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A.B. ..

2005
32.889

- ,
- .
,

, .
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.

. . , . .

63 .: , 2005. 208 , .
01913 1 2000

2005 . . , . .
ISBN 5-902367-03-4 2005 ,

2

.......................................................................................................................................................................... 5
........................................................................................................................................................ 6
..................................................................................................................................................... 7
.................................................................................................... 7
1. ................................................................................................................................. 7
2. ................................................................................................................................. 9
3. ...................................................................................................................... 12
4. ........................................................................................................ 14
5. ........................................................................ 17
(OTDR) ........................................................................... 19
6. OTDR ................................................................................................................................. 19
7. OTDR ................................................................................................................................................ 21
8. OTDR .............................................................................................................................................................. 24
2 ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 27
OTDR .............................................................................................................................................. 27
OTDR ........................................................................................................................................ 27
1. .................................................................................................................................. 27
2. ............................................................................................................. 30
3. ................................................................................................................................................ 33
4. / ................................................................................................................................... 35
5. ............................................................................................................... 39
...................................................................................................................... 42
6. ........................................................................................................................... 42
7. ......................................................................................................................... 44
OTDR........................................................................................................................................................ 47
....................................................................................................................................................... 47
1. ...................................................................................................... 47
2. .......................................................................................................................... 48
3. ....................................................................................................................... 49
4. ...................................................................................................................................... 52
5. ........................................................................... 55
6. ............................................................................................ 57
...................................................................................................................................................... 60
7. ................................................................................................... 60
8. .................................................................................................... 62
9. ........................................................................................................................................ 65
10. - .................................................................. 66
11. ............................................................................................... 68
12. ............................................................................................................... 70
13. .................................................................................................................................................... 72

3
14. .......................................................................................................... 74
................................................................................................. 76
15. ............................................................................ 76
16. .......................................................................................................................................... 79
17. (ORL) ......................................................................................................... 83
...................................................................... 86
.............................................................................................. 86
1. ........................................................................................................................................ 86
2. ...................................................................................................................................... 90
3. ................................................................................................................................... 92
.................................................................................................................... 96
4. ............................................................................................. 96
5. (BOTDA) .................................................................................................... 99
6. (BOTDR)........................................................................................... 100
7. ........................................................................................... 102
.................................................................................................................................................................. 106
1. .................................................................................................................... 106
.2. 2x2 ............................................................................................................................................... 108
.. ...................................................................................................................................... 112
.4. ..................................................................................................... 116
.5. ................................................................................................... 119
............................................................................................................................................................. 121
.......................................... 121

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PON (Passive Optical Networks).

Metro. ,
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Agilent Technologies

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(OTDR).
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. (095) 935-76-16, (095) 935-76-15
E-mail: vl@velcom.ru, http://www.velcom.ru

6
1

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.
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), (
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.
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(OTDR Optical Time Domain
Reflectometer).

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.
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:
(OTDR).


1.

, .
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7
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125+1 .
50 62.5 .
7..9 (. 1.1).
,
8..10 .
ITU-
T Rec. G. 652 10 %.

. 1.1.

, ,
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.

.
:
, .
(. 1.2) ,
, .

. 1.2.

, ,
ITU-T Rec. G. 652...G. 655:
G.652: (SM )
1310 .

8
G.653: (DS )
1550 1310 .
G.654: (SM )
1310 1550 .
G.655: (NZDS ),
(0.1...6 /) 1530. ..1565 .
G.656:
(CWDM Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing).

- :
(DC Dispersion Compensating),
.
, ,
, EDFA Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier.
, ( Polarization Maintaining),
, .
(Holey Fiber), ,
, .

2.

. 1.3.
, .
14 ,
. = 1550 .

. 1.3. .

, ,
(G. 652).
: NDSF No Dispersion Shifted Fiber ( ), SF
Standard Fiber ( ), SSMF Standard Single Mode Fiber (
). : SM Single Mode
().

9
SM 1550
0.18...0.19 / ( ). , SM

,
( 0.02 ). SM
1.1

1.1. SM (2003 .)
Alcatel Corning Hitachi OFS Samsung Sumitomo YOFC
/
= 1310 0.35 0.34 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.33 0.36
= 1550 0.22 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.22 0.19 0.22
1.1., SM
.
.
.
1
. .
1.4.

1.4. = 1310

SM = 1310
. 1.5. Fujikura 1997 .,
Hitachi 1998 . 2001 . , , ,
.

10
. 1.5. SM = 1310

, ,
,
.
= 1290 1383 . SM

() = 1383 3 (. 1.6). LWPF (low water peak fiber)
: AllWave (OFS), SMF-28e (Corning), SMR (Pirelli).

. 1.6. SM (G. 652), LWPF (G. 652 ),


Z Fiber (G. 654)

LWPF Rec. G.652 SM


(G. 652). LWPF
11
0.31 /, , = 1310
(0.35 /). ,
(S) (1480...1520 ), ()
(1360...1460 ).
(Extended) .
1.2.

1.2.
O - 1260...1360 (Original)
- 1360...1460 (Extended)
S - 1460...1530 (Short wavelength)
- 1530...1565 (Conventional)
L - 1565...1625 (Long wavelength)
U - 1625...1675 (Ultra-long wavelength)
SM LWPF 1310 ,

. ,
, .
DWDM ( = 1550 ),
(EDFA Erbium Doped Fiber
Amplifier).
(G. 654).
Sumitomo (Z Fiber, G. 654),
. ,

(. 1.2).

0.148 / = 1570 , .
Z Fiber , SM ,
. Z
Fiber 30 % SM
.
DWDM .

3.
.
, , = 1550 = 1310 (.
1.3). , , = 1550
= 1310 (. 1.7).

12
. 1.7. SMF PCF

( ) -
14 .
- ,
. ,
, ,
, . SM
1310 SM
= 1550 , = 1310 .
= 1550 , ,
, . 1.7, , = 1310 .
.
Z Fiber (G. 654)
(1460 ).
= 1550 , SM = 1310 . ,
SM , Z Fiber
= 1310 .
SM
40 , , .
( SM )

. , 1.7,
20 SM
.

. 1.8. (Holey Fiber)

Hitachi (PCF Photonic Crystal Fiber),


(. 1.8).
13
( 1.3)
SM (~ 0.12 ).
, SM ,
.
1550 1310 .

1.3. PCF = 1550


4- 6-
10
, / 0,35 0,44
, /() 25,0 26,3
, 8,7 8,2
, /* 0,1 < 0,001
, < 1300
SM , 0,12 ()
* 10
PCF ,
, ,
.
,
SM .

4.

8r 2
: I r I 0 exp 2 , w .
w

.
(d)
(w)
2d 2 w 2
4,34 (1.1)
w w

, , -
, -
. , ,
, .
,
R = 104 (40 ) :
10log T 10log 1 R 4,34ln 1 R 4,34R 0,0004 .
, ,
(. 1.4).
1% ,
104, , , 0.001 . ,
,
nw
2

4,34 , n = 1.46
2
. ,
. , w = 7, () 0.01 .

14
1.4. SM (G. 652)

Alcatel Corning Hitachi OFS YOFC


,
= 1310 9.0 0.5 9.2 0.4 9.2 0.4 9.2 0.4 9.3 0.4
= 1310 10.2 0.5 10.4 0.8 10.5 1 10.5 1
, 125 1 125 0.7 125 0.7 125 1
1% 1% 1% 1%

0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6
/,

>4 >4 >4 >4
,

, ,
, . , ,
SM ,
.
,
(1.1), .
w , 1.4,
(10...20 %). , Hitachi
= 1310 0.4 .

0.8 . (
(w 7)) 10 . w 10 w = 2w = 0.8 d = 0
w
2

(1.1) : w 4,34 0, 03 ,
w
SM (~ 0.02 ).

,
,
w = 2w = 0.8 . , w
,
: w = 3. ,
3, 1/400
( ). . 1.12
SM Hitachi.
. 1.9, = 0.12 .
3 = 0.46 w = 0.4
1.4.

15
. 1.9.
SM Hitachi = 1310

,
2.
w
, : <w2> = 22 (
). (1.1)
w2 2
w 4,34 2 8, 78 . (1.2)
w2 w2

w ,
. , w = 3, (1.2)
w2
w 2 (1.3)
w
w 10 w = 0.4 : w 0, 0016 .
,
-
- .
- ,
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, ,
( ).
: /,
,
.
0.05 ,
0.10.5 .
-
. -
, , ,
V-
. SM
(~ 0.02 ) ,
.

16
5.
, ,
G. 651 G. 652,
.
. 1 ( ),
.
(. 1.10) 2 ( ),
.
() = 1() 2().

. 1.10.

,
, , . ,
.
(. 1.11).
1 ( ).

2
( ). () = 1() 2().

. 1.11.


. - , ,
17

(. 1.12). , ,
,
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.
, ,
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. , ,
.
( - )
, . (
)
: () = .

. 1.12. .





(,
AQ 2150) 0.02 ,
(0.01 ). , ,
5 % -
(50...100).
0 30
. , -
,
. - ,
.
,

(~ 0.2 ).
,
.

18

, . ,
. ,
( )
. (..
),
, . ,
, ,
, -
, .

II

(OTDR)
6. OTDR
OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer) ,
, .
(
) ,
. ,
. ,
.
( ) ,
.
, .
( )
, (. 1.13).

. 1.13. OTDR

,
, .
-
() . ,

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( ) .
, . ,
1 ( 10 )
70 . , OTDR
,
.

19
OTDR (. 1.14).
.
,
. , ,
.

. OTDR
,
, , ,
.

. 1.14. OTDR


-, (, ,
)
. 10...1000 ,
2 20 c .
,
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( ),
. , ,

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8050 (
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(100 1 ).
32 000
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.
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0.75
.

20

. ,
RISC, 50
. Intel ,
, .
,
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, / ( PCMCIA).
, ,
. , ,
,

, ..

7. OTDR
( , ,
..) OTDR,
(. 1.15). OTDR
, ,
..

. 1.15. .

,

, , ( ,
, ) ,
( ) -
. ,
, .
21
.
, ,
1.5.

1.5. , OTDR





,
,
/,
(ORL)


(ORL)

,
(. 1.16).

100 ( ~ 1000 ), ,
.

. 1.16.

, ,
.
,
.

.
1.17 ( )
30 ,
. ,
, 17 ,
. , ,
, , .

22
. 1.17.

-
.
- ,

, .. OTDR
.
(BOTDR).
() .

, ,
() .
, .
, , ,
80% .

. ,
. ,
1310 ,
1550 , 1550 ,
1610...1650 (. 1.18).

23
. 1.18.
1625

WDM
.
,
, .
,
, , ,
, , .
, ,
.
(1 : N),
N ().

8. OTDR
- (mini-OTDR) (. 1.19)
:
, ,
.. mini-OTDR
( 50 )
, ,
OTDR.
: Agilent Technologies, Ando, Anritsu, EXFO, Wavetek,
GN-NETEST.

24
. 1.19. - 6000 Agilent Technologies ( ).
4

, , .
,
mini-OTDR. ,
, .
(Fault locators) ,
.
.
, = 635 ,
, = 670 , .
, , , ,
. , -

( 5 ).

(clip on identifiers).
, , , ,
, .
OTDR ( )
, ..
, .
, ,
mini-OTDR

.
(RTU remote test unit).
. ,
, ,
.
,
.
(Agilent N3900A, EXFO FTB-400)
.
,
.
25
, ,
, PMD (
).
.
,
.
OTDR
:
(BOTDR)
-
.
, .
OTDR ,
. 100 %
.
,
Opto Electronics Inc.
. OTDR,
, (~ 1 ,
~ 1 ) (
).
(POTDR).
( ) .
OTDR , ,

.
(~ 10)
( - ) :
OTDR (CO-OTDR)
OTDR (COR-OTDR)
OTDR (LC-OTDR)
OTDR (PC-OTDR)
(BOTDA)
(OFDR)

26
2
OTDR
(OTDR Optical Time Domain Reflectometer)
1976 .
,
,
.
. OTDR
,
. ,
,
.

.
,
.
.
,
.
.
, , ,
.
,
( ,
) , (
).

I.

OTDR
1.
(IEC
International Electrotechnical Commission) DIEC

.

(. 2.1).
,
98%.
,
100.

27
. 2.1. DIEC

. 2.1.

.
,
. ,
. ,
,
(rms - root mean square).
Drms 1.8 DIEC -
(. 2.2).

. 2.2. Drms

.
Drms DIEC 1.8

- ,

1.8 ,
1.5 4. ,
1.8 . ,
() . , ,
2+2 3+3 , , 95 % 99.7 %, rms .
28
, 98%
(2.3+2.3), ,
2.3 (. 2.3).
( 5log) 2.3
1.8 ( 5log 2,3 1,8 ). ,
1.8
.

. 2.3. .

,
: ,
. , , 1000 (
1 = 10 2 = 10 ) (

) 5log 12 15 . ( )

, 5log 15 (.
1
2

2.4).

. 2.4. 1000 ( 1 = 10 2 = 10 )
5log(1/2) = 15 .


, .
(),
.
, t1 t2 (
) 2.5log(t2/t1).
, 100 ( t1 = 1 , t2 = 100 )
2.5log(t2/t1) = 5 (. 2.5). ,
29
1 2
: 5log(1/2).

. 2.5. 100 ( t1 = 1 t2 = 100 )


2.5log(t2/t1) = 5

,
OTDR.
t,

t.
. , ,
:
= 10 t = 3 .
= 20 .

2.
( ) (
) ,
, p
p (
p p
): Drms . ,
2
, p p ( ),
q, :
p p q. p
p b
/ : p = p b.

p q p b
Drms , (2.1)
2
, ,
p, p
.
q (
) b ( ).
(
) .

30

q 80 10log , (2.2)
1

. OTDR
10 10 ,
30 , ,
15 .
/ b ( , )
: b 10 log N .
, 10 % ,
0.9t
N , t , .
T
0.9t
, / b 5log . ,
T

t, . ,
, OTDR
25 (. 2.6).

. 2.6. 25 ,
10 3

, ,
, 10...20 %
. ,
30 . ,
10 /, ,
300 . , t = 3 .,
0.9t 0.9 180
N 4
5.4 105 , /: b 10 log N 29 .
T 3 10
.
, , , = 10 , t = 3 = 300 .
, : q = 40 b = 29 .
3 6 . , p = 20 .
,
( )
.
(
). ,

.

31
OTDR :
, ( )
( ). = 10
( ~ 1 ).
1014 /1/2
1 , p = 80 . (2.1) : p = 20 ,
p q p b
= 6 , q = 40 , p = 80 b = 29 : Drms 41,5 .
2
Drms ,
. 2.7.
,
. 5 ,
( ).
23 ( , ).
,
10 . OTDR
50 .

. 2.7. Drms
t

2.1
mini-OTDR Agilent.
, 42/41 ( = 10 = 1310/1550 )
6008,
. ,
, .
(30 ) 6004,
.
, 6008.

2.1. 6000
( Drms t = 3 )

6004 6003 6003


, 1310/1550*25 1310/155025 1310/155025

10 100 1 10 10 100 1 10 10 100 1 10 20

13/13 18/18 23/23 30/30 19/17 24/22 30/29 35/34 19/17 24/22 30/29 38/37 40/39
,

32
5001 6005 6008
, 131025 850/130030 1310/155025

10 100 1 10 10 100 1 10 10 100 1 10 20

13 18 23 30 19/17 26/22 -/28 -/34 24/22 29/27 35/34 42/41 45/43


,

, = 10 t = 3
., OTDR.
. ,
,
= 100 t = 15 .
3035 .
mini-OTDR :
. OTDR
,
, . ,
,
.
,
45 (
35 ).

3.

.
(. 2.8).

. 2.8. D

Bellcore ( Telecordia)
(Bellcore measurement range) D ,
OTDR 0.5
33
(. 2.9). 4- ( 5-)
0.5 0.1 .

. 2.9. D
, 0.5
0.1 .

D
0.5 .
, .
Telecordia (. 2.10).
3 , .

, , L0, L1, L2. L0
, L1 L2 .
, , ,
1 . L1
a.

. 2.10.

L0 L1
. = 0 1 2
S2 .
L0, , L2
34
S2. 0 1 L0 3 1.5 ,
L1 a 0 1.5 . a = 10logTA
2.11.

. 2.11. a
, = 10logTA


,
( 2.2) , .

2.2. .

Drms Dp






,
,
4-


4. /
OTDR , , ,
,
.
, .
: Drms,
, a
, (. 2.12).

35
. 2.12. :
Drms

, ,
B,
/ . /
, z
.
P p p
B 5log c c , (2.3)
P 2
(, , )
/: B+ = 5log[( + P)/P] B = 5log[/( P)].
(2.3) / B+ B : B 5log 1 10 B
5


B 5log 1 10
B
5
. B B . 2.13.
+

. 2.13. /

. 2.13,
/. / ( < 5)
(B+ < B). > 5

36
2 P B
B B 2 10 5. ,
P
( , )
( ) ,
( ).
/.
/
. (2.3), = 0
(. 2.12). ,
= (p p)/2 p. ,
p p,
p , , .
/
. p p.
,
, .
/, 3, 30 . ,
, 15 = 0 ,
, p p
. /
p. , ,

,
/ .
, /
(+ = + B+ = B)
z. ,
.
: p(z) = p(0) z.
, Drms = (p(0) p)/2, / z:
B(z) = Drms z. (2.3)
(z): B+(z) = 5log(1 + 10B(z)/5) B_(z) = 5log(10B(z)/5 1). B+(z),
B(z) B(z) Drms = 15 = 0.25 / . 2. 14

. 2.14

37
/
. ,
. , ,
, (rms ) 68 %,
, 2 95%. ,
2, 2/
(2.3) /
4
B 5 log (2.4)
a
/
. 2.15.

. 2.15. /
.

(. 2.16). 150
0.20 /. = 0.20 / 150 = 30 .
,
0.02 . . 2.15 ,
12 . , Drms = + =
30 + 12 = 42 .

. 2.16. ,
0.02 30 .

38
5.
/
, ,
.
.
, .
, , :
.
, .
,
. ,
( ).

.
,
.
(. 2.17).

. 2.17.


.
-
. ,
OTDR (~ 1...10 ),
. , ,
v
= 10 : r 10 0,1 / 1 .
2
, ,
, .
, .

1
, N .
N
,
. , ,
, .
OTDR.
, OTDR,
,
39
,
.
( ), OTDR,
, .
OTDR -
FP ( -)
( OTDR
). = 850 AlAsGa,
= 1310 , 1550 1625 InGaAsP. FP
.
100...500 , 5... 10 , 0.1...0.2 .
,
. 2.18.

. 2.18. FP ( AQ7140)

. 2.18 , = 1310 FP ,
, m 10, 0.2 .
2
: Lc , n 1.46
n
. = 1310 0.2 , Lc = 5 .

vr
Lc .
2
FP , m ,
m vr v
m : N . m = 10, r = 0.1 / Lc = 5 : N 2000.
2 Lc 2
1

N
P P 1 2
: B 5log c 5log 1 . N = 2000 ,
Pc N N
B 0.1 .

40
, -
. OTDR
0.5 (3 ). .
-

. ,
(. 2.19).

. 2.19. 0.5 (3 )

,
, .

0.05 . ,

. FP ,
. -
.
, ,

.

(. 2.20).

. 2.20. ) .
)

,
. ,
, . ,
.

. ,
41
,
.

II.


6.
(EDZ - event dead zone)
.

(. 2.21).
( ).

. 2.21. (EDZ - event dead zone).


( ( )) (FWHM -
full-width at half-maximum). 1.5
(. 2.21 ).
,
(. 2.21 ). ,
<1 .
, .
. 2.22 ,
.
, .
,
, .
.

42
. 2.22.
1 2 ,

,
, .
,
.
, ,
. ,
. ,
,
, ,
.
, ,
f. f = 30
R = 35 . 2.23.

2.23.

. 2.23,
0,35
( 10 ), .
f

v
r (, 10 = 100 ), vr = 2105 / = 0.2 /
2
43
.
, . ,
= 1 (~ 1 ) , ,
v
( r = 1 0.1 / = 0.1 ).
2
t
2
0.35
: t 2
. :
f
2
v 0.35 vr
u t r 2 . . 2.24.
2 f 2

2.24. ,
f.

. 2.24, > 300 :


u = 0.1 /. 10 u
f. (f ~ 10 ) < 10
2.5 . (f ~ 30 ) < 10
1 .
(f ~ 3 ) < 10 10 .

( ). ,
6000 3 ,
10 . . 2.24,
10 .

7.
(ADZ - attenuation dead zone) ,
,

44
.
(. 2.25). ,
Telecordia (Bellcore), ,
0.5 (
- 35 ).

. 2.25. (ADZ - attenuation dead zone).


: ( + tx)vr/2, - , txvr/2
, vr = 0.2 / -
(. 2.26). 1/2 ,
.

. 2.26. (ADZ) - ,
,

txvr/2 ,
. Telecordia
0.5 .

5log R 1 exp 2f exp 2 t x f 10 5 0.5
q q
2
(2.5)

R , q = 80 + 10log([]/l[])
.
r = 10logR = 35 50 , f = 30 . 2.27.

45
. 2.27. (ADZ) ( )

. 2.27, > 1
(. 2.24)
. < 20

3...5 .
, , ,
.

.
(clipping level) ,
-n (. 2.28).

. 2.28. (ADZ)

46
3
OTDR
Rec.
G.651 G.652. OTDR
,
,
. ,
, , ,
.
, , (
),
. -

. , ,
.
,
OTDR. ,
.

I.


1.
, OTDR,
.
, .

cT
L , (3.1)
2n
/n , ,
n . 1/2 ,
L .
= 3105 / n = 1.5.
0.1 / = 0.1 /.
OTDR
.
,
(, ). ,
.
OTDR ,
() ,
( 2 20 ). ,
, . 3.1.

47
. 3.1.

. 3.1 5
0.2 / = 1550 .
100 ( ) 1 (
). ( ~ 0.2 /)
.

.
,
, .
,
.
, . 3.1, . ,
,
.

.
(1 )
,
(~ 0.5 ).
100 10 .
5 ,
.

2.

( ),

.
( )
, .
-
( 1 ) mini-OTDR.

48

, ( 3105) ,
.
,
, 3105.
, 5105L, L .

L0/N, L0 ,
N (. 3.2). -
L0 . L0 = L
N = 32 000 , 3105L.

. 3.2.

, (. 3.1),
. , 20
,
, 1 2 .
200 10 20 .

3.1.


1
- 5105L

3105L

3.

.
. ,
-
, .

, . ,
,
. ,
, . 3.3.
49
. 3.3. :
) (30 ) (25 )
) (20 ) (25 )

. 3.3 25 ,
(30 , .. ).

.
,
( ) ,
. , 0.1 /, ,
30 ,
0.3 . , 25 ,
0.25 , .. ,
.
. 3.3 ( 25 ),
(20 , ..
).
0.2 . , ,
0.25 , ,
, ,
.

.
. . 3.3, 5 ,
(25 ) ( )
(20 ).
, ,
, - . ,


, .
, ,
,
, .
.

. .
.
, . -, -
,
( ). -, ,
50


.
, ,
( ).
,
, /n(), n() -
(). ,
, (, )
(),
. (/n) v
( ) : v =
c/n. n n :
n = n (dn/d). (dn/d = 0), , n = n
(), , .
SM
. 3.2,
SM
( 0.2 %).
30
0.2 % 60 .

3.2.
(SM)
Alcatel Corning Hitachi OFS Pirelli Samsung
= 1310 1,4640 1,4677 1,466 1,466 1,467 1,4690

= 1550 1,4645 1,4682 1,467 1,467 1,468 1,4695



, .
SM :
n = 1.467. 3.2,
~ 0.2 %.

. ,
,
. , ,
.
, , ,
.
3.2 , SM
1310 1550 .
, SM
.
1 dn
: D .
c d
, SM
S0 0
4

1200 1600 D 1 ,
4
S0 = 0.09 /(2)
0 = 1310 .

51
2
S 2
2

: n n 0 0 1 0 .
8
n n 0 . 3.4.

. 3.4.
n() n(0) SM .

1550 1310 ,
. 3.4, 6104. ,
, 0 = 1310 n = 1.4670,
= 1550 , , n = 1.4676.
, -
, .

. , Corning
3.2 n = 1.4682 ( = 1550 ). ,
n 5105.
5105L. .. ,
.

,
, n = 1.4676 = 1550 , , ,
. 3.2,
~0.2 %.
, 103L.

4.

- ,
() .
.
,

52

.

,
.
, ( , .
3.5). ,
.
(LA) ,
,
. (
), .
,
,
.

. 3.5.

(u - ),
() ,
()

, , - ,
,
( ).
(L) ,
.

( ). ,
,
.
( ) ,
, .

53
,

.
.
.
, , ,
,
.
.
.
,
() ( 3.6).

3.6. ,
)
)
) ,

,
.
.
.
, . 3.7,
( 90 ),
.
.

3.7

,
.
. ,
.

54

, ,
(. 3.6 ).

.
, (. 3.6 ),
(~3.5 %).
0
14%.
q
( )
. 4 , 3.3,
.

3.3.


0 1 2 3 4 5
,
, % 3.50 2.55 0.98 0.20 0.02 1.3103
, 4, ,
, ,
.
( < 0.5...1).
. , , ,
0.1 %.
,
(fault locators), .
,
.
.
,

.

5.
,
, .
, ,
. , 3.4
: 68.1328 .
, ,
, .. .
.
,
, ,
, ..
,
. ,
(. 3.8), ,
. ,
.
,
.
55
. 3.8.

3.4 SM
.
6000 1310 3 .
6000 16 000, ,
80 , 5 .

3.4.

LN+1 LN
LN, LN+1 LN
LN, - -
-
- ,
, ,
, , ,
1 L1 = 68.2248 68.148 38.923
2 L2 = 68.1328 68.133 92 15 0 14.576
3 L3 = 68.1328 68.133 0 0 2 13.951
4 L4 = 68.1328 68.133 0 0 3 17.529
5 L5 = 68.1379 68.133 +5.1 0 4 20.778
6 L6 = 68.1277 68.128 10.1 5 5 14.950
7 L7 = 68.1277 68.128 0 0 6 14.580
8 L8 = 68.1277 68.128 0 0 7 13.905
9 L9 = 68.1226 68.123 5.1 5 8 13.823
.
,
, .
, ,
.
.
.
, 1
, .
,
.
, 23 . (
)
LN , 5 .
, 5 .
( ) ,
. , , ,
38.923 . ,
, 14.576 , (
) 92 .
1 .

56
3.4 ,
.
.
.

.
, ,
, . ,
.
,
,
3.4. ,
92 , ,
(15 ). ,
,
.

6.
,
25 . ,
, . , 25
.
, , ( 40 %),
(, )
. ,
( , , ..).
(~80 %) ,
, , .
,
100 . .
. ,
( ~100 ), .
(
) .
,
.
. , ,
, ,
.
,
, ,
.
. ,
, ~25
0.2 %,
.
,
,
.
, , ,
, .
. , ,
(
) (. 3.9). 0.4...0.8%.
57
() .
.
3 % 30
1 .

. 3.9. ,

, ( 1.5 )
. , ,
, .
, ,
,

(. 3.10).

. 3.10. ,

,
(
). ,
n,
.
, n, LK (
, , ),
n ( ) LB
( ).

n = (Ln) / LK (3.2)

n ,
.
,
.
58


. ,
.
. ,
,
, ,
.
, -
.
(" "), ("")
("") ("").
,
,
. ( 25 )
(~100 )
, ,
. ,
.

. .
.
( ) . ,
, ()
.

. ,
, ( ).
, ,
.
,
.
: ,
, , ..

.

. ,
.
, , , ,
.
Kingfisher ,
.
.
,
.
, ,
.
.
. (
) 77.147 . , 77
. ,
, , ,

59
. ,
(. 3.11).

. 3.11.

40 ,
. ,
98 130 . ..
, ,
. ,
, . ,
, ,
.

II.


7.

z.
(T(z))
P z Qz
Q(z), : T 2 z .
P 0 Q 0
, :
. ,
.

,
( ):
P 0
A z 5log .
P z
,
Q 0
A z 10log T z 5log (3.3)
Q z
( A z 10log T z ) (3.3) (
) 0 z, ,
- .

:
( ()),
60
( (/)) ( ()).
, .

.
, .
. 3.12, ()
. ()

. (/)
.

. 3.12.

, ,
( ) ,
z.
A () = A
: (/) = ( )/,
, .

= , (3.4)
20 (
100 , 0.20 / ( = 1550 )).
~ 0.02 /. (3.4) ,
0.4 .
(0.1...0.3 ).
(/) = A/L
L
. , ,
,
()
(/) = (/) (3.5)

61
(/) = 0.20 / ( = 1550 )
(3.5) : = 0.004 /.

8.

, . ,
, ,

.
.
,
,
.
. , , ,
,
. ,
, (
) (. 3.13).

. 3.13.

( ,
, )
, ,
, . .. ,
, -
, , ,
.

.
(
).
, -
, .
,
,
(
).

62
,
.

:
.
, .
(. 3.14).
.
,
.

. 3.14


. ,
, ( ).
. - ,

, .
, ,
( )

u 1 2
a1 . (3.6)
2
. 1 2 0.2 / ( = 1550 ), : a1 = 0.2
u = 1 ( 10 ) a1 = 0.002 u = 10 (
100 ). , (~10 )
a1 SM (~0.02 ),
100 .

.
.
, .
,
.
,
(. 3.15) , , .

63
. 3.15

.
(LSA least-squares approximation) ,
.
-
, , LSA ,
(. 3.16 ).
(2
two point approximation), ,
. , ,
, ,
(. 3.16 ).

. 3.16. , ,
: (a) LSA - , () 2

,
.
.

. - ,

.

<a>, , ,
.
, ,
() ,

64
a = 2, (3.7)
. ,
, a 95 % , <a> 2.

9.

( ).
(. 3.17),
, .
, ,
,
.

. 3.17.

. ,
, ()
( ).
.
() .
.
()
, .
, , ,
.
, .
.
, ,
(. 3.18).

65
. 3.18.
: )
)

(u)
.
a = 0.5 u (1 2). (3.8)
1 2 = 0.02 / .
u = 10 ( = 100 ) 0.0001 ,
u = 1 ( = 10 ) 0.01 . , ,
.

10. -

.
- , -
. ,
, ,
.

.
,
,
.
- , (gainer).
,
(. 3.19).

66
. 3.19.

)
)



( )
P
( ): a 5log ,1 .
P ,2
Q1,
P ,1 Q
Tc2 1 , .
P ,2 Q2
Q2,
P ,2 Q
Tc2 2 . ,
P ,1 Q1
(a12 a21)
a12 = a + a (3.9)
a21 = a + a
a = 10log , a = 5log(Q1/Q2)
, -
.
Q1 > Q2, a = 5log(Q1/Q2) > 0.
a12 > a > a21. . .

,
. ,
, a < a, a21
. .. ,
. 3.19 .
. ,

p

67
S,
() (w) (. 3.20).

. 3.20. ,


, , . ,

, :
a = 10log(w2/w1). w << w, w = (w1 + w2)/2 w = w1 w2,
a : a = 4.34 w/w.
(w = w1 w2)
(<w>) . a
w2
: a 2
4.34
. ,
w
2.
w
( 22), :
2
a 2 4.34 .
w

, a w = 3, ,

:
2w
a 2 (3.10)
w
w 10 w = 0.4 :
a 2 0.08 . (~0.02 ) SM
(~20 ).
,
.
, -
, .

11.
, ,

0.1 , SM (~0.02 ). -

, .

, . , , -
, .

68
(3.9), , ,
- ,
:

a = (a12 + a21)/2 (3.11)

a12 a21 ,
.
(. 3.21 . 3.22).

. 3.21. ,

- (. 3.21)
1 (a,1 = 0.02 ), ..
. 2
(a,2 = + 0.08 ),
.
a1 1 a2 2
, (3.11) .
( -).
, - , . 3.22.

. 3.22. , -

, -,
: a,2 = + 0.02 ( 2)
a,1 = + 0.06 ( 1).
69
1 2, ,
- , 3.5.

3.5.
. 3.21 . 3.22

,
, ,
,
() (3)
0.04 ()
1 a,1 = 0.02 a,1 = + 0.06 a1 = + 0.02
+ 0.04 ()
+ 0.03 ()
2 a,2 = + 0.08 a,2 = + 0.02 a2 = + 0.05
0.03 ()
, ,
, , ,
. -
.

12.
,
( = 1550 ,
= 1310 ). ,
.

.
, , SM ,
(. 3.23),
, , ,
.. , , ,
30 = 1310 0.03 , = 1550
(~0.6 ).

. 3.23. , SM

70
. 3.23, , SM ,
. ,
, .
. -

.
.

,
.
, , (
) 0.10 . ,
, . 3.24.

. 3.24. , 1310 1550


( 1 ),
( )
. , = 1310 ,
= 1550 , ,
= 1550 .
SM 0.34...0.35 /
= 1310 0.20...0.23 / = 1550 .
: 0.19 /
( = 1550 ). , ,
0.01...0.02 /.
,
, = 1550 ,
, = 1310 .
. ,
, . 3.24 ( = 1550 ) (~0.2 ),
2 . ,
71
= 1310 , . ,
.

.
.
,
, - -
.
,
. . , ,
, - ,
,
.
( ), .
,
, ,
(. 3.25).

. 3.25. .

. 3.25, () 0.1 = 1310


( - ),
1550 (). ()
- , ,
1550 () ( 2 ).

13.
,
. , ,
50 % = 1550
0.05 ( 3.6).

3.6. .

1550 0.1 0%
1550 0.05 <50%
1310 0.2 0%
1310 0.1 <50%
72
(~0.02 )
.
, , -
, 3.6.
, ,
.
.
,
. -
. , ,
. , ,

.

, ,
. , ,
, .

,
.
. ,
,
. 3.26.

. 3.26.

.
, ,
.
,

. ,
, .
.
,
,
.
-
. ,
,
.
, , Sumitomo TYPE-37
SM 0.02 ,

73
0.02 . , , ,
(. 3.6).
,
0.02 , 98 %
0.05 0.5 % 0.1 .
, ,
,
.

14.
,
.
,

(. 3.27).

. 3.27. ,
( )


. , ,
.
. ,

( ).
, , -
. ,
. ( )
.
, ..
.
,
. , ,

74
,
.
, ,
.
1 .
,
(launch cable). ,
(receive cable).
,
.

. 3.28. ,

. ,
.
,
,
. ,

.

. 3.28.


- . . 3.28 ,
, ,

.

, -
.

75
, , . 3.28,

. , ,

.
, .
, . ,
,
, ,
(
).

, 0.5...1 .
. ,
, (
).

. ,
( ).

III.


15.
(R = /)
.
:
r = 10log(P/P) (3.12)

(/) (. 3.29).

. 3.29.


, (. 3.30)
P P RQ
f 5log 5log . (3.13)
P Q

(3.13), f
P/P = R/Q, Q = P/P .
(3.13), : R 10 5 1 Q .B f


:
f


r 10log 10 5 1 q. (3.14)

76
,
( f),
q = 10 log Q.

. 3.30. .
r = 40 , () 100 c, () 1000 c

, (3.14), r
f
.
, : f > 5 .
(3.14) :
r = q + 2f. (3.15)
(3.13), , R >> Q.
R r q
f 5log , (3.15).
Q 2
(3.15) . ,
( )
( ,
5 log, 10 log).
,
,

: Q S p v , S 1.2103
2
, = 3.9102 1 (0.17 /)
SM - = 1550 , v = c/n 2105 /
, .
1
78 = 1310 82 = 1550 .
2 , (. 3.7).

77
3.7. SM .
Alcatel Corning OFS

76.7 / 81.7 77 / 82 79.6 / 82.1
= 1310/1550 , = 1

80 ( = 1 ).
-
:

q 80 10log . (3.16)
1


Q
: S p 70 .
L

. 3.31.
Super PC (r = 40 ) Angled PC (r = 60 ).
Angled PC
~ 100 , Super PC ~ 10 .

. 3.31.

(. 3.31), (3.15)
f. , , Super PC r q
~ 1 10 , , f 5 . ,
,
. , . 3.30 10 (
~ 100 ) , , r q 20 . ~ 100
q = 60 (. 3.31), ,
r = 40 .

78
(3.15) f > 5 .
r f .
(3.14) , . 3.32.

. 3.32.

. 3.32, f < 5 r < 60 f


. , ,
r = 70 ,
100 , r = 80 10
.

16.
r, (3.14),

. r ,
f , 5 .
r (3.15): r = q + 2f.

(. . 3.7) q ~ 0.1 .
, , f > 5 ,
, , - : f = Kf.
f = 10 (. 3.30) = 0.02 / , f = 0.2 ,
, r 0.5 .

79

,
. ,
.
, .
,
(. 3.33).
(clipped level),
, , .

,
, .
. ,
, ,
. 3.33 .

. 3.33.
) -
)

, , -
. ,
,
. ,
,

.

80
. 3.34. ,
)
)


. -,
, . -,

, .

. . 3.31,
r PC
q,
. ,
,
, , .
, ,
( )
. ,
1/f, f .
, - ,
( ) . 3.35.
(. 3.35 ).
,
(. 3.35 ). Vo 1 exp 2 t f
, .

81
. 3.35. () , ()

f
Vo Vo.[1 (2f)].
r
r 10log 1 exp 2f . (3.17)

,
.
30
r = 40 . 3.36.

. 3.36.
r = 40 30 .

, . 3.36,
, (3 = 30 ).
, .
,
.
, (
82
, ).
(. 3.35)
.
. 3.36
r q.

. , , f = 20
f 12.5 , f = 1 f 8.7 .
.
(3.17) : r = 0.1 ( f = 20 = 30 )
r = 7.65 ( f = 1 = 30 ).
r
(3.15): r = q + 2f. 30
(. (3.16)) 65 . f = 20
f = 12.5 , 2f = 25 . (3.15) , r = 40 .
r = 0.1 : r = 39.9 .
f = 1 f = 8.7 , 2f = 17.4 .
(3.15) , r = 47.6 . r = 7.65
: r = 39.95 . ,
,
( ).
, r ,
(3.17), f.
, ,
.
, , .

. ( -
) .

r. , r ,
(3.17) f.

17. (ORL)
,
.
.
, .
,
( ).
, ,
, , ,
. ,
, (,
) , ,
.
,
, .
, ,
(optical return loss):
P
ORL 10 log o , (3.18)
P

83
Po , .
P
(3.18) ( p 10log )
1

ORL = po p (3.19)
, ORL
.
ORL (,
), .
, (3.12) (3.18), ORL
(ORL = r).
,
ORL.

, ,
() .
,
.
ORL.
ORL L.
3.37.
. ,
(r = 13.6 ).
( ~1 ) ,
.

. 3.37. ORL L
RT

, ,

1 exp 2 L
P L Po S p L R exp 2 L , L
2
, ( -
). L << 1 L = L, a L >> 1 L
(L = 1/(2))
(L) (3.18) ORL :
ORL = 10log(SpL + Rexp(2L)). (3.20)
ORL . ,
. , .
R -
L .

84
- ,
.
(L >> 1) , (3.20),
: ORLp= 10log(Sp/(2)).
ORLp = 1550 .
S = Q/L = 5108 1/. a = 0.20 /, ,
0.20 0.20
aL = 10logeL, : 0.20 0.23 0.046 1 ,
10log e 4.34
1
L 10 ORLp = 33 .
2
(L << 1) ORL
(. 3.38).

. 3.38. L
r

. 3.38 , R = 0 (r = )
33 . r = 33
33 . r = r = 13.6 ( )
33 .

70 .
ORL
r, PC ( 40 60 ), . 3.38. ,
20 PC
.
ORL , ORL
, ORL
.
ORL STM-16 (2.5 /) .
ORL 24 ,
27 . , ,
, . 3.38,
33 .
85
4

, ,
, . ,
-
. , ,
( ),
.
:

n

t to , (4.1)

n 20...22 ,
,
, to .
(4.1) ,
= , to. ,
100 , , -
(25 ).
(4.1): n = 20...22. , 25
,
3 - 4 .
, -
, , : ,
n.
n .
-
.

(BOTDR Brfflouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometer).
,
,
.


1.

. 4.1. 0.5 , 20, 20 /.
20 / 0.5 7.5 % (37.5 )
2 . 5.8
, 125 ,
4.8 .
, ( = )
.

86
= 72 , , , 4.8
6.7 %.

. 4.1.


,
: = 20 ( ~ 25%). 4
.
, , ,
( ), , -
.
,
.
,
(. 4.2).

. 4.2. ,

, (/b << 1)
b
, (4.2)
2
b , .
,
. , , :
1
p 2 k (4.3)
b b

87
0.110 k ~ 0.51 1/2. (4.3)

. ,
. -
.
(. 4.3)
m m
F 1 exp 1 exp (4.4)
o o

o
.

. 4.3. () (),
= 100, 30, 3 ( , , )

,
m ( ).
m, ( m > 5 1/m).
, m, -

dF
m1
m
: f m exp (. 4.3).
o d o o o

m
(. 4.4).
m 50...80, ..
.
m
:
,
1
ln ln .
1 F
m (. 4.4).

88
. 4.4. ln(ln(1/(1 F))) ln

. 4.4, .
(m ~ 5080),
,
(m ~ 15). ..

m.
, , m = 50,
o = 5 = 1 . (4.4)
1 50 1 50
F 1 exp 250 1050 . ..
5 5

1 .
.
, ( ).
, ,
.
,

.
. ,
, ,
(. 4.5).

. 4.5. (proof-test)

89
0.7-1.4
1 , .
~1 , -
. ,
1 ,
.
m, ,
0.71.4 . Fujikura Sumitomo m
.

2.
(~30 ) ( ~ 1 )
. ,
, . ,
, .
.
, ,
,
.

, , , ,
(. 4.6).

. 4.6. .

, . I (
) , ,

.
. , I

. II

. ( III)
.
.

.
:

90
db

n
A
n
B b (4.5)
dt
,
n
b , , b ,
, n ,
.

(4.5) : B nt
2
n2

n2 n2
bo 2 b 2 , t

, bo b
t. bo << b
, :
n
t1 2
(4.6)
t2 1
t1 t2
1 2. (4.6) ,
,
, 1 2. n
( )
20...22. n ,
. , n = 22 10 %
8 .
(4.6) n

. (4.6), : ln(t) = n ln() + const. ,
ln(t) ln()
n. ,
n. ,
(. 4.7).

. 4.7.

= ' t ('
). , (4.6)
:

n 1
1' p1
(4.7)
2' p2
(4.7) ,
1 2
' '

91
, . ,
( ),
.
, . , ,
,
.

ln ' const . ,
1
(4.7), : ln
n 1
ln() ln(') ( ln() ln('), )
1/(n + 1).

. 4.8. 0.5 , 20,
n = 20.3.

. 4.8.

. 4.8 ,
.
, ..
.
2 ,
.
.

( )
. , (
) (
). .

,
n.
,
, ,
.

3.

, .

92
. ,

. ,
.
.

. 4.9.

. 4.9.

. 4.9, so
, .
( so < ) ,
, .
< s . ,
. , t
, , ,
.
. (Electron Lett., 1981)
.

.
Komachiya M., et all, Appl. Optic. 1999). :

n n

t t t (4.8)

n-2

m
ln 1 F 1 t ,
1
to 1 (4.9)
LN


F , L , N
,
,
, m , n , t
.
= , (4.8), to. to
, : F << 1
F/L N << 1. (4.9) :

93
F n 2 t
to . (4.10)
mLN
to F = 0.001, ,
: 0.999. :
N = 0.01 1, n = 22, m = 3.
L = 100 t = 1 : to 0.01 ,
~ 25 (1 3107 ).

0. , ,
25 , . , ,
: n. ,
n (4.8) /,
n = 22, , .
, , / = 0.1 (/)n
~1022 , to
~1020 , .. 1013 . ,
25 , , /
0.3 (. 4.10). .. ,
3
.

. 4.10.

. 4.10 , /
.
, , (
) . -
n , to,
(/).
(n ). G 652.
n 20 = 1% ( = 0.7 ).
.

, , , ,

. - ,
, d, d
. , (

94
d) D (D + d)
:
d d
. (4.11)
D d D
= 1% = 0.3%.
,
25 Dmin = 3102d. d = 125 , Dmin = 4 .
, (4.8)
(4.9) . -, , -,
.
, , ,
.
(,
), . n

(, ), , , .
,
.
,
,
Corning , .
5
. ,
.
150 .
, (
), . ,
, (
).
.

( ).
: ,
, .

, ,
, .
, ,
.
:
(
): 0.26 ,
0.29 , 0.10.2 .
5.5

Bellcore (0.53 /)
(~ 5 ) .
:


.

95
II


4.
,
,
, (. 4.11).
.
,
.
,
(,
,
).

. 4.11. (f ~ 10...11 , fp ~ 13 )

,
2530
. , 0.03/4
14 0.75/4,
[].
,
(SPBS Spontaneous Brillouin Scattering),
,
. , .

. 4.12.
96
.4.12 , (~5
)
. SBS
. ,
.
,
. ,
, :
c
L L , (4.12)
2n
, n = 1.5 .
= 1 L = L = 0.1 ,
(L = 20 )
. ..
300 (23 ).
, ,
,
( ) :
f f 0 , (4.13)
f0 .
.
,
.
, ..
, (. 4.13).

4.13.

,
.
-: = /2.
(
). ,
,
:
2V n 2V n
f a fo a , (4.14)
c
Va 5.7 / , n 1.46 ,
3105 / . = 1550
f = 10.7 .
(
) . Va
E
n. , Va ( = 70

97
= 71010 /2) ( = 2.2 /3).
.
(SMF) = (f f0)/ : 490 /% (
= 1550 ) 580 /% ( = 1310 ) (. 4.14).

. 4.14.


. -, ,
.

.
,
,
, .
-,
. ,
,
, , . ,
,
(. 4.15).

4.15.

. 4.15, ,
,
98
.
,
.
.

5. (BOTDA)

(BOTDA Brillouin Optical Time
Domain Analyizer) (BOTDR
Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometer). BOTDA
(SBS Stimulated Brillouin Scattering), BOTDR
(SPBS Spontaneous Brillouin Scattering).
, SBS -
.
,
,
(~30...50 ). ,
fc
(fo f) .
,
f .
, .
,
.
. BOTDA
. 4.16.

. 4.16. (BOTDA)

. 4.16,
fH, fc.
()
f + f, f ,
.
(),
(EDFA) .

. ,
( ). -
,

99
,
. ,
(FC),
.
,
fc.
SBS,
.
, ,
( fH + f).
, f,
,
(~30...50 ). fH + f
,
, , .
4.15. ,
, .
(BOTDA)
. BOTDA
, .
Ando ()
(BOTDR),
(. 4.17). BOTDA
,
(SBS),
(SPBS).

6. (BOTDR)
BOTDR SPBS ( SBS ) ,
, , ( < 100 )
SBS (~23 ). , SBS
.

. 23
, (5 ~ 100 ).
23
.
BOTDR BOTDA.
DFB ,
(),
(), (FC).
,
(. 4.17).

100
. 4.17. (BOTDR)

, ,
( (f + f)) (
). (f + f f),
(f + f + f) (. 4.11). (
) .
DFB ,
.

, ,
. BOTDR ,
OTDR, ( 0.03/4,
[]) 14
( = 0.75/4).
, OTDR, 10...20 .
f, BODTA,
f. BODTA,
f + f ,

.
, f ,
f. f = 0, BOTDR.
( OTDR), ,
( BOTDR ).
, f = f,
. 4.18. 0.1 %
490 /% 0.1 % 50 . SPBS (
) AllWave 86 .
50

. , -
, - . , ,
, . 4.18,
.

101
. 4.18. AllWave

, BOTDR,
. -, ,
. OTDR

( ). BOTDR ,
. BOTDR
,
f.
-, , BOTDR
, ,
. , BOTDR ,
(
), (
). (ta = 1/f = 108 )
,
.

7.

/. BOTDR AQ8602 0.02 % (
216). , f
, .
.
10, ,
1 / (. 4.19),
~0.02%.

4.19.

102

.
, , ,
- . , ,
, AllWave DCF, fo f = 10.83
AllWave, fo f = 10.28 DCF (. 4.20).

. 4.20.

= 1552 AllWave
( = 1383 ) DCF (
) . 4.21.

(. 4.1).

.4.21. SPBS AllWave DCF = 1552

- ,
,
, .

.
f0 AllWave DCF
, . 4.21, 1 .

103
f f0
(, K 0.5
) 2 %.
%
AllWave TrueWave f0 70 (.
4.1), 0.14 %. ,
0.25...0.3%,
, ,
.

4.1.
= 1552
, 2- , 3- , 4- , 5- ,
AllWave 10.83 10.95 11.05 11.20
TrueWave 10.70 10.82 10.90
DCF 9.77 10.28 10.68 10.78 10.89
f0 , ,
, -
. SM
10 ( ~ 0.02%), SM
20 ( ~ 0.04%) (. 4.22).

. 4.22.
Fujikura Alcatel

,
(0.02%) BOTDR, (~0.05%)
, .

104

1. . ., . ., . . , .:
, . 288, 2003
2. Anderson, D.R, Johnson, L., Bell, F.G. Troubleshooting Optical-Fiber Networks, (Under-
standing and using your OTDR), Second Edition, Elsevier Academic Press, P. 437, 2004
3. ., - , .: , . 441, 2003
4. .., ., . X., ..,
.., . , .: -,
. 288, 2003
5. Optical Fiber Telecommunications, Vol. IVA,B, ed. By LP. Kaminow and Li Tingye, Aca-demic
Press, P. 876, P. 1022, 2002
6. Yeniay A., Delavaux J-M., Toulouse J., "Spontaneous and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Gain
Spectra in Optical Fiber", J. Lightwave Tech., Vol. 20, 8, p. 1425-1431, 2002
7. . . , , .: . "", . 158, 2002
8. ., . - . . -
. . Corning Cable Systems, . 351, 2001
9. ., WDM, . .
. A.M. , .. , .. , .: EXFO, C.194, 2001
10. . . .
, .: , . 352, 2000
11. - : , , , .
. .., .. .: . "Connect", . 367, 2000
12. P.P., - . .: -, . 267, 2000
13. Komachiya M, et all, "Proof-testing and probabilistic lifetime estimation of glass fiber for
sensor applications", Appl. Opt., Vol. 38, 13, p. 2767-2774, 1999
14. .. . , , , .: .
Syrus. Systems, . 672, 1999
15. BellerJ., "OTDRs and Backscatter Measurements", Ch. 11, in Fiber Optic Test and
Measurement, Ed. Derickson D., Prentice Hall PRT, 1998
16. Lafferiere J., Taws R., Wolszezak S., Guide to Fiber Optic Measurements, Wavetek, 1998
17. . . , .:
, . 307, 1998
18. .., ,
, . , , 1997
19. . : . . / . ... .:
, . 324, 1996
20. Kurashima ., Horiguchi ., Izumita , Furukawa S., "Brillouin Optical-Fiber Time Do-main
Reflectometry", IECE Trans. Commun., Vol., E76-B, p. 382-389, 1993
21. Agraval G.P. Fiber-Optic Communication Systems. John Wiley, New York, 541, 1992
22. Tekippe V.J., "Passive Fiber-Optic Components Made by Fused Biconical Taper Proc-ess",
Fiber and Integrated Optics, Vol. 9, p. 97-123, 1990
23. Horiguchi ., Tateda M. BOTDA - Nondestructive Measurement of Single-Mode Optical Fiber
Attenuation Characteristics Using Brillouin Interaction: Theory, J. Lightwave Tech., Vol. 7,
8, p. 1170-1176, 1989
24. Kapron F., Adams ., Thomas E., Peters J., "Fiber-Optic Reflection Measurements Using OCWR
and OTDR Techniques", J. Lightwave Tech., Vol. 7, 8, p. 1234-1241, 1989
25. Danielson ., "Optical time-domain reflectometer specifications and performance testing",
Appl., Optics, Vol. 24, 15, p. 2313-2321, 1985
26. Kao . ., " ", . 5, . 155-204, . "-
", . . . . . , .: "-", . 270, 1982

105

1.

,
, .
,
,
. , ,
, 0.05 ( = 1550 ).
.
0.02 ,
,
. ,
(d)
. , , d 0.3, w 7 w = 0
(1.1) : d() = 0.01 .
-
. 1.4,

0.5 .
( )
(. .1). , ,

1 . : d() 0.16 (
d = 1 , w = 10 w = 0).

. . 1. () ()


,
(LID - local light injection and detection) (. .2). LID ,
.
Siemens (Corning).
LID , ,
, ,
,
.
.

106
. .2. (LID )

PAS (profile alignment system)


HDCM (high direct core monitoring). PAS
Furukawa S 175 Fujikura FSM-40S,
HDCM Sumitomo -36 -37. PAS
FSU975 Ericson,

.
PAS (. .3).
,
, ,
.
, , ,
,
, .

. A.3.
()
()
()


LID .
,
.
,
.
, TYPE-37, ,

107
, ,
(. .4).

. .4. SM
PAS

,
, PAS ,
. ,
. ,
. , .
,
,
.

, .
,
,
, .

, , ,
.
,
,
SM 0.02 . ,
SM .

.
, ,
.

.2. 2x2
, ,
. ,
. ,

.
22. , , -
,
- . , ,
(. .5).

108
. .5. 22


(. .6). ,
.
L
: d D exp , D
2b
, L , b .
75 ,
.
,
.

. .6.

22

P
: T 1 cos 2 .
Po

,
(. .7).

. .7.

109
. .7
1310 1550 .
, -
. ,
(3 ). 1.3 3
, .
1300 50%.
1550
37%, .. 1550
. , ,
, . .8. ,
.
.

. .8. ( )

,
(. .7). 100%
1550 0 1310 .
(WDM wavelength division multiplexing) (. .9).

. .9. (WDM).

,
. ,
(EDFA Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier), = 1480
= 1550 .

8.35 (. . 10).

110
. 10

3
,
( 510%) .
50%
, , R = 1 (. .11).
,
, R = 1 50%.
,
.

. .11. .

,
(
0.010.05).

(. . 12). -
.

111
. .12.

. 12.
. ~5.5
0.2. ,
,
. ~2025 .

..
(
(connectors)) (5001000
) / .
: .
: FC, ST, SC
: MT-RJ, LC, VF-45, LX-5, Opti-Jack, SCDC-SCQC.

, : FC, ST, SC.
FC
. ,
,
.
FC ,
, ST SC. FC
.
ST , SC
. ST SC
, FC .
( 2 )
.
MT-RJ LC.
, .
FC .
,
.
.
2.5 (

112
1.25 ).

.
, ,
. (FC),
(ST) (SG).

1025 PC (PC Physical Contact) 512
( Angled Physical Contact).
( 812 ).

(. . 13).

. . 13. PC .

,
.
, .

. PC ETSI
35 .
, , 40 .

, 55 .
- -PC. -
,
, PC . -
.
, 55 ,
.
8 (. . 13).
60 , .
70 80 .
, PC
. ,
, . , -
, ,
,
() ,
(. .14).

113
. 14. .

,
, ETSI, 0.5 .
d :
d() = 4.34 (2 d/w)2. , w 10 , ,
1.7 .
( ,
).
,
(
-). ,
(. . 15).

. . 15. :
() () () .


.
, .
,
( ).
1.5 , ( ) 2
(. . 16).

114
. . 16. ,
() ( ).


() .
, ( -
).
( I)
(. . 17).

. . 17. :
() () .


, . . 17,
.
, . ,
.
( FC) .
.
, ,
,
.
( 90).
( )
(. A. 17).
( ) (. . 18).

115
..18.
( ).

,
( .1), ,
,
. I
,
.

.1. , .



0.20 0.14

94 % < 0.30 95 % < 0.30
, .
97% <0.40 99 % < 0.40
0.30 0.15
60 % < 0.30 94 % < 0.30
" ", 85 % < 0.50 98 % < 0.40
1.2 0.71


( ) 0.5 .
,
.

.4.

()
. ,
,
. ,
( FC SC), ( )
.

,
. ,
.

116
, .
,
(. . 19).
,
.

. .19. OTDR ( )
.

,
, , .
0,5-5.
, , - ,
.

.
( 1 ). ,
.
. , 1000
~200$.

.
,
.
, ,
, ..

,
V- .
1.1, (SM)
,
1 .


, .
, , ,
-125.
-125 ,
, .
V- ,
.
,
(. .20).

117
. .20. -125 - .

,

.
(0.20.5 )
( ). -125
, , , (3-10).

. ,
.
.
( ).
.
, , - ,
.

.
, (. .21).
, Corning Lab Splice
50. Fibrlock AMP CoreLink
10 , , .

. A.21. , .

,
,

(. .22).
,
.
, , . ,
, 1 .

. ,
, ,
, .

118
. .22. , .

(~0.5 )
(~0.3 ). - ,
, , .
(). ,
, ,
. ,
, (~1 ) (0~127 )
, ,
, , .
.

.5.
:
,
.
ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-..

. ,
. ,
, .
,
.
(
24), .
,
1 . ,
, ,
.

, ,
.
.
(
24 48) ,
. 5 ,
2 . ,
.

.
(> 48).
25 ,
34 .
- , (
), .
119
(, ) ( 2 )
. ,
. , ,
, ,
, ,
.
.

: ,
.
,
.
( 2 ),
,
.
, , .
.

120

( :

,
!!!)

Agilent E6000C Mini-OTDR
-

Agilent E6001A, Agilent E6003C, Agilent E6003A, Agilent E6004A, Agilent
E6008B, Agilent E6012A, Agilent E6013A
1

6003 6003 6003


1310/1550 25 1310/1550 25 1310/1550 25


10 100 1 10 20 10 100 1 10 10 100 1 10 20

21/20 27/25 33/32 40/39 43/41 19/17 24/22 30/29 35/34 19/17 24/22 30/29 38/37 40/39
()2

6001 6004 6008


1310 25 1310/1550 25 1310/1550 25


10 100 1 10 10 100 1 10 10 100 1 10 20

13 18 23 30 13/13 18/18 23/23 30/30 24/22 29/27 35/34 42/41 45/43


()

6012 6013
155025/162520 1310/1550 25 /1625 20


10 100 1 20 10 100 1 20

22/18 27/24 34/30 41/40 43/... 18/17/17 23/22/22 29/28/28 36/35/35 39/38/37
()

: 10 , 30 , 100 , 300 , 1
, 3 , 10 .
1 25
2



3 3 , 1,5 6003
4 10 1310 , 12 1550 , 14 1625 8/10 1310/1550
6003
121
5

1
10 4 0.5

122

1
0.05 2.0

: 8 . : 270 , 1 , 2 :
10 20 .

6003, 6004, 6003, 6008, 6003, 6001



1310/1550 +25
3
7 0.1

Diamond HMS-10, FC/PC, DIN 47256, ST, Biconic, SC, NEC D4

- 21 CFR I, IEC825
- .
- 0 +50 .
- -40 +60.
95% R.H. 0 +40.
2 .
3 <-35 10 < 4
4 <-35 30 < 4
5 : +

+
6 20 60
7 10 . 15 MHH.@T=constant.

Agilent E6005A, Agilent E6009A


- 1

6005 6009
850/1300 30 850/1300 30

62.5 62.5

10 100 1 10 10 100 1

19/17 26/22 (N/A)/28 (N/A)/34 12/12 18/18 (N/A)/23


()2


6005 6009

3 3
3

10 10
4

5



1 104 0.5

123
6

7

1
0.05 2.0

- 8 .
- 270 , 1 , 2
5 100 (850 ), 5 1 (6009 =1300
), 5 10 (6005 =1300 ).


- 21 CFR I, IEC825
- 0 +50
- -40 +60.
95% R.H. 0 +40.
- 2

6005/6009

850/1300 30
() -20 (850) -13 (1300 )
8 0.15

Diamond HMS-10, FC/PC, DIN 47256, ST, Biconic,
SC, NEC D4

2
3 -35 10 4
4 -35 30 4
5 : +

+
6 SNR 15 1 , 3
7 20 60
8 10 . 15 MHH.@T=constant

Agilent E6006A


6006

InGaAs
800- 1650

850,1300,1310,1550 , 1625 ( )
+10 70
+13/20

0.01
, , , , ,
, ,
3

9/125, 50/125 , 62.5/125

124

3%
1300 , 1310 1550
5 % 0.5 10%2.5
850


: +0 -50 . : -20 .
. .
: 850 3 , 1300 3 , : 1300 3 , 13103,
13103, 15503. 1550 3 .
: SM 50 : 50/125
( 62.5 , 2 % HP/HMS-10 .
). 10 .
. : +18 +28 .
: +10 +40 . 0.3 %
2 . , 0.6 % 2

:
.
(270 , 1 , 2 ) +10
-45 ( ).
(350 , 550 )
+10 -45 ( ).
+30 -80 .
.
(DISPREF).

- 120 40 25 .
- 130 .
- 0 +50 .
- -40 +60 .
- 95% R.H. 0 +40 .
- 2 .

Agilent E6007A .

6007

635 10 ( )
(CW) 0
(CW) 3
9
: 5
11 (21 CFR 1040) 11 (IEC 825-1)


(1 )

125

- 120 40 25 .
- 100 .
- 0 +40
-40 +60 .
95% R.H. - 0 +40 .


0 400
0.1 500
0,1
0,08
1,00000-2,00000
,
16000

- 0,1-10,0
- 0,001
- -14 -60
- 10-70db 1
-
-
-

-
- 100
- 0,0 5,0 0,01
- -14,0 -65,0 0,1
- 0,1 10 0,1

3,5 - 1,4 , MS-DOS,


5 45 , 35 80% 40
- PCMCIA II 440, 13000 ( 16000 )
- SRAM 2 , 100 ( 4000 )
- Bellcore GR-196-CORE Issue 1 OTDR Data Standard
5 15 5
41

VGA-LCD - 18,3 , ( )
- 640 480

126
RS232C - 115200 /
Centronics - (SPP)
- PS2 (Mini-DIN)

- -40 +60
- 0 +50
95% R.H -. 0 +40

- 100-240 10%, 50-60


- 16-24
- NiMH 8 ( 4 )
- <3
-

194 290 75 i
< 2,8 ,

Agilent Technologies:
, 113054, , 52, 1
.: (095) 797 3963
: (095) 797 3902
e-mail: tmo_Russia@agilent.com
URL: www.agilent.ru

127
Agilent 3900A


. ,
.
.
,
.
,
, , .

.
DWDM

.
.

.
,
. Agilent 3900A
.
Agilent
, . ,
,
, .
, .

.



N3910AM, N3910AL, N3911AL, N3914AL, N3916AL N3914AL
(1310/1550/1625 ) .
,
- 1310 1625 . N3910AL (1310/1550 ) N3911AL
(1550/1625 ) .
45 ,
, .
N3910AM (1310/1550 ) ,
.

N3940AA


. 1
12 Agilent
. 1 12

, 12 .
8 .
, ,

128
.. 12 ,
.
(CD) N3916AL

.


. .
OTDR
,
.

Agilent
N3909A
(PMD)
Agilent Technologies. PMD,
, " "
. Agilent Technologies
,
,
, .

N3935A
DWDM

- . N3935A
S-, - L- (1450-1650 ), 256
25 (0.2 ).
, , ,
.

Agilent N3988A

30 .

400 , ,
,
. ,
USB
Agilent 3900A.
,
( , SNR=1, 3 )
N3910AM N3910AL N3911AL N3916AL
N3914AL

131025 155025 131025 155025 131025 162520 131025 155025 162520 148020
,
10 19 17 24 22 22 18 22 20 16 19

100 24 22 29 27 27 24 27 25 22 24

1 30 29 35 34 34 30 33 31 28 30
10 38 37 42 41 41 37 40 38 35 37
20 40 39 45 43 43 39 43 41 38 -

129
22 3.
: 10 , 30 , 100 , 300 , 1 , 3 , 10 , 20 ( 1480 ).

= 0.3
( +

+
)
5 10-4

0,5 (. 8 )

[ - 3 - 8 - (
)
, 0,1 0,15 1625
( 10 , 15 T=const)
270 , 1 , 2

0,03aB(SNR>15a5, 1 ) 1,0 ( -20 -60 ,


100)

( < - 35 , 30 < 4 )
10 (1310 ), 12 (1550 ), 14 (1625)
( < - 50 , 30 , < 4 )

: 10 : 8

()
400064 000
0 400 , 0,1 400

, ,
1,00000 2,00000

0,1 10,0 /
0,001

-14 -70
10!70 1



,
- 100

, ,



Belcore/TelcordiaGR-196, Rev. 1.0, Rev.


1.1, Rev. 2.0
217x212x33
<1,2

130
PMD N3909A
N3916AL

PMD
( )
1525 1620 1250-1700
0.3 2500 /

(100+3%) , 32/38
DGDa (
(4%) (96%))
PMD One 115 0.1

(0,02 + 2% PMD) 0.6
DGDb>c
()
0,4 0.05 /
d
()
15 0.5 /
()
6' 53
f- 9
: -
.
[a] - DGD < 50 .
DGD > 50
[b] - DGD ^ 20 .
DGD > 20
[c] - 100
[d] - ,
[e] - 1570 1630 : 50
[f] - J 10 ()
[] - > 0 ()
6 .
: 13

N3935A
1450 0,05
1650 -
f
256 0,01

40000 45 100

( < 100 40 50
0,5)
0,03 < 35 25
0 0,02 () -70
0,005 , +30
h
d 0,3 f >40
(. ) 0,2 * 217 (),
212 (),
90 ()
( ) 0,1 2,5

131
[a] - : 1500 1620 .

30-
( 60 ,
). -,
.
0,04 ( -20 ; 23 3).

- .
: -30 +5 .
, .
0,6 ( -20 ; 23 3 ).

- .
1550 .
j 40 100 i 35 50 0 . [h] +15
(0,1 ).

N3940AA
N3988A

1x12 JPEG BMP
1280-1650 USB 1.1
1
2.7 ,
0.05

40/50 250-
/ 400,
2 0.02 ,
50


200 > +23
(+23 )
1 1

100
USB 2

217x212x33
050x200

1.4 0.2
1 . 0.2
(), 0.5 ()
2 25

132
N3900A.
LAN: RJ-45, (Ethernet 10/100)
: 170 : PS/2 (Mini-Din)
3,5" : 720/1440 . VGA: SVGA 60
PCMCIA: Type III :
II, 512

, : 0 +50
: -20 +60 ( )
800 600 (SVGA) : 95 % 0 +40
25,9 (10,4 ) : 330 230 61
: 3.3 ,
RS232C: 9 , ,
115200 : 100-240 , 50-60
: 25 : 18 , 60
(Centronics) : -, 5 (.),
OTDR 50 %
(USB 1.1):
N3988A : < 3
USB 1.1 Peripheral:
12 / :

Anritsu MW9076


.
.
,
.
D1,
.
, ..
. :
, ,
, , ,
.

Anritsu MW9076

MW9076J MW9076K MW9076B1 MW9076B MW9076C MW9076D1


(nm) 850 850/1300 1310/1550 1310/1550 1310/1550/ 1310/1450/
1625 1550/1625
, 50/125 62,5/125 SM 10/125 urn (ITU-T G.652), DS, NZDS
FC, SC, DIN, HMS-10/A, ST (PC, )
1,2.5,5, 10,25,50, 100 km 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 250, 400 km

10 ns, 20 ns, 50 ns, 100 ns, (200 10 ns, 20 ns, 50 ns, 100 ns, 200 ns, 500 ns, 1 |is, 2 ms,
ns, 500 ns, 1 ms - 1310 nm) 10 ms, 20 ms
21 21/25 40,5/38,5 45/43 41,5/39,5/ 34,5/33,5/
37 32,5/30
(dB)(S/N=1)
<7m <7m <8/9m <8/9m < 8/9/12 <25m
() m
<2m < 1,6 m <3m
()
0.05 - 200 m 0.05 - 800 m
133

0.05 - 20 m 0.05 - 80 m
i - : 5001; : 50001
Y 0.25,0.5, 1.25,2.5,5, 10, 15 dB/div
1.400000 1.699999 ( 0.000001)
= 1 m A = 0,1m
3 _ 105 _ (
n)
0.05 dB/dB 0.1 dB ( )
()
4dB 2dB

:
: ,
, .
: ,
, , .
.

: 0.01 10 dB ( 0.01
dB), : - 20.0 -60.0 dB ( 0.1 dB), : -1 to -99 dB ( 1 dB).
: 99.
( : , ,
.
.
.

1 *1

: , , , ,

: 0.1 - 0.2

: SR-4731, GR-196-CORE, Anritsu .


- 19 , 1.5 , 512 .
:
: : 1 99 .,
: 1 99 .
: 32
, ,
, , 21 (8.4 ), 640 480 , . MU250000A

3,5"
(DIN 6)
(Centronics)
VGA (DIN 10)
RS-232
RS-232
2 PCMCIA ( Compact Flash II 512 )
21CFR Class 1, IEC 60825-1 Class 1
= 10 - 26.4
100 240 , 50/60 ( )
: CGR-B/802D (-)
4 , <35

134
>6
290 194 77 mm, 3.7 (MW9076J/K/B1/B/C) 290 x194 x122 mm, 5.4
( (MW9076D1)
)
: -10 +40, <85% ( )
: -20 +60, <85%
: MIL-T-28800E Class 3, : MIL-T-28800E
Move shock: MIL-T-28800E Style (20.3 cm corner, surface total 14 times shocks,
Power OFF), Vamp: IEC 63-2-29, JIS 0042

( MW9076D1)
1300-1660 nm
0.5 nm
0.6 nm
0.05 ps(nm km)
30 dB ( 4% )

( MW9076B MW9076C)
: SM fiber (ITU-T G.652), PC type
: OTDR
FP-LD
1310/ 1550/(1625 - MW9076C) 25 nm
5-10 nm
-31.5dBm
0.1 dB
CW 270 Hz/1 KHz/2 KHz ()
: 21CFR Class 1, EC 60825-1 Class 1

Anritsu MW9076
MW9076B/B1/C/D1/J/K-01
635nm15nm(at25C)
-31.5dBm
10/125 pm, SM (ITU-T G.652)
FC, SC, ST, DIN.HMS-10/A
IEC60825-1 Class 1M, 21CFR Class 2
: 0 +35,
: <85% ( )

MW9076B/B1/C -02 03
10/125 pm.SM (ITU-T G.652)
FC, SC, ST, DIN, HMS-10/A
1200-1700 nm
+3...-70dBm +23 ...-50 dBm
5%
< - 36 dB

135
Anritsu MT9080 ACCESS Master
- .

1 .
,
, , ,
Ethernet 10/100 / Gigabit Ethernet (1 /).
.
, .
,
.
Anritsu MT9080
9080 9080 9080 MT9080D MT9080E MT9080F I
(nm) 1310 1550 1650 1310/1550 1550/1650 1310/1550/
1650
SM 10/125 (ITU-T G.652)
FC, SC, DIN, HMS-10/A, ST, LC (PC, ) FC, SC (APC,
)
0.5,1,2.5,5,10,25,50 km
3 ns, 20 ns, 50 ns, 100 ns, 200 ns, 500 ns, 1 ps, 2 |is
(dB)(S/N=1, 2 26,5 25 22 26/24,5 24,5/22 25,5/24/22
ms, 180 c)
() <7.5m < 8.5 m < 11 m <7.5m/ < 8.5 m / < <7.5m/ < 8.5
<8.5m 11 m m / < 11m
() < 1 m (< 0.8 m ())
0.05 to 100 m
0.05 to 10 m
- : 5001; : 20001 25001
Y 0.05, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 6.5 dB/div
1.000000 1.999999 ( 0.000001)
1 m 3 _ 10~5 _ (
)
0.05 dB/dB 0.1 dB ( )
()
2dB

:
:
1& , , .
I : ,
,
, .

I .
: 0.01 9.99 dB (
20.0 -60.0
0.01 dB), dB (
: 0.1-dB), : -1 to -99 dB ( 1 dB).
1 :
:
99. , ,
ii
. .
1 (>-
AQ dBm).
: , , ,


: 0.2
: SM fiber (ITU-T G.652), PC type
: OTDR
| : FP-LD

136
: 1310 30 nm (MT908QA/D/F)
If 1550 30 nm (MT9080B/D/^F)
1650 5 nm (MT9080C/FVF)
X : > -8 dBm
i : 270 Hz/1 KHz/2 KHz ()
s : 270 Hz/1 KHz/2 KHz 1.5%
: 10
: 21CFR Class 1, 60825-1 Class 1
1 : SM fiber (ITU-T G.652)
: MT9080A/B/D (1310/1550 nm port):
I x MT9080C/F7F (1310/1550
1310/1550/1625/1650 nm nm port): 1310/1550/1625 nm
i1 MT9080C/F7F (1650 nm port): 1650 nm
-c : OTDR
i5-s : -50 to -5 dBm
1 : +10 dBm
: 6.5% (-20 dBm, 1550 nm, CW, 23 2)
: SR-4731, ,

:
X :
1 : 1 99 .,
i- : 1 99 .
B :
1 907600
, , .
(g : km, kf, mi, f, m
: 32
, ,

, 16 (6.2 ), , 640 480 , .

1 USB1.1
-g 1 (memory), Type 1 (USB mass storage class):
s 9080 -
USB .

ANRITSU

21CFR Class 1, IEC 60825-1 Class 1


= 10.8 -15
100 240 , 50/60 ( )
: DR15SBA
5 , <20
>4
<
254 (W) 162 () 61 (D) mm ( )
277 (W) 199 () 80 (D) mm ( + + )
< 2 ( ), < 2.2 ( DR15SBA)
< 2.9 ( + + )
: 0 +40, <85% ( )
: -20 +60, <85%
: MIL-T-28800E Class 3, : MIL-T-
28800E
Move shock: MIL-T-28800E Style (20.3 cm corner, surface total 14 times shocks,
Power
OFF), Vamp: IEC 63-2-29, JIS 0042
137
EN61326:1997/A2: 2001 (Class A), EN61000-3-2: 2000 (Class A), EN61326: 1997/A2:
2001 (Annex A)
LVD EN61010-1: 2001 (Pollution Degree 2)

Anritsu MT9080 9080[ ]-02


635nm15nm(at25C)
-3 1.5dBm
10/125 pm.SM (ITU-T G.652)
FC, SC, ST, DIN, HMS-10/A, LC
IEC60825-1 Class 1M, 21CFR Class 2
: 0 +35,
: <85% ( )

Ethernet / IP 10/100 / 9080[ ]-001


10BASE-T/100BASE-TK: 1 port

Ethernet / IP 10/100/1000 / 9080[ ]-011


10BASE-T/100BASE-TX/1000BASE-T: 1port

EXFO
-

. ,
DWDM-, ,
CWDM- 2,5/10 /, ,
(PON) - ,
.


,
. EXFO ,
. FTB-
100B FTB-400.

FTB-400

FTB-400 -
. FB-400
:

7- FTB-400 ,
: OTDR,
, ,
, PMD. 60
EXFO 1000 -
, DWDM.
2- FTB-400 ,
:
.


.
, .

138
- .
800x600
12,1" .
FTB-400 ToolBox 6.0,
.

.
FTB-400 Pentium II, 512 ,
60 Windows 2000.
, , . CD-ROM,
Ethernet, -, / /, , DB-9
DB-25 FTB-400 .

FTB-100
FTB-100 . FTB-100
,
.
. FTB-100
FTB-400.
. FTB-100

. FTB-100 Windows
.

.

FTB-7000
(OTDR) ,
. EXFO ()
, , ,
, .
FTB-7000B
. FTB-7000D FTB-
70000C 4 3 (1310, 1550,
1625 1490 ). , FB-7000D,
(PON), -1 ,
4 ,
1x32.
, .
.

FTB-7000D: , , FTTH
.
FB-7000D
.
, , FTTH,
. . FTB-
7000D 4 !
3 , FTB-7000D 45
. 96-
14 3,5 .

139
PON. FTB-7000D ,
FTTH , , PON.
1310, 1490 1550 . , ()
-
1x32, 16 . .
- FTB-7000D
:

128,000 ;
4 ;
0.03 /,
.

ToolBox
OTDR- EXFO
ToolBox.
,
.
.
.
. ,
(150-250 ) .
.
.
. ToolBox
,
. .
, .

, .
.
. -
.
, .
, .
: .
. ,
.

.
.
OTDR
ToolBox. ,
.
.
.
.
,
, ,
.

, ,
, : s@tt.ru, . 8(910) 451 2173
EXPO
140
OTDR EXFO
. , ,
(/) , ,

-72- 850/1300 20 23/27 1,5/1,5 5/5
FTB-72XXB-D 850/1300 20 25/29 1,5/1,5 5/5

FTB-7200D-XXX 1310/1550 + 20 35/34 1/1 5/6
FTB-7200D-12CD-23B 850/1300 20 26/25 35/34 1/1 1/1 3/4.5 4/4
1310/1550 20
FTB-7300D-XXX 1310/1550 + 20 38/37 34/35 V1 1/1 5/6 6/6
1490/1625 10
FTB-74XXB-*B 1310/1550 20 40/40 37/38 3/3 3/3 10/15 10/16
1490/1625 10
FTB-74234C 1310/1550 20 1625 41/40 38 3/3 3 8/10 10
10
FTB-75XX-B 1310/1550 20 1625 45/45 43 3/3 3 10/15 16
10
FTB-7503B-B-ER 1550 20 44 3 15

OTDR
7200-/7200B-D 7200D/7300D 7400-/7500-/
74234-
, 0,625; 125; 2 5; 5; 10; 20; 40 125; 2 5; 5; 10; 20; 40; 80; 160; 260 125; 2 5; 5; 10; 20; 40; 80; 160;
260
, 10, 30, 100, 275,1000 5, 10, 30, 100, 275,1000, 2500, 10, 30, 100, 275, 1000, 2500,
10000, 20000 10000, 20000
, / 0,05 0,03 0,05
, 0,01 0,01 0,01
, 0,001 0,001 0,001

, 0,08 5 0,04 5 0,08 5


16 000 128 000 52 000
(1 + 0,0025% ) (0,75 + 0,0025% ) (1+0,0025% )
,
60 60 60
<1 <0,4 <1
,
. -7 -/45 -5
,
65010 800 65010 5 65010 800
,

FOD 7000 ( 100)


(OTDR) FOD
, :
. ...

FOD 7000 -
,
.
650 .
, 200
,
. .
,

141
,
.
,
.
FLASH ,
*.sor.
,
.
2,5 .
.

:

( )
FLASH
FLASH



FOD7003 FOD7004 FOD7005


(650*10), (650 10), (65010), (1310/155030), (850/130030)
, (1310/1550+30) (850/130030)
9/125 50/125 9/125
50/125
0.3,0.6,1.2,2.5,5,10, 20, 40, 80, 160 20,40,80,160
, 20, 40, 80, 160
, 26/26 21/23 26 , 21
-
1 1 1
,
10 10 10
,
25 25 25
,
>200, >200, >200, Rash
Rash
Rash

1.400-1.600 1.400-1.600 1.400-1.600

FC, SC, ST, 2.5

NiCd , 5
, / , 92x170x52/900
-10+50
-20+60
RS232
Rash 200

142
FOD 7202 ( OFL200)
FOD 7202 : ,
, . ,
, FOD 7202 , ,

, (FTTP).
, FOD 7202 .

, , . , FOD
7202 650
.

, , (Full Auto).
, .
(Semi Auto)
, .
(Manual) .
Live
.

FOD 7202 ,
. 48 .
.


( )




OTDR
- (1550+30)
- 9/125
- 4000 40
- 0,3; 0,6; 1,2; 2,5; 5; 10; 20; 40; 70
- 48
- 70
- 400
- 24 ~
- 15
- 20
- 15 -
- 30, 100, 300, 1000, 3000,10000
650 :
- (65010)
-
- 0,5
9/125

:
143
- FC, SC, ST, LC, 2,5
/ - 190x112x47 /600
NiCd - 8
- 160x240, /
- -10+40
- -20 +60
- Alkaline 4 ., NiMH , 100-240 , 50/60
- RS232
- Rash 48

FOD 7301 ( OFL300)


OTDR
FP 1310, FP 1550, DFB
1490
9/125
16000 4
0,3; 0,6; 1,2; 2,5; 5; 10; 20; 40; 70, 140
( 700 , SD
( (SNR=1) 26 10 , 3
0.25 <4 ; /1600 >4
1.5 .
5, .
10, 30, 100, 300, 1000, 3000, 10000
:
1

1/2
0.04/1
(131020);(14905);(131020)
2 . 1310 ; 0.1 . 1490 ; 2 . 1550
:
850; 1310; 1490; 1550; 1625
10-73
0.01
1 InGaAs
0.25
20 1
, , , ;
650 :
650 10

0,8 9/125
:
FC, SC, ST, LC, 2,5
/ 190x112x47 /600
NiCd 8

3.5" ,
-10+40
-20 +60
Alkaline AA 4 ., NiMH , 100-240 50/60
USB
SD

144
:

( )

-
.. (7 095)290 90 88 (7 095) 290 90 85 e-mail:infd@fod.ru http://Www.fod.ru
""
.(370 5) 2333568 (370 5) 2163528 e-mail : sales@fods.com http://www.fods.com

NETTEST
4500
()
4500 NetTest,
,
,
,
.
1

Windows
2 Windows XPe Windows XP Pro
/ ( ) CD-R/W () CD-R/W (
- )
3.5" 1.44 - 3.5" 1.44
() ()
/ ( ) 20 ( )
300
256
, 26.4 (10.4") XGA
( 1024x768 )
, ,

/ USB (2), Ethernet 10/100 (1), IrDA (1), PS/2
(1) PS/2 (1)
( ) 24.1x34.3x9.5
5.4
1
2 Windows , ,


() : 92-132 , 47-63 184-264 ,
47-63
1 Li-Ion
> 3
< 3



0 +45 -20 +60
95%, 95%,
15,240 15,240

145
OTDR 4500 ( )
25 35 45 54

131020 131020 131020 155020
155020 155020 155020
( 1310 : <15 1310 : <15 1310 : <15
1550 : <15
) 1550 : <15 1550 : <15 1550 : <15
1 1310 : 37 1310 : 40 1310 : 43 1550 : 50
1550 : 36 1550 : 40 1550 : 45
"" 2 1310 : 4 1310 : 4 1310 : 5
1550 : 5
1550 : 3.5 1550:3 1550 : 5
"" 3 1310 : 9 1310 : 8 1310 :
1550 :
1550 : 9 1550 : 6 1550 :
0.04 / 0.04 / 0.04 / 0.04 /
5 + 20 5 - 20 5 30 5 - 30

J 36 46 56 69

(62.5 ) (50 )
131020 131020 850 30 850 30
155020 155020 130030 130030
1625 15 1625 15
1 ( 1310 : <15 1310 : <15 850 : <15 850 : <15
) 1550 : <15 1550 : <15 1300: <15 1300:<15
1625:<15 1625 : <15
(1) 1310 : 40 1310 : 43 850 : 24 850 : 24
1550 : 40 1550 : 43 1300 : 26 1300 : 26
1625 : 40 1625 : 43
"" (2) 1310 : 4 1310 : 6 850 : 2.5 850 : 3
1550:3 1625 1550 : 5 1300 : 2.5 1300:3
: 3 1625 : 5
"" (3) 1310 : 8 1550 1310 : 850 : 5 1300 850 : 5 1300
: 6 1625 : 1550: 1625 : 7 : 7
6 :
0.04 / 0.04 / 0.04 / 0.04 /
(4) 5 - 20 5 + 30 5 + 1 5 + 1
0.00001 , 0.1 , 1 , 0.0001
4 (5) 5,20,50,125,250,300
0.001
4'6 ( 0.125,0.25,0.5, 1,2,4,8,16
)
256,000

0.0025%

1 60825-1 1 CDRH
( ) 21 CFR 1040
( UC-130-XX)

1 SNR=1 256k ( 2

98% . Bellcore TR-TSY-0001 2)


2 Bellcore TR-TSY-000196 2
3 "" , -45 ( )
4

146
5 66 69 5, 20, 50, 125
6 66 69 0.125, 0.25, 0.5,1, 2,
4, 8

( - )

(LED)
850/1300 20
OTDR
-8 () -25 ()
9/125 62.5 50
( (
UC-130-XX) UC-130-XX)
(CW), CW, 1 2
1 2

1 0.2 (8 ) 0.2 (8 )
< 15 <50/<125FWHM
(
)
1 60825-1 1 CDRH
( ) 21 CFR 1040


1 +23

( - )
InGaAs
780- 1800
+20 + -45
850,1300,1310, 1550, 1625
( LP-XX)
0.01 , 0.01% Ban

4%@+5 + -50
8% @ +10 -5 -50 + -55
0.01 , +5 + -55

( - )
650 20
( ) 0 9/125
2
9/125
2.5
II 60825-1, FDA (21 CFR 1040.10
2)


, , CD , Li-Ion
(1), / , Ethernet 10/100

(1)
501CDRW / (CD R/W) 4500
502FLOPPY - 4500
507KEYUS 4500
4500- Li-Ion
147
511 /
515PRINT 4500
4500-MANUAL
4500-HCASE 4500
4500-SCASE 4500
4500-USBKEY USB
45004JSBFLOPPY - USB
4500-USBCDRW CD-R/W USB
4500-1 4500
4500-2 4500
1

, 4500
580DATA
USB,
Windows 98/2000/XP
, USB (.
VIP)
4500 200,
,
( 546) USBBCMA4500

545VIP
USB / , FC, SC, ST,
1.25- 2.5-

545VIPA
USB /
, FC, SC, ST, 1.25- 2.5-
( USB)

YOKOGAWA
AQ7260

,
, , ..
USB :
, , ..
AQ7260
.

:

( 1 )
42 , 640


PCMCIA USB
USB , ,
..

148
,
Telcordia GR-196 (Bellcore)
Li-Ion , 6 ,
5
: 299 225 62 , 3
-10 +50
95%

Yokogawa
:
8,4- , 640x480
25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 , 160
, 240 , 320/640 ( )

0
, 1 ()
60 000
1,00000 - 1,99999 0,00001



, / 0,2; 0,5; 1; 2; 5; 7.5
, 0 68

, 0,001 ()

, ,


,
20
PCMCIA -
, PCMCIA
USB 2 USB 1.0, ,

FDD 3,5"
100-240 , 50/60 , 60 (
)
: Li-Ion. : 6 (30
3 , AQ7261 .
) :
5
-10 +50 ( : +5 +35)


-20 +60

95% ( )

299 225 62 ( ), 3
, , ,

:
| AQ7261 AQ7264
| SM 10/125 (ITU-T G.652)
, 1310/155025 1310/155020
, 2,5, 10,20,40,80, 160, 240 320/6401
| 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1, 4, , 20, 502>
5 ,
60 000
(1 + 2 10'5 () + )
0,05 /
()
149
() 3> 2 () 2 ()

4) 15/20 () 7/8 ()

(/=1)5), 34/32 35/33 () 40/38 42/40 ()


, - 1310/1550
-

-32
,
, 6> 0,1

AQ9441 FC7'
-10+50

-20 +60

95% ( )

:
1 - 320 1310 , 640 1550
2 - 50 AQ7264
3 - 10 , -40
4 - 10 , -450,5
5 - /=1, 3 , 20
6 - 5
7 - SC, ST, DIN.

150