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Travel health products

The Globetrotters Travel Clinics London is a Travel Vaccinations and Yellow


Fever Centre, supplying Vaccinations and Travel health products.., providing
travel medicines for holiday makers, global adventure travellers and expeditions

The One Stop Shop for All of Your Travel Health Needs

Globetrotters Travel Clinics are one stop shops for all of your Travel Health
needs. We are dedicated to providing quality Travel Health advice and services,
as well as premium Travel Health Products.

The recent massive increase in business and recreational travel outside of the UK,
has led to the need for dedicated Travel Health Centers. This is because a
considerable proportion of travelers end up with a Health problem ranging from
Diarrhoea to Malaria or Yellow Fever. Most of the Health problems contracted
through traveling are preventable through appropriate Travel Health advice,
precautionary measures and Vaccinations.

With vaccine preventable illnesses accounting for only a small proportion of


Health problems whilst abroad, at Globetrotters we give individuals, business
travellers and students the advice and information they need to stay healthy both
whilst overseas and on their return.

At Globetrotters we offer a Travel Health nurses, we are accredited Yellow Fever


Centers and offer full pre and post Travel Health screenings as well as all
available Travel Vaccinations.

With GP appointment times under ever increasing pressure, the ability of


practices to provide adequate time and training for such a complex and
demanding field is under stress. This has created a need for travelers to have
access to alternative Travel Health service pro viders. Globetrotters Travel
Clinics has been established to meet this need.

For more information contact us at Globetrotters Travel Clinics or you can also
mail us at info@globetrotterstravelclinics.com.
The Complete Travel Health Clinic Services

The Complete Travel Health Clinic Services:-

When look for a Travel Clinic it is a excellent idea to check with your own
surgical treatment first as some vaccines are available at private Travel Clinic. To
get it simple

click here

The health risks of travel are preventable, but more than 50% of all travellers
abroad experience health problems that interfere with the enjoyment or the
success of their trip. Worldwide, disease risks are on the increase. We can help.
The Globetrotters Travel Clinics is one of the foremost independent specialist
clinics in the London. Below you can check our services.
Ou
r services include:

Private, specialist suggestions, personalized to your accurate journey and health


wants, whether you are travelling on business or for happiness.

• The full range of travel vaccines, at all times in supply. (We keep large
supplies of all vaccines, to care for our travellers from the effects of
periodic vaccine shortages).
• Yellow Fever vaccination - we are an certified centre.
• The latest malaria medication and advice: - backed up by a wealth of
experience in caring for travellers bounce for the world's mainly
inhospitable spaces.
• Up-to-the-minute news and information about malaria, health risks and
outbreaks around the world.
• Customised medical kits and other recommended health-related products.
• Maximum convenience: consultation via prior arrangement.
• Call-out team available: ideal for groups, corporate travellers, and
families.
• All in our own, fully-resourced, multidisciplinary medical centre.
Travellers attendance the Fleet Street Travel Clinic receive individual attention
geared to their exact needs and the environment of their tour. The Globetrotters
is not just on giving vaccines, but also Giving other useful services for the Which
travellers stay in peak conditions while they are away and after they come at
home.

What is the Vaccine?

Vaccines are harmless agents, perceived as enemies. They are molecules, usually
but not necessarily proteins, that elicit an immune response, thereby providing
protective immunity against a potential pathogen. While the pathogen can be a
bacterium or even a eukaryotic protozoan, most successful vaccines have been
raised against viruses and here we shall deal mostly with anti-viral vaccines.

All Vaccinations Work by presenting a foreign antigen to the immune system in


order to evoke an immune response, but there are several ways to do this. The
three main types are as follows:
• An inactivated vaccine consists of virus particles which are grown in culture
and then killed using a method such as heat or formaldehyde. The virus particles
are destroyed and cannot replicate, but the virus capsid proteins are intact
enough to be recognized by the immune system and evoke a response. When
manufactured correctly, the vaccine is not infectious, but improper inactivation
can result in intact and infectious particles. Since the properly produced vaccine
does not reproduce, booster shots are required periodically to reinforce the
immune response.
• In an attenuated vaccine, live virus particles with very low virulence are
administered. They will reproduce, but very slowly. Since they do reproduce and
continue to present antigen beyond the initial vaccination, boosters are required
less often. These vaccines are produced by growing the virus in tissue cultures
that will select for less virulent strains or by mutagenesis or targeted deletions in
genes required for virulence. There is a small risk of reversion to virulence; this
risk is smaller in vaccines with deletions. Attenuated vaccines also cannot be
used by immunocompromised individuals.
• A subunit vaccine presents an antigen to the immune system without
introducing viral particles, whole or otherwise. One method of production
involves isolation of a specific protein from a virus and administering this by
itself. A weakness of this technique is that isolated proteins can be denatured and
will then bind to different antibodies than the proteins in the virus. A second
method of subunit vaccine is the recombinant vaccine, which involves putting a
protein gene from the targeted virus into another virus. The second virus will
express the protein, but will not present a risk to the patient.
• Killed vaccines: These are preparations of the normal (wild type) infectious,
pathogenic virus that has been rendered non-pathogenic, usually by chemical
treatment such as with formalin that cross-links viral proteins.
• Attenuated vaccines: These are live virus particles that grow in the vaccine
recipient but do not cause disease because the vaccine virus has been altered
(mutated) to a non-pathogenic form; for example, its tropism has been altered so
that it no longer grows at a site that can cause disease.
• Sub-unit vaccines: These are purified components of the virus, such as a
surface antigen.

Problems in vaccine development:

There are many problems inherent in developing a good protective anti-viral


vaccine. Among these are:

• Different types of virus may cause similar diseases--e.g. common cold. As a


result, a single vaccine will not be possible against such a disease
• Antigenic drift and shift -- This is especially true of RNA viruses and those
with segmented genomes
• Large animal reservoirs. If these occur, reinfection after elimination from the
human population may occur
• Integration of viral DNA. Vaccines will not work on latent virions unless they
express antigens on cell surface. In addition, if the vaccine virus integrates into
host cell chromosomes, it may cause problems (This is, for example, a problem
with the possible use of anti-HIV vaccines based on attenuated virus strains- see
later)
• Transmission from cell to cell via syncytia - This is a problem for potential
AIDS vaccines since the virus may spread from cell to cell without the virus
entering the circulation.
• Recombination and mutation of the vaccine virus in an attenuated vaccine.

Despite these problems, anti-viral vaccines have, in some cases, been


spectacularly successful (figure 1) leading in one case (smallpox) to the
elimination of the disease from the human population. The smallpox vaccine is
an example of an attenuated vaccine, although not of the original pathogenic
smallpox virus. Another successful vaccine is the polio vaccine which may lead
to the elimination of this disease from the human population in a the next few
years. This vaccine comes in two forms. The Salk vaccine is a killed vaccine while
that developed by Sabin is a live attenuated vaccine. Polio is presently restricted
to parts of UK and South Asia.
Globetrotters Travel Clinics

About Globetrotters :

The One Stop Shop For All Of Your Travel Health Needs The recent massive
increase in business and recreational travel outside of the UK, has led to the need
for dedicated Travel Health Centers. This is because a considerable proportion of
travelers end up with a health problem ranging from Diarrhea to Malaria or
Yellow Fever. Most of the health problems contracted through traveling is
preventable through appropriate travel health advice, precautionary measures
and vaccinations. With GP appointment times under ever increasing pressure,
the ability of practices to provide adequate time and training for such a complex
and demanding field is under stress. This has created a need for travelers to have
access to alternative Travel Health service providers. Globetrotters Travel Clinics
has been established to meet this need.

who we are?

The recent massive increase in business and recreational travel outside of the UK,
has led to the need for dedicated Travel Health Centers . This is because a
considerable proportion of travelers end up with a health problem ranging from
Diarrhea to Malaria or Yellow Fever. Most of the health problems contracted
through traveling is preventable through appropriate travel health advice,
precautionary measures and vaccinations.
With GP appointment times under ever increasing pressure, the ability of
practices to provide adequate time and training for such a complex and
demanding field is under stress. This has created a need for travelers to have
access to alternative Travel Health service providers. Globetrotters Travel Clinics
has been established to meet this need.

Our services:

Globetrotters Travel clinics are one stop shops for all of your travel health needs.
We are dedicated to providing quality travel health advice and services, as well
as premium travel travel health products.

At Globetrotters we offer a personal service provided by experienced travel


health nurses, we are accredited yellow fever centers and offer full pre and post
travel health screenings as well as all available travel vaccinations.

With vaccine preventable illnesses accounting for only a small proportion of


health problems whilst abroad, at Globetrotters we give individuals, business
travellers and students the advice and information they need to stay healthy both
whilst overseas and on their return.

what is a vaccine?

Vaccines are harmless agents, perceived as enemies. They are molecules, usually
but not necessarily proteins, that elicit an immune response, thereby providing
protective immunity against a potential pathogen. While the pathogen can be a
bacterium or even a eukaryotic protozoan, most successful vaccines have been
raised against viruses and here we shall deal mostly with anti-viral vaccines.

Globetrotters Travel Clinics

• Travel Clinics London


• Travel Clinics
• Travel Vaccinations
• Yellow Fever Centre
• Vaccinations
• Travel health products

About Globetrotters

The One Stop Shop For All Of Your Travel Health NeedsThe recent massive
increase in business and recreational travel outside of the UK, has led to the need
for dedicated Travel Health Centers. This is because a considerable proportion of
travelers end up with a health problem ranging from Diarrhea to Malaria or
Yellow Fever. Most of the health problems contracted through traveling are
preventable through appropriate travel health advice, precautionary measures
and vaccinations.With GP appointment times under ever increasing pressure, the
ability of practices to provide adequate time and training for such a complex and
demanding field is under stress. This has created a need for travelers to have
access to alternative Travel Health service providers. Globetrotters Travel Clinics
has been established to meet this need.

View more links


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• About Us
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• Location
• Risk Assessment Form
• Travel Health Products
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• Enquiry
• Contact Us

Globetrotters achieves higher ranking in Google

The One Stop Shop for All of Your Travel Health Needs.

Globetrotters (http://www.globetrotterstravelclinics.com/) is a personal service


provided by experienced travel health nurses, Globetrotters was accredited
yellow fever centres and offer full pre and post travel health screenings as well as
all available travel vaccinations.

Travel Well with Globetrotters Travel Clinics.


(http://www.globetrotterstravelclinics.com/)

Globetrotters (http://www.globetrotterstravelclinics.com/) has achieved higher


rankings in Google with high density key words.

Keyword - Rank
Travel Clinics London - 8
Travel Clinics - 22
Yellow Fever Centre - 3
Travel Clinic London - 15
Travel Health Products - 5
Vaccinations London - 4
Travel Vaccination London - 1
Travel Injections London - 3

What is a vaccine?

Vaccines are harmless agents, perceived as enemies. They are molecules, usually
but not necessarily proteins, that elicit an immune response, thereby providing
protective immunity against a potential pathogen. While the pathogen can be a
bacterium or even a eukaryotic protozoan, most successful vaccines have been
raised against viruses and here we shall deal mostly with anti-viral vaccines.

Immunity to a virus normally depends on the development of an immune


response to antigens on the surface of a virally infected cell or on the surface of
the virus particle itself. Immune responses to internal antigens usually play little
role in immunity. Thus, in influenza pandemics, a novel surface glycoprotein
acquired as a result of antigenic shift characterizes the new virus strain against
which the population has little or no immunity. This new strain of influenza
virus may, nevertheless, contain internal proteins that have been in previous
influenza strains. Surface glycoproteins are often referred to as protective
antigens. To make a successful vaccine against a virus, the nature of these surface
antigens must be known unless the empirical approach of yesteryear is to be
followed. It should be noted, however, that a virally-infected cell displays
fragments of internal virus antigens on its surface and these can elicit a cytotoxic
T cell response that acts against the infected cell.

There may be more than one surface glycoprotein on a virus and one of these
may be more important in the protective immune response than the others; this
antigen must be identified for a logical vaccine that blocks infectivity. For
example, influenza virus has a neuraminidase and a hemagglutinin on the
surface of the virus particle. It is the hemagglutinin that provokes neutralizing
immunity because it is the protein that attaches the virus to a cell surface
receptor and the neutralizing antibody interferes with virus binding to the cell.

In addition to blocking cell to virus attachment, other factors can be important in


the neutralization of viruses; for example, complement can lyse enveloped
virions after opsonization by anti-viral antibodies.

Major sites of viral infection

• In order to develop a successful vaccine, certain characteristics of the viral


infection must be known. One of these is the site at which the virus enters
the body. Three major sites may be defined:

1) Infection via mucosal surfaces of the respiratory tract and gastro-


intestinal tract.
• Virus families in this group are: rhinoviruses; myxoviruses; coronaviruses;
parainfluenzaviruses; respiratory syncytial viruses; rotaviruses
2) Infection via mucosal surfaces followed by spread systemically via the
blood and/or neurones to target organs.
• Virus families in this group are: picornaviruses; measles virus; mumps
virus; herpes simplex virus; varicella virus; hepatitis A and B viruses

3) Infection via needles or insect bites, followed by spread to target


organs:
• Virus families in this group are hepatitis B virus; alphaviruses;
flaviviruses; bunyaviruses

IgA-mediated local immunity is very important in types 1 and 2. There is


little point in having a good neutralizing humoral antibody in the
circulation when the virus replicates, for example, in the upper respiratory
tract. Clearly, here secreted antibodies are important.

Thus, we need to know:

• Viral antigen(s) that elicit neutralizing antibody


• Cell surface antigen(s) that elicit neutralizing antibody
• The site of replication of the virus

Types of vaccines
There are three basic types of vaccine in use today

• Killed vaccines: These are preparations of the normal (wild type)


infectious, pathogenic virus that has been rendered non-pathogenic,
usually by chemical treatment such as with formalin that cross-links viral
proteins.
• Attenuated vaccines: These are live virus particles that grow in the vaccine
recipient but do not cause disease because the vaccine virus has been
altered (mutated) to a non-pathogenic form; for example, its tropism has
been altered so that it no longer grows at a site that can cause disease.
• Sub-unit vaccines: These are purified components of the virus, such as a
surface antigen.

Problems in vaccine development


There are many problems inherent in developing a good protective anti-viral
vaccine. Among these are:
• Different types of virus may cause similar diseases--e.g. common cold. As
a result, a single vaccine will not be possible against such a disease
• Antigenic drift and shift -- This is especially true of RNA viruses and
those with segmented genomes
• Large animal reservoirs. If these occur, reinfection after elimination from
the human population may occur
• Integration of viral DNA. Vaccines will not work on latent virions unless
they express antigens on cell surface. In addition, if the vaccine virus
integrates into host cell chromosomes, it may cause problems (This is, for
example, a problem with the possible use of anti-HIV vaccines based on
attenuated virus strains- see later)
• Transmission from cell to cell via syncytia - This is a problem for potential
AIDS vaccines since the virus may spread from cell to cell without the
virus entering the circulation.
• Recombination and mutation of the vaccine virus in an attenuated
vaccine.

Despite these problems, anti-viral vaccines have, in some cases, been


spectacularly successful (figure 1) leading in one case (smallpox) to the
elimination of the disease from the human population. The smallpox vaccine is
an example of an attenuated vaccine, although not of the original pathogenic
smallpox virus. Another successful vaccine is the polio vaccine which may lead
to the elimination of this disease from the human population in a the next few
years. This vaccine comes in two forms. The Salk vaccine is a killed vaccine while
that developed by Sabin is a live attenuated vaccine. Polio is presently restricted
to parts of Africa and south Asia.

Globetrotters Travel Clinics


484 Great West Road, Hounslow,
Middlesex TW5 0TA
Tel: 020 8814 9644
http://www.globetrotterstravelclinics.com