
plastic natural clay, and kaolin, or china clay, a more mineralized form. These
materials are ground so that they have an even texture, and they are worked on a
wheel or by hand into the desired shape. Earthenware is first bisque fired and then
fired again at a temperature which may be higher or lower, again depending on the

Plain earthenware is not watertight, because it is so porous. Terra cotta is an

example of this type, and is left unglazed or lightly glazed for the purpose of growing
plants. Pottery to be used as dinnerware and art is usually glazed for decorative and
practical reasons. In the case of dinnerware, glazing prevents fluids from seeping
into and through the earthenware, and the glazing is often quite colorful and beautiful
as well. Art pieces made with this pottery may be glazed or covered in a thin layer of
slip, a suspension of clays in water.
Often, earthenware has a radiant base color; the red of terra cotta is familiar to many
people, but it can also be beige to cream, dark brown, or even almost black in some
cases. This base color is determined by the clay which is used in the mixture. Often,
the pottery is partially glazed to allow the natural color of the clay to show through,
as is the case with raku.

Crafts made with earthenware are readily available, ranging from commercially
produced dinnerware to Japanese tea sets which have been made by hand. Many
beginning potters also play with it, since it is more forgiving than ceramic and finer
clays. People who are interested in learning pottery can generally find classes
offered at community colleges and art centers. These classes also provide the
necessary facilities such as kilns and pottery wheels, allowing people to see whether
or not they like pottery before committing to any serious investments.


Fly ash brick (FAB) is a building material, specifically masonry units, containing
class C fly ash and water. Compressed at 28 MPa (272 atm) and cured for 24 hours
in a 66 C steam bath, then toughened with an air entrainment agent, the bricks last
for more than 100 freeze-thaw cycles. Owing to the high concentration of calcium
oxide in class C fly ash, the brick is described as "self-cementing". The
manufacturing method saves energy, reduces mercury pollution and costs 20% less
than traditional clay brick manufacturing.

The raw materials for fly ash brick are:

Material Mass
Fly ash 62%
Sand/stone dust 23%
Lime 10%
Gypsum 6%

Total formula of material

Fly ash bricks are lighter than clay bricks. AAC (Autoclaved Aerated
Concrete) was invented in the mid-1920s by the Swedish architect and
inventor Johan Axel Eriksson. AAC is one of the major achievements of
the 20th century in the field of construction. It is a lightweight, precast
building material that simultaneously provides structure, insulation, and
fire and mold resistance. AAC Blocks is a unique and excellent type of
building materials due to its superb heat, fire and sound resistance. AAC
block is lightweight and offers ultimate workability, flexibility and

Main ingredients include fly ash, water, quicklime, cement, aluminum

powderand gypsum. The block hardness is being achieved by cement
strength, and instant curing mechanism by autoclaving. Gypsum acts as
a long term strength gainer. The chemical reaction due to the aluminum
paste provides AAC its distinct porous structure, lightness, and insulation
properties, completely different compared to other lightweight concrete
materials. The finished product is a 2.5 times lighter Block compared to
conventional Bricks, while providing the similar strengths. The specific
gravity stays around 0.6 to 0.65. This is one single most USP of the AAC
blocks, because by using these blocks in structural buildings, the builder
saves around 30 to 35 % of structural steel, and concrete, as these
blocks reduce the dead load on the building significantly


Due to high strength, practically no breakage during transport and

Due to uniform size of bricks mortar required for joints and plaster
reduces almost by 50%.
Due to lower water penetration seepage of water through bricks is
considerably reduced.
Gypsum plaster (plaster of Paris) can be directly applied on these
bricks without a backing coat of lime plaster.
These bricks do not require soaking in water for 24 hours.
Sprinkling of water before use is enough.

Fly ash, also known as flue-ash, is one of the residues generated in

combustion, and comprises the fine particles that rise with the flue
gases. Ash which does not rise is termed bottom ash. In an industrial
context, fly ash usually refers to ash produced during combustion of
coal. Fly ash is generally captured by electrostatic precipitators or other
particle filtration equipment before the flue gases reach the chimneys of
coal-fired power plants, and together with bottom ash removed from the
bottom of the furnace is in this case jointly known as coal ash.
Depending upon the source and makeup of the coal being burned, the
components of fly ash vary considerably, but all fly ash includes
substantial amounts of silicon dioxide (SiO2) (both amorphous and
crystalline) and calcium oxide (CaO), both being endemic ingredients in
many coal-bearing rock strata.

Toxic constituents depend upon the specific coal bed makeup, but may
include one or more of the following elements or substances found in
trace quantities (up to hundreds ppm): arsenic, beryllium, boron,
cadmium, chromium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese,
mercury, molybdenum, selenium, strontium, thallium, and vanadium,
along with dioxins and PAH compounds.[1][2]

In the past, fly ash was generally released into the atmosphere, but
pollution control equipment mandated in recent decades now require
that it be captured prior to release. In the US, fly ash is generally stored
at coal power plants or placed in landfills. About 43% is recycled,[3] often
used as a pozzolan to produce hydraulic cement or hydraulic plaster or a
partial replacement for Portland cement in concrete production.

Pozzolans ensure the setting of concrete and plaster and provide

concrete with more protection from wet conditions and chemical attack.

Some have expressed health concerns about this.[4]

In some cases, such as the burning of solid waste to create electricity

("resource recovery" facilities a.k.a. waste-to-energy facilities), the fly
ash may contain higher levels of contaminants than the bottom ash and
mixing the fly and bottom ash together brings the proportional levels of
contaminants within the range to qualify as nonhazardous waste in a
given state, whereas, unmixed, the fly ash would be within the range to
qualify as hazardous waste.


Required raw material like Fly ash,Gypsum, alum and stone crushing
dust have to be mixed as per the ratio.The mixed product can be placed
into automatic locking machine . This to be kept in moulds for
manufacturing of autoimatic locking fly ash bricks. Adfter the processing
the bricks have to be dryied after applying required water on the bricks.
After two day drying the bricks can be sold.It is simple manufacturing


bricks have been designed with the following features:

They allow for quicker and easier construction times, therefore saving time
and labor costs overall
Even though they are light weight, the bricks from Green Energy Bricks are
structural/load bearing.
The Bricks eliminate many OH&S issues for bricklayers/builders compared
with concrete or clay bricks.
Fire resistant qualities not found in any other brick on the market
Using our light weight Bricks will eliminate many of the back problems
associated with laying normal bricks or blocks.

Check the weight of the light weight brick. Represent the weight of this brick in the
equation seen later, as w1.

Calculate the water absorption of the brick. The weight of the brick after
24 hrs immersed in water is deemed to be known as w2


Mangalore tiles (also Mangalorean tiles)were first introduced in India by

a German missionary at the coastal town of Mangalore. These are fired
clay tiles. Since then the industry flourished in India
Q. What are pantiles?

A. Pantiles are large roof tiles, S-shaped in section. They are side
lapping and the ends overlap only tiles in the course immediately below,
unlike plain tiles which lap two courses. Pantiles are not to be confused
with Roman tiles, which differ in profile. A pantile-covered roof weighs
just two-thirds of a plain-tiled one, and can be laid to a lower pitch.
Pantiles initially appeared in eastern coastal areas of England and
Scotland during the 17th century, being imported at first from Holland.
Except around Bridgwater, Somerset, they are rarely found in western

Pantiles are ceramic tiles which are designed to interlock. They have
classically been used in roofing, and also in paving in some regions of
the world. Along with other roofing tiles, these tiles are available from
many building supply stores, and such stores can often order them if
they do not have them in stock. While they are not used in new
construction as frequently as they once were, some people find the
aesthetic look of a pantiled home pleasing, so they are still available new
and through salvage companies which rescue discarded pantiles.
From the side view, pantiles appear gently S-shaped, and they are
designed so that their curved portions overlap. The overlapping edges of
the tiles ensure that water, dust, and other materials cannot slip
underneath them, which is extremely useful for roofing. They are
supplemented with various end pieces designed to fit on the edges and
ridge of the roof, creating a smooth edge for water to pour from.

The ceramic used for these tiles vary, primarily on the basis of where the
tiles are produced. In all cases, pantiles are designed to be very thick
and durable, as fragile materials could break in heavy weather. They
may be fired and left plain, or glazed to resist water. Pantiled paving is
often left unglazed, allowing water to percolate through the tiles and
drain so that people are not splashed by standing water.


Installing these tiles is fairly straightforward, as they are installed like

other roofing and paving tiles. Fixing damaged pantiles, on the other
hand, can be challenging, as the overlapping design which makes them
so useful can make it difficult to remove tiles for repair or replacement
without causing damage. As pantiles are not as widely employed in
construction as they were classically, people with pantiled roofs and
walkways sometimes have trouble finding people who can repair them.

A section of a village called Tunbridge Wells in England is referred to as

The Pantiles. This district has hosted various shops since the 17th
century, and according to legend, it was once paved with pantiles on the
order of Queen Anne, who was displeased with the dirt streets. Visitors
to Tunbridge Wells often enjoy a stop there, as an effort has been made
to keep the district historically accurate, so it feels like stepping back in
time. The legendary paving material has, however, been replaced with

A kiln is a furnace oven or heated enclosure used for burning or firing

brick or other clay material

Brick kilns can be classified into four categories, on the basis of how
they are operated:

Intermittent or periodic kilns that consist of a single firing chamber. The

intermittent kins are loaded with green bricks, which are fired and
allowed to cool before unloading, in preparation of the next loading and
firing. This type of kiln is capable of firing only one loading of bricks at a

Intermittent kilns work by firing cool wares using a heat source, where
the temperature is slowly increased throughout the firing process.
Traditionally, intermittent kilns were nothing more than a trench drug in
the ground filled with a fuel source and unfired pots. Today, intermittent
kiln technology has evolved. One of the most common types of
intermittent kilns used today is the roller-hearth kiln which moves the
pottery through the kiln on a conveyor belt.

2. Semi-continuous kilns where two or more intermittent kilns are inter-

connected by flues and dampers to allow the heat from the cooling
bricks in one kiln to dry and pre-heat the bricks in another. The kilns are
alternated being unloaded once the heat from the cooling bricks has
been used to dry and pre-heat the bricks in the second kiln that is then
fired up to top temperature
3. Continuous kilns where the firing zone moves through the bricks in the
kiln without stopping. Green bricks are loaded in front on the firing zone
and fired bricks removed behind it. These kilns run day and night, with
the fire never going out, except for seasonal or maintenance stoppages.

4. Tunnel Kilns in which the bricks are placed on trollies and move
through the hottest part of the kiln at a predetermined rate. This is a form
of continuous kiln, but with stationary rather than moving firing zone