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CUNEIFORM TEXTS

FROM

BABYLONIAN TABLETS
IN THE

BRITISH MUSEUM

PART XLVI

BABYLONIAN LITERARY TEXTS

BY

W.G. LAMBERT & A.R. MILLARD

PUBLISHED BY

THE TRUSTEES OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM

LONDON

I965
1965 The Trustees of the British Museum

Printed by Her Majesty's Stationery Office


PREFACE

Although the British Museum possesses numerous Babylonian


literary texts, the official publications issued by the Trustees until now
have contained relatively little of this class. The present volume will, it
is hoped, make some amends for this deficiency.

From its contents, in particular, knowledge of the Epic of Atrabasis


is very substantially increased, indeed the new tablets of this text pub-
lished here mark without doubt the biggest single advance in the recovery
of Babylonian epic literature since George Smith's original discoveries.
Furthermore, since substantial new Late Babylonian fragments of the
Gilgamesh Epic have been found and previously known pieces have been
cleaned and joined, it became desirable to present here all the Late
Babylonian pieces of this Epic so far identified in the Museum's collec-
tions. Among the historiographical texts, one especially should be noted:
no. 45, which has many aspects previously unknown in Babylonian litera-
ture, including a very detailed and vivid account of a river ordeal.

Except for no. 17, which is by the late Th. G. Pinches, the copies
are the work of Messrs. W. G. Lambert (nos. 4-13, 18-42, 45-50, and
52-55) and A. R. Millard (nos. 1-3, 14-16, 43-44, and 51). The introductory
pages are by Mr. Lambert. All will be grateful to them for their fruitful
labours.

R. D. BARNETT,
Keeper.

Department of Western Asiatic Antiquities,


The British Museum,

October, 1964.

(1)
SUMMARY CATALOGUE

1-15: The Epic of Atrabasis. (Nos. 1-4 from a late Old Babylonian edition; nos. 5-15
from Late Assyrian copies.)

1. Tablet I of a.three-tablet edition written by Ellet-Aya, a junior scribe, in the


first month of the twelfth year of Ammisaduqa. The loss of the opening and clos-
ing lines of some columns prevents a continuous line numeration. The tablet is
ruled for each full line, but often little of the rulings is visible, so they are omit-
ted altogether from the copy.

2. Flake from another copy of Tablet I. The lines preserved in the second
column correspond to no. 1 II 47-III 10.

3. Tablet III from the same edition and scribe as no. 1. The piece published by
A. Boissier in RA 28 (1931) 92-95, now in the Musee d'art et d'histoire at Geneva,
is probably part of this tablet, belonging to the upper right-hand side.

4. Part of a copy of Tablet I written in six columns, of which some of II, III and
IV is preserved. A copy was first given by Th. G. Pinches in CT VI 5, and a
second by S. Langdon in PBS X/1 pls. III-IV (=Le Poeme pl. X). The tablet was
baked and cleaned for J. Laessoe, and on the basis of his collations and photo-
graphs W. von Soden gave an improved text and illegible photographs in
Orientalia n.s. 26 (1957) 306-315. The copy given here offers further improvements.

5. Not strictly Atrabasis, but a fragment of a bilingual epic dealing with some,
at least, of the same material. K 11624 only was published by T. Jacobsen, The
Sumerian King List, p. 217, from a copy of F. Geers. A fragment of a Late Assyrian
copy.

6-15. Late Assyrian fragments, not all from the same recension. Nos. 6-8 and
10-13 cover portions of Tablet I in the Old Babylonian recension. Nos. 10 and 11
appear to be parts of the same tablet, and the episode they cover duplicated or
restored by 8 and 12 also. Nos. 9 and 13 correspond to parts of Tablet I in their
obverse portions, and to Tablet II in their reverses. No. 15 covers part of Tablet
III in the Old Babylonian recension. No. 6 was translated by G. Smith in his
Chaldean Account of Genesis (1876), p. 156, but has been lost from sight ever
since. Part only of no. 13 (K 7816) was given in copy by K. D. Macmillanin
BA V 688. No. 14 was previously known from J. Laesspe's copy in JSS 5 (1960)
122, and no. 15 from the copies of P. Haupt (Nimrod-Epos p. 131), F. Delitzsch
(AL3 p. 101), and Th. G. Pinches (IV R 2, Additions, p. 9). A photograph of no. 15
is given in E. Sollberger, The Babylonian Legend of the Flood (London, 1962)
P. 37.

Fuller details of these and other Atrabasis tablets will be given in the two
authors' forthcoming edition of the Epic.

(3)
16-35: The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic

16, Large flake from the reverse of an Old Babylonian tablet. It corresponds to
Tablet X of the late recension, and may well be part of the Meissner Tablet
(VAT 4105 in MVAG VII 1-15).. 4i6)le-ffil'
y c a6 91/

17-35. All these pieces, with the possible exception of nos. 28-29 whose attribu-
tion to this epic is not certain, belong to the late recension, and, apart from
nos. 29 and 33, which are Late Assyrian, all are Late Babylonian. Where prac-
tical, the indications of Tablet (within the series), column, and line are made to
conform with those found in R. Campbell Thompson, The Epic of Gilgamish.
('Wiseman' refers to the article by D. J. Wiseman in P. Garelli (ed.), Gilgames et
sa legende, Paris 1960.)

17. Fragment of Tablet I, drawn upon in Campbell Thompson's composite text,


but not hitherto published. Since the original deteriorated under wartime
storage, an old copy of Pinches, touched up from the original where preserved,
has been reproduced.

18-20. Other fragments of Tablet I. Campbell Thompson similarly drew on one of


the pieces making up no. 19, BM 34248, and Wiseman gave copies of nos. 18 and
20.

21-22. The obverse of 21 duplicates LKU 39 and no. 22 obv. The reverse of no. 21
has some lines corresponding with Campbell Thompson's Tablet V column II. The
reverse of no. 22 duplicates LKU 40. See Wiseman for a previous copy of no. 22.

23-26. Pieces of Tablet VII. Lines 2-3 of no. 23 correspond with STT I 14 rev.
10-11. Campbell Thompson's column III sets in at line 10. No. 24 confirms
B. Landsberger's arrangement of column IV as set out in WZKM 57 (1961) 8,
note 38. The left-hand column of no. 26 presumably represents the missing por-
tions of column II; the right-hand column is certainly column III.

27. This fragment of Tablet VIII restores and duplicates STT I 15 obv. 21-rev. 4.
Previously given by Wiseman.

28-29. Although 28 was given by P. Haupt, Nimrod-Epos p. 68, and R. Campbell


Thompson, op. cit., pl. 12 (the latter also citing the variants of no. 29), there is
no guarantee that these pieces really belong to this Epic.

30, 32, 33. Parts of Tablet X. Some pieces of the joins have been published pre-
viously: BM 34193 (from no. 30) by Campbell Thompson, and later by Wiseman,
together with BM 35413 and BM 35174+35628, which are now joined with three
other pieces as no. 30. Wiseman also gave a copy of BM 35546, which is now
joined to Rm 751 as no. 32. No. 33 is a piece joined to one published by
Campbell Thompson.

(4)
31. While almost certainly a piece of the Gilgamesh Epic, its position within the
epic is unknown.

34. A fragment of Tablet XII, previously given by Wiseman.

35. Tablet XI, first given by Haupt, Nimrod-Epos pp. 121-123, and cited (in some
cases less accurately) by Campbell Thompson in his apparatus. Laboratory treat-
ment and careful copying has resulted in fuller decipherment in the copy given
here.

(A new edition of the Babylonian Gilgamesh is being prepared by the copyist


of these pieces.)

36-42: Fragments of the Zu (or Anzu) Epic

36, The opening section of the epic, written on a tablet that contained some
other work in addition. A transliteration only was given by E. Reiner in RA 51
(1957) 107-108. Late Assyrian.

37. A Middle Assyrian fragment, corresponding to CT XV 39 II 29-46.

38. A piece from Ashurbanipal' s library, but in Babylonian script. A photograph


of the obverse only was given by E. Reiner in RA 48 (1954) 145-148, where the
parallel texts are given.

39. A Late Assyrian fragment joined to K 3454+3935 (CT XV 40) III bottom. See
E. Reiner, RA 48 (1954) 145-148, where a transliteration is given.

40. A Late Assyrian fragment, corresponding, in its obverse, to CT XV 39 II


38-43, and in its reverse to CT XV 40 III 76-90. First identified by E. Reiner,
who quotes readings from it in RA, loc. cit.

41. A Late Assyrian fragment, the obverse of which corresponds to LKA 1 II


13-22, and its reverse to idem 23-28.

42. A Late Assyrian fragment describing the final battle of the story, not dupli-
cated elsewhere.

aCoiosen, Slme 'h/3 Clwsy)


43. A Late Babylonian tablet, copied from an 'original of Assur', containing an otherwise
unknown myth which involves several obscure deities.

44. An Old Babylonian fragment divided into sections, each addressed by a man to his
friend. The content of the words is not clear.

(5)
50: HistoriographicalTexts

45. Part of a Late Babylonian tablet containing both prophecies and narrative,
of First Millennium origin. The text deals with the outcome of political and
personal events as expressions of divine justice. An edition is being prepared
by the copyist. , -i J- f
cP ,t ta" I

46, A Late Assyrian duplicate of the birth legend of Sargon of Agade. Cf. CT
XIII 42, K 4470 II.

47. Probably part of the same tablet as no. 48.

48. Portion of a Late Babylonian tablet describing the events of Nabonidus's


reign, a literary text, not a chronicle. One of the joined pieces was given, minus
one line, by J. Strassmaier in Hebraica 9 (1892-93) 5.

49. Part of a Late Assyrian tablet containing a royal autobiography. Mention of


'the Cassite king' is the only indication of the period referred to.

50. Probably a fragment of the same tablet as no. 49.

51-55: Specimens of Babylonian speculation and erudition

51. A Late Assyrian tablet containing a list of shrines, the deity presiding at
each, and explanations of these. The reverse of K 2107+6086 bears a similar text
(for the obverse see L. W. King, STC II pl. LXI-LXII).

52. A Late Babylonian fragment of expository character. The preserved lines


include a list of Gula manifestations. Reference was made to this piece by
E. Weidner, AfO 19 (1959-60) 111.

53. A Late Assyrian duplicate of the Archive of Mystical Heptads. Other pieces
belonging to this text are KAR 142 and III R 69 no. 3.

54. A join to CT XXV 50, K 170. The final 'extract tablet' (nisbu) of the series
i.NAM gis.bur.an.ki.a. Late Assyrian, from the library of Nabu-zuqup-kena.

55. A Late Assyrian fragment giving the measurements of the universe. The
reverse has parts of four lines of an Ashurbanipal colophon d in the classification
of M. Streck, VAB VII 358.

(6)
INDEX

CT XLVI Museum Number Plate CT XLVI Museum Number Plate

1 BM 78941+ * Bu 89-4-26,234+ I-XII 30 BM 34160+ = Sp 265+ XXXII-XXXIII

34193+ 2994
78943 236

35174+ Sp II 726+
2 BM 17596A - 94-1-15,310A VII

35348+ 922+
3 BM 78942+ = Bu 89-4-26,235+ XIII-XXI
35413+ 998+
78971+ 266+
35628 Sp III 140
80385 Bu 91-5-9,524
31 BM 34314 = Sp 426 XXXIII
4 BM 92608 = Bu 91-5-9,269 XXII-XXIII
32 BM 35546+ = Sp III 52 XXXIV

5 K 11261+11624 XXIII
Rm 751

6 K 8562 XXIV 33 Sm 1681 (+K 8589) XXXIV

7 K 10082 XXIV 34 BM 30559+ = St 76-11-17,286+ XXXIV

8 Bu 89-4-26,97 XXIV 32418 2152

9 K 6634 XXIV 35 BM 35380 - Sp II 960 XXXV-XXXVI

10 K 6235 36 K 7257 XXXVII


XXV

37 BM 121087 = Th 1929-10-12,83 XXXVII


11 K 7109+9979 XXV

38 K 3008 XXXVII
12 K 6831 XXV

39 DT 292 (+K 3454+3935) XXXVIII


13 K 7816+13863 XXVI
40 Sm 1807 XXXVIII
14 Sm 292 XXVII
41 BM 121060 = Th 1929-10-12,56 XXXVIII
15 DT 42 XXVII
42 K 7923+11565+Sm 454 XXXVIII
16 BM 96974 = 1902-10-11,28 XXVIII
43 BM 74329 - 82-9-18,45 XXXIX-XL
17 BM 34916 - Sp II 431 XXIX
44 BM 95431 = 1901-10-12,1084 XL
18 BM 38538 = 80-11-12,422 XXIX
45 BM 45690 ' 81-7-6,95 XLI-XLV
19 BM 34248+ - Sp 355 XXX
46 K 7249 XLV

Rm 785+1017
47 BM 34656 " Sp II 139 XLV

20 BM 37163 = 80-6-17,913 XXX


48 BM 34375+ = Sp 492+ XLVI

21 Rm 853 XXX 34896+ = Sp II 407+

22 BM 45883 - 81-7-6,314 XXX 34995 519

23 BM 46002 - 81-7-6,446 XXXI 49 K 2599+3069 XLVII

24 BM 35245 - Sp II 812 XXXI 50 K 10724 XLVII

25 BM 34873 - Sp II 380 XXXI 51 BM 134502 - Th 1932-12-12,497 XLVIII-XLIX

26 79-7-8,194 XXXI 52 Rm 518 L

27 BM 37189 = 80-6-17,942 XXXI 53 Sm 1720 L

28 BM 34191 - Sp 297 XXXII 54 Rm 520 (+ K 170) L

29 K 8573 XXXII 55 BM 123379 - Th 1932-12-10,322 L

(7)
CT XLVI Museum Number CT XLVI Museum Number CT XLVI
Museum Number

BM 17596A 2 K 6235 10 Sp II 726 30

30559 34 6634 9 812 24

32418 34 6831 12 922 30


34160 30 7109 11 960 35
34191 28 7249 46 998 30
34193 30 7257 36
34248 19 7816 13 Sp III 52 32
34314 31 7923 42 140 30
34375 48 8562 6
34656 47 29
8573 St 76-11-17,286 34
34873 25 8589 33 2152 34
34896 48 11
9979
34916 17 10082 7
48 79- 7-8,194 26
34995 10724 50
35174 30 11261 5
35245 24 42 80-6-17,913 20
11565
35348 30 942 27
11624 5
35380 35 13863 13
35413 30 80-11-12,422 18
35546 32
DT 42 15
35628 30 81-7-6,95 45
292 39
37163 20 314 22
37189 27 446 23
38538 18 Rm 518 52
45690 45 520 54
82-9-18,45 43
45883 22 751 32
46002 23 785 19
853 21 Bu 89-4-26,97 8
74329 43
1017 19 234 1
78941 1
235 3
78942 3
236
78943 1 Sm 292 14
266 3
78971 3 454 42
80385 3 1681 33
92608 4 1720 53
Bu 91-5-9,269 4
95431 44 1807 40
524 3
96974 16
121060 41
Sp 265 30
121087 37 94-1-15,310A 2
297 28
123379 55 44
1901-10-12,1084
51 299 30
134502
355 19 1902-10-11,28 16

426 31
492 48 Th 1929-10-12,56 41
83 37
K 170 54 I

2599 49 Sp II 139 47
3008 38 380 25 Th 1932-12-10,322 55
3069 49 407 48
3454 39 431 17
3935 39 519 48 Th 1932-12-12,497 51

(8)
PLATE I
ATRAHASIS

I
/ BM 78941
1i
+78Y43

10
2O

's

20

25

30
PLATE I I

Ictd. ATRAHASIS

35

40

45

50.

Lower
edge
J ctd. ATRAHA' SIS PLATe II

00eru
erasure
PLATE. IV
Ictd. ATRAHASIS
ii

35

40

45

504

55

_ L ____
Lower
edAse
(K Yrrr
<WYTY
: -
Ei
f)I

Lower
ede

. . . .

. 1.I
I
1r - ATDA WACIC PLATE VI

v 44

4'

50

55

LoSer
e dse
PLATE VII

(55)

:\\ 6)
PLATE VIII
Ictd. ATRAHASIS

:~
:',t!~.
,'` ~

to: t;...;I
':'' 2 '''.
. X.1
; .-, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

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25. rt:' .:~=


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Jctd. ATRAHASISPLATE I
I

vi I I1

10

15

20

25

30L
. I
PLATE X
Jctd. ATRAHASIS
V .. ..
' r r
L
I
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.

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LIII 5
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r- .

Lower
ecd.e
PLATE XI
J ctd. ATRAHASIS
vii ' 1

10

15

20

25
TPLATE xi#
Jctd. ATRAHASIS
r r ..
r r
r r r r )

`
r
vrii C
. , _ r
r


r
r
- - r
r
r.'
r
, r .r
r
r

r r
i-, r rr r
r r


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t
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r r r . .. ..
(
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h
PLATE XIII
ATRAHASIS
j. BM 1(84Z
mi
+78971
+ 80385
30

35

40

45

50
, . r
r ( ` t r I
t r
I r
Ct
r r I
I
r) ( r It
-
r
r
)
rr ,

r r
r I
r r . r r \r
r .
r r )
\
1
r I\I r r

r
iFi
. ... . .
. _

p1 PLATE XlV

Lover
4see
3ctd. ATRAHASIS PLATE XV

r r ,r(
i r r t
r ) r r

r ct
I \(
4 1
.
r rr t , r
r r - ((
.Hr Ir r
r
* r
- I ' ... r ('
.'E r r. r
' Z
;? '.2. ; r.

ji 5

'-5

20

25

30
3 ctd. ATRAHASISPLATh xv
IJ

Lower
e
ed \
PLATE XVII
3 cd. ATRAHASIS

. . ~ '. . r

5 2"
. <
1^^ 0
' I~~~~~~~~~~~ 1

fe
fff^^^^^r ' .r
^w
?^n:~~~~~~~~~~

Add X I f.1 I

. i ;. ' ' 1

Rot tutu 1?

r

( r


C;.t r
.rl r
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(
'
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PLATE XVIll
3 ctd, ATRAHASIS

TA

50o
PLAT6 XIX
3ctd. ATRAHASIS

vi

25 I
el PLATE XX
ctd, ATRAHASIS

40?

45

50

5ii
I

t0
3ctd. ATRAHASISPLAE XXI

v7i r

r
r
I .1.
r'
r
II

r
r . r r
4
r . r
II ( 4
r r r

r r I
(
t r r r
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r
r

15 I

)

( r
r
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--- I I.~~~~~~~~~~~I-
*. . :, 1
'in

2( Jo

2 15
ATRAHAS15 PLLTE xXll
4- BM 92608
4~~~~~~~~,,.
... ...

Obv. II-DI
tS^^^^ .- ^W^~S1.
sr_
'511

(rI10")
/ wr d >

15 ^^<^^
^rn^^r~w -" ^N^T^!-r
itsFF^^wB ^ ^^^<<<0# 1S
.'?^^-~~
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15

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^a~~~~~~~~~~~~c~~~~~~
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20
^.^-^-^r
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H^N~~z-t- -<ffi~-rN>+ =
25

bPt"
;s~ ~- Ie
25 i
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30
ATRAHASI5 PLATE XXiii
ATRAHASls PLATE XXIV
6. K

IC

100812
IV
AT RAHA56i

5 it. K 7109+9979

Ohv.
5

10
ev.

15

10
10

Obv. 12. K 6831


ATRR AsisL PLATE XXVI

13. K 7816+13863

I .--- - I,
Obv.

Rev.

10

igtt r-I
-l I-r -- 11 lr -l 1
15

r1~9-v~ r-~~~

~~~~--~~~~~~~bff~~~~~~~~~~ 1~~I-

~~~g~~~p-4~~~~~g~~~~--~~~~~~~~
lil 1fp~~~~~~~~~~~~~~s~~~~~~

20
dft . . - - - .. . .. .

PLATE XXVII

RAHASIS

0
<N

.N
_ . -
. . -

GILGAMESH PLATE XXVI II


"pA

1)

II

jv

5'

lo'
GIL G.-AE SH I I5 PLATE XXI IX
17. Br1 34916

10 I

Tk^~
j^^r~rf^ ,^$

.... . . -- - -,"'',"-
'-,"ss

20 I

38538
PLJATE Xxx

10

Re~v.
20. BM 371Ti3
IE31 0a1wv.

44 I .
.r- r -^

I 2 2. BM
I AI , .I . I J. tlL-
.d~eC Vbv. 45883
T^hk-y L/DV.^^

C^g~cj -^^IT

91
A I *
uvnP 95
I v IbI I.

Re IN^-
10v.
Pi ATrf VVV
AA!
(ILGAMES H
H3,'ES
\15

5/

(a 1)

20

26.
Bl

Yf-

25. BM

25
27. Bt 37189
\\ILAM ESH PIATF XXXII
. .....

L 15

30. I 25
30-361
BM 34.1 W
+3tI93
+35174
+35346
+35413
HTF-f-i-k~~-~F
+35019 ~Q~f~i~i~. 0
06Y.

35

40'

45'

45
PLATE XXXIII

33o 30.
~ BM 3460
\S +34193
... - +35174-
+3534s
35 +35413
+
3562 8

40 -: 4-0

are
I.,

45

31.
BM 34314
dIL&AMESH PLATE XXXI
eI L6IAMC-T PLAITE XXXV
X

CS*,
IE~i$
b:hl

,~~tr~

~ja~,X ,~

65

20

24-25

75
30
.

\IL&Ar1ES H I
xi 35.
BM 35380
R ,V.

275

280

~~~3~~~~~f~~~-

-~~pt- pP-1 - t- 11

125

%IWWIW-~

Th
;6
wt
PI

Z94.-5

300
/ .. - -
zu PL-ATE XXXVII

I -11
I
Y+Pk

~r~h~i~8;TP

Rev.

38. K 3008
7Z1 PLATE XXXVIt

105

IIC

40. s,18o0
43. B M 7432^ PLATE xxXIX

10

]5

20

A.

30

35

40
PLATE X L

10 5

Re.,

45 ced.

2<
L PLATE XLl
4-. BM 45690 O6v. (O. r on p.xLv)

5 ;

25PIbYj

.1~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.
I I _
, I I I
PLATE XLII
45. B M 4-5 O Ob93.MI

5 --<, rr 4jt~3~-F

I." ,

10 I. ''.....~ ~ ~ L'r
9""

^t^-< Adf^Mf~~Bf rmm |ir

^aTfflFBf |g 1r-;^ta
I::i:ap: ^^
ffT~fWTW^^r^CCPE^^'N
T^`rKj&^^<^^^^<K-r~M
201-
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