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EFFECT OF SCHOOL VARIABLES ON

STUDENT ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN


CALABAR MUNICIPAL AREA OF CROSS
RIVER STATE
Published on January 21, 2016

13
5

Oluwaseun Oredein
Finance and Administrative Officer at Widow and Orphan Empowerment Organisation
(WEWE)

ABSTRACT

The main thrust of this study was to determine the influence of school variables on students academic
performance in Calabar Municipal Area of Cross River State. To achieve the purpose of this study, five
hypotheses were formulated to direct the study. Literature review was carried out accordingly. Ex-post facto
research design was adopted for the study. A sample of 200 respondents was randomly selected through the
simple random sampling technique. The questionnaire was the main instrument used fir the data collection.
The chi-square (Xs) test analysis was employed to test the hypotheses.

All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the analysis revealed that school size,
ownership, structure, type and location were statistically significant to students academic performance in
Calabar Municipal Local Government of Cross River State. Based on the findings, recommendations were
made such Government should provide more schools as much as possible which will help in decongesting
the over-crowded schools and also the United Nations recommendation of a teacher to a maximum of thirty
student in a class should be strictly adhere to.

Also, Educationist who practice in the private sector should tend to improve the quality of their teaching be
employing qualified teachers and also strive to make the student academically independent by revealing
their real performance to them and not doctored school results.

In addition to, Government should rather abolish boarding schools and create more highly spread and
equipped schools so that students can attend from their location. That is government should create schools
close to every citizens to enable them to attend without stress of traveling.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to The Study

The school is a social and learning agent that provides the environment upon which a child may be formally
educated in order to attain educational goals. Human beings, have unlimited capacity to learn, but may
however be limited by the behavior patterns and facilities that the immediate environment offers. According
to Umoh (2006), nature only provides the raw materials in form of potentials, but it is the environment that
determines the extent of development.

In furtherance to the menace of low academic performance which had been on the high strain in the Nigerian
academic system and cannot be over emphasized as it had eaten deep into the quality of students and
eventual leaders produced into the Nigerian economy. It could be deduced that there exist a vacuum in the
quality of students produced and the required quality of individual for various institutional need of the
country.

In accessing the cause effect of the level of student academic performance, the researcher consider some
variables of the school as those instruments that could tailor the level of student academic performance. The
school variable, which include the school size, school ownership, school type, school structure and school
location is deem fit to affect students academic achievement. Hence, the school variables remains an
important area that should be studied and well managed to enhance students academic performance.

The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to the
government, parents, teachers and even student themselves. The quality of education not only depends on
the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties, but also in the effective coordination of the
school variables. It is believed that the school physical features has a form of relationship with the student
academic performance in terms of the school size, structure, ownership, location and type.

A school with a highly populated students may result in the teachers not been able to monitor the
performance of the students and thus reducing the students academic performance and also, research has
postulated a form of severe relationship between the ownership of school and the students academic
performance say public school and private school. Also, the location and availability of educational
resources at the disposal of the students in terms of school variable affect their level of academic
performance.

Most excelling students tends to emerge from private school in the modern academic dispensation with the
paradox of whose teachers emerging from the public school in the old academic dispensation in Nigeria. To
complement these studies, the present research will examine the aforementioned areas of school variables as
it affect students performance in Nigerian schools.
Most student in their quest for easy subject combination in school and choosing of a career path in the senior
secondary school tend to avoid any calculation inclusive subject: as Mathematics also abhor Financial
Accounting. And for the few focused student who decided to study Financial Accounting do find some
limiting factors in pursuit of academic excellence on the subject and thus affecting their academic
performance in the subject and to which such school variable are school size, type, structure, ownership and
location.

Theoretical Framework

The following theories will be used to form the basis for this study;

1. The System Theory of Bertalanffy & Weihrich (1988):

2. The Theory of Human Motivation by Abraham Maslow (1943)

The Systems Theory (Input Output Model)

The theory adapted for this study is derived from the Systems Theory Input Output model developed by
Ludwig Van Bertalanffy and Weihrich, (1988) which postulates that an organized enterprise does not exist in
isolation; its dependent on its environment in which its established. They add that the inputs from the
environment are received by the organization which then transform them into output after processing such
inputs.

As adapted by this study, the student (input) are admitted into the school with different intelligent quotient,
family and educational background; when they get into the school system, the school through its resources
(both human and capital) process such students through the learning process which is aided or made easier
through the resources/variables attributed to such school. The effectiveness of such variables is measured
through the output of the student which is measured in term of their academic performance.

Robbins (1980) argued that organizations were increasingly described as absorber, processors and generators
and that the organization system could be envisioned as made up of several interdependent variables (system
advocate). According to Robbins (1980), it could be observed that a change in a variable within the
organization have an impact on all other organizational variables and sub system components. Thus the
inputs, the processors and the generators should function well in order to achieve the desired outcome.

Saleem (1997) in agreement with Robbins (1980) state that all systems must work in harmony in order to
achieve the overall goal of such system. According to the input output model, its assumed that the school
with high level of variables will enable the students produce a high level of output which can be measured in
term of their academic performance. Therefore, student will perform well in an academic environment with
the best facilities/variables in term of school size, ownership, type, structure and location.

Oso and Onen (2005) states that the inter relationship among the parts of a system have to be understood by
all parties to ensure their inter-dependent nature of the parts. The outcome of the student academic
performance is dependent on the level of availability of basic school variables.

The Theory of Human Motivation

This theory is also known as the Maslows Hierarchy of Needs, this theory emphasize the need for human
motivation in oreder to bring out the best possible potentials in human efforts.

According to this theory, human is constantly preoccupied with need that must be met at a point in time and
which in response gives birth to another need which are mostly insatiable in the long run. The need are
categorized into the following stages;

Physiological Needs;
Safety needs;

Social needs;

Esteem needs;

Self-Actualization.

This theory postulate that the satisfaction of a stage of need automatically gives rise to the next level of
need. This study derives its motivation form the Maslow theory of motivation and as such could align it with
the study in pushing for excellence in their academic pursuit. Variables such as school size, structure,
ownership, type and location tends to motivates student in the attainment of their academic excellence.

Statement of the Problem

Academic performance, which is measured by the examination results, is one of the major goals of a school.
Hoyle (1986) argued that schools are established with the aim of imparting knowledge and skills to those
who go through them and behind all this is the idea of enhancing good academic performance.

The poor academic performance of student in financial accounting had in the past give a cause for concern
for academician and school operators and such variables that could tend to influence the student
performance. Therefore, its pertinent to investigate the composition of school variables and their effect on
student academic performance in Financial Accounting in school in Calabar Municipality.

Much as the situation described here causes concern, it is not yet known why some students fail to attain the
standards expected of them. The researcher would therefore like to establish the influence of school
variables such as school size, school ownership structure, school type, and school structure and school
location on student academic performance in financial accounting in Calabar Municipality.

1.4 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of school variable on academic performance.
Specifically, the study sees to findings into the extent to which;

1. School size influences academic performance.

2. School ownership influences academic performance.

School type (co-educational/single) influences academic performance.

1. School structure (Day/Boarding) influences academic performance.

2. School location (areas on to fringe of Calabar-suburb) influences academic performance.

1.5 Research Questions

The following questions guided this study

1. To what extent does school size influence academic performance?

2. To what extent does school ownership influence academic performance?

To what extent does school type influence academic performance?


1. To what extent does school structure influence academic performance?

2. To what extent does school location influence academic performance?

1.6 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses guided this study;

1. There is no significant influence of school size on academic performance;

2. There is no significant influence of school ownership on academic performance;

There is no significant influence of school type on academic performance;

1. There is no significant influence of school structure on academic performance;

2. There is no significant influence of school location on academic performance;

1.7 Significance of the Study

The study is highly significant in enabling parents, educationist and educational stakeholders in measuring
the effect of school variable in relationship student academic performance. The findings of this study will
help determine the relationship between school variables and student academic performance and also this
study will be of benefit to educationist who are interested in knowing how non classroom factors/variables
affect student academic performance.

This study is also germane to parents who are interested in the educational performance of their student most
especially in Financial Accounting and parents who are tending to mold their children to become an
accountant in the future as this study tends to access the effect of school variable and student academic
performance.

Also, this study will be of immense contribution to professional accounting bodies who programed of
catching the best accountant young in their fields as this study will explain the relationship between the
variables and such student performance in the field of accounting and as such enable them to make proper
plan of hunting the best student in Financial accounting and also understand the cause-effect of school
variable and student academic performance.

1.8 Scope of the Study

The study will be conducted in ten Secondary Schools in Calabar Municipality. The variables to be cover in
this study include school size, school ownership structure, school type, school structure and school location.

This study is aimed at investigating the effect of the aforementioned variables on the academic performance
of students in financial accounting. This study is also limited to the identified variables used in the study.

1.9 Assumptions of the Study

The assumptions underlying this study are:

1. That schools differs in facilities availability;

2. That variables involved in this study are measurable;

3. That the effect of school variables on student performance can be investigated;


4. That questionnaire respondent are sincere in their response;

5. That examination is the only means of judging students academic excellence and ability.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 School size and student academic performance

Although educational researchers and policy-makers consider a number of variables in operationalizing


school effectiveness, the community holds schools most accountable for students academic achievement
(Bossert, 1988). Thus, the ultimate criterion for assessing the effectiveness of any school reform is the extent
to which it improves the actual academic achievement of students.

An optimized sized school will enjoy economies of scale on its student population and thus enable such
school to have a lower cost per student with the excess cost to be invested in other curricular activities which
will increase the student academic performance.

Sergiovani (1995) argued that, even if small schools do cost slightly more per student than do large schools,
small schools could still be more efficient if they were more productive. Thus, he urged educational
decision-makers to go beyond simple per student cost and consider the ratio of productivity to cost. Support
for Sergiovanis argument comes from research showing that increases in per student costs, not decreases,
are generally associated with increased academic achievement. For example, Greenwood, Hedges, and Laine
(1996) conducted a meta-analysis of 60 primary studies relating input factors relating to student
achievement, including per pupil expenditures. They found that per student expenditure was positively
related to student achievement, and that a 10% increase in per pupil expenditures was related to an increase
in student achievement of one standard deviation over 12 years of schooling.

Ramirez (1992) conducted a review of the literature relating school size to student achievement and
concluded that little difference in achievement was present between large and small schools. Cotton (1996)
reviewed 31 studies of the relationship between school size and achievement and found them about evenly
divided between studies favoring small schools and studies showing no differences in achievement based on
school size. None of the studies reviewed by Cotton yielded results in favor of large schools. Greenwald, et
al. (1996) conducted a meta-analysis of 60 studies and found that student achievement was negatively
related to school size. That is, achievement was better in small schools.

A researcher postulates that a smaller school size tends to have a better per student outcome compared to a
larger school sized. Ramirez (1992) conducted a literature review and concluded that there is little difference
in academic performance of small and large school size.

Also Forbes (1993) analyzed student performance in individual high school and state that student in larger
school are more likely to perform better in science subject than student in small school thus, the
preponderance of the evidence indicates that students academic achievement is better in small schools, but
there is sufficient evidence in favor of large schools to suggest that mediating variables play a role in the
relationship between school size and student academic performance achievement.

With regard to teacher quality, Jackson (1966) found that larger schools had more highly qualified teachers
than did smaller schools, and that some small schools did not provide all teachers with planning periods.
Thus, large schools appear to have a clear advantage in terms of teacher qualifications which thus have
directly reflection on the student academic performance unlike small school which cant provide teachers
with enough tools to work with and invariably limiting their teaching performance and student development.
Although increased disciplinary problems in large schools is a problem in and of itself, such increases also
tend to produce negative changes in administrators behavior. Gregory (1992) found that the control of
student behavior becomes a primary concern of administrators in large schools. As a result, school policy
tends to become restrictive and disciplinary actions highly punitive (Meier, 1996). So also small school tend
to be highly effective in implementing discipline on the student and a collective act of the teachers who
ensure that their student tends to behave well and thus yielding a high academic performance on such
students.

2.2 School Ownership and Student Academic Performance

The ownership of schools in Nigeria which could be viewed as the controlling force in terms of the
administration of the school could be divided into two broad ownership structure which are:

Public Ownership

Private Ownership

Schools that are established and run by governments are called public schools while those established by
individuals, organizations and mission bodies are referred to as private schools. Consequently, private
schools are those schools that have the following characteristics:

Supported by private organization or individuals rather than by the state

Independent schools that are supported wholly by the payment of fees

Schools that are not administered by local, state or federal governments

They are schools that retain the right to select their students

They are schools that do not rely on mandatory taxation through public or government funding

Public ownership of schools could be traced back to the missionaries activities in establishing missionary
school which is purely for religious purpose. According to Abati (2009), when CMS Grammar School was
established, Nigeria did not yet exist. The school according to him was established as part of the Church
Missionary Society (CMS) plan to develop locally educated elites that could help promote the Christian faith
with the first school being established in June 6, 1859. Towards this end, Odeleye, Oyelami & Odeleye,
(2012) claimed that the history of private ownership in educational administration in Nigeria could be traced
to the period when western education was introduced to the country in the 19th century. Between 1859 and
now, statistics is not able to reveal the number of privately owned secondary schools in Nigeria. And if at all
the list is released one can be sure that many of them will be omitted.

Private participation in education could be substantiated as a result of breakdown of the public school
ownership structure and void in the educational sector due to falling level of infrastructure and facilities, the
neglect of government of the missionaries schools after independence and the low morale of public schools
teachers caused by lack of structural welfare from the government with non-payment of salaries.

The breakdown of the public educational sector which reflect the falling standard of education in Nigeria
with a significant effect on the student academic performance pave an easy intervention of the private
schools which serves as a saving grace for the falling standard of education.

Most publicly owned school which are characterized by failing structures, physical dilapidated building,
teachers with outdated information, examination malpractice, lack of planning and non-motivated teachers
will have a negative effect on the students academic performance as they may not be able to compete with
their private counterpart. This assumptions is non-conclusive on the performance of the public school
student as some still shine against all odd against their private counterpart.

So also, private school which serves as a correction of the failed public schools tend to aid student learning
and thus influence the academic performance for the student by making available a conducive learning
environment for the students and thus having a positive impact on their academic performance. The only
issue against the emergence of the private schools is their rate of fees which could be viewed as outrageous
compared the mostly virtually free education in the public school.

In the past, private secondary schools were poorly funded being of very poor standard and in some cases of
six-year instead of five-year duration. The name "private" secondary school today applies to all secondary
schools owned by corporate bodies, religious organizations, individuals or establishments like University,
National Electric Power Authority, River Basin Development Authority, that are wholly financed and
controlled by these corporate bodies. Contrary to their previous poor standard private secondary schools are
today better funded, and organized and have better academic performance than government secondary
schools. There may be an exception to this, especially in the eastern states of the country where the Catholic
mission still play a dominant role in the establishment and control of secondary education in those states.
Whatever be the merits of these private secondary schools, there are some private schools that employ and
maintain poorly paid staffs who thereby feel disgruntled. This must have adverse effect on the overall
performance of such schools.

2.3 School Type and Student Academic Performance

School type in this context is defined as the composition of the students in terms of sex in a particular
school. The school type can be analyzed into two which are:

Single sex students

Mixed Sex student (co-educational)

Single Sex Education

Many proponents of single-sex education believe that separating boys and girls increases students
achievement and academic interest. Other proponents, it should be noted, take the stance that regardless of
the effects of single-sex schooling, single-sex schooling should be available as an option for interested
families. In this case, however, parents and school districts making the choice need accurate information
about whether single-sex programs yield better outcomes than coed programs. The question of whether
single-sex schooling improves student outcomes is still important, particularly because it is expensive and
cumbersome to implement in public schools (Datnow, Hubbard, & Woody, 2001; Pahlke, Patterson, &
Galligan, 2012). Proponents who believe single-sex schooling increases students achievement and interests
draw on a number of perspectives to support their claims about the efficacy of single-sex schooling, the most
prevalent being;

(a) Views that gender differences in psychological characteristics relevant to learning are substantial and/or
are biological in nature;

(b) Social psychological and girl power approaches that highlight the negative effects of sexism in
coeducational classrooms; and

(c) Views that biological and social psychological perspectives make single sex schooling particularly
effective for low-income African American and Hispanic boys.
Other supporters of single-sex schooling hold what we term the girl power view, citing the problem of
domineering boys in coeducational classrooms as a reason for separating boys and girls. In coeducational
classrooms, boys tend to seek out and receive the majority of teachers attention, particularly in math and
science (Lee, Marks, & Byrd, 1994). Furthermore, educators worry that boys sexist attitudes and behaviors
decrease girls interest in traditionally masculine STEM fields (Lee et al., 1994; Sadker & Sadker, 1994;
Sadker, Sadker, & Zittleman, 2009). Classrooms that do not include males, they argue, are more supportive
of girls academic achievement in counter stereotypic domains (Shapka & Keating, 2003). The reasoning
goes that, in single-sex classrooms, girls can develop self-confidence in mathematics and science; that is,
single-sex classrooms are empowering to girls (hence our term girl power). This view is consistent with
social psychologists emphasis on the crucial importance of social context and social interaction in
influencing students behavior (Rudman & Glick, 2008).

Single-sex education may be seen both as an economic and a social issue, in addition to the relatively
straightforward question of differential educational effectiveness. A movement away from single-sex
education at both the secondary and post-secondary levels, motivated by both social and economic reasons,
was experienced in the 1960's and 1970's in the United States. Single-sex education was viewed as a barrier
to successful adolescent cross-sex socialization, and the declining demand for single-sex education led to
institutions either closing or converting to coeducation in order to stabilize enrollments. This trend occurred
at precisely the time that research on American institutions was beginning to document positive effects
especially for young women for single-sex education on students' academic and occupational achievement
patterns, self- image, and career choice. In countries where education systems are still expanding, as in many
developing countries, economic factors predominate in advocacy for coeducation.

Some researchers believe that single-sex schools would actually benefit boys the Mostspecifically, boys
from minority groups and boys from poor families who may need more direct guidance (Guarisco, 2010). In
public school single-sex environments, student achievement improves, especially for minority students or
students in poverty, because of improved behaviors and teacher focus on learning-style differences
(Guarisco, 2010). Females also benefit from single-sex environments. Sexual harassment is an unfortunate
problem in coeducational environments (Guarisco, 2010). While the risk is still present in single-sex
schools, some feel that the single-sex environment provides a safer environment for female students. School
districts should give parents the choice of single-sex education or coeducation by offering single-sex classes
or single-sex schools along with coeducation (Hughes, 2007).

Coeducational Education.

The ancient Greek philosopher, Plato, said that Co-education creates a feeling of comradeship. He advocated
teaching of both the male and female sexes in the same institution without showing any discrimination in
imparting education.

Opponents also reason that single-sex schools or single-sex classes have a detrimental impact on the social
growth of each sex. The American Civil Liberties Union and now each argue that coeducation is better for
boys and girls because it allows them to develop interpersonal skills so they can interact with each other.
Mendez (2004) worried that, Without the collegial relationships boys and girls form in school, they will not
develop into men and women who understand and respect one another (p.1). As stated by Vail (2002),
Boys and girls must learn to get along together in the world, opponents of the single-sex approach say, and
separating them will take away that opportunity (p. 38).

The assumption here is that the only opportunity young people have to learn to get along together in the
world is through their experiences in public schools. Hughes (2007) 51 questioned whether the main goal of
schools is to develop students socially. Hughes asserts that the assumption is false; other, and arguably
better, opportunities are available for students to develop real world experiences with individuals of the
opposite sex through family, neighborhood, church, or volunteer organizations (Hughes, 2007). Indeed, there
are distinct advantages to educating boys and girls together appropriately (Kommer, 2006). In doing so, each
gender will begin to see how the other thinks, feels, responds, and reacts. Such understanding is in itself a
major goal for gender-friendly classrooms. Creating a gender- friendly classroom does not mean that gender-
specific activities should be created, the classroom should be divided, or single sex classes must exist.
Remembering that everyone lives in a bi-gendered world makes it necessary to teach students ways to be
successful in that world (Kommer, 2006). Students should have opportunities to work in a gender-matched
activity, while at other times they should learn to function in a more typical gender-mismatched one. This
allows students to experience instructional times that are more comfortable for students when the activities
are matched to their nature. However, they also learn to function outside that comfort area when they are in a
mismatched situation, and thus strengthen weaker areas. The quest is not to create classrooms that focus on
one or the other gender. Instead, it is to purposefully structure classrooms so that some activities favor one
genders learning style and some favor the others learning style. Specifically, it is critical that teachers know
the differences and structure the learning environment so that the students work sometimes reinforces
individuals stronger areas, and sometimes strengthens a weaker one (Kommer, 2006).

Academic Performance in Boys

Boys often face many areas of difficulty, such as lower achievement scores in most classesespecially
among low- income and racially/ethnically diverse students. These difficulties exist because of particular
problems in literacy and skills deficient in such areas as note taking and listening. Boys tend to struggle
more with homework and have lower grades in all classes, except some math and most science classes.
Because boys sometimes find little relevancy in the curriculum, they become less motivated to learn the
subject matter. However, as a group, boys are much more likely than girls are to be graphic thinkers and
kinesthetic learners and to thrive under competitive learning structures (King, Gurian, & Stevens, 2010).
Research suggests that greater group cohesion may occur in a single-gendered group, as opposed to the
divisions that frequently result from the in-group/out-group phenomenon so evident in the coeducational
classes (Wills, 2007).

The development of an apparent disenchantment with school by many boys frequently begins in primary
schools; or, as argued by Hickey and Keddie (2004, p. 59), 36 the antecedents for this problem [of high
school resistance] are set in place long before this time [adolescence] (Hickey & Keddie, 2004). Boys from
low socioeconomic areas are all too often the least likely to conform to the precise, middleclass norms of
their teachers and schools (Wills, 2007). Working-class boys in coeducational classes are frequently drawn
into a contest with girls that the boys simply cannot win (Thorne, 1993). Predictably, this one-sided
competition results in boys becoming consciously aware that the game is rigged against them (Slade,
2002). Some teachers feel that boys are much less mature than girls are. Therefore, when boys and girls are
in school together at the preadolescent/adolescent phase, boys will not perform as well as girls. It does not
take long before the boys will not want to do as well as the girls (Wills, 2004).

Consequently, many working-class boys, whose construction of masculinity has frequently been shaped by a
culture of physicality and assertiveness, tend to become negative and resentful toward those whose skills
they are often unable to match (Willis, 1981). Some boys express this negativity and resentfulness as
aggression (Davy, 1995; Millard, 1997; Rowe, 2000). Boys get very conflicting messages from everyone
parents, peers, teachers, coaches, and the media. Boys do, in fact, feel they are told not to show emotions;
they are told, Big boys dont cry. And when they hurt, they are told to walk it off. Boys receive strong
messages that they must be in control and that any show of emotion is unacceptable, with the result that boys
are trying to put their feelings someplace where they will not be betrayed by their own emotions (Kommer,
2006). Nevertheless, the story is not yet finished, for it appears now the boys are also often the the victims of
our educational system. Consider the following gender questions:

1. Who is more likely to drop out of high school?

2. Who is more likely to be sent to the principals office for a disciplinary referral?

3. Who is more likely to be suspended or expelled?

4. Who is more likely to be identified as a student needing special education?


5. Who is more likely to need reading intervention?

The answer to all of the above questions is boys (Kommer, 2006; Taylor & Lorimer, 2003).

Academic and Social Performance in Girls

For years, research has provided evidence of achievement amongst girls. According to Whyte (1986), the
oppositional climate between the genders that occurs in some primary school classrooms may have its
origins in the nature of the tasks that are given to primary school children. For example, girls are considered
to be good at the forms of writing valued in English classrooms (Whyte, 1986, p. 562). Such forms of
writing are, typically, the frequently requested fictional narrative in which girls do seem to be very
proficient (Gilbert & Rowe, 1989, p. 67). Frequently, the best work in primary school classrooms is that of
a girl (Thorne, 1993). Furthermore, Poynton (1989) argues, Girls write about topics that their teachers can
approve of, while boys topics can and do upset teachers (p. 36). By way of explanation, Kenway and
Willis (1997) noted that the highly regarded abilities of girls derive from their socialization rather than a
natural aptitude. Indeed, it may be the validation of their behavior that particularly encourages girls to strive
for neatness, tidiness, even prettiness; getting it right is what counts in the controlled space of the home and
the classroom (Kenway & Willis, 1997; Wills, 2007).

Girls begin to judge themselves relative to how they are perceived by the opposite gender. In the attempt to
become what they feel others expect them to be, girls quickly lose their own. They hide their true selves to
their friends and family (Pipher, 1994; Powell, 2004). Girls are sugar and spice and everything nice.
However, during adolescence, this message is lost in a bewildering array of swirling images. They must be
beautiful, but beauty is only skin deep. Be sexy, but not sexual. Be honest, but dont hurt anyones feelings.
Be independent, but be nice. Be smart, but not so smart that you threaten boys (Pipher, 1994, pp. 3536).

Studies comparing the relative efficacy of single-sex versus coeducational settings on girls interest and
achievement in physics allowed Hoffman (2002) and Gillibrand, Robinson, Brawn, and Osborn (1999) to
demonstrate that girls benefit more from a single-sex educational setting. Whereas boys achievement was
unaffected by a coeducational or single-sex environment, girls obtained higher grades under a single-sex
environment. The advantages of single-sex contexts for girls are posited to result from increased contacts
with their teachers; in coeducational context, boys tend to monopolize their teachers attention, particularly
in physics (Taber, 1992) and mathematics classes (Carpenter & Hayden, 1987; Leder, 1990; Lee, Marks, &
Byrd, 1994). Two studies demonstrated that girls appreciate more the climate of single-sex classrooms
(Jackson & Smith, 2000; Strange, Oakley, & Forrest, 2003).

In Jackson and Smiths (2000) study, involving a two-year investigation in a coeducational secondary
school where single-sex mathematics classes were introduced for one cohort of pupils during five school
terms, the authors showed that girls perceived single-sex mathematics classes more favorably than boys:
80% of girls, but only 36% of boys, preferred to continue with single-sex groups. The majority of boys
(72%) enjoyed mixed classes more than single-sex classes (Chouinard, et al., 2008). Gibb et al. (2008) found
that pupils in single-sex schools had higher levels of achievement than did pupils in coeducational schools,
and that the advantages for single-sex schooling tended to be greater for girls than for boys.

In 1992, the American Association of University Women published a groundbreaking study about how
schools were not meeting the needs of young girls. A large concern that must be addressed by middle level
educators is the decrease in confidence that girls experience through middle school. One study shows that
just prior to their entry into preadolescence, 60% of girls had positive feelings about themselves and their
ability. Only 29% of high school girls felt the same confidence.

This compares with 67% of young boys feeling confident and 46% of high school-aged boys having the
same confidence (Santrock, 2001). Some findings suggest that girls motivation and perceived support
from parents and teachers are unaffected by the type of school setting in which they are involved. Yet, our
conclusions are contrary to those who argue that, particularly for mathematics and science, a segregated
environment is beneficial to girls (Chouinard et al., 2008). Leder and Forgasz (2002) recently showed that
the stereotyping of mathematics as a male domain has significantly diminished during the past decade.
Advanced science and mathematics courses can be more attractive to girls, when masculine stereotypes are
diminished. This could lead girls to consider career opportunities that were traditionally perceived as mens
domains. Girls educated in a single-sex school environment tend to have higher career aspirations in term of
social status than girls educated in coeducational settings (Chouinard et al., 2008). Girls sometimes face
challenges such as lower learning and engagement in science and technology classes; relational aggression
in school and in cyberspace; and problems with self-esteem development in adolescence (King et al., 2010).

2.4 School Structure and Student Academic Performance

To constrict the variable of this research, school structure here is categorized into Day and Boarding school.

According to Wikipedia, A boarding school is a school where some or all pupils study and live during the
school year with their fellow students and possibly teachers or principals. The word 'boarding' is used in the
sense of "bed and board," i.e., lodging and meals. Some boarding schools also have day students who attend
the institution by day and return off-campus to their families in the evenings. It could also be referred to as
residential school (non-tertiary school) While a day school as mentioned earlier are those school in which
student lived off the school campus but comes into the school premises during the day for learning and
return to their various home in the evening. The concept of the boarding school is limited to secondary
school whose student are still dependent on their parent and usually still in their teen age.

From the benefits and cost analysis of the boarding schools, it is clear that there are points for and against
the operations of the boarding schools in Nigeria. It would appear that the chances are fifty percent each
way, which means that if the resources are available the boarding schools could be useful provided there is
enough supervision by the school authorities. Indeed, the economics of the boarding schools could be useful
provided there is enough supervision by the school authorities. Indeed, the economics of the boarding
system in the post primary schools is that there is profit and loss in the balance sheet. The important question
which has been left out is how does the boarding system affect the major goals of the school, more
especially the academic performance of students as shown by the school certificate results?

In previous research work on boarding school system in Nigeria and the call for the abolition of such school
in the educational system in Nigeria, the following fact were drawn:

(a) The original objectives of the boarding schools including the provision of shelter for students who had to
travel long distances, the provision of opportunities to learn "civilized" manners and the provision of
balanced diet have been overtaken by events. (b) The benefits of the boarding schools are several including
the opportunities for students to live together to develop independence and sense of responsibility, provision
of a stable environment, and conducive atmosphere for learning, opportunities for making lifelong
friendship and for contributing towards national unity.

(c) The costs of maintaining the boarding schools are high in terms of money, man power, opportunity costs
and problems for the students and society.

(d) The academic performances of boarders and day students seem to be at par.'

(e) Parents, students and principals want the system retained because of their convenience.

Also, Abati (2009) argued that the first school established by CMS in 1859 was a boarding school dough
started only with six student who were plainly boys and lived on the school campus. So also, the effect of
day school on student academic performance cannot be overemphasized as research had shown that the
academic performance between student of both day and boarding school are at par and also most successful
student are day student which further fortress the drive for the abolition of boarding schools which makes
the student detached from their parents and also may lead to various vices in the students character and thus
leading to even making the student lose focus on academics.
2.5 School Location and Student Academic Performance

Writing on the importance of location, Ojoawo (1989) found that it is one of the potent factors that influence
the distribution of educational resources. Throwing light on locational influence. Ezike (1997)
conceptualized urban environment as those environment as those environment which have high population
density containing a high variety and beauty and common place views. He further identified the rural
environment as being characterized by low population density containing a low variety and isolated place
views. Earlier in his contribution, Lipton (1962) corroborated that rural community is characterized by low
population, subsistence mode of life, monotonous and burdensome . Citing hotels, recreational centers,
markets, banks and good road network as being present in their urban environment. Owolabi (1990)
accentuated that our highly qualified teachers prefer to serve therein rather than the rural areas. As a
corollary of the above, Kuliman et al (1977) observed that teachers do not accept postings to rural areas
because their conditions are not up to the expected standard as their social life in the areas is virtually
restricted as a result of inadequate amenities; facilities are deficient, playground are without equipment,
libraries are without books while laboratories are glorified ones.

Writing on locational influence on academic achievement of students. Obe (1984) observed a significant
difference in urban-rural performance of 480 primary six school finalist on the aptitude sub-tests of the
(Nigeria) National Common Entrance Examination (NCEE) into secondary schools. In his study tagged
scholastic aptitude test, he concluded that children from urban schools were superior to their rural
counterparts. (Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) have been described as a broad based achievement
measure Vernon (1951), Musgroove (1965), and Obemeata (1976) hold similar view with Obes findings.
According to Kemjika (1989), in his studies on urban and rural differences in general showed that location
of the community in which the school is situated has effect on the performance of pupils. Giving credence to
the above, Ajayi (1988) found significant difference in academic performance of students in urban and rural
areas of his study. He therefore concluded that the achievement must have been borne out of many facilities
they were used to which were not available in the rural set up. In his study, Omisade (1985) also observed a
significant positive relationship between size and location of school and performances in examination in
Oyo State. He concluded that large schools in urban areas tend to perform better in examinations than small
schools in rural areas.

Also, Ajayi and Ogunyemi (1990) and Gana (1997) in their different studies on the relationship between
academic performance and school location revealed that, there was no significant difference between
academic performance of students in urban and rural schools. Also, in his study Ajayi (1999) found out that
there was no significant difference between students academic achievement of rural and urban secondary
school students.

2.6 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW

On the basis of the controversial findings on the influence of school type, sex, location on students
academic performance in the Literature, the present study will ascertain whether school type, sex, and
location will significantly influence secondary school students academic performance.

With several research works quoted and reviewed on the effect of school size, ownership, type, structure and
location on student academic, it can be ascertain that the aforementioned variables has little or no effect on
students academic performance. So also, to test the aforementioned research questions to determine if these
variables has effect on student academic performance on Secondary Schools in Calabar Municipality, the
various hypotheses will be subjected to test and thus a conclusion will be made on the effect of school size,
ownership, type, structure and location on student academic performance.

In general, items considered by previous researchers of the effect of school variables were generalized on
overall student academic performance which may not give a clear view of such observation and making then
to suggest for further studies and thus, this study tends to investigate the effect of school variables on a
specific academic subject which is Financial Accounting.
Some researchers like Vincent A. Anfara, Jr (2009) and Owoeye, Joseph Sunday (2010) who carried out
research works on student academic performance and school variables where either done in other region of
Nigeria or the variable were generalized and thus posing way for further research work in other region and
field and thus this study: investigation the effect of school variables on student academic performance in
Financial Accounting in Calabar Municipality.

Also, considering the level of technology and social development in the country, its of importance to note
that the impact of social media on students tends to affect their academic performance, it will cannot be over
emphasized the effect these social applications have on the student even in a perfect environment of school
variable, we can still denote that there is a missing gap between these school variable and the student
academic performance but little or no researcher had venture into that angle so therefore, this study will be
investigate by the sideline the indirect effect of technology on the student academic performance in relation
to the school variables.

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter is focused on a detailed description of the design and methodology used in carrying out this
study. The chapter will be presented under the following sub-headings:

3.1 Research Design

3.2 Area of Study

3.3 Population of Study

3.4 Sampling Techniques

3.5 The Sample

3.6 Instrumentation

3.6.1 Validity Instrumentation

3.6.2 Reliability Instrumentation

3.7 Procedures for Data Collection

3.8 Procedure for Data Preparation

3.9 Procedure for Data Scoring

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

The research design for this study is descriptive survey design of the ex-post facto type. This is because the
researcher will not be able to manipulate the variables for the simple reason that they have already occurred.
Also, the research is not intended to manipulate the independent variables (school size, ownership, structure,
type & location).

Rather, it will try to assess the influence of the above variables on the dependent variable (student academic
performance in Financial Accounting) with particular study of Secondary School in Calabar Municipal area
of Cross River State.

3.2 Research Area


The area of the study is Calabar Municipal which is a Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria.
Its headquarters is at Atekong in the city of Calabar. It has an area of 142 km and a population of 179,392 at
the 2006 census. The postal code of the area is 540.

Calabar Municipal between latitude 04 15' and 5 N and longitude 8 25' E. in the North, the Municipal is
bounded by Odukpani Local Government Area in the North-East by the great Kwa River. Its Southern
shores are bounded by the Calabar River and Calabar South Local Government Area. It has an area of
331.551 square kilometres.

Calabar Municipal Government Area plays a dual role. Apart from being the Capital city of Cross river
State, it also plays its role as headquarters of the Southern Senatorial District. There are ten wards in the
local government.

Two ethnic groups form the indigenous population. These are the Quas and the Efiks. However, because of
its cosmopolitan status, there abound people from all parts of the state and Nigeria in the city.
By virtue of its location along the waterfront, the Efiks embraced Western culture. They carried on
successful trade with early Europeans. Fishing is another occupation identified with them. The Quas on the
other hand occupy the bulk of the hinterland of Calabar where farmers, hunters, traders and blacksmiths are
found.

3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY

The population used for this study consist of Secondary schools from Calabar Municipal in Cross River
state. There are total of 14 registered public school in the area and over 30 registered private school in the
area with and approximate of over 15,000 students from which the sample size of 200 will be selected.

The public school are evenly distributed with the private school having high level of concentration in a
particular area.

3.4 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

The sampling techniques adopted for this study is the Cluster Simple random sampling technique. This is a
sampling technique in which the sample is divided into different geographical area with even sample size
and the simple random sampling is carried out to select the sample. This is used in order to enable even
representation of schools across Calabar Municipal without concentrating the sample on a particular area.

Here, the researcher divide the area into 5 clusters categorized into government and private school separately
in Calabar Municipality, he then roll out a slip of paper on which each school had a number allocated to it in
a can and then draw two (2) schools randomly from each clusters both government and private school for the
study.

3.5 THE SAMPLE

The sample of this study is made up of one hundred (200) senior secondary school students (because most
student dont offer financial accounting) in Calabar Municipal Local Government area of Cross River State.
A breakdown of this figure shows that ten (10) students will each be drawn randomly from ten (10)
secondary school across Calabar Municipality.

The following are the Ten (10) school randomly selected from the study area in Calabar Municipality;

1. Government Secondary School Ikot Ansa Qua Town

2. Army Secondary School Odukpani Road

3. Federal Government Girls High School Ibb Way Nyagasang


4. Pereka Model High School Atimbo

5. Margaret Ekpo High School Ibb way

6. De Wis School Mcc Road

7. Clemo Schools Ikot Ansa

8. Rima Standard School 8th Miles

9. Bishop Etokidem Modern School Ikot Nkebre

10. St Annest Private School State Housing Estate.

3.6 INSTRUMENTATION

The main instrument to be used for data collection are questionnaire and school results. The questionnaire
will be designed for students in Financial Accounting. The questionnaire will be divided into 2 sections.
Section 1 will deal with respondent Bio data while section 2 will deal with a simple check box questions
options broken into five category of: school size, school ownership, school structure, school type, and school
location which will be used to measure their effect on academic performance. The responses in section 2
will be ranked/scaled equally given a 4 point (checked) for each answer given; because of the closed
relationship of the options.

3.6.1 Validity Instruments

Validity is the degree of how appropriate the items actually measure what they are intend to measure or the
extent to which a true and accurate measure of components of learning resources is possible or probable
(Enukoha, 2011).

For this study validity, the draft copy of the questionnaire will be given to expert to offer constructive
criticism in order for it to be accurate.

3.6.2 Reliability Instruments

Reliability refers to the consistency with which an instrument measures whatever it is supposed to measure.
To determine the reliability of the instruments, a trial sample of 20 respondents will be draw from the
population area and split half validity method will be used to evaluate the reliability of the instrument. The
set of scores will be divided into high and low scores and Pearson Product Moment Correlation will be use
to present the consistency of the instrument.

3.7 PROCEDURES FOR DATA COLLECTION

Questionnaire will be admitted to the students after getting the right permission to do so and the student will
be encouraged to give their best opinion shot in filling the questionnaire.

The questionnaire will be administer to each of the ten (10) sample schools with more than 20
questionnaires to be issued to each schools to the student offering Financial Accounting.

3.8 PROCEDURE FOR DATA PREPARATION AND SCORING

Section 2 of the questionnaire will be scored on a 4 point grade for each question answered given the nature
of the check box questionnaire and a non-negativity of the question which just tend to get the relationship
between the posited question options.
3.10 PROCEDURE FOR DATA ANALYSIS

In analyzing the data, the researcher will make us of frequency count, percentage and chi square (X2) test
analysis will be used to test the effect of school variables on student academic performance in financial
accounting Calabar Municipality. Below are the procedures;

3.10.1 HYPOTHESIS ONE (HO)

HO: There is no significant influence of school size on academic performance of student in financial
accounting

Independent Variable: School size

Dependent Variable: Student Academic performance in financial accounting.

Statistical Tool: Chi - Square Test.

3.10.2 HYPOTHESIS TWO (HO)

HO: There is no significant influence of school ownership on academic performance of student in financial
accounting

Independent Variable: School ownership

Dependent Variable: Student Academic performance in financial accounting.

Statistical Tool: Chi - Square Test

3.10.3 HYPOTHESIS THREE (HO)

HO: There is no significant influence of school structure (day/boarding) on academic performance of


student in financial accounting

Independent Variable: School Structure (day/boarding)

Dependent Variable: Student Academic performance in financial accounting.

Statistical Tool: Chi - Square Test

3.10.4 HYPOTHESIS FOUR (HO)

HO: There is no significant influence of school type (co-educational/single) on academic performance of


student in financial accounting

Independent Variable: School Type (co-educational/single)

Dependent Variable: Student Academic performance in financial accounting.

Statistical Tool: Chi - Square Test

3.10.5 HYPOTHESIS FIVE (HO)

HO: There is no significant influence of school location on academic performance of student in financial
accounting
Independent Variable: School Location

Dependent Variable: Student Academic performance in financial accounting.

Statistical Tool: Chi - Square Test

CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

4.1 General Description of Variable and Data

This chapter deals basically with the analysis of data, interpretation of data and discussion of findings that
emerge from the analysis as well as the summary of findings with all effort made to ensure that attention is
on the hypothesis tested.

4.2 Hypothesis-by-Hypothesis Presentation of Results

Here, each hypothesis is re-stated in the null hypothesis form. The variable are identified and results of
statistical analysis are presented and interpreted while 5% level of significance was used in the statistical
testing of the hypotheses.

4.2.1 Hypothesis 1

The null hypothesis states that there is no significant influence on school size and students academic
performance in Financial Accounting. The independent variable is school size while the dependent variable
is students academic performance in Financial Accounting with chi-square test used to test the hypothesis.
The table of analysis is presented below

Table 1: Test of significant influence of school size on academic performance.

School Size High Low N Cal X2 df Crit X2

50 300 95 16 111

Expected (88) (23) 6.68 1 3.84


Above 300 64 25 89

Expected (71) (18)

NB: Expected frequencies are in parenthesis

Result/Outcome:

Calculated X2 = 6.68

Degree of Freedom: =1

Level of Significance: = 0.05

Table value of (X2) = 3.84 at 0.05

Decision: P < 0.05 (that is 3.84 is less than 6.68).

Therefore, H is rejected which state that there is no significant influence of school size on student academic
performance. While the H is accepted that there is a significant influence of school size on student academic
performance. That is to say that school size significantly influence student academic performance. From the
table, we can deduce that a school with a range of (300) three hundred student perform better than large
student range school.

This can also be supported in a real sense that the fewer the class the more coordinated it will be as the
teacher will be able to focus on giving each student attention to boost their confidence level but reverse is
the case in large class.

Also, in argument for big size school, there is a psychological effect on the student who are exposed to a
wide numbers of peers who share their same view and can share and deliberate on ideals together and also
the case of economics of scale which large size school possess as they will have a strong economic base to
procure expensive learning facilities to boost student learning capacity.

4.2.2 Hypothesis 2

The null hypothesis states that there is no significant influence on school ownership and students academic
performance in Financial Accounting. The independent variable is school ownership while the dependent
variable is students academic performance in Financial Accounting with chi-square test used to test the
hypothesis. The table of analysis is presented below

Table 2: Test of significant influence of school ownership on academic performance.

School Ownership/Aca. Performance High Low N Cal X Df Crit X

Public 87 13 100

Expected (88.5) (11.5) 0.45 1 3.84


Private 90 10 100

Expected (88.5) (11.5)

NB: Expected frequencies are in parenthesis

Result/Outcome:

Calculated X2 = 0.45

Degree of Freedom: =1

Level of Significance: = 0.05

Table value of (X2) = 3.84 at 0.05

Decision: P > 0.05 (that is 3.84 is greater than 0.45).

Therefore, His accepted which state there is no significant influence of school ownership on student
academic performance while the His rejected which state that there is significant relationship between
school ownership and student academic performance. This can be substantiated from Table 2 which show a
tie between the expected frequencies of both public and private school which means that there is no clear
cut-edge of private school over public school.

According to the result of the hypothesis testing which state that there is no significant influence on school
size and student academic performance can be substantiated given the level distribution of public and private
school graduates in the economy. Also, the irony of private school is that majority of its teachers are public
school product who had excel in the system.

Private school may boost of efficient and effective academic system in teaching and learning but may lack
the psychological motivation of completion the public school student possess. Even despite the lack of
proper infrastructure in the public schools, it had in the past and presently producing great scholars. A not far
fetch example is that most renowned academics are product of the chastised public schools.

Also, another angle to boost the hypothesis results is that most private schools passes their student (even
though not performing) for economic gain, that is telling the parent what they want to hear about their child
i.e doing good in school (even dough such student is not). The overall repercussion of this practice is
exposed when such student are discharge to the economical platform of labor market. In search for jobs,
most public school student gets the job done and dusted better dough private school student may have
technological edge above the public school student.

4.2.3 Hypothesis 3

The Null hypothesis states that there is no significant influence of school structure (day/boarding) in student
academic performance while the alternate hypothesis state that there is a significant influence of school
structure of student academic performance.

The independent variable is school structure while the dependent variable is students academic performance
in Financial Accounting with chi-square test used to test the hypothesis. The table of analysis is presented
below;

Table 3: Test of significant influence of school structure on academic performance.


School Structure/Aca. Performance High Low N Cal X Df Crit X

Boarding 30 32 62

Expected (31) (31)

Day 39 35 74 0.38 2 5.99

Expected (37) (37)

Both 31 33 64

Expected (32) (32)

NB: Expected frequencies are in parenthesis

Result/Outcome:

Calculated X2 = 0.38

Degree of Freedom: =2

Level of Significance: = 0.05

Table value of (X2) = 5.99 at 0.05

Decision: P > 0.05 (that is 5.99 is greater than 0.38).

Given the result of the testing of the hypothesis, we therefore accept the H that state that there is no
significant influence of school structure on student academic performance. And the His rejected that state
there is a significant influence of school structure on student academic performance.

That is whether a student is a day or boarding student does not have any effect on his academic performance.
Form the data analysis above and given the data above, it can be deduce that there is not significant
difference between day and boarding student in their academic performance. Though the economic benefit
of boarding school cannot be over emphasized as its meant to breed student to cooperative and work in
harmony but it had become the a den of little criminal called student who molest and intimidate each other
through cultism and other vises.

Researchers who had research extensively into the effect of boarding and day schooling on student academic
performance had in the past posited that it has no effect on student academic performance but encourage
government in rather getting more boarding school, such cost should be used to build more schools for
children to have access to and also suggest the abolition of boarding school.

Also, many parent rather than enroll their wards in boarding school just dump such children there because of
their non-availability. The researcher use the word dump here because its necessary for parent to check on
their children in boarding school to check on their welfare and performance but rather, most parent never
even care for such children and such children may suffer emotional neglect from parent and such affecting
their academic performance.

Also on the side effect of day student where a child had a lot of house core to do before or after school, such
time may have little or no time for personal studies and such child may in the long run achieve little
academic excellence as there is no time to study to improve himself.

4.2.4 Hypothesis 4

The Null hypothesis states that there is no significant influence of school type (single/mixed sex) on student
academic performance while the alternate hypothesis state that there is a significant influence of school type
of student academic performance.

The independent variable is school type while the dependent variable is students academic performance in
Financial Accounting with chi-square test used to test the hypothesis. The table of analysis is presented
below;

Table 4: Test of significant influence of school type on academic performance.

School Type/Aca Performance High Low N Cal X2 df Crit X2

Mixed Sex 94 17 111

Expected (88) (23) 8.44 1 3.84

Single Sex 63 26 89

Expected (71) (18)

NB: Expected frequencies are in parenthesis

Result/Outcome:

Calculated X2 = 8.44

Degree of Freedom: =1

Level of Significance: = 0.05

Table value of (X2) = 3.84 at 0.05

Decision: P < 0.05 (that is 3.84 is less than 8.44).

The decision of the above tested hypothesis is to reject the Ho which state that there is significant influence
of school type on student academic performance and accept the H which state that there is significant
influence of school type on student academic performance. Table 4 shows that student of mixed school
performs better than student of single sex school.
To boost the outcome of the result of the hypothesis that there is significant influence of school type on
student academic performance, we examine previous literature of research of school type and student
academic performance. Research have it that male student perform better in science and mathematics but
lagging in vocabulary while female student perform better in vocabulary but lags in science and
mathematics.

Given the outcome, say given a single sex school of male, we can easily deduce that such school will be
better in mathematics but will be merely measuring average in vocabulary and vice versa for female student
single school.

Therefore, given a mixed school where but deficiency exist, the male student can get help from the female
student in vocabulary and thus helping them to meet up with their vocabulary deficiency while also the
female student can easily get help in terms of explanation to help them curb their challenges in science and
mathematics. With this setting of mixed school, a student deficient in a subject area will be better as he can
be motivated by the presence of the opposite sex in the classroom to improve his performance.

Also, in a mixed sex school, there will be a strong competition between the male and female student on the
control of the academics of the class and thus will boost the academic performance of the school as the ego
of the boys will not want to make them succumb to second place for the girls in academic performance
while the girls will always strive hard to beat the boys to top prize of academic performance of the class. But
all these competing activities are lagging in single sex school as the student will not be motivated but fellow
sex student.

4.2.5 Hypothesis 5

The Null hypothesis states that there is no significant influence of school location (municipal city/suburb) on
student academic performance while the alternate hypothesis state that there is a significant influence of
school location on student academic performance.

The independent variable is school location while the dependent variable is students academic performance
in Financial Accounting with chi-square test used to test the hypothesis. The table of analysis is presented
below;

Table 5: Test of significant influence of school location on academic performance.

School Type/Aca Performance High Low N Cal X df Crit X

Urban (Municipal City) 34 77 111

Expected (46) (65) 12.01 1 3.84

Rural (Municipal suburb) 49 40 89

Expected (37) (52)

NB: Expected frequencies are in parenthesis

Result/Outcome:
Calculated X2 = 12.01

Degree of Freedom: =1

Level of Significance: = 0.05

Table value of (X2) = 3.84 at 0.05

Decision: P < 0.05 (that is 3.84 is less than 12.01)

The decision of the above tested hypothesis is to reject the Ho which state that there is significant influence
of school location on student academic performance and accept the H which state that there is significant
influence of school location on student academic performance.

The result of the analysis as presented in Table 5 show that student who attend urban school perform better
than student who attend rural (municipal suburb) school. The result therefore means the location of school
attended by student do determine their academic performance.

4.3 Discussion of Findings

The outcome of the first hypothesis which state that school size significantly influence student academic
performance is in line with Monk and Hallers (1993) view which caveat that school size affects different
schools in different ways. A small school size will boost of quality education to each student as there will be
adequate monitoring of each student and student will educational challenges can be monitored by the teacher
in a small class compared to a large class in which the teacher himself will fail to find his bearing or may
even be intimidate by such crowd. Dough there is a saying that says the more the merrier but its opposite
in education as the fewer the better way to teach.

Also, Forbes (1993) analyzed student performance in individual high school and state that student in larger
school are more likely to perform better in science subject than student in small school thus, the
preponderance of the evidence indicates that students academic achievement is better in small schools, but
there is sufficient evidence in favor of large schools to suggest that mediating variables play a role in the
relationship between school size and student academic performance achievement.

Also, the result obtained from hypothesis 2 which state that there is no significant influence of school
ownership and student academic performance which means that both public and private school student can
compete on a fair ground with the outcome not been one sided. From statistical research, it can be
established that public schools is the bedrock for the establishment of private schools and as such tend to
offer better method and value in teaching. In terms of the qualification of teachers, all public schools teacher
are qualified teacher with a least of teaching certificate while most private schools teacher are mere hustlers
who had no business in education but just seeking for survival. This effect is reflected in the long term
achievement of the students as most public school students tends to be better than the half-baked private
school students when faced with challenges of education in later stage.

Furthermore, hypothesis 3 whose findings shows that there is no significant influence of school structure
(day/boarding) on student academic performance. According to J. A. Agentha (1974), he stated that the
boarding school system had been wrongly managed and such lost its glory and suggest that rather than
invest in boarding facility, government should invest in human facilities to provide more school for more
children. Also from the menace of boarding school which is supposed to be a fully fitted academic
environment that will allow student focus and concentrate on its studies had turned to a den on intimidating
so called senior students and mostly seen as an avenue by busy parents to dump their children whom they
cant cater for.

In addition to, hypothesis 4 which state that there is a significant influence of school type (single/mixed sex)
on student academic performance show that mixed sex school students perform better than single sex
student who are highly monotonous in their reasoning. Salomone (2003) noted that single-sex education has
been ideologically tied to racial segregation, which, in effect, causes us to be more critical of it and demand
far more of it than we do of other uncertain educational innovations.

Further research show that single sex education has no clear objectives as its mostly implemented for
religious purposes and thus paving a leading edge for mixed sec education in which the students can interact
with the opposite sex student and be able to develop good morals and also share and explain ideas together
in which same sex colleague cant share.

Not forgetting the result of hypothesis 5 which state that school location has a significant effect on student
academic performance. According to Ojoawo (1989), he cited that one of the potent factor in distributing
educational resources is school location. The schools in the cities enjoy better attention from the government
and most teachers prefer to be posted to schools in the city compared to school in rural areas where there are
usually inadequate infrastructural facilities and conducive environment. Also, government pay more
attention to schools in urban area and neglecting rural school in its educational policies.

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Summary of the study

This study was designed to explore the influence of school variables on stident academic performance in
Financial Accounting in Calabar Municipal area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Literature review of many
authors were consulted for the purpose of the study.

A total number of two hundred respondents were drawn from ten sampled secondary schools in the area for
this study while using a simple random cluster sampling technique was used in deriving the samples from
the population.

A closed ended checked box questionnaire was designed, validated and administered on the respondents.
Five null hypotheses were postulated and tested using the chi-square test analysis at 0.05 level of
significance and the findings revealed that all the null hypotheses were statistically significant.

5.2 Conclusion

On the basis of the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn which the findings of the
study revealed;

1. There is significant influence of school size on students academic performance in Financial


Accounting in Calabar Municipal schools:

2. There is no significant influence of school ownership on students academic performance in


Financial Accounting in Calabar Municipal schools:

3. There is no significant influence of school structure on students academic performance in Financial


Accounting in Calabar Municipal schools:
4. There is significant influence of school type on students academic performance in Financial
Accounting in Calabar Municipal schools:

5. There is significant influence of school location on students academic performance in Financial


Accounting in Calabar Municipal schools:

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations have been deemed imperative:

1. Government should provide more schools as much as possible which will help in decongesting the
over-crowded schools and also the United Nations recommendation of a teacher to a maximum of
thirty student in a class should be strictly adhere to.

2. Educationist who practice in the private sector should tend to improve the quality of their teaching be
employing qualified teachers and also strive to make the student academically independent by
revealing their real performance to them and not doctored school results.

3. Government should rather abolish boarding schools and create more highly spread and equipped
schools so that students can attend from their location. That is government should create schools
close to every citizens to enable them to attend without stress of traveling.

1. Government should discourage single sex schools and its mostly set up by religious denominations
on religious grounds which promote ethnic segregation and also breed radicalism in students.

1. Government should extend its policy attention to school in the rural areas and also encourage
teachers to move to rural say by issuing relocation allowances to transferred teachers and also
making rural school infrastructural wise competitive with urban schools.

5.4 Suggestions for Further studies

The researcher wishes to recommend the following for further studies;

1. This study with its nature should be carried out across the state and country by professional
accounting body to promotes the accounting profession:

2. Other motivational factors affecting student academic performance should be researched:

3. School variables should be research individually in peculiarity to academic performance.


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