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J. Dairy Sci.

99:Instructions 113
American Dairy Science Association, 2016.

Journal of Dairy Science Instructions to Authors: Style and Form1

Journal Policies and Procedures Dairy Foods Sections


Bioactivity and Human Health
The American Dairy Science Association (ADSA) Chemistry and Materials Science
invites scientists from the global community to submit Microbiology and Safety
papers for consideration to the Journal of Dairy Sci- Processing and Engineering
ence (JDS). Authors need not be members of ADSA. Resources and Environment
These instructions detail editorial policies and style Sensory Analysis
and form for publishing in JDS. We recommend that
authors refer to these instructions, as well as the In- Dairy Production Sections
structions to Authors: Policies, during submission, Animal Nutrition
peer review, acceptance, proof correction, and final Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics
publication phases. Health, Behavior, and Well-being
Management and Economics
Contact Information for Journal Staff
Physiology
For information on the scientific content of the jour- Resources and Environment
nal, contact the editor-in-chief, Dr. Matthew C. Lucy;
phone: (573) 882-9897; e-mail: lucym@missouri.edu. In addition to the above sections, interpretive ap-
For assistance with Scholar One (Manuscript Cen- plied summaries and recommendations may be sub-
tral) and Manuscript Submission/Copyright forms, mitted to the Dairy Industry Today section. Syntheses
contact Shauna Miller, editorial assistant, Headquar- and applications from technical reports that contribute
ters Office, 1800 S. Oak St., Suite 100, Champaign, to solutions to problems in the dairy industry are espe-
IL 61820; phone (217) 239-3339; fax (217) 378-4083; cially solicited. Authors of reports for extension educa-
shaunam@assochq.org. tion of the nonscientist are encouraged to share their
For questions about manuscript preparation, journal contributions with colleagues and to achieve wider
style and form, and proofs, contact Louise Adam, lead circulation of their conclusions and recommendations
technical editor, at loua@assochq.org or journals@as- through this section. In addition, papers that report
sochq.org. on advances in teaching and outreach techniques are
For other information, contact Susan Pollock, man- suitable for this section.
aging editor, Headquarters Office, American Dairy
Science Association, 1800 S. Oak St., Suite 100, Cham- Types of Articles
paign, IL 61820; phone (217) 356-7641; journals@as-
sochq.org. Full-Length Research Papers. The majority of
papers published in JDS are full-length research ar-
Aims and Scope ticles. The journal emphasizes the importance of high-
quality scientific writing and clarity in presentation of
The Journal of Dairy Science publishes original the concepts and methods, and sufficient background
research, invited review articles, and other scholarly information that would be required for thorough un-
work that relates to the production and processing of derstanding by scientists in other disciplines. The
milk or milk products intended for human consump- results of experiments published in the journal must
tion. The journal is broadly divided into dairy foods be replicated, either by replicating treatments within
and dairy production sections. The Resources and experiments or by repeating experiments. Studies us-
Environment section may include papers from either ing commercial products should address a hypothesis-
Dairy Foods or Dairy Production. based question relevant to the biology or mechanism of
action of the product.
In addition to full-length research papers, the follow-
ing types of articles appear in the journal:

1
Revised January 2016.
1
2 Journal of Dairy Science Instructions to Authors: Style and Form

Hot Topics. Papers submitted for this section must editor-in-chief, but justification for a longer report will
report on a completed experiment testing a timely, be required.
original hypothesis of importance to an area of dairy Invited Reviews. The journal publishes invited re-
science. The work may be preliminary in nature, but views in all scientific sections of the journal. Authors
with sufficient data so that the hypothesis is clearly interested in writing a review should contact the in-
tested. Results may point to avenues for fruitful, in- vited reviews editor, Filippo Miglior (miglior@cdn.ca)
depth analyses. Reports must contain an explicitly with justification for the review. The invited reviews
stated hypothesis and objectives, with sufficient detail editor is responsible for inviting submission of review
in methodology for repetition of the work, as well as papers and overseeing the peer-review process. The
results, a brief discussion, and references. Total page first 10 printed pages of an invited review are pub-
limits for text, tables, figures, and references must be lished at no cost to the author.
no more than 5 journal pages (approximately 10 manu- Letters to the Editor. Short (300 words) letters to
script pages minus space for tables and figures). Hot the editor on topics of concern to readers, including
topics should not contain main headings or subhead- comment on publications with rebuttals from authors
ings. The total number of tables and figures should be if needed, may be submitted to the editor-in-chief or to
no more than 3; references should be minimal. any of the editors. The letters should be titled and the
Hot topics papers will be given priority for publica- title and running head should include Letter to the
tion. An effort will be made to notify authors of a deci- editor. Letters will be published at the discretion of
sion within 1 mo of the date of receipt. Once accepted, the editor-in-chief. Authors of letters are subject to the
the paper should be published within 3 mo. same copyright release requirements as other authors.
Short Communications. Short communications Letters are published at no charge to the author(s).
are reports of limited experiments that test a timely,
original hypothesis of importance to some area of dairy MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION
science. The manuscript should be no more than 5 jour-
nal pages in length and the total number of tables and
figures should be no more than 3 (approximately 10 Writing Style
manuscript pages minus space for tables and figures); Papers must be written in English. The text and all
Short communication: should precede the title on the supporting materials must use American spelling and
title page of the manuscript. Short communications usage as given in Merriam-Websters Collegiate Diction-
should not contain main headings or subheadings. ary, 11th ed., Websters Third International Dictionary,
The manuscript may report negative results. Reports or the New Oxford American English Dictionary, 3rd
must contain a hypothesis, objectives, sufficient detail ed.
in methodology for repetition of the work, results with Today, most medical and scientific style manuals
brief discussion, and references. support the active over the passive voice. Use of the
Technical Notes. Papers in this section should re- active voice results in lively, clear, and concise writing.
port a method that is useful to some aspect of dairy Passive voice may still be appropriate in the Materi-
science. Submissions should include a brief justifica- als and Methods section, for example, where the actor
tion for the technique, be it new or an improvement is unimportant and the writer wishes to focus on the
on a previously published technique. The report should action or the recipient of the action. The active voice
state a hypothesis, include a full description of proce- and first-person pronouns (I, we) should be used in
dures that can be repeated by researchers, and include the Results, Discussion, and Conclusions sections. For
explicit controls to indicate sensitivity, precision, and example, we observed a difference, we concluded
accuracy of the technique. Technical notes should not that , or Treatment A affected dry matter intake
contain main headings or subheadings. . . . rather than There was a difference . . ., It was
If the technique is an improvement on an existing concluded that , or Dry matter intake was affected
technique, sufficient comparison of the previous tech- by treatment A
nique should be included, and mean and dispersion For scientific conventions, authors should follow the
information must be included. The page limit is 5 jour- style and form recommended in Scientific Style and
nal pages (approximately 10 manuscript pages minus Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and
space for tables and figures). Use of tables, figures, and Publishers, 8th ed., published by the Council of Sci-
references should be minimized. Requests for longer ence Editors in cooperation with University of Chicago
technical notes may be made to the senior editor and Press (www.scientificstyleandformat.org/).

Journal of Dairy Science 2016


Journal of Dairy Science Instructions to Authors: Style and Form 3

Preparing the Manuscript File Second Subheadings. Second subheadings begin


the first line of a paragraph. They are indented, bold-
Manuscripts should be typed double-spaced (in face, italic, and followed by a period. The first letter of
Microsoft Word) with lines and pages numbered con- each important word should be capitalized. The text
secutively, using Times New Roman font at 12 points. follows immediately after the final period of the sub-
Special characters (e.g., Greek, math, symbols) should heading.
be inserted using the symbols palette available in this Short Communications, Technical Notes, and Hot
font. Complex math should be entered using MathType Topics do not use headings except for ACKNOWLEDG-
from Design Science (www.dessci.com). Note that equa- MENTS, REFERENCES, and APPENDIX.
tions created using the Equation Builder in Microsoft
Word 2007 (and later versions) may not be compatible Title Page
with earlier versions of Word or other software used
in our composition system. Tables and figures should Across the top of the title page (first page), indicate
be placed in separate sections at the end of the manu- a running head (abbreviated title) of no more than 45
script (not placed within the text). Failure to follow characters. The running head is centered and upper-
these instructions may result in immediate rejection of case. Dairy Industry Today and Hot Topic serve as the
the manuscript. running heads for those respective article types. Short
Communications, Technical Notes, Invited Reviews,
Interpretive Summary and Letters to the Editor use a running head beginning
with the appropriate designation (i.e., SHORT COM-
All authors of JDS papers should provide an inter- MUNICATION:) followed by a short title.
pretive summary (IS) of 100 words or less that has The title should be in boldface; the first letter of the
been written for nonspecialist readers. The summary article title (and subtitle, if present) and proper names
should consist of a title, the first authors last name, are capitalized and the remainder of the title is lower-
and a summary, which must include a sentence or case. The title should contain words or phrases used for
two to summarize the projects expected importance, indexing the article.
or its economic, environmental, and/or social impact. Under the title, names of authors should be given in
Common abbreviations are permitted (those from the mixed case (e.g., T. E. Smith or Tom E. Smith) and in
JDS Unrestricted list). The summary should appear at boldface. Institutional addresses are displayed below
the top of the first page of the manuscript, before the the author names; footnotes referring from author
running head and title. Interpretive summaries will be names to displayed addresses should be symbols in the
peer reviewed. At publication, interpretive summaries following order: *, , , , #, ||, and . The full name,
will appear in a section at the beginning of the journal. mailing address, phone number, and e-mail address of
The summaries are intended for an audience who may the corresponding author should appear directly below
not be familiar with work in the authors area of exper- the affiliation lines on the title page. The corresponding
tise and for government or media researchers, and they author will be identified by a numbered footnote and
will provide JDS readers with a brief overview of the e-mail address below the accepted line on the first page
research presented in each issue. of the published article (e.g., 1Corresponding author:
my.name@university.edu). Supplementary address
Headings information may be given in footnotes to the first page;
use numerals for these footnotes. Acronyms (except
Major Headings. Major headings are centered, in USDA) for affiliations are discouraged unless the acro-
all capitals and boldface, and consist of ABSTRACT, nym is the official name. The state or provincial postal
INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS, code abbreviation is not included between the city and
RESULTS, DISCUSSION (or RESULTS AND DIS- postal code if the state or province is previously men-
CUSSION), CONCLUSIONS (optional), ACKNOWL- tioned in the address (see example). Acceptable format
EDGMENTS, APPENDIX (optional), and REFER- is shown below:
ENCES. J. E. Smith,* R. A. Jones, and A. T. Peters
First Subheadings. First subheadings are placed *Department of Animal Science, and
on a separate line, begin at the left margin, the first let- Department of Dairy Science, University of Wiscon-
ter of all important words is capitalized, and the head- sin, Madison 53706
ings are boldface and italic. The heading is not followed
by punctuation. Text that follows a first subheading
should be in a new paragraph.
Journal of Dairy Science 2016
4 Journal of Dairy Science Instructions to Authors: Style and Form

Department of Animal Science, Utah State Univer- only the main findings of the study. As such, it should
sity, Logan 84321 not contain references to other works.
Abstract. Abstracts should be limited to 2,500 key- Appendix
strokes (i.e., characters plus spaces). The abstract should
review important objectives, materials, results, conclu- A technical appendix may follow the References
sions, and applications as concisely as possible. The section. The appendix may contain supplementary
abstract disseminates scientific information through material, explanations, and elaborations that are not
abstracting journals and is a convenience for readers. essential to other major sections but are helpful to the
Open the abstract with objectives and make the abstract reader. Novel computer programs or mathematical
intelligible without reference to the manuscript. Use computations would be appropriate. The appendix will
complete sentences and standard terms. Limit the use not be a repository for raw data.
of abbreviations in the Abstract. Refer to the list on the
inside front cover of JDS or Appendices 1 and 2 of this References
document for those terms that should be defined in the List only pertinent references. No more than 3 refer-
abstract. If a term is used fewer than 3 times in the ab- ences should be needed to support a specific concept.
stract, it should be spelled out at each use. Research papers and reviews should cite a reasonable
Minimize the amount of data in the abstract and number of references. Abstracts and articles from non-
exclude statements of statistical probability (e.g., P < peer-reviewed magazines and proceedings should be
0.05). Exclude references to other work because the cited sparingly. Citation of abstracts published more
abstracts will appear online and in indexing services than 3 yr ago is strongly discouraged.
without the accompanying reference list. Citations in Text. In the body of the manuscript,
Key Words. After the abstract, list 2 to 5 key words refer to authors as follows: Smith and Jones (1992) or
or phrases; they should be typed in lowercase letters Smith and Jones (1990, 1992). If the sentence struc-
and separated by commas. Key words should be singu- ture requires that the authors names be included in
lar (e.g., dairy cow not dairy cows). parentheses, the proper format is (Smith and Jones,
1982; Jones, 1988a,b; Jones et al., 1993), with cita-
Abbreviations
tions listed chronologically (i.e., oldest first) and then
Author-derived abbreviations should be defined at alphabetically within a year. Where there are more
first use in the abstract and again in the body of the than 2 authors, the first authors name is followed by
manuscript, and in each table and figure in which they the abbreviation et al. in text (but all authors should
are used. Author-derived abbreviations will be shown be listed in the Reference section). Work that has not
in bold type at first use in the body of the manuscript. been accepted for publication should be listed in the
Refer to the Miscellaneous Usage Notes on page 10 text as follows: J. E. Jones (institution, city, and state,
for more information on abbreviations. personal communication). The authors own unpub-
lished work should be listed in the text as (J. Smith,
Body of the Paper unpublished data). Personal communications and un-
published data (including papers under review) must
The body of the paper should contain an introduc- not be included in the references section.
tion to the problem (questions, objectives, reasons for References Section. To be listed in the references
research, and related literature); materials, methods, section, papers must be published or accepted for pub-
experimental design, and procedures; and results, dis- lication. Manuscripts submitted for publication but not
cussion, conclusions, and applications. yet accepted can be cited as unpublished data in the
The introduction should concisely describe the ratio- text. In the references section, references are listed al-
nale for conducting the study, background, objectives, phabetically by author(s) last name(s), and then chrono-
and hypotheses to be tested. The introduction should logically. The year of publication follows the authors
be no longer than 4,000 characters (words and spaces). names. As with text citations, two or more publications
Results and Discussion may be combined into a sin- by the same author or set of authors in the same year
gle section. If not, the Results section should not con- should be differentiated by adding lowercase letters
tain discussion of previously published work. Results after the date. The dates for papers with the same first
and references to tables and figures already described author that would be abbreviated in the text as et al.,
in the results section should not be repeated in the even though the second and subsequent authors differ,
Discussion section. The conclusions section (optional) shall also be differentiated by letters. All authors names
should consist of one brief paragraph summarizing must appear in the reference section. Journals should

Journal of Dairy Science 2016


Journal of Dairy Science Instructions to Authors: Style and Form 5

be abbreviated according to the conventional ISO ab- Goering, H. K., and P. J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage Fiber Analyses
(Apparatus, Reagents, Procedures, and Some Applications).
breviations used by PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. Agric. Handbook No. 379. ARS-USDA, Washington, DC.
gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=journals). One-word journal Lengemann, F. W., R. A. Wentworth, and C. L. Comar. 1974.
names (e.g., Theriogenology) are not abbreviated. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the accumulation of
contaminant radionuclides in milk. Pages 159170 in Lactation:
For journal articles, include all authors (do not use A Comprehensive Treatise. Nutrition and Biochemistry of Milk/
et al.), year, article title (lowercased except for first Maintenance. Vol. 3. B. L. Larson and V. R. Smith, ed. Academic
word and proper nouns), abbreviated journal name, Press, London, UK.
National Research Council. 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy
volume, page range, and digital object identifier (DOI) . Cattle. 7th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC.
Inclusive page numbers (or article identifiers) must be
provided, and DOI should be given whenever possible, Conferences
with the prefix http://dx.doi.org/. Barbano, D. M. 1996. Mozzarella cheese yield: Factors to consider.
For book references, include authors, year, chapter or Page 29 in Proc. Wisconsin Cheese Makers Mtg., Madison. Ctr.
section title, page range, book title, edition, book editors Dairy Res., Univ. Wisconsin, Madison.
National Mastitis Council. 1995. Summary of peer-reviewed
(if applicable), and publisher name and location. publications on efficacy of premilking and postmilking teat
For conference proceedings, include authors, year, ab- disinfections published since 1980. Pages 8292 in Natl. Mastitis
stract title, page number or abstract number, proceed- Counc. Reg. Mtg. Proc., Harrisburg, PA. Natl. Mastitis Counc.,
Inc., Madison, WI.
ings title, location of meeting, and name and location of
proceedings publisher. For abstracts presented at ADSA Other
or joint annual meetings, cite as a journal article but
Biernoth, G., and W. Merk, inventors. 1985. Fractionation of milk fat
include the journal supplement number and the page of using a liquified gas or a gas in the supercritical state. Unilever
the supplement on which the abstract appeared. Include NV-PLC, assignee. US Pat. No. 4,504,503.
(Abstr.) at the end of the citation. FASS. 2010. Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals
in Research and Teaching. 3rd ed. Federaton of Animal Science
For patents, provide names of inventors, year, title, Societies, Champaign, IL.
name of assignee, and US or other patent number. Interbull. 2008. Genetic evaluation. Direct longevity. Accessed Dec.
For websites, provide authors (or organization name), 20, 2012. http://www-interbull.slu.se/longevity/l-aug08.html.
Kelly, M. G. 1977. Genetic parameters of growth in purebred and
year, page title, date accessed (in month, day, year for- crossbred dairy cattle. MS Thesis. North Carolina State Univ.,
mat), and URL. Raleigh.
For theses, provide author, year, title, thesis type US Department of Agriculture, Plant and Animal Health Inspection
Service. 2004. Blood and tissue collection at slaughtering and
(PhD, MS, DVM), department name, and university rendering establishments, final rule. 9CFR part 71. Fed. Regist.
name and location. 69:1013710151.
Sample references are given below.
Tables
Journals The use of tables should be minimized; however,
tables may be the most effective way to organize data.
Buch, L. H., A. C. Sorensen, J. Lassen, P. Berg, J.-A. Eriksson, J. When used, tables should be self-explanatory and un-
H. Jakobsen, and M. K. Sorensen. 2011. Hygiene-related and
feed-related hoof diseases show different patterns of genetic derstandable without excessive reference to the text.
correlations to clinical mastitis and female fertility. J. Dairy Sci. Table 1 in this document may be used as an example.
94:15401551. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3137. Tables must be prepared using the table fea-
Chapinal, N., A. M. de Passille, D. M. Weary, M. A. Hayes, B. J., P.
J. Bowman, A. C. Chamberlain, K. Savin, C. P. van Tassell, T. ture in Microsoft Word; tables prepared in other
S. Sonstegard, and M. E. Goddard. 2009. A validated genome- programs (e.g., Excel) or by using spaces, tabs, and
wide association study to breed cattle adapted to an environment hard returns will not convert accurately and errors can
altered by climate change. PLoS ONE 4:e6676.
de Vries, M. J., and R. F. Veerkamp. 2000. Energy balance of dairy result. When possible, tables should be organized to fit
cattle in relation to milk production variables and fertility. J. across the page without running landscape. Be aware
Dairy Sci. 83:6269. of the dimensions of the printed page when planning
Jenkins, T. C., E. Block, and P. H. Morris. 2011. Potassium
reduces the accumulation of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic tables (use of more than 15 columns may create layout
acid and trans-18:1 in continuous cultures of mixed ruminal problems).
microorganisms regardless of dietary fat level. J. Dairy Sci. Place the table number and title on the same line
94(E-Suppl. 1):509. (Abstr.)
VanRaden, P. M. 2008. Efficient methods to compute genomic above the table (as shown in sample table). The table
predictions. J. Dairy Sci. 91:44144423. title should describe concisely the data shown; it does
not require an ending period. Do not use vertical rules
Books and use few horizontal rules. Bold and italic typefaces
AOAC International. 2012. Official Methods of Analysis. 19th ed. should not be used in tables, but when it is necessary
AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD. to do so, such use must be defined in a footnote. Limit

Journal of Dairy Science 2016


6 Journal of Dairy Science Instructions to Authors: Style and Form

Table 1. Effect of garlic oil, diallyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, monensin, and lovastatin on a 17-h in vitro batch culture rumen microbial
fermentation trial

Treatment1
Item Control GAR300 DAD300 ALM300 MON LOV SEM
pH 6.6 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.6 0.01
Apparent disappearance of DM, % 61.0a 50.7b 51.2b 60.4a 53.9b 62.4a 1.11
Fiber digestibility
NDF, % 56.8a 44.3b 41.4b 55.9a 39.3b 60.0a 1.73
ADF, % 53.7a 36.8b 34.9b 52.5a 30.7b 57.0a 2.03
Gas, mol 4,674.8a 3,756.9cd 3,359.7d 4,388.2ab 4,009.6bc 4,673.1a 123.34
CH4, mol 417.3a 110.1d 131.3d 335.9b 241.7c 396.3a 21.56
Total VFA, mM 49.3a 39.7c 38.8c 45.4b 45.7ab 48.4ab 1.17
Individual, mol/100 mol
Acetate 61.2a 54.3d 53.9d 58.3b 56.4c 61.1a 0.53
Propionate 22.6d 25.8c 28.3b 22.8d 34.2a 22.8d 0.78
Butyrate 12.5c 16.5a 14.0bc 15.0ab 6.6d 12.4c 0.60
Branched-chain VFA 2.0a 1.7b 1.7b 2.0a 1.4c 2.0a 0.10
C2:C3 2.7a 2.1b 1.9c 2.5a 1.6d 2.7a 0.07
CH4 (mol):VFA (mol) 0.20a 0.05d 0.07cd 0.15ab 0.10bcd 0.17ab 0.00
N-NH3, mg/100 mL 16.7ab 16.6bc 19.0a 17.2ab 14.4c 16.4bc 1.10
ad
Means within a row with different superscripts differ (P < 0.05).
1
Treatments: GAR300 = 300 mg/L Allium sativa (garlic oil); DAD300 = 300 mg/L diallyl disulfide; ALM300 = 300 mg/L allyl mercaptan; MON
= 12.5 mg/L monensin; LOV = 5 mg/L lovastatin.

the data field to the minimum needed for meaningful lication size) should be used. The font size should be
comparison within the accuracy of the methods. proportional to the overall size of the figure (within a
For each table, define author-derived abbreviations range of 8 to 12 points at final publication size).
in parentheses or in numbered footnotes. Abbrevia- Fonts. For best readability, use Helvetica, Times
tions should conform to journal style and be consistent New Roman, Arial, and the symbols palette within
with those used in the text. those fonts only.
For differences among means within a row or Line weight. For line graphs, use a minimum
column, superscript letters should be used as ap- stroke weight of 1 point for all lines. If multiple lines
propriate sequentially (e.g., a, ab, b, c, cd) consis- are to be distinguished, use solid, long-dash, short-
tently from largest to smallest means and defined dash, and dotted lines. Avoid the use of gray lines, as
in the footnote. Informational footnotes should be these will not reproduce well. Lines with different sym-
numbered and each footnote should begin a new bols for the data points may also be used to distinguish
line (see sample table). Probability may be indicated curves.
in a separate footnote following any informational Axis labels. Each axis should have a descriptor
footnotes thus: P < 0.10, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P and a unit. Units may be separated from the descriptor
< 0.001. by a comma or parentheses.
Shading and fill patterns. For bar charts, use
Figures different fill patterns if needed (e.g., black, white, gray,
diagonal stripes). Avoid the use of multiple shades of
To facilitate review, figures should be placed at the gray, as they will not be easily distinguishable in print.
end of the manuscript (separated by section breaks). Complex patterns and 3-dimensional effects reproduce
Each figure should be placed on a separate page, and poorly. Remove unnecessary backgrounds and grid-
identified by the last name of the first author and fig- lines from graphs.
ure number. Figure captions should be typed (double Symbols. Identify curves and data points using
spaced) on a separate page. the following symbols only: o, n, s, d, m, ., n, ,, w,
Figure size. Prepare figures at final size for pub- q, e, r, +, or . Symbols should be defined in the figure
lication. Figures should be prepared to fit one column caption or in a key on the figure (but not both).
(8.9 cm wide), 2 columns (14 cm wide), or full-page File formats. Figures can be submitted in Word,
width (19 cm wide). PDF, EPS, TIFF, and JPEG formats.
Font size. Ensure that all type within the figure Grayscale figures. If figures are to be repro-
and axis labels is readable at final publication size. A duced in grayscale (black and white), submit in gray-
minimum type size of 8 points (after reduction to pub- scale. Often color will mask contrast problems that

Journal of Dairy Science 2016


Journal of Dairy Science Instructions to Authors: Style and Form 7

are apparent only when the figure is reproduced in periments should be pooled statistically. Do not report
grayscale. a number of similar experiments separately.
Color figures. If figures are to appear in color in Experimental Unit. The experimental unit is the
the print journal, files must be submitted in CMYK smallest unit to which an individual treatment is im-
color (not RGB). posed. For group-fed animals, the group of animals in
Resolution. Minimum resolution is 600 dpi for the pen or the paddock is the experimental unit; there-
grayscale and color figures, and 1,200 dpi for line art. fore, groups must be replicated. Repeated chemical
Submitting figures that do not meet these require- analyses of the same sample usually do not constitute
ments may delay publication of your article. independent experimental units. Measurements on the
Photomicrographs. Photomicrographs must same experimental unit over time also are not inde-
have their unmagnified size designated with a scale pendent and must not be considered as independent
bar on the figure. Reduction for publication can make experimental units. For analysis of time effects, use
a magnification power designation (e.g., 100) inap- time-sequence analysis.
propriate. Usual assumptions are that errors in the statistical
Captions. The caption should provide sufficient models are normally and independently distributed
information that the figure can be understood without with constant variance. Most standard methods are
excessive reference to the text. All author-derived ab- robust to deviations from these assumptions, but oc-
breviations and symbols used in the figure should be casionally data transformations or other techniques
defined in the caption. are helpful. Most statistical procedures are based on
General tips. Do not use three-dimensional bar the assumption that experimental units have been as-
charts unless essential to the presentation of the data. signed to treatments at random. If animals are strati-
Use the simplest shading scheme possible to present fied by ancestry or weight or if some other initial mea-
the data clearly. Ensure that data, symbols, axis la- surement should be accounted for, the model should
bels, lines, and key are clear and easily readable at include a blocking factor, or the initial measurement
final publication size. should be included as a covariate.
Color Charge. The cost to publish each color figure A parameter [mean (), variance (s2)], which defines
in the print journal is $650; a surcharge for offprints or describes a population, is estimated by a statistic (x#,
will also be assessed. At the time of submission on s2). The term parameter is not appropriate to describe a
Manuscript Central, authors will be asked to approve variable, observation, trait, characteristic, or measure-
color charges for figures that they wish to have pub- ment taken in an experiment.
lished in color in the print journal. Color versions of Experimental Design. Standard designs are
figures can be included in the online PDF and full-text adequately described by name and size (e.g., a ran-
article at no charge. Note that online color figures will domized complete block design with 6 treatments in 5
be available in the final published version of the article blocks). For a factorial set of treatments, an adequate
(not in the galley proof for Articles in Press version). description might be as follows: Tryptophan at 0.05
or 0.10% of the diet and niacin at 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg
Statistical Analysis of diet were used in a 2 3 factorial arrangement in
5 randomized complete blocks, each block consisting
Biology should be emphasized, but the use of incor- of littermates. Note that a factorial arrangement is
rect or inadequate statistical methods to analyze and not a design; the term design refers to the method of
interpret biological data is not acceptable. Consultation grouping experimental units into homogeneous groups
with a statistician is recommended. Statistical meth- or blocks (i.e., the way in which the randomization is
ods commonly used in the animal sciences need not be restricted).
described in detail, but adequate references should be Variability. Standard deviation refers to the vari-
provided. The statistical model, classes, blocks, and ability in a sample or a population. The standard er-
experimental unit must be designated. Any restric- ror (calculated from error variance) is the estimated
tions used in estimating parameters should be defined. sampling error of a statistic such as the sample mean.
Reference to a statistical package without reporting When a standard deviation or standard error is given,
the sources of variation (classes) and other salient fea- the number of degrees of freedom on which it rests
tures of the analysis, such as covariance or orthogonal should be specified. When any statistical value (as
contrasts, is not sufficient. A statement of the results mean or difference of 2 means) is mentioned, its stan-
of statistical analysis should justify the interpretations dard error or confidence limit should be given. The fact
and conclusions. When possible, results of similar ex- that differences are not statistically significant is no
reason for omitting standard errors. They are of value
Journal of Dairy Science 2016
8 Journal of Dairy Science Instructions to Authors: Style and Form

when results from several experiments are combined than merely P < 0.05 or P < 0.01, thereby allowing the
in the future. They are also useful to the reader as reader to decide what to reject. Other probability (alpha)
measures of efficiency of experimental techniques. A levels may be discussed if properly qualified so that the
value attached by to a number implies that reader is not misled. Do not report P-values to more
the second value is its standard error (not its than 2 or 3 places after the decimal (2 significant digits
standard deviation) unless otherwise specified. are usually sufficient). Regardless of the probability
Adequate reporting may require only (1) the number level used, failure to reject a hypothesis should be based
of observations, (2) arithmetic treatment means, and on the relative consequences of Type I and II errors. A
(3) an estimate of experimental error. The pooled nonsignificant relationship should not be interpreted
standard error of the mean is the preferred estimate to suggest the absence of a relationship. An inadequate
of experimental error. Standard errors need not be number of experimental units or insufficient control of
presented separately for each mean unless the means variation limits the power to detect relationships. Avoid
are based on different numbers of observations or the the ambiguous use of P > 0.05 to declare nonsignificance,
heterogeneity of the error variance is to be emphasized. such as indicating that a difference is not significant at
Presenting individual standard errors clutters the pre- P > 0.05 and subsequently declaring another difference
sentation and can mislead readers. significant (or a tendency) at P < 0.09. In addition, read-
For more complex experiments, tables of subclass ers may incorrectly interpret the use of P > 0.05 as the
means and tables of analyses of variance or covari- probability of a beta error, not an alpha error.
ance may be included. When the analysis of variance Present only meaningful digits. A practical rule is
contains several error terms, such as in split-plot and to round values so that the change caused by round-
repeated-measures designs, the text should indicate ing is less than one-tenth of the standard error. Such
clearly which mean square was used for the denomina- rounding increases the variance of the reported value
tor of each F statistic. Unbalanced factorial data can by less than 1%, so that less than 1% of the relevant
present special problems. Accordingly, it is appropri- information contained in the data is sacrificed. In most
ate to state how the computing was done and how the cases, 2 or 3 significant digits (not decimal places) are
parameters were estimated. Approximations should be sufficient.
accompanied by cautions concerning possible biases.
Contrasts (preferably orthogonal) are used to answer Nomenclature: Genes and Proteins
specific questions for which the experiment was de-
signed; they should form the basis for comparing treat- The journal recommends using internationally ac-
ment means. Nonorthogonal contrasts may be evaluat- cepted symbols for genes and proteins; such symbols
ed by Bonferroni t statistics. The exact contrasts tested may be used without definition. Symbols for specific
should be described for the reader. Multiple-range tests genes and proteins can be obtained by querying the
are not appropriate when treatments are orthogonally gene database of PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.
arranged. Fixed-range, pairwise, multiple comparison gov/pubmed). Nomenclature rules for humans, nonhu-
tests should be used only to compare means of treat- man primates, and livestock are available at http://
ments that are unstructured or not related. In facto- www.genenames.org, and rules for mice and rats are
rial treatment arrangements, means for main effects at http://www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome//nomen/
should be presented when important interactions are strains.shtml. Gene symbols should be shown in ital-
not present. Means for individual treatment combina- ics (e.g., SERPINA14) and proteins in roman text (e.g.,
tions also should be provided in table or text so that SERPINA14). Gene symbols are generally shown in all
future researchers may combine data from several ex- uppercase letters (e.g., LHB), except in mice and rats,
periments to detect important interactions. An interac- where only the first letter is capitalized (e.g., Lhb).
tion may not be detected in a given experiment because
of a limitation in the number of observations. Nomenclature: Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
Significance. The terms significant and highly
significant traditionally have been reserved for P < The increasing number of SNP association studies
0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively; however, reporting the and the improvements in bovine genome annotation
P-value is preferred to the use of these terms. For exam- require a standardized SNP nomenclature for un-
ple, use ... we observed a difference (P < 0.05) between equivocal and correct SNP identification. Additionally,
control and treated samples rather than ...we observed information regarding the SNP investigated should
a significant (P < 0.05) difference between control and be easily accessible in a publicly available database.
treated samples. When available, the observed signifi- Therefore, all relevant SNP included in a study should
cance level (e.g., P = 0.03) should be presented rather be listed with their unique RefSNP (rs) or submitted
Journal of Dairy Science 2016
Journal of Dairy Science Instructions to Authors: Style and Form 9

SNP (ss) number (if rs number is not yet available) as term susceptibility should be used instead of sen-
indicated in the public domain NCBI dbSNP database sitivity. Authors unfamiliar with antimicrobial sus-
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/snp). If the SNP inves- ceptibility testing should obtain CLSI (formerly NC-
tigated do not yet have an entry in the NCBI dbSNP CLS) document M31 (Clinical Laboratory Standards
database, the authors of the manuscript are respon- Institute, 940 W. Valley Rd., Suite 1400, Wayne, PA
sible for submitting all the required information to 19087-1898) for specific information regarding antimi-
NCBI (see http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/SNP/) crobial susceptibility testing of veterinary pathogens.
for depositing the SNP into the database and obtain- CLSI or NCCLS equivalent methods for antimicrobial
ing a unique ss number for the SNP. In the text of the susceptibility testing available outside the US are also
manuscript, use the rs/ss number of the SNP or an acceptable.
alternative standardized nomenclature. Two methods are generally used to generate anti-
microbial susceptibility data: the agar disk diffusion
Nomenclature: Microorganisms. (ADD) method and the minimum inhibitory concentra-
tion (MIC) method. The use of the term Kirby-Bauer
All microorganisms must be named by genus and to refer to the ADD method is incorrect and should be
species. The name of the genus must appear in full avoided. The correct citation for this method is the disk
the first time that the microorganism is cited in the diffusion method of Bauer et al. The ADD method is
abstract, in the body of the paper, and in each table a qualitative method and results should be reported as
and figure legend. Thereafter, the genus can be ab- susceptible, intermediate, or resistant (SIR). If zone
breviated by its first initial unless it will be confused of inhibition diameters are reported, these should be
with other microorganisms cited in the paper, in which reported in millimeters.
case each genus should be abbreviated to use enough The MIC method is quantitative and results should
letters to avoid confusion (e.g., Strep. vs. Staph.). The be reported in micrograms per milliliter (g/mL).
formal, binomial names of all microorganisms should The minimum summary statistics for reporting MIC
be in italics. Specific strain designations and numbers results from multiple strains of an organism are the
should be used when appropriate. MIC50, the MIC90, and the range. The MIC50 and MIC90
For microorganisms that are genetic variants of a represent the concentrations required to inhibit 50 and
parent strain, the genotypic and phenotypic proper- 90% of the strains, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90
ties should be cited according to the procedures de- reported should be the actual concentrations tested, not
scribed by Demerec et al. (1966) in Genetics 54:6176. values calculated from the actual data obtained. When
Phenotypes should be identified by 3 letters; the first <10 isolates of a species are tested, tabulate only the
is capitalized. Genotypes should be identified by 3 MIC range of each antimicrobial agent tested. If more
lowercase italic letters. Superscript plus (+) signs than a single drug is studied, insert a column labeled
are used to refer to a wild-type. The serial isolation test agent between the columns listing the organisms
number is placed after the locus symbol for muta- and the columns containing the numerical data, and
tions. The delta symbol is used to indicate deletions. record data for each agent in the same isolate order. In
Nomenclature for bacterial plasmids should be cited addition, the percentage of strains categorized as sus-
according to Novick et al. (1976) in Bacteriological ceptible, intermediate, or resistant may be reported. If
Reviews 40:168189. only one of these categories is to be reported, the per-
cent susceptible value is preferred. If the percentage
Nomenclature: Enzymes of resistant isolates is to be reported for an agent, it
should include isolates categorized as intermediate.
First mention of an enzyme within a manuscript The percentage of strains susceptible or resistant
should include the Enzyme Commission (EC) number to an antibiotic at its breakpoint concentration may
(http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/). be given only if an appropriate breakpoint has been
approved, as by CLSI. Given the paucity of approved
In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests breakpoints for mastitis pathogens, authors may use
breakpoints from other species (e.g., human break-
Authors should avoid the use of the term antibiotic points for ampicillin or canine breakpoints for enro-
when referring to a specific agent unless that agent is floxacin). However, authors must clearly state that the
naturally occurring and unmodified (e.g., penicillin). breakpoints are not approved for mastitis pathogens.
The broader term antimicrobial agent is preferred Moreover, authors cannot assign breakpoints or use
because it includes naturally produced agents, semi- breakpoints from related antibiotics (except for class
synthetic agents, and totally synthetic agents. The
Journal of Dairy Science 2016
10 Journal of Dairy Science Instructions to Authors: Style and Form

testing purposes) or breakpoints developed for other tions for amino acids do not need definition. Bacte-
methods. rial genus names are abbreviated according to the
Authors must indicate that the appropriate quality guidelines recommended in Scientific Style and For-
control tests were performed. Information regarding mat (8th ed.). Units of measure, except those in the
the frequency of testing and the specific strains tested standard JDS abbreviation list, should be abbreviated
should be provided. The frequency of quality control according to standard SI usage and do not need to be
testing and organisms tested should conform to the defined. See Appendix 2 on page 13 for a list of
recommendations in the CLSI standard (document commonly used terms.
M31) or equivalent. A single statement in the manu- Foreign and Latin Words and Phrases. Non-
script indicating that the results obtained for the qual- English words in common usage (i.e., given in recent
ity control documents were within published ranges editions of standard dictionaries) will not appear
is acceptable. However, authors may be requested to in italics (e.g., in vitro, in vivo, ad libitum, in situ, a
provide the quality control information during the priori). However, genus and species of plants, animals,
manuscript review cycle. or bacteria and viruses should be italicized. Authors
must indicate accent marks and other diacriticals on
Sensory Data international names and institutions. German nouns
shall begin with capital letters.
Sensory data should comply with Invited Review: Capitalization. Breed and variety names are to be
Sensory Analysis of Dairy Foods, Journal of Dairy Sci- capitalized (e.g., Holstein, Danish Red). Trademarked
ence 90:49254937. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007- or registered names should be capitalized, but no
0332. or symbols should be used. Proper nouns should be
capitalized.
Miscellaneous Usage Notes Numbers and Units. The Journal of Dairy Sci-
ence uses the Council of Science Editors number
Abbreviations. Abbreviations should not be used in style given in the eighth edition of Scientific Style
the title, key words, or to begin sentences, except when and Format.
they are widely known throughout science (e.g., DNA, Numbers less than 1 shall be written with preced-
RNA) or are terms better known by their abbreviation ing zeros (e.g., 0.75). All numbers shall be written as
(e.g., IgG, CD). Abbreviations may be used in heads digits; a comma separator must be used in numbers
within the paper if they have been first defined within greater than 999 (e.g., 2,478). Measures must be in the
the text. The inside front cover of every issue of the metric (SI) system; however, US equivalents may be
journal lists abbreviations that can be used without given in parentheses. Units of measure not associated
definition (see also Appendices 1 and 2). Abbreviations with a numeric value should be written out rather
are allowed when they help the flow of the manuscript; than abbreviated (e.g., lysine content was measured
however, excessive use of abbreviations can confuse the in milligrams per kilogram of diet) unless used paren-
reader. The suitability of abbreviations will be evaluated thetically. Measures of variation must be defined in the
by the reviewers and editors during the review process Abstract and in the body of the paper at first use.
and by the technical editor during editing. Generally, General Usage. Note that and/or is not permitted;
author-derived abbreviations should be in all capital let- choose the more appropriate meaning or use x or y or
ters. Terms used fewer than 3 times after first use must both.
be spelled out in full rather than abbreviated. Do not Use the slant line only when it means per with
use capitalized whole words (e.g., CORN) as treatment numbered units of measure or divided by in equa-
abbreviations, or single-letter abbreviations that could tions. Use only one slant line in a given expression:
be confused with chemical elements (e.g., P, C, S). All e.g., g/cow per day. The slant line may not be used to
terms are to be spelled out in full with the abbreviation indicate ratios or mixtures.
following in bold type in parentheses the first time they Insert spaces around all signs (except slant lines) of
are mentioned in the main body of the text. Abbrevia- operation (=, , +, , >, or <) when these signs occur
tions shall be used consistently thereafter. between 2 items.
The abstract, text, each table, and each figure must Items in a series should be separated by commas: a,
be understood independently of each other. Therefore, b, and c.
abbreviations shall be defined within each of these Commercial Products. The use of names of com-
units of the manuscript. mercial products should be minimized. When a com-
Plural forms of abbreviations do not require s. mercial product is being tested as part of the experi-
Chemical symbols and 1-letter and 3-letter abbrevia- ment, the manufacturer and location should be given
Journal of Dairy Science 2016
Journal of Dairy Science Instructions to Authors: Style and Form 11

parenthetically at first mention in text, tables, and carefully and checked against the typed manuscript,
figures, but, when possible, the generic name should because responsibility for proofreading lies with the
be used thereafter. Only generic names should be used authors. Corrections may be returned by e-mail, fax,
in article titles. Trademark symbols and registration or mail. The Comments feature in Adobe Acrobat or
marks should not be used and will be removed. Reader may be used to insert changes and comments
Studies using commercial products should address within the proof PDF. For faxed or mailed corrections,
a hypothesis-based question relevant to the biology or changes to the proof should be made neatly and clearly
mechanism of action of the product. Avoid describing in the margins of the proof. Changes sent by e-mail to
a method as per manufacturers instructions. If the the technical editor must indicate page, column, and
product goes out of production, the method will be lost line numbers for each correction to be made on the
to readers. Many products come with literature refer- proof.
ences; try to use references that can be found by other Proof corrections should be made and returned to
researchers to describe a method being used. the technical editor within 3 days of receipt. Publica-
tion cannot proceed until proofs are returned. Contact
Supplemental Information a technical editor at journals@assochq.org if you have
The following information is available online and questions about the proof correction process.
updated regularly. Please refer to these pages when
preparing a manuscript for submission. Articles in Press
SI Units. The following site (National Institute of
Standards and Technology) provides a comprehensive Corrected proofs will be posted weekly on the Articles
guide to SI units and usage: http://physics.nist.gov/ in Press (AiP) site (http://www.journalofdairyscience.
cuu/Units/index.html. org/inpress) and remain there until the article is pub-
Figure and Table Preparation Guidelines. Cur- lished in a monthly issue of the journal. Minor correc-
rent information on figure and table preparation can be tions may be made to the article between its posting to
found at http://www.journalofdairyscience.org/. the AiP site and final publication.

SUBMISSION OF MANUSCRIPTS Online-Only Data Supplements

Authors should submit their papers online at Authors may present material online that cannot
ScholarOne Manuscripts (Manuscript Central; http:// physically be displayed in the print journal (e.g.,
mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jds). Authors should upload Excel files, video) or that might be cost-prohibitive
manuscripts using the fewest files possible to facilitate (e.g., extra tables or large data sets), or that is too
review. Detailed instructions for submitting electroni- detailed for publication in print. Authors must refer-
cally are provided online (http://mc.manuscriptcentral. ence all supplemental data in the text in the following
com/jds). Authors who are unable to submit online form: Supplemental Table (Figure) S1; http://dx.doi.
should contact Shauna Miller, editorial assistant, org/10.3168/jds.20XX-XXXXX. Supplemental mate-
(shaunam@assochq.org). rial must go through the review process, and conse-
quently should be in an application or format easily
PRODUCTION OF PROOFS accessible by most reviewers and readers.

Accepted manuscripts are downloaded from Audio Slides


ScholarOne Manuscripts to the editorial office for tech-
nical editing and composition. After technical editing, The journal encourages authors to create an
the manuscript is typeset, figures reproduced, and AudioSlides presentation with their published article.
author proofs prepared. AudioSlides are brief (less than 5 minutes), webinar-
style presentations that are shown next to the article
Proofs on ScienceDirect. This gives authors an opportunity to
summarize their research in their own words and to
Author proofs (PDF) will be sent by e-mail to the help readers understand what the paper is about. More
corresponding author. Although the proof appears in information and examples are available at http://www.
a 2-column page format, it should be considered a gal- elsevier.com/audioslides. You will receive an invitation
ley proof; page layout may change when the article is e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after your
paginated into an issue. Author proofs should be read paper has been posted to the Articles in Press site.

Journal of Dairy Science 2016


Appendix 1
ABBREVIATIONS
Revised December 2015
The following abbreviations may be used without definition in the Journal of Dairy Science. In addition, abbreviations of all chemical elements, common combinations
of chemical elements, SI units of measure used with a value, and common amino acids (3-letter and 1-letter abbreviations) should be used without definition. Abbrevia-
tions are generally not permitted in the title, running head, and key words. Plural abbreviations do not require s.

Unrestricted Use DMI = dry matter intake


AA = amino acid EAA = essential amino acid
ACTH = adrenocorticotropin EBV = estimated breeding value
AMP, ADP, ATP = adenosine mono-, di-, or triphosphate ECM = energy-corrected milk
ANOVA = analysis of variance ETA = estimated transmitting ability
ATPase = adenosine triphosphatase FAME = fatty acid methyl esters
BLUP = best linear unbiased predictor FCM = fat-corrected milk
BSA = bovine serum albumin GC = gas chromatography
cDNA = complementary deoxyribonucleic acid GLC = gas-liquid chromatography
DEAE = diethyl amino ethyl h2 = heritability*
DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid HTST = high temperature, short time
DNase = deoxyribonuclease IGF = insulin-like growth factor
EDTA = ethylenediaminotetraacetate IMI = intramammary infection
EGTA = ethylene glycol tetraacetate -LA = -lactalbumin
ELISA = enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay -LG = -lactoglobulin
FSH = follicle-stimulating hormone LPS = lipopolysaccharide
GAPDH = glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase LSD = least significant difference*
GnRH = gonadotropin-releasing hormone LSM = least squares means*
HEPES = N-2-hydroxyethyl piperazine-N-ethanesulfonic acid ME = metabolizable energy
HPLC = high performance (pressure) liquid chromatography MIC = minimum inhibitory concentration
IFN = interferon MP = metabolizable protein
Ig = immunoglobulin MS = mass spectrometry
IL = interleukin MUFA = monounsaturated fatty acids
LH = luteinizing hormone MUN = milk urea nitrogen
mAb = monoclonal antibody n = number of samples*
mRNA = messenger ribonucleic acid NAN = nonammonia nitrogen
NAD+/NADH = nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (oxidized/reduced) NDF = neutral detergent fiber
NADP = nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NDIN = neutral detergent insoluble N
NADPH2 = reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NDM = nonfat dry milk
PAGE = polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis NEAA = nonessential amino acid
PCR = polymerase chain reaction NEG = net energy for gain
PGF2 = prostaglandin F2 NEL = net energy for lactation
REML = restricted maximum likelihood NEM = net energy for maintenance
RFLP = restriction fragment length polymorphism NFC = nonfiber carbohydrates
RIA = radioimmunoassay NPN = nonprotein nitrogen
RNA = ribonucleic acid NRC = National Research Council
RNase = ribonuclease NS = nonsignificant*
rRNA = ribosomal ribonucleic acid NSC = nonstructural carbohydrates
Tris = tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane OM = organic matter
UHT = ultra-high temperature PBS = phosphate-buffered saline
USDA = United States Department of Agriculture PMN = polymorphonuclear leukocyte
UV = ultraviolet PTA = predicted transmitting ability
PUFA = polyunsaturated fatty acids
Define in Abstract; Unrestricted Use Elsewhere
r = correlation coefficient*
ADF = acid detergent fiber
R2 = coefficient of determination*
ADG = average daily gain
QTL = quantitative trait loci
ADL = acid detergent lignin
RDP = rumen-degradable protein
ADIN = acid detergent insoluble nitrogen
RUP = rumen-undegradable protein
AI = artificial insemination
SARA = subacute ruminal acidosis
BCS = body condition score
SCC = somatic cell count
BHB = -hydroxybutyrate
SCS = somatic cell score
bST = bovine somatotropin
SD = standard deviation*
BTA = Bos taurus autosome
SDS = sodium dodecyl sulfate
BUN = blood urea nitrogen
SE = standard error*
BW = body weight
SEM = standard error of the mean*
CI = confidence interval*
SFA = saturated fatty acids
CLA = conjugated linoleic acid
SNF = solids-not-fat
CN = casein
SNP = single nucleotide polymorphism
CNS = coagulase-negative staphylococci
SPC = standard plate count
CoA = coenzyme A
TDN = total digestible nutrients
CP = crude protein
TMR = total mixed ration
CV = coefficient(s) of variation*
TS = total solids
DCAD = dietary cation-anion difference
UF = ultrafiltration, ultrafiltered
df = degrees of freedom*
UFA = unsaturated fatty acids
DHI(A) = Dairy Herd Improvement (Association)
VFA = volatile fatty acids
DIM = days in milk
DM = dry matter

*Use generally restricted to tables and parenthetical expressions; spell out at first use in running text.
Appendix 2
Selected Units and Terms

The following units and terms can be used without definition in the Journal of Dairy Science.
atomic mass unit amu millimole (mass) mmol
atmosphere atm minute(s) min
base pair bp molar (concentration) M
calorie (gram) cal molar (mass) mol
celsius (with number) C mole (number, mass) mol
centimeter cm month(s) mo
centimeter, square cm2 morning/afternoon a.m./p.m.
circa ca. nano n (prefix)
centimorgan cM newton N
centipoise cP normal (concentration) N
central processing unit CPU nanogram ng
colony-forming unit cfu osmolality use mmol/kg
counts per minute cpm outside diameter o.d.
counts per second cps parts per billion ppb (use g/kg or equivalent)
crossed with, times parts per million ppm (use mg/kg or equivalent)
cubic cu pascal Pa
cubic centimeter cc, cm3 pico p (prefix)
cubic millimeter mm3 picogram pg
curie Ci plaque-forming unit pfu
cycles per second (hertz) Hz probability P
day(s) d revolutions per minute rpm
dalton Da second(s) s
deci d (prefix) siemens S
deciliter dL species spp.
electron volt eV subcutaneous s.c.
equivalents Eq subspecies ssp.
foot-candle use lx unit U
gram g volt V
gravity g volume vol
hectare ha volume/volume vol/vol (use parenthetically)
hour(s) h watt W
inside diameter i.d. week(s) wk
international unit IU weight/volume wt/vol (use parenthetically)
intramuscularly i.m. year(s) yr
intraperitoneally i.p.
intravenously i.v. Amino Acids
joule J alanine Ala
kilo k (prefix) arginine Arg
kilobase kb asparagine Asn
kilobyte KB aspartic acid Asp
kilocalorie kcal citrulline Cit
kilogram kg cysteine Cys
kilopascal kPa glutamic acid Glu
liter L glutamine Gln
logarithm (natural) ln glycine Gly
logarithm (base 10) log10 histidine His
lux lx isoleucine Ile
mega M (prefix) leucine Leu
meter m lysine Lys
metric tonne tonne or t methionine Met
micro (prefix) ornithine Orn
microcurie Ci phenylalanine Phe
microfarads F proline Pro
microgram g serine Ser
microliter L threonine Thr
milli m (prefix) tryptophan Trp
milliliter mL tyrosine Tyr
millimeters of mercury mm Hg valine Val
millimolar (concentration) mM (= mmol/L)