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Second International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology, ICETET-09

STARTING ANALYSIS OF INDUCTION MOTOR.


A COMPUTER SIMULATION BY ETAP POWER STATION.
Mr. Piyush S. Patil, final year M. Tech (IPS), G. H. Raisoni College of Engineering, b4upiyush@yahoo.com.
Mr. K. B. Porate, Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, G. H. Raisoni College of Engineering,
Nagpur, M.S., India. kporate@yahoo.com

Abstract The basic requirement for studying starting analysis "lock-in" at that speed and fail to accelerate further. The motor
of Induction motor are the starting current of Induction motor and the will continue to draw a large magnitude of current, overheat,
voltage flicker during start up. This paper will summarize several and either trips a protective devices or burn up 1. The
common methods and provide application guidelines for proper acceleration time can be calculated using a torque representing
selection of starting devices. Starting method reviewed will include the difference (positive) between motor torque and load
different types of starters, comparative study of results obtained in
laboratory & results obtained by simulation in ETAP (Electrical
torque. This time must not exceed the time allowed for the
Transient Analyzer Program) for DOL starter & autotransformer current drawn on the motor thermal limit curve 3.
starter, simulation results are also obtained for different cable length, In this paper focus is made on the need of starting analysis
with & without capacitor connected across motor itself. Finally it is of induction motor along with different types of starters that
concluded that starting current is less in case of autotransformer can be used for starting of Induction motor. Here starting
starter. Starting current & starting time can be further reduced and analysis of induction motor is made with the help of DOL &
voltage profile can be improved with the use of capacitor at the motor autotransformer starter. During the start of Induction motor
terminal as a compensating device. study is made for the recorded values results and results
obtained by simulation of induction motor in ETAP
Keywords autotransformer start, DOL start, ETAP, Induction environment. In ETAP environment a special case study is
motor, Starting methods, voltage dip. done in which cable length is changed with and without
capacitor connected across the motor terminals, a comparative
study of results obtained for above case study is also done.
I. INTRODUCTION

I nduction motors are widely used as an electric drives in


various Industrial applications like industrial motion control
systems & to drive various machines, such as pumps, fans,
II. STARTING ANALYSIS OF INDUCTION MOTOR
During the motor starting period, Induction motors, is at rest,
compressors, conveyors, spindles, to name just a few, as well & it appear just like a short circuited transformer and if
as in main powered home appliances. Electric drives can be connected to the full supply voltage, draw a very high current
classified basically as DC drives & AC drives. The rectifier known as the Locked Rotor Current. the Locked Rotor
unit increases the cost of the unit used for DC drives. Simple Current (LRC) is a function of the terminal voltage of the
and rugged design, low-cost, low maintenance and direct motor and the motor design. The current is about six times the
connection to an AC power source are the main advantages of motor rated current, which therefore results in voltage dip in
using AC induction motors. For variable speed the industries the system and poses disturbances to the normal operation of
use the asynchronous motor i.e. Induction motor. Induction other system loads. The magnitude of this dip is proportional
motors are the most common motors used in industrial motion to the magnitude of the surge and the impedance of the
control systems & to drive various machines, such as pumps, system. Because of the highly inductive nature of the motor
fans, compressors, conveyors, spindles, to name just a few, as circuit at rest, the power factor of the surge is quite low,
well as in main powered home appliances. Induction motors usually on the order of 10 to 20 percent. As the motor
are widely used in industry. accelerates to rated speed, the surge decays and the system
At start an induction motor draws heavy surge of current is voltage recovers. This dip is detrimental to a power system in
drawn from the power system that in turn causes a dip in two ways. First, if the magnitude of the dip is large enough, it
system voltage. The magnitude of this dip is proportional to can cause erratic operation of voltage sensitive devices such as
the magnitude of the surge and the impedance of the system. computers and relays. Even the contactor serving the motor
Full voltage starting of large induction motors draws large being started could drop back out due to low voltage. Second,
current & can cause serious voltage flicker problems on a it creates an annoying flicker in the lighting facilities being
power system 1. Flicker can poses a problem to both the utility served by the power system. Both magnitude and frequency of
and the customer. During motor starting, the voltage level at flicker affect the customers on the system, and too much of
the motor terminals should be maintained at approximately 80 either can cause complaints. In order to control such problems,
percent of rated voltage 2. By industry standards, ac control most utilities have limitations regarding the magnitude and
devices are not required to pick-up at voltages below 85 frequency of dips produced by the starting of large motors.
percent of rated nameplate voltage 2. A 35 percent reduction During motor starting, the voltage level at the motor
in starting voltage results in a 57 percent reduction in starting terminals should be maintained at approximately 80 percent of
torque 1. During start motor accelerates for a short interval. If rated voltage or above for a standard National Electrical
the load torque requirements exceed the torque produced by Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Type B motor. This
the motor for any speed less than rated speed, the motor will value results from examination of the speed-torque

978-0-7695-3884-6/09 $26.00 2009 IEEE 494


characteristics of this type motor (150 percent starting torque
at full voltage), and the desire to be able to successfully The main purpose of performing a motor starting study is
accelerate a fully loaded motor at the reduced voltage twofold:
(i.e., since torque varies with the square of the voltage, (i) to investigate whether the starting motor can be
T= 0.82 X 1 50 percent 100 percent). successfully started under the operating conditions (i.e. motor
Since the motor acceleration torque is dependent on motor torque & thermal limits of motor etc.)
terminal voltage, in some cases the starting motor may not be (ii) to see if starting the motor will seriously affect the
able to reach its rated speed due to extremely low terminal normal operation of other loads in the system.
voltage. The starting current of a motor with a fixed voltage
will drop very slowly as the motor accelerates and will only A sample torque, current, voltage vs speed characteristic is
begin to fall significantly when the motor has reached at least as shown in the fig. 1.
80% of the full speed. The actual curves for the induction
motors can vary considerably between designs but the general
trend is for a high current until the motor has almost reached
full speed. The LRC of a motor can range from 500% of Full-
Load Current (FLC) to as high as 1400% of FLC. Typically,
good motors fall in the range of 550% to 750% of FLC. This
makes it necessary to perform a motor starting analysis. Since
the voltage & current profile are improper the power quality is
not good & also the harmonics are introduced in the system.

Depending on where lighting buses are located, with respect


to large starting motors, this may be a factor requiring a motor
starting study.

A. Weak Source Generation Fig. 1. Typical induction motor torquespeedcurrent curve.


A motor starting study may be of use in analyzing the
performance of small systems. Smaller power systems are The starting torque of an induction motor starting with a
usually served by limited capacity sources that are subject to fixed voltage will drop a little to the minimum torque, known
severe voltage drop problems on motor starting, especially as the pull-up torque, as the motor accelerates and then rises to
when large motors are involved. Electric utilities will often a maximum torque, known as the breakdown or pull-out
require that voltage dips on motor starting be held within torque, at almost full speed and then drop to zero at the
specified limits. A motor starting study can be employed synchronous speed. The curve of the start torque against the
during the design phase of the power system when it is still rotor speed is dependant on the terminal voltage and the rotor
economically feasible to make design revisions to verify that design.
the system will perform within the limits imposed by the Finding the proper motor base speed and torque to meet the
utility. running load requirements is the first necessity. A process-
Frequently, small systems are served by limited capacity on- defined torque and speed should be used to determine the best
site generation either exclusively or in parallel with a limited fitting motor base speed and torque (hp torque speed). In
capacity utility system. Whenever local generation is involved, addition, the breakaway torque and accelerating torque will
the relatively high transient impedances of the generators that provide the total torque requirement from the motor. The
become evident during the motor starting interval can motor torque output at zero speed must be capable of breaking
aggravate the voltage drop that is ultimately realized. Also, the away from a standstill and must then exceed the running load
type of voltage regulator system applied with the generators torque at every speed up to full speed to avoid stalling the
can dramatically influence the effects of motor starting. Many motor. A stall condition will cause the motor to reach thermal
digital computer programs can accurately model generator limits very quickly. Additionally, the motor torque must
transient behavior and exciter/regulator response during motor exceed the load torque by a magnitude that allows acceleration
starting. Such programs are invaluable for studying systems to full speed while staying within the thermal limits of the
where an accurate representation of generator and motor and starting device.
exciter/regulator action is necessary in order for study results Motor torque will further depend on the voltage applied and
and conclusions to be meaningful. the type of starting device. The motor speedtorque and
speedcurrent profiles will determine the level of current
B. Special Torque Requirements drawn (affecting voltage drop on the system feeding the
High inertia loads may cause motor starting times to become motor) and the amount of torque produced. The amount of
excessive, and the heating in the motor due to the high voltage drop will, in turn, affect flux and motor torque levels.
currents drawn during starting may, therefore, be intolerable. To avoid oversizing motors for high starting torque or large
A computer-aided motor starting study can provide accurate load inertias, motors with higher torque profiles may be
values of motor accelerating current and time. It also makes it capable of the required torque in a lower motor horsepower
possible to determine if the thermal limits of standard motors package.. The motor speedtorque profile and the motor
will be exceeded for longer than normal starting intervals.

495
thermal limit curve (usually provided in an inverse time are removed form the system & motor is allowed to run on full
current curve) is important information provided by the motor voltage directly from supply.
manufacturer. Motor torque produced at reduced voltage Depending on the location & type of voltage limiting
levels is approximately proportional to the square of the element the different types of traditional starters are shown in
voltage applied to the motor multiplied by the torque produced table. 1.
at full voltage. The acceleration time can be calculated using a
torque representing the difference (positive) between motor Table 1. Different types of IM traditional starters
torque and load torque. This time must not exceed the time Type Description
allowed for the current drawn on the motor thermal limit curve None No starting device
Many software packages exist that will calculate acceleration Auto-transformer Auto-transformer
time considering the total load torque, motor torque, and load Stator Resistor Series Resistor to the stator
inertia, as well as applied voltage. Stator Reactor Series Reactor to the stator
Acceleration time or torque required can be calculated using Shunt capacitor connected to the
the following formulas: Capacitor, Bus
motor bus
A. Starting methods of Induction motor Capacitor, Shunt capacitor connected to the
Since the Induction motor draws a large starting current. Terminal motor terminal
The Induction motor has to be started by using certain starting Rotor Resistor Series Resistor to the rotor
devices called as starters.
Rotor Reactor Series Reactor to the rotor
On the basis of voltage applied, starters can be classified as
Stator Terminals are first connected
Star Delta
in Y & then in Delta
i) Full-Voltage Starting
Direct across the line starting can be used whenever the driven
However this traditional starters has got some disadvantages
load can withstand the shock of instantaneously applying full
such as
voltage to the motor and where line disturbances can be
a. Torque pulsations.
tolerated. Full-voltage starting uses a main contactor to apply
b. High Inrush Current.
the motor stator windings directly across the main system
c. Heating of machine windings during starting period.
voltage. This type of starting method provides the lowest cost,
d. With low load, efficiency is less.
a basic and simple design of controller, resulting in low
e. Drop in motor speed is more.
maintenance, simple training requirements, and the highest
starting torque possible without the use of a drive.
ii) Solid state or Soft Starter
The other type of starter is a soft starter; .as the name implies
ii) Reduced-Voltage Starting
these starters dont have any moving or rotating parts. This is
Reduced-voltage starting may be considered if full-voltage
a very recently electronic method & it has been frequently
starting creates objectionable line disturbances on the
used in industry.. it consists of applying a voltage to the
distribution system or where reduction of mechanical stress to
motor, which is gradually increased in a ramp wise manner,
a gear box or belt drive system is required. It must be noted
thus enabling the motor to start. In order to do this three
that when the voltage is reduced from nominal, a decrease in
phase AC controller power electronic devices is used. This
inrush current will occur. The motor torque will also decrease
equipment consists of two thyrister per phase in anitiparallel
at a rate roughly proportional to the square of the decrease in
connection, where the input is connected to the respective
voltage. This phenomenon also occurs in the opposite manner
phases of the mains supply and the output of each motor
when the voltage is increased. A common-sense rule of thumb
phase. In case of soft starters the motor parameters such as
is that if the load cannot be accelerated to full speed using full
voltage, current & current are controlled by means of thyrister
voltage, it cannot be accelerated to full speed using reduced
valve which are connected anti-parallel in each arm as shown
voltage. This type can be further classified on the basis of
in fig. 2
devices used to reduce the voltage level.

On the basis of technology used starters are basically


classified as

i) Conventional Starter or Traditional Starter


As these starters are used by industries from a long time,
they are called Conventional Starter or Traditional Starter.
Most of the industries prefer these starter only. These starters
Fig. 2. Soft Starter
allow a low voltage to appear across the motor. During
starting period some voltage is dropped across some devices
The soft starters are classified on the basis of its working
which are in series with the stator winding or rotor. Resistance
principle. i.e. whether they control the current, voltage or
of reactance is inserted in series with the rotor winding (only
torque or they limit the current of the motor.
for slip ring induction motor). When the speed reaches upto
The different types of soft starters are shown in table. 2.
80% to 100% of rated speed the starting devices i.e. starters

496
Table 2. Different types of Induction motor soft starters
Type Description (controlling Parameter) A single line diagram is created in ETAP which is
Current is not allowed to increase connected to the mains though a cable of negligible resistance
Current Limit & length. In ETAP starting device is inbuilt. ETAP provides
beyond a certain limit
Current Control Current is controlled thirteen types of starting devices, one can choose the required
Voltage Control Voltage is controlled one.
Torque Control Torque is controlled The simulation diagram is shown in fig. 3.

The advantages of using soft starters are


a. Starting current can be controlled.
b. Starting torque can be improved.
c. Energy Saving is possible.
d. Input power factor is increased.
e. Minimizes transient during running conditions.

Limitations of soft starters


a. Efficiency reduces with increase in loads. Fig. 3. Single line diagram used for simulation
b. Soft starters distorts the currents drawn from utility
grid, ETAP provides two types of motor starting calculations:
c. Fifth harmonics are more pronounced. Dynamic Motor Acceleration and Static Motor Starting. In the
Dynamic Motor Acceleration calculation, the starting motors
Apart from these soft starters are costly for low power are represented by dynamic models and the Motor
applications & energy saving is very less as compared to Acceleration module simulates the entire process of motor
the investment. So industries preferred conventional acceleration. This method is used to determine if a motor can
starters. be started and how much time is needed for the motor to reach
its rated speed, as well as to determine the effect of voltage
III. CASE STUDY dips on the system. In Static Motor Starting, the starting
For study purpose experimental setup was made in the motors are modeled by the locked-rotor impedance during
laboratory, for this a three phase 3 HP, 4 poles, 440 V, 4.5 A, acceleration time, simulating the worst impact on normal
50 Hz induction motor was connected to the mains with the operating loads. This method is suitable for checking the
help of various meters and appropriate starters. To determine effect of motor starting on the system when the dynamic
the motor parameters following test were carried out. model is not available for starting motors. For analysis
o No Load test purpose Dynamic Motor Acceleration calculations is used.
o S.C. test
o On Load test (Lamp Loading) (75 % & 100% Simulation of Induction motor is carried out in ETAP
loading) {to determine Efficiency & slip of motor} environment for different conditions (cases).
Values were recorded with the help of various meters &
results are obtained are shown in table 3. A. CASE 1:
Induction motor is simulated with help of DOL & auto-
Table 3. Induction motor parameters recorded & standard transformer starter for negligible cable length at three different
values loading conditions i.e, 75% of full load and 100% of full load.
IM Parameters Std. values Recorded values The results obtained are for simulation starting current is 6.6
Rs (stator resistance) 4.37 10.5 times the full rated current i.e. 27.72 A for DOL starter, while
power factor (75%L) 0.84 0.39 for auto-transformer starter starting current is 277% of full
power factor (100%L) 0.84 0.71 rated current i.e. 12.47 A. however in case of auto-transformer
Efficiency (75%L) 77.96% 55% starter the peak current is 3.5 times the rated current i.e. 14.7
Efficiency (100%L) 80.91% 59% A. For DOL starter as per recorded values starting currents are
11.2 A &12 A for 75% and 100% loading respectively. In case
SIMULATION of auto-transformer starter the recorded values are 8 A & 8.8
Simulation of the laboratory was carried out on computer. A fro 75% and 100% loading respectively. Whereas settling
Various softwares are available for simulation. Among which time or the starting time depends on the loading condition.
simulation was carried out in ETAP (Electrical Transient More the load more will be the settling time. In case of DOL
Analyzer Program) environment. Benefits of using ETAP starter the starting time for 100% and 75% loading for
simulation software are simulation are 1.1 sec, 1.2 sec while recoded values are 2 sec
It is a fully graphical electrical transient analyzer & 2.2 sec respectively. While in case of Auto transformer
program & supported by Microsoft Windows. starter the starting time to reach up to 80% of rated speed for
100% & 75% loading for simulation are 2.26 sec & 2.92 sec
It provides library for almost all components of the
while recorded time are 2.7 sec & 2.1 sec respectively
power system.
However the voltage during starting, in case of simulation is
More Accurate result with less simulation time.
same irrespective of load, however it depends on the starter

497
700

used for DOL starter the voltage at the start is 98.25 % of 600

rated voltage i.e. 432.3 V for simulation & 428 V is the 500

%Current
recorded value. The results obtained in laboratory from the
400

300
100% Load
experimental setup & results obtained by simulation for DOL 200
75% Load

and auto-transformer starter are shown in Table 4. & Table 5. 100


respectively. 0

101

201

301

401

501

601

701

801

901

1001

1101

1201

1301

1401
Where Time in mSec

Ist - Starting current of induction motor Fig. 4. Current in case of DOL starter for different loading conditions
Vst Voltage at the start across induction motor
Tst Time to reach the rated speed
Ifl full rated current 450
400
100% Load
Table 4 Summary for DOL starter 350

%Current
300 75% Load
Tst
Para Ist Vst Ist Vst tst 250
sec 200
meter sec 150

Load Simulation Recorded 100


50
75 % 1.10 2.48 IFL 2

1
27..72 A

401

801
432.3 v

1201

1601

2001

2401

2801

3201

3601

4001

4401

4801
97.27%
100% 6.6 IFL 98.25% 1.20 2.67 IFL 2.5 Time in mSec

Fig. 5. Current in case of Auto-transformer starter for different loading


conditions
Table 5 Summary for Auto-transformer starter
tst Simulation results for voltage obtained for different loading
Para Ist Vst Ist Vst tst conditions and are shown in fig. 6. & fig. 7.
sec
meter (A) sec
Load Simulation Recorded 100
75 % 432.3 v 2.26 1.7IFL 2.1
12.47 97.27
98.25 1.96IFL
99.95
100% Load
2.77 IFL Vrtd
100% Vrtd 2.92 2.7 75% Load
%Voltage

99.9

99.85

B. CASE II 99.8

This case is applicable to induction motor used in mines 99.75


where cable length is considerable. The cable length is
1

101

201

301

401

501

601

701

801

901

1001

1101

1201

1301

1401
increased to 1 km with standard parameters and the load is Time in mSec
kept constant to full load. Motor is started with the help of
Fig. 6. Voltage in case of DOL starter for different loading conditions
DOL & auto transformer starter. Starting current is 6.5 times
& 2.74 times the rated current for DOL starter &auto- 110

transformer starter respectively .while the starting time is 4.32 100


100% Load
sec 16.7sec for DOL & auto-transformer starter respectively.
90
75% Load
% Voltage

C. CASE III 80

Compensation is provided with the help of capacitor 70


connected across the motor terminal used in case II, for the
60
same cable length. Again Motor is started with the help of
DOL & auto transformer. . Starting current is 6.49 times & 50
2.75 times the rated current for DOL starter &auto-transformer
1

401

801

1201

1601

2001

2401

2801

3201

3601

4001

4401

4801

starter respectively .while the starting time is 4.3 sec 16.5sec Time in mSec
for DOL & auto-transformer starter respectively.
Fig. 7. Voltage in case of Auto-transformer starter for different loading
conditions

RESULTS & CONCLUSSION


Comparison of the results obtained by simulation for
Simulation results for current are obtained for different different case studies (case I, case II & case III) for 100%
loading conditions and are shown in fig. 4. & fig. 5. loading

498
700 studies & 2 times the rated current is the observed values. In
600 case of DOL starter starting time varies from 1.1sec to 1.2 sec
500 from case 3 to case 1 & the observed value is 2.5 sec. For auto
% Current 400
Case 3
transformer starter the starting time varies from 2.9 sec to
300
Case 2 3.03 sec fro case 3 to case 1 & the observed value is 2.7 sec so
200

100
Case 1
that the motor reaches its 80% speed. In case of voltage
0
profile, capacitor has improved the voltage at the load bus up
to 99% for both the starters.
1

151

301

451

601

751

901

1051

1201

1351
T im e in m S ec

Fig. 8. Current in case of DOL starter for different case


studies DISCUSSION & FUTURE SCOPE

Case 3
415
It is seen in the result that the observed & simulated values
365
Case 1
Case are not same; this may be because the machine parameters
measured which are measured are very much deviated from
315
% Current

265
the standard values. Auto transformer requires more time to
215

165
settle. This is due to the fact that as less voltage is applied,
115
more time is required to reach the rated speed. However the
65
starting current is reduced to a very large extent by the use of
auto-transformer starter. Using capacitor not only reduces the
1

301

601

901

1201

1501

1801

2101

2401

2701

3001

3301

T ime in m S ec current but also improves the voltage profile. DOL starter can
Fig. 9. Current in case of Autotransformer starter for
be used for a low power application. In case of auto-
different case studies transformer starter if the tap setting is made at 57%, it can be
used as a star delta starter. From simulation the parameter scan
101 also be studied. ETAP provides the scope for measurement of
100.5
C as e 1
other parameters such as power factor, torque etc. Also the
100
software provides the scope for calculation for protective
% Voltage

99.5
99 C as e 3 devices
98.5 C as e 2

REFERENCES
98
97.5
97

[1] John H. Stout Capacitor Starting Of Large Motors IEEE Transactions


1

151

301

451

601

751

901

1051

1201

1351

On Industry Applications, Vol. Ia-14, No. 3, May/June 1978, pp. 209-


T im e in mS ec
212
Fig.10. Voltage in case of DOL starter for different case [2] A. Jack Williams & M. Shan Griffith, Evaluating The Effects Of Motor
Starting On Industrial And Commercial Power Systems IEEE
Transactions On Industry Applications, Vol. Ia-14, No. 4, July/August
105 1978, pp. 292-305
C as e 1 [3] John A. Kay, Richard H. Paes, J. George Seggewiss, Robert G. Ellis
96 C as e 3 Methods For The Control Of Large Medium-Voltage Motors:
Application Considerations And Guidelines IEEE Transactions On
% Voltage

87 C as e 2
Industry Applications, Vol. 36, No. 6, November/December 2000, pp.
78 1688- 1696.
69
[4] Solveson M.G. Soft-Started Induction Motor Modeling IEEE
Transactions On Industry Applications Vol.42 No.4, July/August 2006,
60 pp 973-982
[5] Rezek A. J., Energy Conservation With Use Of Soft Starter IEEE
1

2000, pp 354-359
301

601

901

1201

1501

1801

2101

2401

2701

3001

3301

3601

T ime in mS ec
[6] Blaabjerg F. Can Soft Starters Help Save Energy, IEEE Industry
Applications Magazine Sep/Oct 1997 Pp 56-66
Fig.11. Voltage in case of Autotransformer starter for different [7] Blaabjerg F. Comparative Study Of Energy Saving Benefits In Soft
case studies Starters For 3ph Im, IEEE Industry Applications Magazine Sep/Oct
1995 pp 367-373
[8] AC Induction Motor Fundamentals by Rakesh Parekh, Microchip
Technology Inc
[9] Induction motor - protection and starting by viv cohen - Circuit
Results of simulation illustrates that the starting current of Breaker Industries, P.O. Box 881,Johannesburg 2000, South Africa.
Induction motor is some what same for all the case studies, [10] Induction motors Parameters extraction by Sinisa Jurkovie
irrespective of the starter used, for DOL starter the starting [11] Performance chart for IM from Kirloskar Electric
time or settling time has changed for different case studies. [12] Performance chart for IM ABB Group- Automation & Power
Technologies
Starting current is 6.6, 6.54 & 6.5 times the rated current for [13] Consultancy with Mr. Rao, Nagpur motors, MIDC Hingna
case 1, case 2 & case 3 respectively & the observed value is [14] Textbook of Electrical Engg. Vol-II B.L.Theraja
2.7 times the rated current . For auto-transformer starter the [15] Basic Electrical Machines V.K.Mehta
starting current is almost same 2.7 times for different case [16] Electrical Machine- P.S.Bimbhra

499