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Review Lesson

Review Lesson PART 1: VERBS A. Study Charts   Affirmative   Negative     Be He

PART 1: VERBS

A.

Study Charts

 

Affirmative

 

Negative

   

Be

He is tired.

 

He isn’t tired.

I

am afraid.

I’m not afraid. He wasn’t absent.

He was absent.

 

Simple Present Tense

I

work.

I

don’t work.

He works.

 

He doesn’t work.

Simple Past

I worked.

 

I didn’t work.

I ate.

I didn’t eat.

I fell.

I didn’t fall.

I studied.

I didn’t study.

Future

I am going to study.

 

I am not going to study.

I will study.

I won’t study.

Present Continuous

He is sleeping.

 

He isn’t sleeping.

Past Continuous

He was sleeping.

 

He wasn’t sleeping.

Present Perfect

You have broken the mirror.

You haven’t broken the mirror.

Present Perfect Continuous

We have been studying for two hours.

We haven’t been studying for two hours.

Modals

He can study. You should go.

 

He cannot study. You shouldn’t go.

Be—Present

 

Be—Past

 
     

I am You, We, They are He, She, It is

 

I, He, She, It was You, We, They were

Part 1: Verbs

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P art 1: Verbs R-1

B.

Rules and Editing Practice

Look at the rules and study the examples in the column on the left. Find and correct the errors in the edit column on the right. Not every sentence has a mistake.

Rule 1. For the simple present tense, use the s form for he, she, it, singular subjects, gerund subjects, and subjects beginning with every and no.

Study

Edit

 

s

She has a computer. He needs my help. Your composition looks good. Learning a new language takes time. Everyone deserves a good life. Nobody wants to get old. Wrong: She have a computer.

1. My brother work in a restaurant.

ˆ

2. My best friend lives in Australia.

3. Getting a college degree require hard work.

4. Nobody know how I feel.

5. No one have time for me now.

6. Every child deserves love.

7. Everybody want respect.

 

8. That building needs repair.

Rule 2. When the subject is I, we, they, you, or a plural word, use the base form, not the -s form.

 

Study

Edit

I

like ice cream.

1. They has free time now.

You live near me. We walk to school. My parents live in China.

2. People complains a lot.

3. My parents lives in Germany.

4. The students want more practice.

Note: People is a plural word.

5. All her friends has a cell phone.

Some people have a hard life. Wrong: Some people has a hard life.

Rule 3. To form the negative of the simple present tense, use don’t with I, you, we, they, and plural subjects. Use doesn’t with he, she, it, and singular subjects. Always use the base form after don’t or doesn’t.

 

Study

Edit

I

speak Italian. I don’t speak German.

1. He don’t know your name.

We know the question. We don’t know the answer. He has a bike. He doesn’t have a car. She lives in Los Angeles. She doesn’t live in San Diego. Wrong: She doesn’t lives in San Diego.

2. We doesn’t speak French.

3. Some people doesn’t have a cell phone.

4. They don’t want to go home.

5. I don’t like his new jacket.

6. She doesn’t lives in New York.

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Review Lesson

Rule 4. To describe regular activity or repeated action, use the base form or the –s form for the simple present tense. Don’t use the -ing form.

Study

Edit

always drink coffee in the morning. She never walks to school. Wrong: She never walking to school.

I

1. I usually sitting near the door.

2. We always watch TV at night.

3. She driving to school every day.

 

4. I brush my teeth three times a day.

5. She doesn’t eating breakfast every day.

Rule 5. Use the correct form of be.

(I am, He is, She is, It is, You are, We are, They are)

(I was, He was, She was, It was, You were, We were, They were)

Study

Edit

My parents are very kind. We are sorry about your problem. Your sister is intelligent. You were late yesterday. My brother was at the soccer game last week.

1. My friends is always good to me.

2. We was in Canada last summer.

3. You were in class yesterday.

4. Most people is kind.

5. They wasn’t here yesterday.

Rule 6. Do not use a form of be to form the simple present or the simple past tense.

Study

Edit

like my new dog. Wrong: I am like my new dog. She bought a new CD player. Wrong: She was bought a new CD player.

I

1. She’s needs some help.

2. I’m know Spanish well.

3. She was took the test last week.

4. The accident was happened at four o’clock.

 

5. I left my keys at home.

6. He was opened the present.

Rule 7. Many past-tense verbs are irregular. Use the correct form. For a complete list of irregular verbs, see Grammar in Context Book 3, Appendix M.

 

Study

Edit

She left early this morning. We saw the movie last night.

1. They went home early last night.

2. She heared the news on the radio this morning.

I

knew the answer.

She fell down two days ago.

3. He see the accident yesterday.

 

Wrong: She falled down.

4. They wrote a composition last night.

Part 1: Verbs

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P art 1: Verbs R-3

Rule 8. After do, does, and did, use the base form.

Study

Edit

Doesn’t she have a cell phone? Does she know the answer? Did you drive the car? Did he bring his book today? Wrong: Did he brought his book today?

1. Did you saw the movie yesterday?

2. Does she understands the problem?

3. Did you find the newspaper?

4. Does the teacher have your paper?

5. Does your father knows your cell phone number?

 

6. Does he has a laptop computer?

Rule 9. To make the negative of regular and irregular past-tense verbs, use didn’t + the base form.

Study

Edit

She saw the movie. She didn’t see the play. She studied French. She didn’t study German. Wrong: She don’t studied German. She lost her keys. She didn’t lose her wallet. Wrong: She didn’t lost her wallet.

1. He didn’t went to the party last Saturday.

2. I don’t watched the news last night.

3. She didn’t find a job last week.

4. He took the keys. He didn’t take the money.

Rule 10. In American English, the negative of have as a main verb is don’t have. The negative of has is doesn’t have. The negative of had is didn’t have.

Study

Edit

British: He has money. He hasn’t any time. American: He has money. He doesn’t have any time.

Change to American English:

1. She hadn’t time to do her homework last night.

 

2. I haven’t money for the bus.

3. He hasn’t a car.

Rule 11. Use was/were with born. Do not use did with born. Do not put an ending on born.

Study

Edit

I was born in 1978. Wrong: I borned in 1978. Where were your parents born? Wrong: Where did your parent born?

1. They were born in Guatemala.

2. I borned in July.

3. When was your parents born?

4. Did you born before 1985?

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Review Lesson

Rule 12. Continuous tenses = a form of be + verb -ing.

Study

Edit

We are correcting sentences. She was driving when she had an accident. They have been living in the U.S. for three years. Wrong: They have living in the U.S. for three years. The teacher is teaching us about verbs. Wrong: The teacher teaching us about verbs.

1. He eating lunch now.

2. He’s work now.

3. I sleeping when the phone rang.

4. They are driving home now.

5. The baby has sleeping for four hours.

6. I’m read a great book now.

7. You have been working for six hours.

Rule 13. Don’t use a continuous tense with nonaction verbs (believe, care, cost, hate, have, hear, know, like, love, matter, mean, need, own, prefer, remember, see, seem, think (about), understand, want, and sense perception verbs: taste, smell, feel, sound, look).

Study

Edit

   

I

remember my first day in the U.S.

1. Are you wanting to go home now?

We don’t need your help now.

2. I am not remembering the name of my first teacher.

I

like your new shirt. Wrong: I am liking your new shirt.

3. This music sounds beautiful.

4. He is understanding English now.

 

5. Do you own a cell phone now?

Rule 14. Present perfect tense = have/has + past participle. Use the present perfect for:

 

actions or states that started in the past and continue to the present.

activities that repeat in a present time period.

an indefinite time in the past.

Study

Edit

   

I

have taken several art courses.

1. I have made many mistakes.

She has been here since May. Wrong: She been here since May. The teacher has given several tests.

2. They been here for two hours.

3. I’ve look at the clock five times.

4. She has eating dinner already.

Note: Don’t confuse the -ing form with the -en form.

5. Have you ever been in France?

6. We haven’t given our parents a gift yet.

 

Wrong: The teacher has giving several tests.

Part 1: Verbs

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P art 1: Verbs R-5

Rule 15. Present perfect continuous = have/has + been + verb-ing. Use the present perfect continuous for actions that started in the past and continue to the present.

Study

Edit

He has been studying for two hours. We have been working for five weeks. Wrong: We been working for five weeks. She has been giving me piano lessons for three years.

1. You have been worked for two hours.

2. They’ve been sleeping for five hours.

3. I’ve living in Chicago for three months.

4. She’s been taken English classes for three years.

Note: Don’t confuse the -ing form with the -en form. Wrong: She has been given me piano lessons for three years.

5. She been sleeping for six hours.

6. I have studying English for three years.

Rule 16. After certain verbs (want, need, expect, try), use an infinitive (to + base form).

Study

Edit

I needed to find a job. Wrong: I needed to found a job.

1. She needs buy a new car.

2. I wanted called you yesterday.

I expect to get an A in this course. Wrong: I expect get an A.

3. She wanted to left early last night.

4. She wants to finish college and finding a job.

Note: If two infinitives are connected with and, don’t repeat to. The second verb is an infinitive without to.

She wants to get married and have children.

5. He expected to receive a letter yesterday.

6. I like to receive and to send letters.

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Review Lesson

Rule 17. Include be and to with the following expressions: be supposed to, be allowed to, be permitted to, be able to. Be sure to put a d at the end of supposed, allowed, permitted.

 

Study

Edit

Are you able to find a job?

1. You are able to speak English well.

I

am supposed to write my composition on

2. We not supposed to talk during a test.

the computer. Wrong: I supposed to write my composition on the computer. The child is not permitted to see the movie. Wrong: The child is not permitted see the movie. We are not allowed to talk during a test. Wrong: We are not allow to talk during a test.

3. You’re not allowed park on this side of the street.

4. We not permitted to use our dictionaries during a test.

5. You’re not suppose to write on that paper.

Rule 18. Future = will + base form or am/is/are + going to + base form.

Study

Edit

She will eat dinner later. She is going to eat dinner later.

1. He will coming home later.

2. She will become a doctor.

Note: Don’t use be together with a simple future tense verb. Wrong: I will be eat dinner later.

3. I going to visit my parents on Saturday.

4. You will be have a good time on your vacation.

Note: Don’t use will and going to together. Wrong: I will going to eat dinner later.

5. I will going to visit my cousins next week.

Rule 19. When talking about the future, use the simple-present tense in a time clause or an if clause.

 

Study

Edit

She will eat dessert after she finishes dinner. If you are at the library, the librarian will help you.

1. When I will return to my country, I will visit my parents.

2. He will go to the movies if he will have time.

I

will do my homework after I go home. Wrong: I will do my homework after I will go home.

3. She will visit the Eiffel Tower when she is in Paris.

4. If I’m home before 10 p.m., I’ll call you.

Part 1: Verbs

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P art 1: Verbs R-7

Rule 20. We show purpose with to + the base form.

 

Study

Edit

He used a knife to open the box. She needs money to go to college.

I

1. I turned on the TV for watch the weather.

2. She used a spell check to check her spelling mistakes.

 

came to this school to learn English. Wrong: I came to this school for learning English. Wrong: I came to this school for learn English.

3. He came to the U.S. for improving his skills.

Rule 21. After a modal, use the base form. (Modals = can, could, will, would, should, may, might, must.)

Study

Edit

They can learn English. You should drive carefully. Wrong: You should to drive carefully.

1. She don’t can drive.

2. I can’t to help you.

3. You shouldn’t making so much noise.

Note: To make a negative of a modal, put not after the modal.

4. It may rain tonight.

5. You must to leave immediately.

They couldn’t help me. Wrong: They don’t could help me.

6. You should not drive so fast.

Rule 22. Don’t forget the d in used to.

 
 

Study

Edit

They used to have a dog.

1. She use to own a house, but she sold it.

I

used to live with my grandparents. Wrong: I use to live with my grandparents.

2. I used to live with my uncle.

3. They use to play video games.

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Review Lesson

Rule 23. After prepositions, use the -ing form. Some prepositions are for, about, of, from, after, before, in, without, by.

Study

Edit

After finishing dinner, we watched TV. Instead of using a fork, we used a spoon. You can’t get ahead without working hard. She’s interested in learning about computers. Before eating dinner, wash your hands. Wrong: Before eat dinner, wash your hands.

1. He’s concerned about lose his job.

2. He thanked me for give him my seat.

3. Are you good at writing compositions?

4. She complains about not get enough sleep.

5. Instead of write your composition by hand, you can use the computer.

Rule 24. Don’t mix can and be able to.

Study

Edit

I can play the guitar.

1. Are you able to finish the job?

I am able to play the guitar. Wrong: I can able to play the guitar.

2. She can’t able to do her homework with the TV on.

3. I can’t help you.

EXERCISE 1 EXAMPLES
EXERCISE
1
EXAMPLES

Find the mistakes with the underlined words and correct them. Not every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct,write C.

s

He drink

coffee every day.

ˆ

You were late yesterday.

C

1.

She going to buy a new computer next month.

2.

She goes to the library once a week.

 

3.

My brother work very hard.

4.

She didn’t went home after work yesterday.

5.

My father have a new car.

 

6.

My cousin lives in New York.

 

7.

I watching TV last night when the telephone rang.

8.

My sister likes dogs. She doesn’t likes cats.

9.

I’ll be know a lot of grammar at the end of the semester.

10.

He speaks Russian. He doesn’t speak Ukrainian.

11.

She will take a vacation next month.

 

Part 1: Verbs

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P art 1: Verbs R-9

12. He’s a doctor. He been a doctor since 1997.

13. Nobody know how to fix the problem.

14. We can’t able to help you now.

15. I have saw a lot of good movies lately.

16. He was driving to work when he had a flat tire.

17. Last week, she was lost her gloves.

18. I have eating Mexican food many times.

19. She forgot to turned off the oven.

20. If we will have time next week, we will go to the zoo.

21. You should to buy a faster computer.

22. I want eat lunch now.

23. Every student need a textbook.

24. She doesn’t has a computer.

25. I not want to go outside now.

26. You done a good job on your last composition.

27. She quitted her job two months ago.

28. My father was borned in 1945.

29. She’s been talking on the phone for two hours.

30. Were you excited about go to Paris?

31. She can’t understand the lesson.

32. I finded a job yesterday.

33. She didn’t understood the explanation.

34. Some American people is very friendly.

35. She will become a teacher when she graduates.

36. I’m not able find a good job.

37. Most people want to be rich.

38. You wasn’t in class yesterday.

39. He has already taking care of the problem.

40. She came to the U.S. for find a better job.

41. They didn’t driving to Canada. They flew there.

42. Be quiet. The baby sleeping.

43. I want to go back to my country and visiting my parents.

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Review Lesson

44. You not supposed to talk in the library.

45. She expected received a letter, but she didn’t.

46. She isn’t interested in watching the baseball game.

47. I am not knowing the answer to your question.

48. I use to walk to school, but now I take the bus.

49. We visiting our grandparents every week.

50. We’re not allow to write in our books.

51. When I am at the post office tomorrow, I’ll buy stamps.

52. Are we suppose to write a composition today?

stamps. 52. Are we suppose to write a composition today? PART 2: ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS, AND NOUN

PART 2: ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS, AND NOUN MODIFIERS

A.

Study Chart

Adjectives

Adverbs

Noun Modifiers

 

Adverbs describe a verb.

Noun modifiers make nouns

Adjectives describe a noun.

 

more specific.

He is a careful driver. He is a good cook. She is a hard worker.

He drives carefully. He cooks well. She works hard.

He has a driver’s license. He uses a gas stove. She is a city worker.

B.

Rules and Editing Practice

Look at the rules and study the examples in the column on the left. Find and correct the errors in the edit column on the right. Not every sentence has a mistake.

Rule 1. A descriptive adjective has no plural form.

Study

Edit

His ideas are so different from mine. He has two wonderful daughters. Wrong: He has two wonderfuls daughters.

1. Her children are beautifuls.

2. You have pretty eyes.

3. Boston and Chicago are Americans cities.

Part 2: Adjectives, Adverbs, and Noun Modifiers

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P art 2: Adjectives, Adverbs, and Noun Modifiers R- 11

Rule 2. After a form of be or other linking verbs (seem, look, smell, sound, taste, feel), use an adjective, not an adverb.

Study

Edit

I am very proud of you.

The pie tastes good. The coffee smells fresh. Wrong: The coffee smells freshly.

1. She seems responsible.

2. She is very carefully when she drives.

3. That music sounds beautifully.

Rule 3. To describe an action, use an adverb, not an adjective.

 

Study

Edit

He speaks English fluently.

1. You should drive careful.

I

type very quickly. Wrong: I type very quick.

2. He spoke very quiet.

3. Please speak more softly.

Rule 4. Some adverbs have the same form as the adjective: fast, hard, late 1 , early. They do not use -ly.

Study

Edit

She has an early class. She arrives early. He is a fast worker. He works fast. Wrong: He works fastly.

1. She worked very hardly last week.

2. She talks very fastly.

3. I’m trying hard to find a job.

 

4. She came late to the meeting.

Rule 5. Good is an adjective. The adverb is well.

Study

Edit

He is a good cook. He cooks well. Wrong: He cooks good.

1. He writes English very good.

2. He is a good writer.

3. I didn’t do too good on my math test.

1 Hard and late have an -ly form, but the meaning is different:

Lately she has had a lot of problems. (lately = recently) He’s lazy. He hardly does any work at all. (hardly = almost nothing)

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Review Lesson

Rule 6. Some -ed words are adjectives: concerned, located, situated, married, divorced, crowded, allowed, permitted, worried, tired. Don’t omit the -ed for these words. Since these words are not verbs, be sure to include a verb (usually a form of be).

Study

Edit

My sister isn’t married. We are not permitted to use a book during the test. My college is located nearby. Wrong: My college located nearby. I’m bored. Wrong: I’m bore.

1. Are you tire?

2. I’m not worried about my grades.

3. She’s concern about her son.

4. The elevator isn’t crowded.

5. The college situated on the corner of Broadway and Wilson Avenues.

Rule 7. You can put very before adjectives and adverbs. You cannot put very before verbs.

 

Study

Edit

You have a very good accent. You speak English very well.

1. I very like your new car.

2. His new suit is very expensive.

I

want to meet your mother very much. Wrong: I very want to meet your mother.

3. He dresses very stylishly.

4. She very wants to be a pilot.

Rule 8. Use too much before nouns. Use too before adjectives and adverbs.

Study

Edit

That car costs too much money for me. That car is too expensive. I can’t buy it. Wrong: That car is too much expensive. I can’t buy it.

1. He’s too young to retire.

2. He drives too much slowly on the highway. He can get a ticket.

3. It’s too much hot in here. Let’s turn on the air conditioner.

Rule 9. Use too, too much, too many only if there is a problem. If there is no problem, use very and a lot of.

Study

Edit

My brother is a very good student.

1. My brother got a scholarship to a good college because he’s too smart.

My brother is 14. He’s too young to drive.

ate too much candy, and now I feel sick. He has a lot of friends. He’s happy. Wrong: He has too many friends.

I

2. He found a job because he has too much experience in his field.

3. He finally found a good job. Now he makes too much money.

Part 2: Adjectives, Adverbs, and Noun Modifiers

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P art 2: Adjectives, Adverbs, and Noun Modifiers R- 13

Rule 10. When a noun describes a noun, the first noun is always singular.

 

Study

Edit

She had a two-week vacation.

1. Put your shoes in a shoes box.

I

need a five-dollar bill. Wrong: I need a five-dollars bill.

2. We have a three-days weekend next week.

3. I need an eye exam. My eyes are bad.

Rule 11. This and that are singular. These and those are plural.

Study

Edit

This watermelon is big. That watermelon is small. Those cherries are good. These grapes are delicious. Wrong: This grapes are delicious.

1. That shoes are mine.

2. Those are beautiful boots.

3. This are my English books.

4. This gloves are too big for me.

Rule 12. Combine two affirmative statements with too. Combine two negative statements with either.

 

Study

Edit

I

exercise every day, and my sister does too.

1. My mother doesn’t like sports. My sister doesn’t too.

don’t play tennis, and my sister doesn’t either.

I

2. She can’t speak Spanish, and I can’t either.

 

3. My mother likes classical music, and I too.

Wrong: I don’t play tennis, and my sister doesn’t too.

Note: Include an auxiliary verb before too and either. My friend has a dog, and I do too. Wrong: My friend has a dog, and I too.

4. I don’t play tennis, and my sister doesn’t too.

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Review Lesson

EXERCISE 2 EXAMPLES
EXERCISE
2
EXAMPLES

Find the mistakes with the underlined words and correct them. Not every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct, write C.

ly He drives very careful ˆ .

He speaks English fluently.

C

1.

Her daughters are very intelligents.

 

2.

He is very proudly because his daughter graduated from college.

3.

The bread tastes fresh.

 

4.

I’m too much busy today. I don’t have time for you.

5.

She very likes her new job.

 

6.

This books are mine.

 

7.

We had a three-weeks vacation.

 

8.

I don’t type very fast or very well.

9.

I can’t speak Italian, and my friend can’t too.

 

10.

She studied hard for the test.

 

11.

You are not allow to talk during a test.

 

12.

My house located in a suburb.

 

13.

I’m concerned about learning English.

 

14.

My sister has a Japanese car, and I too.

 

15.

They speak English perfectly.

 

16.

She doesn’t know him very good.

 

17.

My sister likes tennis. Her daughter does too.

 

18.

He’s always tire because he works so hardly.

19.

She gets up early every day.

 

20.

The bus is very crowd in the morning.

 

Part 2: Adjectives, Adverbs, and Noun Modifiers

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P art 2: Adjectives, Adverbs, and Noun Modifiers R- 15
PART 3: COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES A. Study Charts   Simple Comparative Superlative Short

PART 3: COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES

A.

Study Charts

 

Simple

Comparative

Superlative

Short Adjectives and Adverbs

tall

taller

tallest

Add -er / -est

big

bigger

biggest

old

older

oldest

Adjectives That End in -y

busy

busier

busiest

Change y to i, add -er / -est

easy

easier

easiest

Longer Adjectives

important

more important

most important

Add more /most before the adjective

wonderful

more wonderful

most wonderful

-ly Adverbs

quickly

more quickly

most quickly

Add more / most before the adverb

easily

more easily

most easily

Irregular Forms

good

better

best

well

better

best

bad

worse

worst

badly

worse

worst

far*

farther

farthest

far

further

furthest

little

less

least

a lot

more

most

Language Note:

 
 

Far, farther, farthest is used for distance. He rode his bike the farthest.

Far, further, furthest is used for concepts. He explained his idea further.

 

Examples

Comparison Patterns

Comparative

He is taller than his father. He is more intelligent than his brother. He drives more carefully than you do.

short adjective / adverb + -er + than

Forms

more + long adjective + than

more + -ly adverb + than

Superlative

He is the tallest person in his family. He is the most intelligent person in his family. He drives the most carefully of anyone in his family.

the + short adjective / adverb + -est

Forms

the most + long adjective

the most + -ly adverb

Equality with

He is as tall as his brother. She doesn’t dance as well as me.

as adjective as

Adjectives

as adverb as

and Adverbs

 

Equality with

He has as much money as you do. I don’t have as many friends as you do.

as much noncount noun as

Quantities

as many plural noun as

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Review Lesson

Equality with

You don’t drive as much as I do. You eat more. I don’t eat as much.

as much (as)

Verbs

Equality with

He is the same height as his brother. He and his brother are the same height.

the same noun (as)

Nouns

Equality with

She looks like her father. They look alike. A CD almost sounds like live music. They sound almost alike. This coat feels like real fur.

look like / look alike

Sense-

Perception

Verbs

sound like / sound alike

taste like / taste alike

feel like / feel alike

smell like / smell alike

Equality of

She is like her mother. They are both very talented. She and her mother are alike.

be like / be alike

Characteristics

Same

The new dollar bills are not the same as the old dollar bills. The new dollar bills and the old dollar bills are not the same.

the same (as)

Different

The new dollar bills are different from the old dollar bills. The new dollar bills and the old dollar bills are different.

different (from)

B.

Rules and Editing Practice

Look at the rules and study the examples in the column on the left. Find and correct the errors in the edit column on the right. Not every sentence has a mistake.

Rule 1. Choose the correct form of the adjective or adverb. A simple adjective or adverb (tall, good, important, fast) describes one thing or person. A comparative adjective or adverb (taller, better, more important, faster) compares two things or people. A superlative adjective or adverb (the tallest, the best, the most important, the fastest) points out the number-one item in a group of three or more.

Study

Edit

 

biggest

He is tall. He is taller than his father. He’s the tallest person in his family. Wrong: He is a taller person. Golf is a popular sport. Baseball is more popular than golf. Soccer is the most popular sport in the world.

1. New York is the bigger city in the U.S.

2. Trigonometry is difficult than algebra.

3. Chicago is a bigger city.

4. Los Angeles is big than Chicago.

5. My grandfather is very oldest.

6. You drive most carefully than your brother.

7. She is the more beautiful woman I have ever seen.

 

8. The dictionary is a heavier book.

Part 3: Comparatives and Superlatives

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P art 3: Comparatives and Superlatives R- 17

Rule 2. Use -er and -est with short adjectives (including adjectives that end in -y) and short adverbs ( fast, late, early, hard). Use more and most with longer adjectives and -ly adverbs.

Study

Edit

My aunt is nicer than my uncle. Book 2 is easier than Book 3.

1. I am more old than you are.

2. My sister is more intelligent than my brother.

My aunt is more intelligent than my uncle. The car is running more smoothly than before.

3. Who is the most lazy person in your family?

4. What is the most unusual place you have visited?

5. My dictionary is heavier than my textbook.

Jake is the tallest person in my family. He is the laziest person I’ve ever met.

6. He wrote the composition more carefully than I did.

She is the most interesting person in my family. She dresses the most stylishly of all her classmates.

7. You speak English fluentlier than I do.

Rule 3. Before a superlative form, use the. Use than before the second item of comparison.

Study

Edit

New York is the biggest city in the U.S. Los Angeles is bigger than Chicago.

1. Books in the U.S. are more expensive books in my country.

Note: Omit than if you omit the second item of comparison.

2. My aunt is intelligent, but my uncle is even more intelligent than.

Los Angeles is big, but New York is bigger.

3. Alaska is largest state in the U.S.

4. Is Alaska larger than California?

Rule 4. Don’t use more and -er together. Don’t use most and -est together.

Study

Edit

You are older than I am. Wrong: You are more older than I am. He is the tallest person in his family. Wrong: He is the most tallest person in his family.

1. You drive more worse than I do.

2. You are the most youngest person in the class.

3. You type more quickly than I do.

4. She speaks more faster than you do.

 

5. This book is more better than the other one.

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Review Lesson

Rule 5. With nouns, use the same

(as). With adjectives and adverbs, use

as

as.

Study

Edit

She and her husband are the same age. She is the same age as her husband. Wrong: She is the same age like her husband. She is as pretty as her sister. Wrong: She is the same pretty as her sister.

1. I am the same tall as my brother.

2. I’m not as athletic as you are.

3. A nickel is the same shape like a quarter.

4. She isn’t as strong than her husband.

5. Her shoes are the same color as her dress.

 

6. I am not the same height my friend.

Rule 6. For sense similarities, use look like, sound like, feel like, etc. For other similarities, use be like.

Study

Edit

She is like her mother. They have the same interests. The weather in Cuba is like the weather in Puerto Rico. Both islands are tropical. She looks like her mother. They have almost the same face.

1. I am look like my twin brother.

2. You are look like your father. You both love sports.

3. She’s beautiful. She looks like a movie star.

4. I look like my friend. We have the same character.

Note: Don’t include be with a sense- perception verb.

Wrong: She is looks like her mother.

5. When you sing, you sound like Bob Dylan.

6. The weather in Chicago looks like the weather in Detroit.

Rule 7. To make the negative of sense-perception verbs, use don’t or doesn’t.

Study

Edit

She doesn’t sound like a professional singer. My photo ID doesn’t look like me at all. Wrong: My photo ID isn’t look like me at all.

1. Polyester doesn’t feel like silk.

2. He has an accent. He isn’t sound like an American.

 

3. This drink looks like coffee, but it isn’t smell like coffee.

Rule 8. The connector after the same is as. The connector after different is from.

Study

Edit

“Large” is the same as “big.” Wrong: “Large” is the same like “big.” “Large” is different from “long.” Wrong: “Large” is different than “long.”

1. This dish is the same like the one you made yesterday.

2. My English book is different than yours.

3. Your idea is the same as mine.

Part 3: Comparatives and Superlatives

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P art 3: Comparatives and Superlatives R- 19
EXERCISE 3 EXAMPLES
EXERCISE
3
EXAMPLES

Find the mistakes with the underlined words and correct them. Not every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct, write C.

I am the most oldest of all my cousins.

She is older than her husband. C

1.

He’s taller than his brother.

 

2.

He speaks English more better than his brother.

 

3.

He’s as smart as his brother.

 

4.

Alaska is the biggest state in the U.S.

 

5.

January is the colder month of the year.

 

6.

New York is one of the most interesting cities in the world.

 

7.

She is funniest girl in the class.

 

8.

He’s not as old as his wife.

 

9.

She is beautiful, but her sister is even more beautiful than.

 

10.

He’s not the same tall as his son.

 

11.

He and his wife are the same age.

 

12.

Oranges don’t taste as tangerines.

13.

She looks like her mother. They are both pretty.

 

14.

She isn’t look like her father. She has her mother’s eyes and smile.

15.

Asian music doesn’t look like Western music.

 

16.

Decaf coffee tastes like regular coffee to me.

17.

My house in this city is very different than my house in my hometown.

18.

A quarter is the same like twenty-five cents.

 

19.

He doesn’t have as many problems as I do.

20.

I don’t drink as much coffee my brother.

 

21.

You and I are alike in many ways. We both love sports and jazz.

22.

He is same his father in many ways. They’re both very intelligent.

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Review Lesson

PART 4: COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS 2 A. Study Chart Singular Count Plural Count Noncount

PART 4: COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS 2

A.

Study Chart

Singular Count

Plural Count

Noncount

     

a

peach

some peaches

some milk

one peach

two peaches

two glasses of milk

a

couple of peaches

a

couple of glasses of milk

no peaches

no milk

any peaches (in questions and negatives)

any milk (in questions and negatives)

a

glass

a

lot of peaches

a

lot of milk

one glass

lots of peaches plenty of peaches

lots of milk plenty of milk

many peaches

much milk (in questions and negatives)

too many peaches

too much milk

a

few peaches

a

little milk

several peaches

several glasses of milk

How many peaches?

How much milk?

B.

Rules and Editing Practice

Look at the rules and study the examples in the column on the left. Find and correct the errors in the edit column on the right. Not every sentence has a mistake.

Rule 1. With noncount nouns, use much and little. With count nouns, use many and few.

 

Study

Edit

 

few

I

don’t have many friends.

1. We saw a little good movies.

don’t have much time. She ate a few cookies. She drank a little milk.

I

2. Much people came to the party.

3. A few people were late.

4. I get a little help from my friends.

2 For a list of noncount nouns, see Grammar in Context Book 3, Appendix A.

Part 4: Count and Noncount Nouns

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P art 4: Count and Noncount Nouns R- 21

Rule 2. In affirmative statements, use a lot of, not much.

 

Study

Edit

He drinks a lot of coffee.

1. I drank a lot of orange juice today.

I

have a lot of time today. Wrong: I have much time today.

2. The teacher gave me much information about registration.

 

3. You should drink much water every day.

Rule 3. With a unit of measure or container, use of. Use of with a lot and a couple.

 

Study

Edit

I

drank a cup of tea.

1. I always put a little salt in the soup.

She bought a loaf of bread.

2. He put a little of sugar in his tea.

have a couple of tickets for the baseball game. They ate a lot of cookies.

I

3. He bought a jar olive oil.

4. I need to buy a gallon of milk.

5. Put a spoonful sugar in the tea.

Note: If you omit the noun, omit of.

6. I need to buy a couple bananas.

They ate a lot of cookies, but I didn’t eat a lot.

7. She uses a lot sugar.

Note: Don’t use of after a little.

 

Wrong: I drink a little of juice every morning.

8. I have a lot of free time on Monday, but I don’t have a lot of on Tuesday.

9. I have a couple of questions about the grammar. My friend has a couple of too.

Rule 4. To emphasize a positive quantity, use a before few and little (to mean some or enough). To emphasize a negative quantity, use very or nothing before few and little (to mean almost none).

 

Study

Edit

I saw a few good movies last week.

1. Their marriage was a failure because they had little in common.

I rarely see movies in my language because

there are very few available here.

2. He’s a lucky man. He has few good friends.

I

have a little money. Let’s go to the movies.

3. I can’t help you today. I have a little time.

have little money. I can’t even buy a cup of coffee.

I