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WORKS BY C. V. DURELL ARITHMETIC. Gesnnat.Anitiotemie roRScnoots. Com- ote from se. Alo tn parts ‘Avorncsmte (rth RC. Fooréry)._ 42 Akola part ‘A Cowcisn Antranteric (with R.. Fawdry). With ‘newers, se: od-; without Anawers, 70 ALGEBRA. A Nr Atorona vox Seuoots, Parts Tandt in various forme, from 3e. Part TIL, (70m 2" 64 Scnoo,, Cenriricare Arcuiea. Complete. 4s. 64.: Saicherwes a. Augpates ‘AvatcuD Auauans. Volume. 42, Vols. and It (iti A. Robson). “In the press. Eumniewtany Atcenta (with G. W, Palmer and HEM Wright), ‘Teachers Edition, fs. 6d; Pups! Bilton, 7s Also in parts. MarniceraTiON Ataemna (with G.W. Palms). 5.62. ‘Also in parts. Pascricar Sexoot Ataxuea, With Answers, 4.62.5 ‘without Answers, 43. "Also ia parts. Grari Boor (with A.W. Siddons), Maia, 15,62 ‘tif boards 1s, od, Teachers’ Edition, 2. 62. CALCULUS, tama Cas it A Rotoon Yo Voll 7 ode and 6 Hoax Crttiricare CALCULUS (with A. Robson). 42. GEOMBTRY. Exmuvrany Growsrar. 45-62. Alsoia pas Coxcise Growermy. 45.64. Also in parts, A Suonren Growsrny. 3s Snuruiriap Guowaray (with C. 0. Tuckey). 4s “Also ta three parts, 15. 6d. each. TRIGONOMETRY, Exnwncraxy ‘Tx1cowoneray (with AML Wright]. ge, Abo in pars, ApvasceD TxIGONoMETRY (with A. Robson). 86d. Marnicuramiow Triconosery, js, With Answers, 36. SrAGH ‘A’ TaicoNowerRy. 15.64. With Table, 16.04, MECHANICS. A Seno: Mecuasics. 5 part, 32. each, ABLES, Marmmuamicat Tastes. 92. For fuler detail see Bell's Mathematital Catalague G. BELL & SONS, LTD = Portugal St. London, W.C.2, ELEMENTARY TRIGONOMETRY ELEMENTARY TRIGONOMETRY This book is issued complete in one volume, price 5s.; and also im three separate parts, price 28, each. Parts I. and IU. are available bound together, Price 38. 64. LONDON: G. BELL AND SONS, LTD, ELEMENTARY TRIGONOMETRY C. V. DURELL, M.A. WRIGHT, M.A, e R. LONDON G. BELL AND SONS, LTD. 1937 ‘we poabed Apri, PREFACE ‘Tus text-book 1s divided into three parts: I. The Right- ‘Angled Triangle ; II, The General Triangle and Mensuration ; TIL. The General Angle and Compound Angles. This corre- ‘sponds to the Matriculation and School Certificate stage. A farther volume will deal with Higher Certificate and Scholar- ship work. ‘The authors believe that the principles of Trigonometry are anost easily grasped if tho numerical work ia at fet of «simple ‘nature; the less time that is required for purely arithmetical ‘computation, the more time is available for illustrating the extensive applications of the subject. ‘The material of Part I. thas been s0 arranged that it may be taken very early in the school course ; it assumes nothing more then a knowledge of decimals, simple ratios, and the ideas of drawing to scale. ‘Tho ‘numerical work is s0 simple that the uso of logarithms is not required. Part Tl. can best be taken concurrently with Mensuration in Arithmetic and the Properties of Aress in Geometry. i have been used to illustrate examples to a much greater extent than is customary ; it has thus beon possible to introduce an abundance and variety of examples, which make the subject-matter interesting, without burdening the ‘Pupil with tedious and complicated verbal descriptions. ‘The early chapters include supplementary exercises con- taining harder applications of the elementary principles ; these " PREFACE, should, fm general, be reserved for @ second reading, but may be utilised to keep the quicker pupile in a class profitably cecupied while the others are working through the straight- forward applications ‘The educational value of Trigonometry lies largely manifold practical applications and in problems which test insight rather than technique. But progress in later work ia impossible without considerable amount of skill in manipa- lation, #0 that a substantial number of examples have been inserted for drill purposes, Those are straightforward, devoid of trimming, and are designed solely for the purpose of securing ‘methodical arrangement of the work and facility in handling ‘trigonometrical expressions. The book-work and illustrative examples throughout the ook have been set out in the way in which the pupil would normally be expected to write them out in an examination ; but notes have frequently been appended to the work in ord tosuggest points whick may usefully he emphasised in teaching. Methods of solving the general triangle by division into rightangled triangles have been omitted; the authors eon- sidor thot it is a wrong policy to teach a mothod which will shortly be superseded, and with the modem emphasis on the use of formulae in Algebra there should be litle risk of pupils applying the sine and cosino formulae without understanding them. Further, every text-book on Arithmetic or Algebra now includes @ chapter on Logarithms, which is usually taken comparatively early in the school course. It has therefore seemed unnecessary to add a similar chapter to this volum ‘a brief chapter only has been inclused to explain the methods of using the logerithm-tables of the trigonometrical ratios. On the other hand, the trestment of mensuration is fairly complete, partiy because many of its practical applications involve the use of Trigonometry and partly because itis valu- able in showing how many of the formulae of Meusuration are simplifed by the use of radian measure. yy PREFACE vil Geometrical proofs of the necessary halfangle formulae ave been added at the end of Chapter IX., 90 that, if desired, these formulae can be used, instead of the cosine formulae, for ‘he solution of tnangles. ‘The treatment of the General Angle has been based on the {dea of coordinates, This is undoubtedly advantageous now that graphs are included early in the school course, #0 that the ‘pupil is familiar with the sign conventions employed. This treatment leads to a very simple proof of the addition theorem, ‘valid for angles of any magnitude ; the authors are indebted to Professor R. 8, Heath for his kind permission to include this proof, which was first given in his text-book on Blementary Trigonomeiry. ‘As some teachers may prefer to keep to the more usual ‘elementary method of proving this theorem, it has been included as an alternative, but in the opinion of the authors Professor Heath's method is much to be preferred, both for its futsiusic interest and the ease with which it demonstrates the truth of the theorem for angles of any magnitude, The proof by methods of projection was considered too difficult for in- clusion at this stage. Part I. covers the syllabus of the Scottish Leaving Cert fcate (lower grade). Parts I. and Il. together cover tho fyllabus of the Northern Universities Matriculation snd School Certiioate, the Oxford Junior Local and the Oxford School Certificate. Parts I-III. cover the syllabus of the Scottish Leaving Certiicate (higher grade), the Cambridge ‘onio® Local, the Cambridge School Certificate, the London Matriculation and the additional mathematios of the Oxford School Certificate, the Cambridge School Certificate and. the Oxford and Cambridge Joint Board School Certificate, and that of the Gontral Welsh Board. cy.D. October, 1926. a a 1m, CONTENTS PART I Tex Taxoxsr of ax Nou Historical Noto = Bearings 3 ‘Similar Teiangles - ‘Tangent of Angle Useof Tables = Value of Ratio by drawing + Easy Applications == + Harder Applications» ‘Tux Some ax Cosren Definitions - ae Valuo of Ratios by Drawing Complementary Angles = Gradient =~ Construction of Angles of given ratio ayy Applications == Harder Applientions =~ Cossoaxr, Snoaxt axp Conaxoxer Definitions Complementary Angle Eaey Applications - ‘Harder Applications - Ravisiox Paves. R16 x CONTENTS IV, Tax Fuowr-Axatrp Teranors Ratios: 90°, 45°, 00° =~ ‘Fondamental Formulao Easy Problems =~ ardor Probloms Y. Tunex Dowssoxat, Prone Intereoting Planes - Tnterseoting Line and Plane ustzative Examples Slopes of Lincs = - Vi. Guarmcas, Mrruons Ration: 07,90" = ‘Gaps of sin, coax” Graph of tan =, cot 2” Graphical Applications « Revision Parens. R718 PART IL VII. Anoves Guearan nian 4 Riou ANouR Coordinates : ‘Trigonometrical Ratios ‘Numeral Values of Ratios Ganeralisations VILL. Use oF Logan Tsmtas TX. Sotvmiox oF Taranocs ‘Teste for Congrience ~ Sine Formuls Ambiguous Case st 55 58 e Ess x 107 na nr ns. nn CONTENTS: Bocvtiow oF Taraxates—Continued. Conine Formula = ee Note on Procedure Mera he Easy Applications Mesa Hardee Applications © = Solution by moans of Hal-angle Formulae Ravisior Pavers. Ry 19-26 - X, Mersonarton of cw Coe Circumference ot Ciclo = + Area of Circle = ica Tength of Cirlar Aros ‘Area of Circular Seotor = 5 se Circular Cylinder 5 es Tatitude and longitude» sss Giroular Cone and Frustom = +e Be er ea eh ae XH. Cmevisn Messvan Ration of Small Angee . 2 ARadian - diet a Aros and Sectors anne Ratios of Small Angles... Size of Distant Object Nae Dip of Horizon == a “Approximation for eos @ - : Graphs and Graphical Solutions- =. IL Tarasanes ax Poxxaoxs ‘Area of Triangle (Hero's Formula) +. Area of Parllelogram, Trapeziam, Quadrilateral ro of eg Feygon == ‘i Formulae for Rr, Revistox Parse, RIM + 14 138 129 132 1504, ast a 13 13 1a us 18 5 199 161 182 168 168 170 1% re 48 19 182 ast F sil CONTENTS CONTENTS xi XVII. Eovsrioxa ann tmerarton non Easy Kguations 258 cae Equations involving Compoundangle Formslaa + 260 UL Inewrrnes Invowvino Sixote Axotrs =. Ration of 18, 96%, 648,72. +302 The Equation goon O+bsin Ome = s+ 288 XIV, Thm Guxsnan Avot Elimination © = 288 Nogotive Angles - Serene XIX, Msomsavnons Toners Ratios of 0" +4", 90", 270° + 109 a mcr cineca ln Seema ae entities involving unrelated Anglos = == + 208 entities involving related Angles =<. 271 a ‘7 Formulae for 7, i terme of Halt-Anglo a ComeourD Axons ‘dentition connected with the Triangle = : Distance between two Points, using Coordinates 207 hima ac Formula for os (4B) - : 20 Raviston Parmns. 61-00 - . + 253 Formulte for cos (A+B),sin(4+B) - . . ait : Tans Akernative Method = eee Weer eait Axswane Formulse for ton (4.4B),tan-testan-ty +218 Double Angles and Hall-Angion =~ = | + ls Formulafortan (44840) = + + 2m Formulae for sin 4, cos 3A. = Meee re Eaay Edenciion ae: (cham i Harder dentin = 51! 24 XVI Sra ann Paopvors Fonreta® Products as Suma ond Dilernces = = + 227 Sums and Differences as Producte =; - + 230 Revision Pures, R.35-60 = ++ 204 ; XVIL Sovonon or Tavovee: Hatr-AxoLe Forootan ea a Formulae for sin $,cm4,and. . - me 5 Boo Formulafortan#=€ kL our i Problems on Heighta.nd Distances = == 250 ° aay Applications ues esas ee Warder Appliotions —- ee ae FORMULAE of a single angle. 4. 1 _ cos tan OF EO) tO nee. 85 . i 1 cove Bm sas wee Oat, 39 in?8-+ cos =1. co sect =14+-tan'8; cosec%) =1 +0189, ow fin 40" ~co "=F; tan t0%=1, cot 90°=0; tan 90° and cotO? are @. 78,79 ace at, cata Pal ay con 72° VF=2 in bt? moon —8*1, 63 Aa FORMULAR B, Compound angles. not sin (90° 6) 0080 ; 608 (90° 0)=sin 85 4 tan (90° 6) =0ot 2. ny sin (180"-0)=sin9; cos(180°—6)= ~cos8. 102, 103, sin(6)=~sin0; cos(—§)=c0s9. 198 For ratios of 90°+0, 270°46, 180°+8, 360°6, see pp. 199-208, sin (A-+8)=sin A co0B + 009 A sin 8, tin (AB) ~tin A 0088 — cos A sin 8. £08 (A+B) =c08 A cos 8 ~sin A sin 8, c08(A-B)=c0s A cosB+sinAsinB, 209-211 tanAttane tan A~tanB MRA +8) <5 oats) M(A-8m-r oo atene’ Ue tan A-+tan 8 +tonO— tan Atan tan c tan(+8+0)~1— ian atand=tanBtan=tanCtanA’ 72 as ) 218 ay 2 sin A cos =sin (A+8) +sin (AB), 2 cos sin B=sin (A+B) —sin (A~B), 2 €08A c0sB = 00s (A+8) +c08(A~B). sin A sin B=c0s(A~B)— 008 (A+B), 227 Sinan ymin oon tana tanty = tana nso y-ten an cons scony=2 oon e025, 608 = cos y= ~2 sin gg sin*A~sin®S =sin (A+B). sin (A~B). FORMULA wil and half angles, et. le 008 2A=costA—sintA=2coA-1m1—2sints, 218 nBaDsindowA; twn2a— 2A gio Lpeos9=2 coer; 1 cond—2 int. a9 F008). 8 ‘L-cos air): anges y(t). 2 1-8 220 eee ae eR 118, 184 Bees stock; conti anboos0+60008, 109 Axfiesin A Jfo(s—o)(e—2)(6-o)]. 108, 178, 246 Af Be 4 A “af See A (s—b)(s—e) i tnd = [SES aby Bea 54 bods boobs ca feesc bes a nies eg | a retin’ inbin®, ——agarr ae ae eo. to jog tRsin Fcos feos 185, 277 vit FORMULAE HE, Monsuration, [For meaning of letters, wee se ‘age-referencen} st mdians=180°; 9 = 1209 degrees, 160 FA YSSIG; logrso4gi, ‘Area of trapesiam=d{(24+y) A. 173 ‘Area of parallelogram = zy ain 0 178 Volume of pyramid =} base «height, 182 Volume of frstum of pyramid =Aia,+Jl4)40]- 160 Ciroumforence of crcl = nr = nd. Me Area of citcle= 13. 143 Length of aro (c°, 0) =F =, M43, 161 Area of sector 2", 6) = — 49, 14, 102 Area of carved marface of eylinder = 2x. Ms Voluin of cylinder «rth. 5 Area of eurved auciace of cone =arl 183 Volume of cone = ert. 153 Area of eurved surface offeutum of eone=mI(a4+8). 154 Volume of frustam of cone" (ot 406-408). 158 Area of surface of sphere = 472, 155, Volume of sphere $03, 15 p= /() main, is Distance of horizon = J(2hr) = VG) miles, 109 CHAPTER I. ‘THE TANGENT OF AN ANGLE, Historical Note. Numerical Trigonometry was originally sed to meet the noeds of the astronomer. The first ideas rho traced as far back as tho timo of Ames, about 1700 2.0., at tho corliost systematic troatment is attributed. to an stronomer, Hipparchus (160 n.c.), who not only constructed be equivalent of a Table of natural sinos but also investigated ngled spherical triangles. Progress was slow owing to ‘absence of any suitable notation. Some advance was ‘by the Arabie School of Bagdad botweon 800 .p. and (00 a.p., tho first purely trigonometrieal treatise boing written fa Persian in the thirteenth eentury. Knowledge of what he Arebs had dono gradually reached Burope through Spain : bby the sixteonth eontury Bnglish mathematioions had general acquaintanes with the methods of plane nd spherical numerical Trigonometry, while about this time hesix ratios received their standard names. Tho construction sbles had naturally attracted tho aitention of matho- fand astronomers from early times. ‘Tho most ‘of these is the Opus Palatinum, compiled by Rhaetieus ‘a number of assistanta and published in 1596 ; it gives six ratios at 10” intorvals to ton decimal places. In tho nth century progresa became rapid, elementary algebra ‘aavurning its modern form, and this invention of a simple notation transformed ‘Trigonometry into an analytical ‘Newton's expansions for sin nx and cos nx date froma De Moivro’s theorem probably from 1707, De Lagny’s sion for fan nz from 1710, and Lambert's hyperbolic from 1760. ‘practical application of Trigonometry to the problems Jing was an afterthought ; ons of the carliest hooks Dw.n.t. . 2 ‘TRIGONOMETRY (ouar dealing with this aepect ia the Proctica Geometrae of Leonasdo of Pisa (1220.0). The reader has alveady Tearmé in his ‘lomentary geometry how to apply the mothod of seale-drasring to problems in surveying, the data for which are obtained by ‘using a chain to measure Tenge and w theodolite to masts fangs both in a vertial and in @ horizontal plane, Thales {600-n.0.) had mado so of the same idea, the principle of Similar Sgures, to find the height of the pyramids by measuring the lengths of their shadows. By the aid of Trigonometry ‘such problems may now be solved—and to a higher degree of ‘acouraos—by calculation, but the theory is based on the samo ‘Angles. ‘Tho existing method of measuring angles is modern, In early days astronomers took: a eizclo of some convenient fixed radius and divided the circumference into a number of ‘equal ares, and worked with these ance whore we now work with ‘anglos, that isto cay, they measured the length of an are where ‘wo measure tho anglo standing at the contre om that arc, and they mensured the half-chord cutting off an aro whore, we tse th sino f half dhe ang at the cette standing on That aro, | Whereas we divide four right angles into 360 dezrees, ‘tho Gresks in the time of Ptolemy” (85-165 a..), divided the circumference into 360 equal ares, each are. being ealled a ogres and regarded as tho unit measure ; they them called of dlr fis part Latin, prs ina pring non oak ‘namo “minuto "), and selyy of a degree a second part (Latin, ‘pars minuta secunda, once our name “second "). ‘This is falled the eezapesimal measure of ang 1 degree =60 minutes (60°); 1 minute =60 seconds (80°). The reader is reminded of the following definitions : sali 77° ene are sid 10 bo complementary it thelr eum @) To angles are suid to be supplementary if their sum is 180°, _ () Beatings. There are two principal methods of indicat- ing the direction of any point P from a given point or origin © fn the same horizontal plane. ‘THE TANGENT OF AN ANGLE 3 method. The dicection of a horizontal a given in terms of the cardinal direations N., E,W. 1 ation OP iyiven an N. 59° Ho man soning due North and then turning through 53° towards fact ig now facing P. Similarly, if tho direction OQ is 9° B., or, in other words, if the “ boaring ” of @ from is 0.1, ‘@ man standing ut © facing due South and then ugh 19° towards the East is now facing Q. In using this method bearings should always be [from the North or from the South, not from the Kast Thus OP should be described os N.5IE., not not W. 12? 8, Soldier's method. In the army all bearings are ‘the geographical or the true North. The “true * ‘TRIGONOMETRY [oar North, the angle being moasured in a clockwise direation, ‘ce from the North through Kast and South. N N 40-0908) 5 (v) sin-¥(0-0114); (vi) tan-43-009), 0 evaluate tho marked angles in Tig. 36. . . Draw a circle of unit radius, centre 0, diameter AOB, (Vote. ‘he reader should draw his own figure, preferably fon squared paper, and take 1 dm. of 5 inches os his unit. Big. 44 represents port of circle of radius 1 inch. It ia ‘unecessary to draw more than a quarter of the cle.) Draw the radius OC at right angles to OA, and eut of ON equal to 077 units: the parallel through N to OA cuts the eizele eo Sseeca egies aoe 1 Se at acca Then sinson MP OM OTT ny, pee iae: aces. By meetrentt Wo fo oAor br ; Bate ae From the Tables we see that 4 AOP 50° 21’, i ond ? Bs 32 ‘TRIGONOMETRY omar, 9, Use Tables to evaluate the marked angles in Fig. 39, i Db ZMNF aca A V bs A me. 9, 10. The sides of a poralelogram are 4, 6 inches and its area is 12 aq. in, Calculate its angles. 1 king both pont motaoge ofthe em gradient oe Teh Lint) ti 1) ttn 3, ) Lin 100, Whang Giro lo peat indiana and wip a ran secee ee Eee, Day eee es Peet aoe nee BiGeal capac aes am se eas ces nee eee re Ee da cee wee ae SE on lant side is 11 ft, What angle the arma eaten ae ae Bee reset arenes epete eta pe eens es eee aue Suter 0s ce ea pene et 17, The legs of « pair of dividers are each ee) LEG GPa erat ae Rc err asecercen eure = oan jue of ratiga 8 om. What angle ‘btend nt the onto the aphere 7 ‘THE SINE AND COSINE 33 5 4B, calla LCAD. ol por of heights 29,15, ar joie by hg “hat ei ange lop of he ie? @ CxS 1 AB is diameter; AP=85 om, BQ=75 om. AB, (i) ZPRQ. me ‘through whieh the handle ean ewing. [Seo Fig. 5.) 27, Find a value of 0 it (G)sin 92 sin i and gaa; (i) 08 &=2 008 6° and e725, eo @g Po.31, Paw, Sidebar AB ofa cist of radius 6 om. Sm, long. Caleta 29. With the data of No, 28, if a “LABP=105 caleulate AP. 90, A mechanism (Peancelier’s cel) conriss of four equal rols AB, BC) 65, DA, each of me to tier equal rods BE, ED,'ent of length 7, smoothly jigied ot Pass, Shown, If 2 BAD =e Find also che maximora pile Mi. 54, calculate the length of the perpendieular from mast, {82 Calculate in Fig. 85 the lengths of AD, BD, BC, (ons, + ‘of Earth =4000 miles) ‘THE SINE AND COSINE 35 xercise may be reserved for a eecond reading. ‘EXERCISE 11. c. distance of a placo in lntituda 68°, from the N oe. oS 55° N. of 22° a. descends for 100 yt an angle of 13° to tho an adgloof td haiouta be 200 reached below the lovel of the sterting point ? ft © and walls 1 milo N.21°W. to A, them B. Hoy far (i) Novth, (i) Bast is BfromO ofa pendulum 3 ft. long rsea 6 inchea above ite lowent ‘Find the angle of swing. fat © and walks 1 mile N. 27°, to, then tums bg 2 aud yal belt mile wo 6 Wat the 40 row stonigat serosa atroam which is runniag “h.through the water. At i point his boat t TRIGONOMETRY fone, ‘THE SINE AND COSINE 3? 10.4 jum 5 ft, wings through an angle of 12° on. ‘between these rerulis and the usual proof and itn of Revert, Hoe ig eae ate 28 tk Laat ‘ biliaed balls at distances 20, 30 in, from = c ta tho path of a ballet fred from A at an Sunhion CD. ‘The ball Ais atrock along AP and hte of 5* to the horizontal AE, “If O i ite position after ¢ seconts, AD =2000¢ feet and DC=16e feet, Find the height of the bullet after () 100, (i) (see. When will it hit tae ground ? ms 12, A rectangular look loans against a wall at 8 with the comer, on the ground Find the height of G above i pane i, after tras altogether 70 in. ; ting, ee tee eae peering tat 0 mat ea eet eh of te rer (ho 8 i hwnd fom Xt rao de Fast eo aaah meee te Tease ee tt 14 ng ta of lg Be 0 ie isk bt sir lah ai | lace where a degree of longitude is 30 miles, L\ 16. A wel of milus 2.14 rate at BAL oe Lk Sha Sa. {he wheel is then pushed on to the top of the obstacle, which is ane: level, turning about B.” Through what angle does each spoke of os sdown an equation that may connect and y if o.co. Ey coe =sin f- of 2 if con x’ =sin 2. 16, ABO isa triangle rightangled st CCN is the perpendic from C to AB. Write down cos A in two different fort, ad once Provo that AC'=AN.AB. Similarly prove that BOPSGN Be, a ee 38 TRIGONOMETRY. (omar. 1 24, Fig, 68 representa a section of a box with ts 1g DES uphete of clameter To" paced ie meng, mri Teast angle DE makes with BC? te E S - CHAPTER 11. Coa anG ma. 69, rect. ANT, SEOANT AND COTANGENT, 28. A uniform rod AB, mid.) at C, rests on a smooth at” » si an ang with ia end A against a emooth vertical wall, Je be proved ty « 5 ee ees ee seal brine age Acer the eosecant, secant an 5 point Fs Perpendicular sce, an cot. ST ins dod the pg i tacos fo aa cars shortly as coon, se, and cot : ts tho id AK, pivoted at A, of » hot-water cone Om no? : SE BAR tot oh oes a prevent lid of asa a hig i . RE Mao ine oer an ZEN nd teat Sad eso ml i ae fand cosine of an angle eannot be greater and secant of an angle cannot be less sin 9 and tan @ increase as 0 increases, it 8 and cot 0 decrease as 8 increases; hut since 180 increases it follows that svc 0 inornsea a3 "We ses, therefore, that the cosine, eosecant, an angle all decreato-when the angle increasea the ‘makes this easy to remember. Consequently, Tables are used, the difference columns acted for an inereate of @ in tho cos , cose 8, u ro. 06, 27, A trough has a somi-cirouar section ACB, diameter 18 inches, ‘And contains water to a depth of 7 inches initially AB ohaionety ‘cough how large a angio can ibe tilt before any water pect? TRIGONOMETRY Temas, Complementary angles, By definition, with the notation of Fig. 67, we have cece Pm! see fr fd cos 0") 3 ++ cosee mee (90°— 6°) and see 6° —c0sco (90° Ro. er, Hence the cosecant of any angle equals the scont of us ‘complement and vice-versa. Further, cot =H tan (90° 0%, and sot 00° 6) Fm tan ta “1 the cotangent of any angle equals the tangent of its cowplement and vice-versa, 2 Ta fact ot trionometrioal ratios are epual to the co-atio of the complementary angle and vice-versa, One advantage of having all six Tsigonometzical ratios Acfined and tabulated is that numerical work and statements of Teigonometrical facte and formulae ean be simplified by tising the most suitable ratios, ‘This is illustrated in the following examples, ‘in the given triangl, find ma. 00, seo A= 33 = 2: AOR, ; 08 A= 2g, ete, ma, es to write down tho values of () 00 28° 5 (i) see 70° 43° (i) cob 45" 20 4 find the following angles: 2)5 (i) coseo™4(1-2001) (9) seo41-4102) cot 40-0707): BCANT, SECANT AND COTANGENT © 41 the length of AC. A loon | method makes the calculation simpler than the following: (di) eosce 41° 36°; (ti) cose 41° 95° (i) 00 28° 185 (ix) cob 4°: {xi} ont 89° 10% (Gi) coseo-X2-4058); (9. 0-42-2589): (Gx) cot-41-5020), a B 4, sng tho data of Fig. 87, soli asin fo way TRIGONOMETRY 8, Write down the cosecant, sooant and cotangent of each of the ‘write the following as Trigono. . AS ». : fone, 2 2 4 ‘ e sides in the triangles in Fig. 71. a 7 mS, * c » nr tho Tables the values of: (GD tan 16° 25° and oot 73°35"; + 31, 80 i OF ME ans ays (ofet OO Rg OWE, tn ¥Z, a8. (ae GAs EE, am %Z, com Ss i BE (xe) PO 4 4. Using the date and notation Se atm, expttesions for Shefollowing’ M9 write dowa simple o (ipeeoC; i) oot Psi) comoFs Cin) tan x: 4 (s) cot B secs (vil) eotE ; (vill) wo 23 @ BAD =iot DAC; (ix) come Bs (x) sin}; (xi) AB mee ABC: DAC=comcano; 8 .p Dg © (28) GR come aPR ; Gal) Fa cot GEF, BAD =o ACB. met “ ‘TRIGONOMETRY [omy NT, SECANT AND COTANGENT 45, A man on the top of a tower 200 ft. high measures the anoly OA, 6 ft. long, is suspended from O; only that cease ceases ge a © emt senate 2 ce testi? ce aerate tee otc eee, ee eco SHA Ge fpng Gata 9 wists poe ieee oa nee ern SMe te nies POAC aa eee ee ate ripe eins a. aes Mara ae Meenas Sai ah dee ey sts ae A IE Ge Sb ai vo ia lny Soba Danvers oon a ras Eng ae bl a to hla ST acetate nate cis ar te ferrene aeean tik kote tere thos ad rare ee, ; Ineo ena se say at Se te meget fom 2a Aan 2 hg Biases. = 21. A slagstaff snaps at a point P, 8 ft. above its base A, and the ee sees ee ‘Exercise may be reserved for a second reading. round. Find the original height of the ¥ ngatad. i ‘EXEROISE TL», 88. A portion of road AB which slopes 5 ft. high at a distance of 3 ft. from the wall OD uphill at an angle of 7" i represented ona p A "What sto length of a ladder AB inclined at 72" tothe ‘ap of eale 4 nches tothe mile by aloe patoptstencs? out isis Bnd the engi of ABS nya 23. A taut olato string joing two pojats A, 8 90 inches apart and > st tho mame level; when boy i atdached tthe mldspolnee of the lo ‘ring, AC and BG make angles of 8 20 wit'the horZontal, How ‘ul has the sting stretched 24. Ono angle of x thombue is 87°, and the shorter diagonal is om Find ti eng os ie 25, The diagonals ofa rectangle Intermect at an angle of 33° 48° and the length of ono side i 6 tnches, What isthe length ofwdagonal [vo possible ancwere 26, In Fig. 72 of No. 12, AD=6 om, ZADB=00", 2 ABC=32", LACB=71" Coleulate AB, AC, BC. Fu. 4 inebes long and £0 ia = that PO is disco 0 cox 6) inches. 6 ‘TRIGONOMETRY Toma JOSECANT, SECANT AND COTANGENT 47 Juha oaigls of depres ABC is inscribed in th reetangle 28, From the top of a cliff feet high the angles of do ‘ovo bate in tho same yortial plane ag the obeeeee sae eet Se ae G>gh Express tho distance betwoen the boste in terms of yd. 4. In Fig. 79, ON=c,NA=d; prove that PQ=d cosce Benes, 0. 7, 0.50, 5. Big, 80 representa two semicircles: 2 PAB=35%, PQd om, biaoots ZAPD 5 BC=100 yd, LAPD =43°, Golesi the length of 80. "TF alo PN =S cm, calalag the length she i ht ne PN is perpendicular to the diameter AB: AP=a, Find NB, ‘ pea in terms of d, 6. (Fig. 81] eer 0. o.st. 82, 2. Tho cord ofa pair of stops ia cf, Jong and, when taut, fs hf, sbovothe ground, "ind th length of each aus ofthe slap erse off, 8. (Big. 82) 0 data of No. 12, Gnd AB. Tn Tig 85, ABCD fo rectangle; PQ=a. Find AC, PC in N=, 0, tho midpoint of AD, Rxprem tho cs an wo.62, 84, 8. Ja Tig. 4, AB is a diameter and AQ, BP are tangents Catelate AP, BO 'and cage. 5 a -—— + 8 ‘TRIGONOMETRY fom, REVISION PAPERS 9 7 . ing horizontally ab » height of U7, Using only a table of engents find the value of cot 72" 15, ofan scone fing orzatally 3 beg 38, What do you know about a triangle ABC, if tan A=cot & » Sa Ee kine Vind his ape in fst por Ig, What do you know about a triangle ABC, if 60 B =c08eeC, an Cisactet pad the balls ab P; the dimen Hithin what angle must tho ball be 2, One solution of the equation soo2"4-co8e02"=325 2=27, Find another solution. 21. One solution of the equation tan 2*+-0ot 2"=2-080 fs 299, find anotier sation. f 22, Write down a relation which may connect # and y, if eosee 2" 200 Find a value of 2 if cos0o 2" =s00 42", 28, Find a-valuo of 2 if tan 32° =cot 22". ‘A, Find a value of 8 if tan O° =o0t(0+20%), 25, Prove that in any triangle ABC, TT O Me Aaa) uae Ade se tr) (tan B52 cot, (i) seo $2 -ooae0S. 9% Ke 6 © N i. 21 ground if its toenter tho goal? ‘The diameter of neglected. RB. REVISION PAPERS, R. 1-6, ta window with his eye 20 ft, above the ground ‘over the top of «roof Af, igh, which 1s 80 708, aL 4 ‘the elevation 1, Find by drawing the values of tan 16°, tan 92°, tan 64°, Write ei down the values obtainod from the Tables, ois cn nog of 36%. | [4 VY 2 In a triangle A=, B=25" 16,510 em. Find esto reach a point 6, where 8, Tho vertical angle of an isosceles triangle is 67°, and the base *, KO=400 yards (Fig. 92). is Bin, long. Find the area of the trisngle, . ito cet ing oom, of tho shadow of a atc 9. lng when the : : of 52%, tho aie bold erly (3) ra tho altitude AD of strangle the sick i inened wows to throw the longest ehadow poetsia eine eonect at of the top of a tower is 20° to an observer on the ee th elevation of a pont halfway wp tav tower? roe Ra 1, Find by drawing the values of sin 16% oo 16°, sin 32°, eos 32". Write down the values obtained from the Tables, __&. Find the height of kite when the etring is 900 feet long, and i le eee iamotor of ¢ cielo in which a chord AB, 4 om. long, 8, Find the angles ofa triangle whose sides are 6 om, 6 em, 5 cm- of 35" with the diamoter ot A: green © ana (Gv) 08 20° oosso 70°, » TRIGONOMETRY fons. ty i R44 ie LIne triangle ABO, A=42° 0', B07 610 om. Find typ otlce two ides 2. A chord 6 inches long sublends an cf drole.” Find tho radi of the ere 4. () Fin a value ofA? if in A°=2 ein B and (i) Pind a value of A* i eoace A°=2 coseo Band B*—17-, 4. What is tho anglo Between the tangents to a ciclo of rainy ‘Gem. from a point 15 om. from the centre of the circle? 5. A track sig ange up a stop slope from A to 8: the track i inelind tT to tho ne AB. AB 100, wha ‘of the track a 7 ‘angle of 140° at the cont me 4 theorem it is easy to calenlate the of a few special angles. ¥ | cfd tlangle ABC, A=90", a=172 om, B=10 cm. Find g f triangle ABC such that CA=08 1 unit 2 The centro of goll-ball is 2 yd, from 7 00°, tho contre of the hole which is 8 lashes in ainmeter. Within what angle mat the ball hoe atewok it sto drop inte the hole? A Lillis sid to heron gradient of tin 6, ict in inthis oe tron ig Stiie wed patins Pome ler 4, Aman walks 1000 yards ona bearing of 25%, end then 800 are oa ‘8 bearing of 35°, Hole far ia ho Novth of his starting lat? ot het? Hie 93 the diameter AB is 5 em. long. Find tho leogth a, 08. R68. 1, Wind the valuo of 6 +4 if tan 6°=1) and tan "= 3. 2. The ara ofthe parallelogram ABCD fs 10s n.; AB=8 in, BO=4 in, ealulate ZABO. sis 3, Tn Tig. 70, 40,0Q=3 om, NA=T om, ZOQA=112" 20 Calista A and On aN segue hepingon (7 ids) inscribed in cele of raion Jo'em, ‘Caesatelts feet 5, A ise diameter and AO isa chon of cil; i the mi Polis of ACY AB=I0 om, ACH om Calls oa 2 ‘TRIGONOMETRY oul 60°, Draw a triangle ABC euch that 4A8=B0=CA=2 units of length, EXERCISE IV. 8 and draw BD perpendioular to AC, ‘the values of the following, and compare with the THE RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLE cy : ind" cos 45" 11 tan 30°. tan 0%, 12, S245"- ‘nd 30°. ‘Find also the linear distance 10 tro 5" nee ‘separating tho two 50 Doe A E 3.308, eee Ean cea, i ie. 100, 88, The Ieter $ is formed of two eomicircular arcs of radi 8 ‘cm. ; from each extromity of the letter a tangent fs drswn to tho opposite are, Find the acute angle between the tangents. 34, Two straight zailway lines would if produced Intersect at, O fot an angle of 140°, it is desired to connect thom by » cirlar ao of adhe 20 chalus how fa frm © should th iil begin © FHE RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLE ot 111, ABCD is s square; calculate ZDPC. 2 ie i eee Beersiantcyre nhs SFin who tho greatest eight of vertical Hagstall ne Berets yuna aay: i tho ballot hits the mare i maar comenabaras pe centro of a cizcle of radiua 7 om. 3 PM: IB. Calculate QN and MN. (i, 7 ‘under cover can fre in any direction between LW. of N. He is 800 yards eway from a railway ‘West. What length of the track can he aim at ¢ at the window of « railway carriage travelling at ig a straigat track, I noti the tower of o cathodral at "to my let. Five minutes later 1s 40" to my right. vit on the second oseasion ? a oe" oes 2 "TRIGONOMETRY (ou, RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLE ‘The following Exercise may bo reserved for a second reading EXERCISE WV. 2. 5 A ie, kot soy cond 1, The coonectng rod AP of an engine i 6 long the crane pasag over's xed pulley Fand carrying « heary Bf tho wheel which the rod drives i 2 fe. long. Calelate tas oe ‘otal angle through which AP ossilsts, : eB mo.103, i 1 gd ng naan eens of eee Find their heights if their _ ‘a. 116. Sr eee Bae Bees oe ee co a stu Bat How ardoc Woe whan aman ‘a woigeECD. What height will the axis of the cylinder rise when the gate opens Rr a spate scion} ‘weage is pushed up to the wall ? 1 ira E NA,E, and to prevent Jamming, when opesing, tbe Bo ec ¢ t “se 3 eqapeoMmare: vo. mei, ‘ 4. AB is horizontal and 8 ft. long. ean slide on the cord AB, ere tas earns AG=§ in. AD: and alnays remaing vertically inlow the -point of AB til ADC compatible with clearance, {ts depth is 5 ft. “Caleulto ZACB, If the end P is pulled dows is skylight BP, 18in. long, Sit, lind the change in ZACB, inloping st 48" to the horizom A 8 ‘opening BO, and is kept shut to P, pasting over a small Serving © ele Wow ‘when BP i opened. through then the verieal height of P P Sai ‘and tho angle of depression ofits 5. A boy tries to find the area of a parallelograsa by multiplying is ST°15'. Whats the height ogee the lengths of to adjacent ideas his answer 20 es cet above the water and the breadth ‘too large, ind tho aeute anglo of the figure. 6 ‘TRIGONOMETRY final RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLE 6 tanks full of waters 1 Tp Hg 19, LPwO= : : "The tank is ted abou er ie Sei inoretberen 4 Gest ape ees nione ; re he fi ater aes éIN 2 se st Aa A a as caer COebian Dicom dent a. 110, no. 12, 12, A symmetrical ores i ilo as shown in Fig. 120 DE=EF=2f, AB=CD=Ift,, BAX =! Caloulate OR and the distances of D,€, F from OX ancl OY. cls Mig 12 wont ody tng ros tel a oe einen gree toe Gre ere mo.19, Fae sp weit ome AD: Pye iS aeiae ee pry QR nad AN in terms of d, ‘the equation asin 8-0 008 #7 =e ean be solved hee pee asfallows: Draw two 14. The vertical anglo of an icoceles triangle io 26" and the radins Tien of it ciroumeirele i inches; prove that te area of the triangle is ARE sin 6 08S 94, inches. eens * 15. 0 i tho con of the rectangular top ABOD of oil GP EKOP or £000. table; a ball steack from © mover aloo B= 2, PN perpendicular to 3 BXY=<0", Pind BY in terms of 2, 0 e ind 9” if th ball rebounds from X into the pocket at C. 1G & the mid-point of a xB are AB, centre O, radius as QPB=0"; show that 126, fae =EPOA=45°+9; (il) AP=a(1+tan 6) } IY s 1stan 6 Jaall—tan 6); Ge) tan (54 6) =] AE, D © EE DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS oa ‘AREF is horizontal, the tne OP is cle x lope of te plane AB. “ines of sreatist slope ine plane aro porllls pis the steepest and shortest path up bill. Fr cat « pace ar Ey line OP cuts a plane ABCD at O; drew PN CEEGTIOYA Jaro fhe plese ABCD to cut ab join ON and ‘THREE DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS, Interseoting planes. TE-wo open a book at any angle, the two pages, if fla, form” toro lanes intersecting estraight ino, the line of the binding, Drow a straight line on each page at right angles to the ling of the binding and intersecting on that line. ‘Then the angle between the two planes formed by the pages is dofined a8 the angle between these two straight lines ‘The following statemente azo important : (i) Any v0 planes intersect in a straight line wnless they are Then the angle POO is defined as the angle line OP and the plane ABCD. PN jis perpendicular to the plane ABCD, itis ‘0 every line in tho plane; thus PNO=90". “if ABCD is horizontal plane, PN isa vertia} line, finsin ABCD iss horizontal line and so is perpendictlat if ,POQ=8, ON=OP cos # and NP=OP sind. ON is the prejction of OP on the plane ABCD, ‘Taree-dimeasional problems are usually a euccession of triangles in diferent planes (i) If AB As the Line of intersection of two planes ABCD, ABEF and from any point O on mB lines OP, 0G are dren in the tx lines perpendicular to #3, thn te angle POG ta by defition caledae th angle Bebocen to lane, iis usally Spa ae bee fo ae. to take (or contract) two lines perpendicular tothe 68 ‘TRIGONOMETRY fous, REE DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS: 69 line of interseetion of the planes and consider some triangle ¢, atre of the ceiling and OA is tho cond. N is the which these two lines belong. floor snd ON is peryendicular to the floor. In order to caleulate the angle Between a Line ond a plane, ig "2. ANis the projection of AO. in usually necessary to take (or construct) the projection of th AN in the required angle lino on the plane and consider some triangle to which the gy gorse, AC*=16?-+13*=256-+ 144400 and its projection belong. 4 2. AG =20 ft Part of the initial difieulty occurs in drawing suitahig ¢. AN=I0 ft,, also ON=8 ft figures. A perspective figure should first be drawn with the dimensions clearly marked. ‘The student may then draw ‘LOAN =38° 40 separately the triangles used in the working, as in Example | ‘With the date of the above Example, ealculate blow, s0 an to abe more clearly whieh angles in the perspective Rese tie plonss OMB, ABU, figure are right angles. But he should as soon as posible of intersection ofthe vo planes : we therfore ‘acquire the habit of working only with a perspective figure, as ‘perpendicular to AB in the two given planes. in Examples IL. and IIT, below. ‘When possible the problem should bo illustrated by simple model ; e.g, the cover of a book can be tilted to represent an inclined plane, & match box can be used to representa room, cto, skeleton solids made from thin rods are very iustcuctive Example 1. A hall is 16 ft. long, 19 f. wide, 8 4, high, a s a 2 g e sr. 128 ca. \° —_ perpendicnlar to AB, because OAB is an isosceles re Nis perpendicular to AB 5 noe [. LOPN is the required angle, Calculate the angle which a cond etrotched from the centre of 8 ft, PN=J8C=6 ft; 2, tan OPN=$=12893; ‘the ceiling to one comer of the floor makes with the for 1. LOPN=58* 0 TRIGONOMETRY va DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS n , EXERCISE V., j 24, OX and ON. onpls A Hols ove end ofa polo 8 long inhi hand eng pee Ca ee 438, Pps ONB and ONK, and OAD. 29, ON and plana OAB, S 0, draw CE dicular to 08; onloulate the z rove angle between the planes OBC and OBA, fa box ace5, 6,7 ince; find the angle a diagonal le dae yith the largest 000. eats ae eueweens cre beneee bern pep eee W 2 | ‘poles 6 ft., 10 ft. high stand on level ground 6 ft. ¥ “West line ; & tight rope connects their toy ven Sine asiow of Ube short pole is 4 fi lone. aos mom ® Ap saa ttn cores la ete con With the notation of . ib BAP Seco gles the angle of devation of Pfroa, angatns frees ind tho angle of ilu ia See ee Hine angl of lsvation of P from Cand D, Jgh rans east and west the sun bears. 0° W. 8, HB and plano HOAE. e "Galoulate the Breadth of the shadow of the ‘5. HX and plane ABCD. 7, Planes EHOB and Face ie of te shadow in No. 251 ferthr on the 8, Planes HEX and ARCO. outh. UL, Lines BH and AQ, fs npeded fom = in by abt cd Mong attached symmetrically to the ring, Find ‘two consecutive strings. jailatoral triangle inscribe in a circle, centre O, Shhorizontal plane ; a mast OE of length 60 ft. is fi bywires frome toA,8,C., Coleulate i between the planes BEC nd BAC. 9 ie of the top of a tower i 45° from each of two. Boi, afro dx Sth ate oer due ecm: ‘What isthe height of the tower 7 rywon, duo South of the Sagar Loaf Mountain, the bem : rreynn 22 miles due West of ibe same level, 200 f& above the eet, the angle of a 8 ithe peak is 6°19," Find the helght of the peak abovo 6,190, 2 AG and plane ABCD. 4. 118 ond plane DCO. 6, Plaes ABCD snd ABGH, Planes HDX and HDAE. 30. Planes HOX and HDB. BE, Lines HX and ox. With tho notation of Fig, 190 wi pyrami san oquilateraltrinage ABC of se of he ern of Fig, 190 which represents a right pyramid an aces fa aloo an oquilatere 6 angle OAB at of edge Po cua wun bate ABCD, sto Tem, inte wes “Sin ue ides ahd angie of ho othr two Note.—In a right pyramid the pe i otis EkS Ratt ppm the perpendictar ON fom the velox . pert 01 4 Es ‘TRIGONOMETRY fall BE DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS 3 Bie coe ee ace ule ran a lanes 9 0 He Site ot ni onan SP al Bee cice-or, ao-r Als av of «pyramid ie» rpua hoagon. of ie 8e.ang Beat hese Cee cumeae renee! =o fc a tot ngled LECB, BE=h cose 27° ft. ) the angle between cach face andl the base, ii) the . BOE acs er, ‘otween no adjacent faces (i) the sage AF =BE wh cosee 27° ft it is required to 6, =05. 84, ‘The base of a right pyramid is « square of side 4 in. 5 cach face makes an angle of 63° With the base. “Hind () the eight of Pyremid (8) the angie cack slant efge makes nth un bene” is Indeed aS raat ge pep ch ieee = aGs tae ee RT i Bani, hie is pon dying 27 Be sesisoro horizontal ; a straight track runs up the hill at an angle of 31° BS i ‘with line of greatest slope. What angle does the track make ‘The “bearing” of a horizontal line has with the horizontal t ». 8). A further definition is required Bm f. 131, where ABCD is a horizontal plane, that forth ; then AFD is the vertical plane which gs ning Noy ma Dine ues tony 30 dad Fe ne coy rats the line through A pointing North, i.e. the angle tones ot Sel cre a eee “The reader will se that the hearing of the line sich the projection of AP on a horizontal plane in the plane pointing North. 48 in the line of intersection of the hillside and a horizontal ~ Hf, with the data of Hxample III. above, the « * Plane ABCD ; AF, BE are lines of greatest lope meeting a hori- slope of the plane ABEF bear duc North, find zontal line at F, E. ‘et the track AP cut EF at P; draw PN, EC perpendicular to the horizoxtal plane ABCD, ™ ‘TRIGONOMETRY (onan, HE DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS 6 Bat FA=DA 00 27°, sinoe . FOA=90", «FAD =27° ; Bree the ioncnes-Icnngie AGO, ie hocteootals :, ON=DA seo 27° tan 34 ‘an angie of 70" with tho horizontal ; ON ei 5 fof slope of AB. tan 6° 00 27° tan 34°, since 2 NDA=90 Ba elds Ti. hich ; th placed Gabon a lave tablo tates an cogil (26° me hist Der pas crtocs ota Saget cise bp data of No. 6 ind the anglo throagh which tae cover tangle of Hlope of a diagonal of the eover is 25 and on an easel slopes at 72” with the grounds a fe beard making 38° with a horizontal edge of the ‘EXERCISE V.b. Manele doo: this line make with the ground ? $1128 x0-6749. 07570; gaat +. the bearing of AP is 97° 7 ‘Note that this is not equal to « PAF, which is 31°. 1 A earn he rr ABO Ba he Eps a heh mab 7 hte bon ek rane a hn te se aaa us fein nt eat fects (i) What is the slope of a lino on the paper making 72° with AB 1 i a od a of gn pe mang Fh Fie mtg 6 cot ol pati 1 10 a She nl amae a i eptieata mate ir bsiice pas : ... epamiienttistis: 2: tn ah an A i cl : ie haa eteye boast asennad 5 20=4,04- the tigen nt SST LCS dae wh A aa we Ge Spies penchant ttc pat e “ i e data of No. 11, find the angle through which the Peaboct Su anne sath pla SB i aes et opps ACO flint aa 8 1 SBT ee rete! Y er cp mush se was has seh pena sg of 1 oth eet esesteaane thane a gs oN iat No, fo se bog capt up to 8 ° c Gs iB F tat of rate apa le. 72B,a ar Pes; Ses ens eee Se of greatest slope. What ists beara? 4. Fis, 199 represents door opening through an angle of 38°: fd ihe angle between AO an AE - pes of glass in the shape of trapextums, wit 5 B Malas in: long ao lant sis cach 10 In long, are 4, With the data of No. 9, find the angle which AD males with ee et the plane ACF. (i) each pan ad Ue vertial, (3) to adjacent panes? 6 ‘TRIGONOMETRY 1, A hil slopes up at an ang of 25° se ai an tne without skins ony at an angle {Sth angle between thelr tack on the fll 7 18. The roold of the building along tivo adjacent sides rociangulac court makes angles 30" 45" withthe Horton, W {heard ope of he gaterrnning down tho lin of ater os? CHAPTER VI. GRAPHICAL METHODS. Draw a circle, centre O, of unit radius OA P and produce it to meet the tangent at A in T ; t00A, ma. 194, ‘one inch, the rod remaining horizontal. What is the angle of twist jn the new position of AOB if QPR is drawn parallel to AB, = 00° ; requived to find 2QPC.] 8 TRIGONOMETRY GRAPHICAL METHODS 2 . (oa, F RS op hss bocome perallel to AT. We therefore cay ‘Draw a figure similar to Fig. 135, making 2 very on (Dh render shoud draw such a fare. and cositer ia f90°-1, 0 90°=0, tan 90°is happens to the lengths of NP, ON, AT. We seo that the neazer # approaches the value 0, the stat NP and AT become, while ON approaches the value 1. symbol co is use for the wort “ infinity ”; “an 90° is © is conventional, se, it does not ° so. 106 ‘Ami we say that, in the limis, sin0°=0 cos0°=1, tan0°=0, Note. (i) The formula sints+coste=1 shows that if cos2—1, then sin x must equal 0, it merely means that the az fe angle can be made to exceed any named (i) The formula ton 2= 822 shows that | Slade >10; tan87°12'>20; tan 88°51! > 50; 90° 100; tan 89° 54! > 500; ete. sino” tan? pao ‘The Angle 90°. that some oral work should be based on Now draw a figure similar to Fig. 185, making 2 very neatly of the formulas 0. [The reader should draw such a figure and wake his on deductions as before] We tee that the nearer approaches the value 90, the smaller ‘ON hecomes, while NP approximates to OC and AT inczeases indefinitely. When x=90, N coincides with 0, P coincides 80, TRIGONOMETRY GRAPHICAL METHODS al (oan, (Gi) The values of cotee 2", 02°, cot”, when 29 90 should also be discussed ‘orlly, using the defitor® EXERCISE Via. (Oral) Obtain from the Tables the values of the ration in Nos, 1-12. a 1. sin 80", % eosee 80”. cos. 4. soe gu 5 tan 80", 6, cot 80, 7. 2in90, 8 como ay 9. cos. 10, 50037. L. tan BY. AB. cot gy, What can you sty about an acute angle 2° fa the f examples, Noa 33 Y . 1B, sina*>09999, 14, con2"<001, 15, tana">25, 1B. cos2">00000, 17, sin z"<00L. 18, oot 2">25, 18, cosec 3°>100. - se02"<10001, 21, oot 2" <001, 2, cowor”<1-0001, 28, sco x°>100. 2A. tan 2" <0! 25. Mako a ‘Table similar ee | to the given ‘able showing values of cote 2°, 80 2, cob 2 28, Using the table in No. 25, what do you dedues from cot 2" =tan (00° 2) ao ad 4d so eo 10 eo Od VALUES OF ” if ()2=0, (i) 2=001 ac Graphs of sin x° and cos x°. ‘The variation in value of sinz® and cos2°, as x varie i nea 0 from 0 to 90, can be illustrated by drawing their graybs plotting a graph of any function of 2, chcays ‘The Tables may be used to give the necessary values : from lft to right across the peg : [39] | «|e |7|=| Vb. (Onl) 198 in front of # looking glass whet ena you ‘f the graph of (sin 2", (i) cos 2° t 18S to read off the valuee of nis? (i) sin 36°; i) sin 735 (7) 608 36" (vi) cos 72% 1 cone (to 2fgures) 0 [10 eae | to Ftgucey | 0 p-ssp-s4foso}veslor psn oasloos akg VALUES OF TAN 2" AND cor 2‘ 2 THIGANOMETEY, Cay, GRAPHICAL METHODS 83 42 approaches 80 from below, and the valuca gn 8 hea 10 from above, cannot. be shown i) 608 Hi : 2 approae! , 4 oe aw ‘graph of sin z* to solve the equation 3 making the scale very small. As before, ‘008 x* =0160 ? a ‘be used to give the necessary values. 5. Can you use the grapa of cot to solve the equation i nz? =074? [ee Graphs of tan x° and cot x°. ‘The variation in value of tan 2* and cot 2° as 2 incr $78 [275 [1-73 |1-19 0-84 0-58 [o-30|0- from 0 may also be illustrated graphically, but the + 5 alues EXERCISE VI.c. (Orel) ‘of tan 2” is drawn on txaneparentpoper of it ite Dao paper ovate ou abot the view you gotef tho graph T Selection of tho graph of oot fa 8 looking lan tots feo bo ut os two Blank spaces in the table of values for * 45 to read off the values of: 39 to solve tho following equatio : +51 | mao tho graph of tan 2" to wolve the equation ‘ cot e"=0708 ‘use the graph of cot 2° to solve the equation tane=llt the applications of graphical methods which ly are () the solutions of equations, on of maxima and minima values of given VALUES OF 2* ‘are best illustrated by an oxample, Fo. 186 au ‘TRIGONOMETRY fou, GRAPHICAL METHODS 85 Example, Draw the graph of Sin 2° +2 0082 for va woh we see that the maximum value of the of from 30 to 8, and uo i o find () & maximum value ot Beaty ‘S-006, corresponding to «=. 56, Sain z"+2cor2, (i) any solutions of the equation pb ereses tho 3-4 level when 2 = ST, and when Sina" +2 coma" 34 in that range. of 16° are approximate solutions of the equation Seinz*+2 con 2° =3- a7 making the Table of Values itis natural to : 2=30, 40,50, 60,70, 80. But when thes are eas seen to be insufficiont for drawing tho figure 8 ‘therefore tako the extra values $2, 36, 54, 76 8 een 238 ® EXERCISE VI. aos 8 oss 2 figure (os on p. £2), the graph of s oso for wan of from 10 to 9, 32 eo” for values of «from 010 8. VALUES OF 2° (i) cose 44°; (i) cone 08° F110. (x) see 36 (vi) seo grap to sce the equations Using the Tables, we obtain the following values enw =80; (i) soos m3; (i) cones? =I; = [»[9]9|»| >|») =] *[a| of sin (2 for valucn of «from fo 45 : pri gs, Pt ina [6 |t.o20 20s eons |asa0 2955 [i aoo|taoe 2421 20k Bice tao Safed fc0 posto ow tts ae Pep of colt +20" for values of rom -10 00, = Sera 9S» [sa fnfoaafonsorpav| o2m po a6 eth ot Bn hee fr ls of 5 om a 86 TRIGONOMETRY GRAPHICAL METHODS sr fons of the equation 8 sin 2°44 008236: (i) aletch the “7 ya solution ofthe following equations ‘a ‘2sin 2: Br 0f 8 cos 274/4/sn 2° on the same figures (iv) draw onthe samy 2PL 7 38. the graph oan an ena eo i ae sere ihe aki tate ene es temo Bee Sd ge een With ie ata ot bee el tom l Pees rns horas te ier Gene - fe Pa ma ea ae oe Fralaenien mere nnet mon See eee eer from 19 41, Dra with tho same wale and ax the grap of ene 5 fand seca" for values of = from Oto OD. Did a solution of 4) ‘equation coveo2" +15") 2; (i) seo2">2; (il sina*>eosa" t @ of the needle of a galvanomater whon 9 through Ube col given by ©=02 tan 4. A.man sang gn ail 20, bigh ober oon Oe ae re hee tem ee somo yertkal plane astinsel,Theangion of depression are oy = Soereareies es four rods, each of length 10 in., jointed 4, Drow with tho ante sale and axes the graphs of sa 2° and rom points A,E on the same leveh Wind AE ton forvales of from 09 15. What ean you dedaco from th ay Emphs? 8, Of, OB aro edges of the rectangular lor of «room and OO ‘vrtisal”P isa point on tho floor 2 trom OA and 3 ft fom OB, Glsapotnton Ob fe above O. Wit anale docs the ine PQ mak ‘vith the oor ? Ru 41, If cos 6=f, caleulate sin 9 without using Tigonometrio Tabla Compace your Fesult with Uhat obtained diewot from tho Tables 2, ‘Tho sun is due South at elevation 47°; near pee Lei onay fre verte all uaing Ba so We eet eouth sade otis, What i tho lengt of the shadow oft PO ‘of sin 2° +8 coa.* for values of» from 10 to.40, fon the wall ‘masinum yaluo of the expression. 92 ‘TRIGONOMETRY REVISION PAPERS 93 Tomag, 5, ABCD is w rectangular court-yard surrounded by butt bowl of an electric light is acirele of radi 00 ft. high. “When the sun is due South the shadow is reprage 0 so by three chains attached ‘on the rim at the : mai ee ane cee ines fj Na einer owas: a Ru shortly as possible 5 (1H) cos63°-+oast27®, ta from a point A toa cielo are each 7 om. long nd Nol 152". Hind the distance of A from tho dente of Z Sled aA rela with B on briana plane CO sx D 26 Toei of Batove the plane AB tated abot rei. Sercal pane ty the sade portion of he figure, Find () the elevation yi the beating of fom A a von Rw. HL aloes forrandl @ lee as so, ‘in = and ros 11. tan cot fo al of 89 tg 2. A cus is boing rain vertically through a batchway CB ag tho graph () the value of for which tan” 2cota stoway the tapeote, C088 1, reteapaioat it "fo wink ‘fro lutions of tan +2 cot #32, Anglos CE openod? fi a What’ sn vith the horizontal tf the e fone of its longer sides ? R15. f ae Q=5, expres sin @ ond tan 0 ically from P nnd strikes 3 ge AB a0 sn bounds ee ft aa geef ta and pe aro Be oon 10 the angle QR’ makes with the Acai peta sein 1s 6 otoin of cates 10 ot Giaccseta ee are Pevsner ee 4. With the notation and figure of Ex. IV.d., No. 13, p. 6 4ACB=100", find tho distance the end P must bo caleulatec, given that a—1079", d= 10", b=30", r= 10*, fnerease CAGE by 40" ou TRIGONOMETRY a 4. 4 rectangular box is tilted as shown, $0 that the base ma susege@ wih the horzoial AE. Show tat the bight ofa AE is (psin 6-49 008 9) inches, 1 Hence determine the maximum value of p sia 9-+9 cos 9 ty ‘valued of @ between 0 and 90. If p=5, q=2 lind the value of @ which gives the maximum valuq, 5. Tho greatest slope of a hill 20° to the horizontal. Wht be ibe slope of a pati on the bill whiel: makes an angle of ‘line of greateat slope t 18. 1, If sin ==}, express tam 0 and cos @ in terns of m, EA ap atm at ote bearing 390% and a ship 8 at 18 Knots on a hearing of 230". ind the distance ofA, (i) North, i) East of B, 3 hours ‘alter they Sompany. Fi also the Boating of ‘strom B at his tim. 6 8. Hig, 156 represents a lamina ‘whieh wiien suspended from A hangs fo that Gis vertically below A, Find eagle whieh BC makes withthe Lact 4A. With the data of Bx. TV.d, No.7y p68 nd the prea ate to nkih the gate can Le opened i the welsht joms at the top whet {ele inn 4 fot 5, A rol 8 ft Jong i suspended from the cating in » orion poston by two equal veriel strings 6 ft Tong attased to see q REVISION PAPERS 95 solute’ through 00°, remaining horizontal, so that its fra vertionl ize. Find the height © sisos, and tho ising makes with the vertical in the new position. Ro fa valuo of 6 if (8) cosee 6°=2; (ii) ton G3 008 O*. 214. Jon is bent into tho form ofan essen no angle 100". Pint the Honest nde. for. cli stay with wheala of dames 60. of thoes re 10 fe apart an ho i Pirizontel when the car ison the ttle Find the berms the horizontal. + ‘of oosee 27*+ see 32° for values of # from 10, ton of cose 33" phe Se 9. “fa stoamer makes an ange ofS" with the doc bi onithowt pitching, through 10" on vither sige of the extome islinton of the fennel to 8 Rs Ley sin §=4 and 2 sin ~y cos = gn betwoon 2 andy independ "ABCD isa square of st inches; find the dstaneo {fro diferent ays. Hono prove tat fn +008 20° = 2 in c 9.157 ite fn the form of a square is bent into the form of a Find the porvontage increase in the aren enelosed, ‘TRIGONOMETRY 4, From an upper window in a house which js 100 f, ‘church tower the angle of clevation of the top of the tower is’2 fd the anglo of deprssion of the bottom is 15 How high eggs tower? Come, Sh Riiasebal, ameter § cm. move on, hovivonta ng lino making 18° with a cushion, which overhangs so th, Point at which the ball trikes it is dom, above the table, long the cushion between the St otc te point atthe etme height spparently ai “a from 4 tthe CHAPTER VIL. GREATER THAN A RIGHT ANGLE. Fig. 153 represents two rectangular axes O2, "inch-paper, ie. unit of length one inch, The ‘point in the plane is fixed by its coordinates. 2 “i, 18. A is (+08, +0-6); C is (-05, +08) fs (-08, ~04); H is (+07, -08). the plane into four quadrants; the object s positive and negative sigus to the coordinates | inguish between the quadrants; it is merely ‘but a very useful one. It is therefore " ° 8 ‘TRIGONOMETRY nesessary to distinguish between the coordinates of a the coordinates of Pare (+4, +5) sugaosts the snd the number of units of length in the distances ap editions should take. ‘the point from the axes Oz, Oy. Thus, although the coon . 7 nates of © are (~0'5, +08), the number of units of lngiy in 08 is 0, for OS=0-5 in, and although the coordinatas le of E are (-08, -04), the number of units of length in oT j 08, for OT=05 in. and the number of units of length in Teg GREATER THAN A RIGHT ANGLE 99 4, for TE=0-4 in, yar | oan] F EXERCISE VIL. a. (Oral) Suppose the perpendiculars from 8, D,F, G to Or are BB’, pp, FF, GG. Bee fig: 158, |, What are the coordinates of 8 and DY What are the lengthy of the lines OB’, B'B, OD’, DD? a £2, Repeat No. I for the points F and @. bt eh 3. A point is 08 inch from Oz and 04 inch from Oy. Dong %, we define the trigonometrical ratios of @ as ‘this ixils position? What can you soy about its position ? 4, Mark the point (403, ~C4) on Fig 158. Name, bya lee, scevordinate of P son oles poi aoa i be wom quadrant : oom fe = ceetlnats fF B. Tepeat No. for the point (~O%, +04) and (08, -04) Secure aS TON Serta of at Kae 9) wat you ae |, tan 6° =P Svortinate ore fer” " a ae evidently includes the original definition as a Noe, he quadrants in which A ©, E, H lie ar called he ge and extonds it son, tid nd fourth guarentee. 120? is obtuse, ic, 180" °>90?, seo Fig 160. ‘Trigonometrical ratios. ‘Take two rectangular axes Oz, Oy and imagine a line OP of fixed length r inches to rotate anti-clockwise about O, starting from the position Oz. e Suppose that at any time £20°<6°, ‘Draw PN perpendicular to Oxy let ON=a in., NP- 6° <9, we have by previous definitions, el, coped, wae. Now the provious definitions apply only to acute angle For angles greater than 90°, new definitions are necessary. ra, 100, 100 ‘TRIGONOMETRY As before, let ON =a inches, NP=b inches. ‘Thon the evordinates of P are (~a, +8); +b 4b 2+ by definition, sin @@= 2? = 42 1. if Pin obtuse, sin 6° is positive, but cos 6° and tan any each negative. ‘Further, in Fig. 160, .PON=180°— 6° and is acute, in (180° ~138*) = sin 42° =0-6691, and. =cos (180° 138°) = = cos 42°= 07431, (i) Suppose 270° > 6° > 130°, seo Fig. 161. As before, It ON =a inches, NP-=D inches Coase, ¢ GREATER THAN A RIGHT ANGLE 101 of P are (=a, ~B); 960° > 6° > 270°, see Fig. 162. ‘ON =a inches, NP =2 inches. 108 TRIGONOMETRY ‘ GREATER THAN A RIGHT ANGLE 103 (cman 1°) Numerical values of ratios. Suppose that in ti ere cer Aigurs, Figs, 109-102, tho four triangles ONP are couzraest™ om aap asus ‘i then, pert from sign, the numerical values of any one trig? Bese os, retscal rato areal equal For example suppose in Fig. 159, #° 69°; cin 63°=0 919, EXERCISE VIL b. ‘Then in Fig. 160, #°= 190° 63°11 sirloin Fig. 164 is 5 om. ; CAOP, swept out 2 sin 1T*=08910; seta Wits down tho vac of wa 0, con and in Fig. 161, #°=180° + 63° =243°, eS sin 243° = -0-8910; nd in Fig. 162, 6°=360°— 65° =297°, sin 297° = 0.8910, Similarly, since cos 63° =0-4540, we have cos 117° = ~0-4540 ; cos 243° = — 0-4540 ; cos 297° =0-4540, And, since tan 69°=1-9626, we have tan 117° 1.9625 tan 2431-9628; tan 297° = — 1.0605, _.. Wermay state then rrlts a follows he fous eee (R) The ratio of any angle 20P =6° is numerically equal 1 te paper a cirlo of rvdius 1 inch, and, by Sree ere eee oo es Se area Lek a 8 mudtiple of 180°; the sign of the value of Bese mh ee tar in) wa the ratio is determined by the quadrant tn whieh {i)con 305° (wi) 008 170° (vii) S| A \ optics. you say about 0 in the following cases, Nos, 11-16 t The reader should determine this sign by ee deawing a figure as above. /It may, however 6 be of interest to give a mHemonic; write the letters of the word CAST in the quadrants; these indicate which ratio is positive for the marked quad- ant, Cosine, All, Sine, Tangent. Obviously all the ratios are positive in the first quadrant; this fxes the position of At ‘nd the letters ate written the same way round as OP rotates Myopia nig on in a0? — Ain) ‘The following is a summary of the results established : Bp caries inn, $8. ee ir. sin (180° 9°) sin 6° ; sin (180°4 4°) = —sin 6° : 22, cos 165°, 89. in 260", 24. €05 250". r | ¢ sin (860° 2") = sin 6°, j Pot. sin96*. 7, tan 200". 98, tan 25%. 104 TRIGONOMETRY a GREATER THAN A RIGHT ANGLE 105 (cootttzeLepearel ype te folonag acetate us table above. (Compare tho graph and table of BR. coef BD ah K—B}. SL. ta0rK—9), 2 tan, ind from the tables the values of the following : 8 sn 00". 94, 00 105%. 85, ta900 96. cos 5g, W tan 210, $8, sin 17.99. coe 31. 40, sina 42, sin 128° 40’, 42. cos 123° 40 i‘ 49, tan 216° 25, 44. cos 308" 35°. ons on this graph, seo Ex. VIL. ¢,, Nos. 18. ng trigonometrical ratios of 9, when * > 90°, are Example I. Draw with the same axes and scale the p . raphy jance with the definitions alresdy given on of sin 2° and cos 2° for values of z from 0 to 960. 1 1 , ain 117° “ain oC 08", ime 1 1 °, In Figure 165, the graph of sin 2” is represented by a com T= con T° ~ =eon 65° ~ 100 69°, tinuous curve and the graph of cos 2° by a broken curve, 10 1 1 UP ign 117?” tan ‘oosee (180° — 6"); seo o” cot #° = —cot (180° 6), EXERCISE VIL 0. fn Big. 105 for Nos. 1.8 ‘values of oo 27°, cou 159°, 008 207%, cos 329°; ssa vl? ss ) sinz?=-097 a 8; (i) cone =08? Note, 1. In onter to draw a reasonably accurate graph, its lat range of values of = between 0 and 60 (i) sin x? Revessary to take a larger number of values of x than are met negatives 108 (eay, GREATER THAN A RIGHT ANGLE 107 55, Whatoun you say about xif() sin 2” > 04 i 6, What con yousay about if i) coax” > 04; 7. For what valuce of z is sin 2° =cos 2°? 8, Make a rough copy of Fig. 165, and show how you think sy ‘graphs continue for values of 2 boyond 360. in S04, $082 < 0.45 6). BA. 200180" +9). 25, oot (300-8), @) 87, cose (180° +0). 28, vot (180°+0), of sting ee 5°, C°s expres din (6° +) ‘What would you expect the grapbs to be for negative valng ae a ‘The introduction of ratios of angles of any 8. Sisich the graphs of sin(2e") and cos 22") for valucs of , gables many results to bo stated in a more general eae: otherwise be possible. The definitions on “no the fables to find two solutions of each of the falloying equations: IO. cosP=08, WL sing?=0042, 12, tan vP=14, 1B, sind?= 0-708, 14, cos? = 0454, 18, tan =~ 0404, ‘Find from the tables the values of the following : 16. coteo 200", 17. s00 310°. 18, cot 168°. 19. sec 140” 20, cot 265°, £1. coace 100°. 92, 200230". 23. cot 31, ‘Use the tables to solve the following equations: 24. cot a"=3. 25, cose 22, cose a= —24, 98, tants=4. 80, Draw on the same figure (i) the goaph of tan 2 for values of fom Oto 75, gf from 105 1o 258; and from 235 0 900; (4 th graph of eot for values of from 15 to 65, an fom io as BL. Draw on the same figure (i) the graph of cosee 2° for values of x, from 16 to 165, and from = 6" < 90°, we see 8 0° he pao yhere LNOP=0" < 90°, that P is 3 cos 6 Set eker bears oe eel Oto a, cna from 1 © and Ssin 9° miles East of O. These stato- sand from 255 t0 360. i. 167, 6°=160", and these results become North of O and 5 sin 160° miles Kast of ©. (ii) te "0 82, Findzit South of © and 3 sin 20° miles East of O; or (i) cosa! P is ~3 cos 20° miles North of O. 108 ‘TRIGONOMETRY gS GREATER THAN A RIGHT ANGLE. 109 ‘With the usual notation for the SABC, prove a=) cos 0420083, teu The to set of reals ate therefore consistent it 03 160° = ~cos 20° and sin 160°= +sin 20°; and we have already seen (pp. 102-105) that this is so, ‘Again, in Fg. 108, 9°=245, and tho general relts bey 8.008245" miles North of © snd 9 sin245° niles East of oe But, since ; one solution exists; aaBc fits the data, but AAB'C does not. In Big. 188 (i), a SOLUTION OF TRIANGLES 135 me that 80~2:1in0s then ve the cose 2ihids sox 20 fa tor ofa. ro 216. ‘hotangent atCeutsABatT. Calculate CT, given iBO 8, 6=24, calculate the ratio 55. ofthe angles of a triangle are in the ratio 5 ines aro in tho ratio 25: 19: 7. i ro, 21, 27. Tn the framework fn Tig. 219, BE=20 ft. Caleplate AC. 5 / i me. 217 ties A, D of tho mechanism in Vig. 217 are xed, gj Calclate the sag ABC wen AB i point two roads OA, OB run dup West and me A boy-scout at © 8 cedored to go to a farm F ‘he western road, but by mistake goes along OB: ‘he zoaliocs he is wrong, aud tallow a line co088 0 einen fon the road OA alter walsing another mile. Should ee en itor left to find F, and how much fursber must 18, In the framework in Fig, 213, A8=10 ft, Caloulato BO- 136 TRIGONOMETRY HALF-ANGLE FORMULAE 1364 26, The mechanism in Fig. 218 oonsists of thrce method. Dan tar abot tk eh an ios of a triangle, to find its angles. D, whieh are xed. Calculate the total ‘angle through which AB can osellate. R Ae} S Reuse: ‘obtained on pp. 177.8, the area A of the given by B= J(s(e—a)(s-8)(8-o)}, where ta rode Ag 8 Fro, 218, Fyn, 21 oe Aply ts, 27. Tn Fig. 210, AB is window which pivots about its cent 164, the radius r of the inseribod cire £0 te ind me "Bo into nls see oa olde ‘one from B passing over a pulley at D and the other from Ay the i. Now tan =tan ay =] coor re ea Wk aCe = ee fmend FED 25°. es xt ee ; BOF when ihe wor tropa Jage=ayfe = ae 3 ey 2, Tom an ohstraton balloon ut A a an and 10 fac the ale of pun ot ek oe Bae 60 {sly et sw he Pino ii, Wate hag ot aloe 6 REE a o ae) leno, S99; tan fC is Noses MEV a Bolve the triangle ABC, given that «21-76, eae set Fale ot so elie 8 ia Baad pin an HE ai ‘fixed line; if Pisa variable point on tho curve she length of 8 Bae Waar ates aeecr Naval ‘the curve such that SB=jAA’, Caleulate the lengths of SA, SA’y Ae ead bom ae 20. A flat triangular pece of wood has sides 5", 6,7", I s placed fist on s Horizontal table and ia then rotated through 20° about tk T side, What is the height of the opposite vertex above the teble? 1368 TRIGONOMETRY (@=ae=a) PB=PA-BA =CA-BA=b—c. wy | 8Q-BA+AQ-BAFAC—b +0. sien Baw’; . B=40° CL, fir=aKe=H a =o) + S-18°13'; C=36° 26%, Check: A¥B+0=180% Hep, < in emicilo; 2. BA in|) a0 ole.) As previously explained, i 4-igure tables are tho roa wil not neonaly be corer he ace eta : * i) Tt is useful to check the values of s-0, #5, sont adding them up, asebove $=0+8-b+5~0m38—(0 45-40) 820-5, (iti) When 4 and 8 have been found, we ean of course at ones ‘write down the value of ©, sinee C= 180° ~(A + 8) UL) Gir too aes ond th inoladad ong of stray fad te rening cand annie ned ome HALF-ANGLE FORMULAE 136¢ ‘To prove that Solve the triangle ABC, given that oa2476, D=16-58, 0=86°28', b= 24-76 -1638-838, a+b=26-76+1633=41-14, 448 _1(180° ~c) =4(180°—35°26') fol aseay’ = T1247"; 4 circle, and let it eut AB produced at P, @; join OP, CQ}, draw 8F perpendioular to CP. 4 1360 TRIGONOMETRY 898 tan 71°47" REVISION PAPERS 137 "REVISION PAPERS, R. 19-25, Fat 51° 455 ; Rw. angle dos the line joing the origi to the pote but ec ih he postive dirstion of the eax? z : {0 forthe pos (2 8). 7. adding, A~103° 39%, and subtracting, 6 = 40° 2, Mee oanuniacutusnict ¢ 1638 tan 75°25’ con 1° 157 Further, gmae7a "an 402"? rae Sao aaa 16:58 sin 36°20 a sling dou «rectangle 40 in. by 24 jn. and the dat 10" tothe horizontal, ini dhe nelination = Sy ai. ‘The examples in x. IX.¢. may now be solved by using the hatfangle formulae. Further practi in theit us is givey in Ex, XVI. a, (p, 249); for the convenience of the n ant of that exercise is reprinted below. angle between the line joining (1, 2) to (3,6), and e a 1,2) t0 (6.6)? hand of a clock whose face is in a vertical plane, EXERCISE XVI a, > fora for the distance ofthe tip fons the Solve the fllowing triangle, Nox. 110: ] eoftbeclck att minutes gaat tbe hour. Evaluate (10,20, 3,40, 50, and interpret your answers. sini find i whoa y=1-2 and i =47° 20. ted_mechauism in Fig. 222, AP fod PO=OG=2 in. Find the’ grates 4s ° G, and find the distance of O from tite line BC when 138 ‘TRIGONOMETRY. 5, Find the smallest angle of a Tom, and 8 em. (oxy, RRVISION PAPERS teiangle whose sides ace 5 oy 139 nrband of a clock, whose faco is in a vertical plane, is Mfind s formula for the distance of the tip below its 2h. after! hours, Bvaluste the formula when is 1,3, , 2 Mies Mee vetoes ott bee une beam of wood is 10 ft ong, 18 in, wide and 124 () sin (i) co8 0°=0417 (i) tan iad acroms it stan snaleof 14° tothe top face, and 2. ‘The ends of the link AB in Fig. 223 move on fixed lines ox, ip the ide faces, Find the aces of the eurface thus Find the distsnce of P from these lines when £ OAB=70", | ™°O% © ism diagram of the fairway of o dog-leggod hole on & 8 H Tw hk Mo 2 pases 290 ya roa wo ive drt from the ee T oak So fr shovt of wills ball nah? Pe. Question 4, if another gfe who ean only Ba ciys fom. ai a angle GOTA sould ho dive 4. A sove thrown nto th ae with velocity w f. per we, a ul angle of o* tothe horizontal will hit the ground ata distance #2 fener 9 ch the line ofthe fairway AH R98, ‘an obtuse angle is $. Caloulate its cosine without Prine on P=107, a=52, B47" rato of PH, when P=107, 082%, 8 shed js shown in Fig. 226. Find the inclination to the horizontal. Tt'u=80, draw a graph to show the distance reached for valyéa fron 0 ¢6 0, and reall from it (}) the groatest distance that ga reached, (8) the values of «for which the distance is 50 ft 4, Find tho angles ofa triangle whose sides are 9 om., 9 em, 10¢m, c 1 2 be / al / ool az ri 5. Inthesmrlg hora ing 20d te ee edd Boner u aya) site ih ae fae ht a eee ee ‘B, 2. = et nl at pit Gt that A204, Ae Tenis srs of s triangle in which b104 om, 08 otha Mnid-pt. of BC. Find the length of AG in the triangle 0 ‘TRIGONOMETRY REVISION PAPERS sry ‘ou, Ra. 0, Fd rm tte val fin 20%. Te : one ot - 1 So Fig. 228, ABine dismeter; TS, TParetangenia, 1 ca Sys ght i th the tables the posible values of sin (>). 2. (i) What equation connects sit in (i) Find a value of 9 for which sin 8° =00s 55% 8, A sphere of radius 432 inchoo retain. oonioal {nel of ye angi hight 531 ihe the aig. he funnel evra a above the pane of the ti? oe ae 4. ABCD in trupetium with AB and CD as AB=8 in, BO=A im, CD=8 in, < BCD=129". OAD. 5. Tn SABC, AB= {ng £BAC=108° the alitad BE. CF of SABC inerosed at H. Find the length of At. 2, Find a relation between 2 and y, independent of 0, given that +2 tan 8, y=1—S cot B, Two discs, centres A, 8, rest in contact with eaph others and ey +¢q=20 co B. vertical wall O, sce Fg. 229} and the line AB maakey an angle af 1 ream, radius 2°, rotates about e fixed axis © which is e a, 22, with the horizontal OF. B, whose radi is 10 om, now rolls smains horizontal. Find low far AB rom the wall and allows A to fall vertically. How far has B rll has rotated through 100" from the ‘when AB is inclined at 50° to the horizontal? i ‘where O is vertically above C., “MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE M3 of a circle, diameter @ inches or radius rr inches. proved that x lies betwoon S} and 34@; in ‘often taken to be 10; in 1615 4. the value of 3 Gio 35 placce of ‘leeimals by a German’ Profestor, Ceuten; ia 1858 4.p,, William Shanks published is places of decimals, CHAPTER X. file. Let © be the centre of a circle of radiug r inches. fy polygon ABCDE... circumseribing the eielo, and join O MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE etna’ of AB, BC.CO, thw fine ao aide : JORB, OBC, OCD, Circumference of circle, 4 r All circles are of the sume shape and are similar figures, ‘There, fore the ratio SOUMMFeTENE® 5, eho game in all circles Trinh ofthe of toca ods ttl Ci VEZ AB +H BC+r C+ $B 420400 +...) ‘Take csle, Alamoterd inches, and croumtribe a square fx perhneter, Pee ee cere ic Ear seston ead 1 22, hhoxagon is equal to the radius and isin, long; . the perimeter famall as we please ; and we say that in the limit, ‘the hexagon is 6 x 5 =3d in, | «perimeter of circle Boos as ul Ly Shox derae atin See ee eo Ta ou statement of the argument nod above and eae eal iecertbed barra s eet eof ak nt by i gto eure ine ‘We can find an apprositate value of this number by experineat dlhy'a curved line ars christy wnauitabo a is ‘and measurement : and ita value cau be calewated to any Te} Gegroe of accuracy ; itis denoted by x calculation gives c PAI res of a ciroumteronee ‘diameter 12 are. circle enbtond equal anglos at the contre © We therfore have Suppose, for example, are CO=3 are AB; then 4 ‘TRIGONOMETRY a MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE 6 4COD=32A0B, because CD can be divided into threy of circular eslinder, : each equal to AB. And in general nt ciecalae Fens ates wal dies we Pena aroP@_4PO@ * area LAOS" Ter be Pr. 25. of paper the same height asthe cylinder and wrap it a Eavface ar cence it 0 tha the sheet just covers 5 out overlapping. When we unvrap i and fold it ae Mprectanele of height h in. and breadth 27 in. 5 H the avea=2xrh 99, in. It the radius of the cirole is r inches and 2POQ=2", thea. lf the curved surface of the eylinder Bra aq. fo. apa 2? pe cpliodee. ‘izoumnference ” 860°" base-acoa x lat ee x haath eu. in. Find the area of the minor segment cut off le of radius 4 in. by a chord of Jf ato PQ= 35, x2nr= jay xrinches, | / Area of circular sector. By tho same argument, / area of sector POQ_ 4 POQ. area of sector AOB™ 2A08* | area of sector POQ__ 2° + area of cizele ~ 560°? centre of the circle; chord arn of solar BOQ 3 n= a, cee [Note tht the ara of ctor POO =3n x72 =} radins x are PQ. Bi 1357 sq. in. EERO ROM EES YE ISURATION OF THE CIRCLE wat 4OA .OBsin £08 =8 sin 97° 197 yuared paper two circles, one of radius 2 inches, the =8 sin 82? 48" =8 0-992] finches. Find the area of each by counting the 931 5 | Wet isthe value ofthe ratio Sto J minor segment ACB=1857 7.945 68, FE have Sages hic Aye tho Bet ete inex ay bo laben ier ab ¥. 7 06 3142, Note. () Using figure tables, we cannot, owing tg Bereta ty may be ken be 07: subtraction, rely on more than to signiicant fines jy Preacr be given fo more than 3 significant iors. ‘onsweer. ‘cigeumforence and area ofa circle () of radius 7 om.; (Gi) Tris sometimos convenient to use $2 as a rough app ae : mation for =. This value is correct to 3 figures, and eau ag ae (mit corer eta 124, 1 B16 oi blaine from it aro likely to be corect to 2 figures al cap ec ure aude by wel AEROWE x.» fof arth te ion a : eee oa ce 1, A piece of fine cotton is wound 20 times round a cylin: ag na in lahat ele rope 9 dn ronda ya Decay treat rr snouliconse em,, the Alamoter of the oylindr ‘measured and found to be 3) + Find the value of Stumferenee | hand of a church clock is 1 ft. 9 in. long. Find a ae a ae ee a ea cen ts pees ene ee ere a en oa aie, it is found that 80 euch stops are required. “Find the vale metas, 2 OF ele of racine 730m, 7-3 om. long- What angle 8 A small wheel, radius 1-2", ig rolled along a straight ine om eecrcmine pileoe of paper ond ia found to travel a distaste ef 7-0" in ose sol ‘ireumerenoe Z tion, Find tho value of SEMMIEENC® given by this ofperiments 4. Fig, 287 representa two aqaren, one circumscribing tho and the Giher intorted in i. "toe radon of Ue sce fe ‘in Fig, 298 aro quadrants of circles. Prove that if Jequal, the shadiod areas are equal. 7 or is. 208 waz, ‘whit. ate the areas of those squares ¢ What does this tll you shout slows an equilateral tlancle sido 4°. Find the, the area of the ele é TE itis compoced of ase of tho some radius I 148 ‘TRIGONOMETRY (SURATION OF THE CIRCLE 19 I 18. A place of wie. long ie bent into an ae of rains tare aro ofcielos of radi 4. 4, 5 inches, touching far apart are the ends of the wire ? ne Pedlslate (0) toe ace, {i} tho perimeter of Fg. 241. 18. A swing has ropes 14 ft. long, and when at ret the wat above the ground the seat is prevented from rising mat 3 10 fs above the ground, What in th lengeh of the ane nt tha, can swing? whic 20, What length of are of a circle of radius 5 om. is en Fovord of length Tem. ? of bg sis e.242, AL, What is the area of the-minor segment of » circle of F Meets of radi 1 fe, 3 f, with thelr contres 5 apart, Aisa temgeeiceriotay ea Sigg o Delt se Fig. 242" "Calculate the total length of theare oe al pent = bse ii, ted ext on the surface of lider of damstor to al arene eee, Thales anglof fst eke aac een Wem eat hea chord atength 3 one ! ears acta oat a 28, A wa conta oe tang roamed by «sera ine ridt Sand he peatet bight 8 fe i inert, MA, Te i) the vlume, the tal rte of coe ‘height 6 in. and ie Ts 5. Tad the deter of opindar whoo lng 1 ‘volume 300 eu. inches. + ag 26, How may lintel lane 3, date an Yo tgipthof fin frome lol jogo lamar ba : Pen Boe angen nth cl, rs Os OA ta 27 garden rllor 3 fin dlameter ands 4 few ‘niodte hs length of tho we PQ. (Pig 248) son donde ln 60 seohstona Tne na 4% 8 tangent 0 the cil, contre 0; 200R=30"s ks | Prove that 28D is a close af cimation for the length 28, A rogular polygon of nine sides is inscribed in airee of ES aes fs a eee nae cl iS) are aig 9, TA,TB are tangnia toa clo of rans ne; ATS r no. 255. e to whools of a cart ave fixed 6 fect epart on an axles pa bea a circular course euch that the diameter of the Caloalate the arca bounded by TA, TB and the are AB. (Hig: 40) S500 fe. Find the diference between the longs of the feats, Ts ony part of the data supertluous ? 150 ‘TRIGONOMETRY 86, A cele dn ome 0, dame 1 taut string AEFW ome bro tan’ns a 151 is fixed Edriven mas he ian through ® tie ig called the “ Greenwich meridian.” Let it 7 at A, as shown, point P on tho arth’s surface and draw the nigh it, cutting the equator at Q. =P and 2 Q0P=2° Fei the notation of tho figure, Pis said fo have latitude in, and AOB is straight tine Jonsitude 1° West. fieiag. Gilg. S46) EA Hoe, ind the eng og from 90°§. (at the South Pole) to 0° (on the 32. The 1 inch the axis, ‘of a serew rises 3 inches in 10 turns ; id he angle which the tread ofthe on hen makes ; Latitude and longitude. Let N, 8 represent the North and §; " North and South Poles of the & ‘and 0 its centre: the Equator is the secti i I latituds ane is the section of the ‘equal latitudes. * the Hal iis the centre of the small circle PD, which is Jatitude through P and cuts the Greenwich nt to notice that (i) Sector POQ sar! x 6 ee et ee CIRCULAR MEASURE, $+ Sector POO = 309 4. in 204 pay Ratios of o_ 37-33% boat tos of small ances. ara maiane Use the eam figure as on p. 159, taking caopag. ee at : 0651. 2 results can be obtained dizeot | conversion table. [Find the length of the chord PQ whieh eu i a Jong fom 8 cizle, contr 0, radius 5m, Since area of sector AOP= 1180, we have as before Piso ogy #, ’ ses to cheok your answers. 160 we took 2=5 as an example of a small angle mut the angle corresponding to 16h ‘TRIGONOMETRY q CIRCULAR MEASURE 165, 8, cp In dogs in sng who i near | ee hen mets rats $e tana by theses AB () a0, (2) 92 pont on as oon ity BA, (il) at 4 point on tho minor are AB? Give the ee sue Og does of a circle, centre O, radiua 5 in. is 6 in. Tong ees te Oh {Expr the follving angles in xdlnsin army of Be mg ef te chord POS Soa: tiers ta) I masof the sector POO of acl, contre, aus 10 cm. (et)30°s) (vi) 08°; (i) 2273 meprens FOR fe radians Calne the length 4. Bepress in radian the followin i seein wil te valu lee nt : [of aus 20 nc pining omits axe a 9 ain ae (i 30° (i) 58° (iv) ee eee (O85 (ry wl TOL’; (ol) torah (nie, (wy ieay. p . fs czoulne sector in 6 crm, long and the angle of she 5, In somo Tablea wo fad It = 57.90%, 01-575, 00mg ete are of the stor 0-001" =0-06". | Use theso remalts to express in de apres epee of dials (i) 1328) 0-5: (a) 2910, 6, Tho radios of cele fn 10 om. Find the lonsth of an _stoieubtonds atthe centre an angle of @) 2 () 30 (ai the complement of 71 (ds) 37° 95° (use Tables), (v) 197° 24” (use Tables). : Hees phen eae 4, The radius of a elle f 4 inches, Find in radians eee carriage aavances sec the centre by an are of length (i) $in., (i) 5 in, ( ge es clete, ipa she oan? Hae ( alters 67° in direction when pngsing round 8, Use Tables to express 37° in radians, and write down the: aioe ‘mile. is. lius of the in of ctor of cle, radas 10 omy angle of sevion 3 By ee ne eae oy 18. Write down the valves ofthe following, the unit beings tel of radius r fect is rotating on its axis ot w radians per Sian $ homes yan sr andy athe edo pint co thos ind in radians twine ie, entheria 3". What in he hisd (eee oy aB, (ponte; (to eytantZs ay eat 8; aon, | ai al 1 10. Simply sho following, the uit bag a radian @einte-0); —(Hyeou(G-0); canton (Se) resent off by portions of to ieee rA; ine); ea Sire sarees ot two sin (8-6); (wit cos (25 +0); (i) cot =~ thera tore of the Fre aetna) ‘a point on the rim of a wheel of diameter @ fas a speed G)ten(r+9)s (acon $+0); (a sn (40) Mind the angular velooty of the wheel in radiaus per 166 TRIGONOMETRY tu Wickens cetionin ea #5 Hn rm tn anh ral (on, Se eee ras Gharoreete tae 7 esr rom pi igonom fe ‘tho diametzically opposite point 8 o of Hind without sing trigonometric tables, approximate wags ioat the sboreest path across the curved surface i ' CIRCULAR MEASURE 167 ic sofa circle mine 5 om. | OA, AB at ares of MBiem. die then tte lon; OA, OB are produced to oot the tangent Galeulate PO. (i 00 (stars (singe 20's pain 40's Gis) singe nes the distance along the rim. (x) 008 84°; (vi) con 89°; (vit) tan.2° 30's (vi) cot gg Re E ft long, ia attached to the top ofa cr 22. Uso the fact that, in Fig 264, chord PQ < are P BAGG, ng, eat to ttm of amas tostow that iP isecuie dab cbcunes mea SPT x50 ge td ot pe er hee 2 ON é © ae i ala 88. With the notation of No. 27, write down the length of th Cane ent ts ia telat ‘chord AP, and deduoo thot if 0° is aoute sin @ < 2.sin? —Y may sin? Rosse, = s{6—a)(e-D—0); J. A= Jfale=al(s-B)(6—9) Thin rele was Get given by Hor of lconiria + tb is sometimes called Heron’s formila for of a triangle. ‘roa of trapesium, ABCD is a tmpezium, with AB and CD as parallel sides, ® 5 tein (22) et AB=2, 00-1, and distance between 48 and be 4, rea of 2048 Rt in (7) Area of ABCD = AABD + SECD= 42 .h+dy.h aR? (28 Tier ‘half sum of parallel sides x distance 5, cea of polyger na 285, Area of quadrilateral, ABCD is a quadrilateral, whose dingonals cut at 0; AC=z, BD=y and ZA0B=0. Leb AO=f, OC=}, BO=p, OD=r, so that f+ prey. Ares of ABCD = 4AOB+AB0-+ ACD +ADOA = Hp sin #4 dph sin (180°— 6) + Jr sin 9 +f sin (180-0), 180, ‘TRIGONOMETRY ic (Gil) Tho area can also be expressed casily in ter length of a sie. mS Of . a Ooo (t . 0 Nas Let B=: 5 then ON=5 cot (=) ; a CaN soma frae(2) ; of triangle re 61 yd, and 02 Seceieien ole Shas you soy about the included angle? : 7 t(7): Note, The reader should observe the form these 4 : take when the number of sides, n, bocomes very large, es ee Scenics Yoo oe ee i) s with base 5 inches, is constructed equal in area to age ee ee ieee t ‘of ee Ginebes Went i the height of the In (ii) we see that the area x nr? x” x r7?, ‘scale 2 inches to the mile, a plot of ground is repre- = "ABO, wheteAB-=1-3in.,8C-=2-1 in ABC=117. ‘of a poralelogram is 6 cm., one angle ia 141°; the 1a ota harm a a patimmeten® a - Jogramn with sides 4 om., 6 om. and one angle 118° is EXEROISE XIL a De garliciogratn with sides 8 om, Te. Find the fthe latter. Calculate the areas of the following figures, Nos. 1.9. { aquaddateral; ABA, 80=2,00=9,.AB0=122", / By lp i “sided polygon is inscribed in a circle of radius { entogen i forme om given gh of flexible 3 Pefcentage increas often ifthe seme piece of orn a regula decagon * frre 2p. long is bent to form a reular pentagon, lus oft circle which () eiroumaoribe iy (2) nap of qudliera are 7 in 0, long na ta Shera angle doe diagonals cut? goal is 8 ye wide high 5 he goa ne ros > ibd the ava enloed tetvesn the had of fd ree and the ga! ne when the San ie ‘TRIGONOMETRY 24, A piece of wire 6 ft. long is bent into triangle ‘ angles aro 108°, 47°.” Find te area, tro ot 25, A pieos of grovnd on a sloping hill a sloping hillside has an ar spare miles "On 6 np itis shown as. an area of [3 ‘what anglo is the hillside inclined to the horizontal 28 In iso rectangle cfhiGe inform stor * MPU Fed PQ ety Kuleclls Pala aad Rie. 300, 87, In Fig. 300, ABCD is a parallelogram. Prove that 2a tang = 2208 onal 28. In Fig. 301, CACB=90° and AP=PB, Prove that anand eee h HPN {iN Fi, 901, res ° ra, 299, £29, In Vig. 902, AD biseots 2 BAC, Prove that AD= “8020 and uso the relation sini Simplify the expression, Pyramids, Tf the has of a em of 295 | Pyramid isa repsdar polygon, and if the perpen: dca fora the voriex to tho base passe through the cent of the regoler polygon, tho soli Is called a right pyramid t has alreedy been mentioned (p. 158) that the volume of 6 Dyzamid is measured by | bage-aren = eh. ‘Sections of » pyramid parallel to the baso aro tho same shape af ere crete ia Serta ps iyettcoret Rates ‘TRIANGLES AND POLYGONS 183 the distances of the sactions from the vertax of the of eny frustum of a pyramid may be obtained, as on etn th pyr Hie used on p. 16440" the frastum of «cone, shows also fis the area of the parallel faces of a frostam of MLif his Soe distance between them, the volume of the aces of a pyramid are triangles, and their aeas may ‘Sbtained by Using the ordinary triangle formulae. EXEROISE XII. b. promi 6 om. high stands on are bate of sido Bo is voluinn {i tho aren oft otal surface, if vertex © stands on a agro basa ABCD + Jy What is tho volume of tho pyramid is 0 oq om. acd eight io 12 om, Trea of estion parallel to te baze and an he vane of eam and ye Srallel to tae base nd Sem. fom 1 « pyar a hounded by two rectangle in. by By 13in.atalntanced in. apart.” What ints volume? tho data of No 4, ll the slant edge ae equal, snd tho ithe stan 40 bigh taper uniformly, tho buco being 12 ft Hop 10 feSsquace? she central hollow space has ection dit in diameter: . Invest ton the weight of bri cafe weg» tom. repracents in plan a stack on : EF is 15 ft. above fhe volume of tho o- a. 08 ‘volume of a regular totrabodron (a pyramid on & 5) if exc elge i 4 inches, d, vertex O, stands on a rectangular base ABOD 5 fare all equal; -AOB=31", AB=! yuare horizontal bases eaels face feachedgemakesan angle with Pind a relation coumeeting and 8. 1st TRIGONOMETRY | TRIANGLES AND POLYGONS 185 Radius of the ciroumoirele of AABO. eccribed circle of AABG. Let 0 be the circumcontre and R the length of the radius of A486, and lot CO meet the circumcise at p centre and r, the length of the radius of the Then t0 BO, which touches BC, CA, AB at Xs, Yas Zi- 4CBP=907, 4 in semicircle, A D n a=, ae i) q post va Also 28°C = 840A, in Fig, 90, ares of ,CA + area of A8— area of ABC and 4BPO=180°— LBAC =180°—A, in Fig. aos. eByYy .CA+ 41,2; .AB-H1,% BC ", @=BC=OP sin BPC =2R sin A (Fig. 304) Hryb+ Hye }r,a= dn(o+0-<). =2R sin (180°) (Fig, 908), G=2s, bvo-an2s-24, in each case, a2" sin A; Aa Jn (2-2e)=n 0-0); cs eed ; oogt Similar Me ji if ry, r% are the radii of the circles escribed to eee Rosin B” Bain 4 Bom Soe doit smite, [| Booties tannins. o abe abe | ante and Ro as eee \ ee 8 cl BX=rcot} and XC=r cotS; inscribed circle, which touches the sides at X, Y, Z. a De roo Bsr) ax x0 00 jC Disect the exterior angles at B, C, Then A=area of IBC-+area of 1CA+arca of AB A 180°) =90°-3 {284-55 IX, BO+HIY.CA+}IZ.AB . 2 ZEN mda fb tdro= dla tb +0); “PXan tang and x%40=n tan$ pub a+b+e=2s, DN sina é x 6 Pie 08 ta (tn8 tn) —Bn+x0-80~0- ‘express r, 7, ete, in terms of one side, and two triangle, 186 TRIGONOMETRY TRIANGLES AND POLYGONS 187 The positions of the points of contact of the in-ciet 307, nd BX, and AZ, with ae measuresente of No. 11. are oblained from the following results| And eg (of three circles, centres P, @, R, which touch each G) In Fig. 308, AV=AZ=¢~a; BZ=BX=s—d, OK, jy, aze oe inchea. Wind expressions for (i) she are, Bethy angnts oma pint toa cde wrt aqui he Nips insoberl and eacribed ctvles ofthe tesaagle POR, BZ=BK, CK=CY oh aoket consita of thre rod forming a triangl of sides 6,2, perimeters, ra Horizontal plano, a sphere of diameter § inches But racket. Find the height of the highest point of the faul cratbrty otha Satceale the bracket. i) Ts mkzZja3 drawn through the vertex A of triangle ABO to meet (i) Ta Fig, 807, AY, =2, Be hat ive Sts of tae rad ot the Seouracls ot nop in. =, and sna for Cy, thn aio of» cl through A and touching BC ot © sh giv alteration fr ry a (o-D) tan B, oc., 8 0) cot Bete. Born oq tate ng, = ES 2 in in Btn = EXERCISE XIL. 0. th 21. Prove that th=a eee 2, Bind the radius ofa cite if « chord 34 in, tong ou angl of 113° at the cioumnferenee. . 2. Fad tho radius of» cireln if a chord 572 ix. long subtgada a ange of () 52, (i) 128° af the creumference. REVISION PAPERS. R. 27-4. 8, Find R and rin triangle whose sides arf 5, 6,7 inches, Rm. 4. Find the radius of each excribed ecelolof the tciangl who i ae sides aro 3, 4,5 inchen, oe tinvous Tine in Fig. 308 shows a sotion of some core \ Mie ourve is formed of «qyual area of circles and the 5. In sae, 0°, Find R andy, first are is 4” below the straight Line AB, Find the 6. In 480, *, O=42". Find R kad y. 7, Given R=14 om.,a=12 0m. Find A. 8, Taree, places A, B, © are cach 4 miles distant from a place O- Ir tho angle ABC is 71° find tae distance of A from C. 8. ‘Tho erosssoction ofa loo pram isa txianglo with ses § 110 long” Wat tho laterndl mea of esas pipe throvgh which ican be passed ? fe 10. ABCD is. quadrilateral; BA=4 fn, AD.=6 in, 4 BAD = mee EABO=LADCHM. Find AC. curved line stown in the figure. What would be UL, To Fig. 206, find BX and Ox, (ita we Of the corrugated ion covering aro! IO‘ wid, it oii Son nese ‘ root a 18 TRIGONOMETRY REVISION PAPERS 189 2, An jnk-botile nin the form of « eylinder with ata sro goes direct from to. XW and WY are main opm Winn fe el wt be tom of he ig cra Trt to tetaed apekio down whuowsany ickepling > oa he dopth ofthe coue=f depth ofthe whole boil. ay 7" 3, Find the other sides of a telangle fa which aa 2°30), BT ae ce fio. 318, ‘motor at 20 m.p-h. along the country rond and at cheniain roads, ind which is ehe quicker route from. Hmuch time bo will save by taking It. ded polysons are inscribed in and cicanribed eS 10mm eg areata proontage of the area ofthe circle R28. 1.3% a. an ‘approximate rule, that the area of « small segment re heig, to the minor segment eut off by & chord Se taking 7 equal tod ~ 4/3, and find the eror percent. “igure. 4 Ina range-nder, mirrors 90 in. apart.are focused on the oj tse range i Being taken. At what angle will the mimo Inked tach other when th range oft ohtt Oy aa taken? is 40 chains long. A point P is observed in the 6, Find the area of the quadrilateral ABCD in Fi. 310 oe goats fond shaw % PAB=75" 487, LABP=08"52'- ates ea of P from A and from B. ef Dullet-macks on a target. AB=1in.,B0-=08in, 1, AB and CD are two diameters at right dogles of a cir, he diater of he group hat thay form, 10.cm,; ares are drawn as in Fig. 311, with A and 6 as thelr eat ‘ofthe smallest circle into which they wil just ft, Caloulate the perimeter and are of the shdded portion. cof a triangle ABC in which 78in., O=68" 43% rami, height 6°, stands on w square base, side 5” ‘area of the pyramid and the inclination of the al & ne of the has. R90. 5 th a square section ABCD, side ‘the ground, turning i suo- meee corners A,B,C, Sketch 2. A tower at a distance of 1 mile eubtends an angle of 3/36 ¥y the corner D until the Find ite height approximatoly. onthe ground, and calesate ig. 313.) 8. Show that, if @ is measured in radians and is smal, is approximately equal to 0. Test show they agree to tree figures. ST fa circle is 2 ft Jong and sub- ee fof 25° 30’ at ehe contre of the cirle, Find the rele and the length of the chord of the arc. REVISION PAPERS 191 BR. 32, 17, AB ise diameter; AP=8 om., BQ=45 cm. 190 ‘RIGONOMETR Y 4 A mania pice Yaa als "ita inant Ta eeeet ie ae 8 ace ‘whose faces slope at 70° to the vertical. Find the heii,” eee Seteine al 5 cn seh ha i cave ta vn a os agit oie dna Whee ae 8 a fee aes ete erage tang SOE ey ‘opposite ends of a diameter of the base of the cone’? bis Ro 1. In, Big. 814, AB=80=0D=2 in: semicon ate shown. | Prove tint the abaded aren is one-third of te alt at lo ABC, AC=25, BC=20, 2 BAC=40°. Calculate iy ff the axis of Mercury's orbit is about 42 seconds ‘At what distance docs a halfpenny (diataster 1") ic N. and motors 109 aig je dats of No. 1, calculate the loncth of the are PB and hy the aro PB and thestraight lines AP, AB. & Tho gradient of a railway cluuges from 1 in 40 to 1 in45. Fly ants a prism on @ square horizontal base abcd | approximately the change ia the angle of slope. 1B, cO, dD ; the prisin cub Ly mplano in wscotion 4, Vid te fou parlelof tite two Xf the Raton gda Kerlore paricgram. Cains 2A, at dnd Oty wish avid the art's sree ato 8 veo tae Hen datocy ths angle beiwesn he lance 4, Fig. 415i out out in cadtoard and the four connect ; ‘are folded about the sides of the aquate|to form» py R, 83, Find the otal prfacars sth Yoluse fig yaa Bifune, erie 0, vera angle 0s evened trom amet the tos y"G eo pine o8 A he cone, such thet OG? OC. its wth G vertically below A,

fvhich AO takee with the vertical agon and a regular dee AN V/ respectivel fot then 7? a=. Use Tables nit B, © of two roils AB, AC are na.sis, Fo. 206 5 Biroiched lati sting AB~2 fty © 5. InFig.816,0 sth centreofaczele cus Sein, and 00= 55 italy BC ie 1 0 in. throug Calculate te radius of a cirle which touches thie ele at AaB Beak th ra be opened Ariaass an addional 4 iGinches in the string? ‘passes through C. 12 TRIGONOMETRY 4, Whats to hehe of pie iboats of ashe? 5, In AARC, -ABO=89", LACB~65",BO=5em, Cy sadius of the circle, escribed to BC. “Nota cm, 1oUse above sexleve, Rm. 1. A rectangular block rests, with one edge th [APTER XIII. eta Seals Snr ot cat Soa ah A ee y relations between the ratios of a single angle A & din Port I. from the definitions and Pytha- for acute angles. ‘Tho extended definitions in that they hold for angles of any magnitude. sin A op g 0088 Ea} fan A=S2s cot AS ge tae Pe ee Ho, 30, HPA FoF). Find the height of C above the ground and the distance 3 © f E seoA=1 +tantA. .. Yorticl plane throagh the axis ofthe oyindes, Pace eae eee Giucee om en ‘these formulae, expressions involving the ratios 8, AB is a diameter and AC in achord of ai ee uate 4. In Fig. 321, AE is perpendicular to BO; AGTH GAB O Rxprem the rive of the cielo 0% 5A pyramid as » aque base with 4 equal ipvcte ingles fr fae Drove that it eal ot these face ale an angie of 45° th te ba tae cosine of tho vertical ana ofeach instelas ange wll be jab int Eh ange hebweenm pair of tuanguat faces wl be 0 194 ‘TRIGONOMETRY (TIES INVOLVING SINGLE ANGLES 195 Ezanple II, Prove that fo terms of sa oly (see A—cos A) (cosec A—sin A) —. fi ae Lea e (ee Acos A) (coe Asin A) (yemacara; — (w)anAscra: f sin A)(cos A-+sin A). in term of e08 A only: (i) tata Ail) ses (¥) cosee Acot As (vi) en#A ~ cost. ‘in terms of tan A only : (Gi) sinta (fi 990A case A Sah waka ror in erm of ones A only Bak goeh she 7 TL tax'Ay (i) cond cot, , Left side=Right side. Nota. () 1s my happen that tho cat way of two expressions equal is to simplify each, as in Example Tp If 80, simplify ench separately, as above. Never start by saying thay san equal and sedanag bon es toques Tal ‘means “is equal to"; it does not mean ra equal to.” (i) It is usually best to write both exppéssions in tarms of sines and cosines; sometimes, however, it is possible th exp ‘them in terms of tangents only. | 4 following identiticn: IA=L=1-2sintA. 82. (sin J+c0s 0}*=1-+2sin Boos6, sxenewe x cheat, 4 exeoAn Ona htt, Aiece pact. ae BrA-atk we danonnn poy, few ata ome, 1, ig 2 -g ocean ty, a SEE eset th 10. tan 0. co 2® — cost. I cos'B —sintA sin? 1 —sin’A —sin'B. = Ard sin Alt +(4.0s A-3 sin A) 196 TRIGONOMETRY cot cond “coco 0-1" Train d=? 8 48. (1-008 A)(1 +500 A)=sin A. tan A Lsin 0, 100 cond Tein 9 Oe- 49, (1+ sin 6 + e084} =2(1 + in (1 +0080), 60, cosfA-4eintA =1~3 sin'A cos. 3D, (L-+ seca tant. + tan? sin) (1+ st tan") (1 4+-tan’. sin). 82, (tan -conee 6-2 cosee 6=(cot 0 ~aee 0 —2 seo 58. 162 tant6 +8 980 =8, find ‘The trigonometrical ratios of an_angle 6° ag , on p. 99, for values of 8 from 0 to 360, Din terms of apply without any modification to angles of 55, TE 1800s +8 at . positive or negative. 58, If acot?9 +B cose, express con @ in terms of @, 2, e } 17, Find an equation connecting 2 y independent of 0, i ()2=8005 0, yodsin 8; (2h a00 0, yd tan sin sin $, ==rcos0, prory/d / 206. CHAPTER XIV. ‘THE GENERAL ANGLE. 58 Bliminate 0 from the equations: ——_/ Gun D¢boobnp; cor0—baih Omg 00, If (eco +1)(000 B+ 1)(00 +1) equals | | (eon-iiie Binet, pint © draw line OX ino xed ent, end and if al the angles ar acto, prov that each expresion equals fs defining the standard direction. eo ‘ine rotates about O from the postion OR i new postion OP or 0 then the new position aly on the amount of rotation, but its direction. Eton of rotation is ent-clockise (Rig. $22), then we age X0P, so described, is postive; ifthe direction ‘heli (Fig, 329), then we say that the angle ed, is negative. ‘Thus in Fig. 922, -XOP= +0°, $88, .XOQ~ - 4°, 8 and being postive numbers ‘a Tbe noted that ‘a conventional distinetion ‘and negative rotations, but we are already st 198 TRIGONOMETRY ‘THE GENERAL ANGLE 199 bound to choose the anticlockwise direction as thy irection, for in provious work the OY axis has beer £00 ahcnd of the OX axis inthis dizection. The amount of rotation need not be ess than #9. in Fig, 522, the rotating line OA conld reach OP ‘after tuming through 6° or (360°+0°) or (T20° to : 4 to mest the circle, contre 0, radius OA, agsin a ntly the triangles ONG, ONG’ are congruent and, 4x0’ =(++4%), the rotation from OX to OQ" anti-clockwise direction. : coordinates of @ and Q' are equal, in exch ose, 1 revolatigg the cr through (~ 360° +0") or (~720°+6%), ete, 1. ey {nates of Q and Q' are equal in magnitude and. pees by ued the Sees enon of the mati as = po ee ws (p80) given in Chapter VIL, wo see that e fom the definitions (p. 6 =in (960° +6") <4") = —sin (6°); €08 (—#°) -005 (4°); sin (~ 900°+0°)=sin (-720°40")=..., tan (~#°) = ~tan (#")- and similarly for the other ratios. ‘roader should draw figures for himself to show In fact the addition or subtraction of any multiple of gap cases possible, that is when 0@ lies in the Ist does not alter te valce of any ratio of an angle. ‘hen 0@ lies in the Srd quadrant. He should propertios ofthe angle are, of course, altered Dove argument appios equally wall to these cases, If th angle i moavured in radians and i , this staten result is thorofore tru fr all values of 4. takes the following form : Sime=sin («+2n7); cosa—cos(a+2nm); tana=tan (a+; where nin any integer, postive or negative. Ratios of (-#"). “Yo. wo. Fig. 327 represent two possible positions of the S OP, where LXOP—9", and 0@ is drawn in each Fe. Tr. - of OF, so that £x0@ = 6° +90". Figures 324 and 925 reprosent the positions of the bouning in both figures by clementary guometry that line 09, where 2X0Q=(—¢°). Draw QN perpendicular 0% Mi ciscn oan