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3390/mi2020274

OPEN ACCESS

micromachines

ISSN 2072-666X

www.mdpi.com/journal/micromachines

Review

Harvesting Using Nonlinear Electronic Interfaces and Issues in

Small Scale Implementation

Daniel Guyomar * and Mickal Lallart

E-Mail: mickael.lallart@insa-lyon.fr

Tel.: +33-04-7243-8158; Fax: +33-04-7243-8874.

Received: 2 April 2011; in revised form: 23 May 2011 / Accepted: 25 May 2011 /

Published: 3 June 2011

interfaces for energy harvesting from mechanical vibrations using piezoelectric coupling.

The basic principles and the direct application to energy harvesting of nonlinear treatment

of the output voltage of the transducers for conversion enhancement will be recalled, and

extensions of this approach presented. Latest advances in this field will be exposed, such as

the use of intermediate energy tanks for decoupling or initial energy injection for

conversion magnification. A comparative analysis of each of these techniques will be

performed, highlighting the advantages and drawbacks of the methods, in terms of

efficiency, performance under several excitation conditions, complexity of implementation

and so on. Finally, a special focus of their implementation in the case of low voltage output

transducers (as in the case of microsystems) will be presented.

nonlinear

1. Introduction

The increasing growth in terms of autonomous devices, promoted both by industrial fields

(aeronautics and transports, civil engineering, biomedical engineering, etc.) and personal applications

Micromachines 2011, 2 275

(home automation, nomad devices, etc.) has raised the issue of powering such systems. Primary

batteries, that initially have encouraged this development, are nowadays less popular because of their

limited lifespan [1], which raise maintenance issues, as well as due to their complex and costly

recycling process. Therefore, a recent trend to address this problem has consisted of using ambient

energy from the environment to supply autonomous devices, making them self-powered.

Several energy sources can achieve this purpose, for instance solar or thermal [2]. However, much

research has focused on using mechanical energy [3], as such a source is commonly available in

small-scale systems. In this domain, piezoelectric elements are of particular interest, because of their

high energy densities and integration potential, hence making them a premium choice for the design of

self-powered small-scale devices [4-12].

Nevertheless, the energy that can be harvested using Piezoelectric Electrical Generators (PEGs) is

still limited to the range of a few tens of microwatts to a few milliwatts, as the mechanical source

features limited power and because the coupling coefficient of piezoelectric materials is quite low and

localized at particular frequencies, especially when using the elements in flexural solicitation (which is

the most common approach to match the input vibration spectrum and increase the input mechanical

energy). In order to address this issue, several approaches have been proposed, such as the use of

intrinsic mechanical nonlinearities [13-16], which aim at increasing the input energy in the host

structure to provide more power.

Apart from the mechanical approach, nonlinear electronic interfaces have also been proposed in

order to increase the conversion abilities of piezoelements, and therefore to harvest more energy. The

purpose of the present study is to provide an up-to-date view of such systems. In this field,

Guyomar et al. introduced a simple, low-cost process to artificially enhance the coupling coefficient of

electromechanical systems using piezomaterials [17-22]. Based on a simple nonlinear process of the

output voltage of the active material, this approach, initially developed for vibration damping

purposes [23-27], permits a gain of up to 20 in terms of energy conversion, and 10 in terms of

harvested energy [28]. Several techniques derived from this original method have been proposed, each

of them addressing a particular concern (broadband vibration, impedance matching, energy harvesting

ability enhancement, etc.).

This paper aims at highlighting the specificities, advantages and drawbacks of each of the nonlinear

electronic interfaces that have been proposed in the literature (in terms of performance, load

independency and so on). A particular focus will be placed on the implementation issues of these

techniques for micro-scale devices (for example performance under low voltage output or scalability

of the control circuit).

The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 aims at briefly introducing the basics of energy

harvesting, exposing the energy conversion chain in microgenerators, as well as the modeling of the

structure and the possible options for increasing the conversion abilities. Then the principles of the

nonlinear switching approach and its application to energy harvesting is outlined in Section 3. The

performance and implementation issues of these techniques derived from the nonlinear approaches will

then be discussed in Section 4. Finally, Section 5 briefly concludes the paper, recalling the main

observations and tentatively classifying the techniques considering several criteria.

Micromachines 2011, 2 276

Generally speaking, a vibration energy harvester can be represented using the schematic depicted in

Figure 1. First the mechanical energy (e.g., applied external force or acceleration) is converted into

mechanical energy in the host structure. The latter is then converted into electrical energy by the

piezoelectric element, and is finally transferred in electrical form to a storage stage.

1. Conversion of the input energy into mechanical energy.

2. Electromechanical conversion.

3. Electrical energy transfer.

However, it is important to note that the conversion processes are affected by the next stage, due to

backward coupling. Hence, converting mechanical energy leads to a modification of the properties of

the global structure, therefore changing the input energy, and extracting electrical energy from the

piezoelectric element changes the amount of mechanical energy converted into electricity. Therefore

the design of an efficient microgenerator has to consider:

1. The maximization of the input energy.

2. The maximization of the electromechanical energy (coupling coefficient).

3. The optimization of the energy transfer.

Nevertheless, as stated previously, these design considerations cannot be performed independently

because of the backward coupling. At this stage it can be noted that the scope of this paper is to review

nonlinear electronic interface for the optimization of the conversion. Hence, only the last two

items will be considered. Efficient energy harvesters that consist of taking advantage of mechanical

nonlinearities (and in particular nonlinear compliance) to ensure a maximization of the input

energy [13-16] will therefore not be discussed.

In the following, particular attention will therefore be placed on the last two points: optimization of

the energy conversion and energy transfer. Considering that the electromechanical system can be

modeled by a coupled spring-mass-damper system depicted in Figure 2 [25,29]:

Mu Cu K E u F V

(1)

I u C0V

Micromachines 2011, 2 277

where u, F, V and I respectively represent the displacement, applied force (The force F can be replaced

by the product of the mass by the acceleration in the case of seismic harvester (indirect coupling)),

piezoelectric output voltage and current flowing out of the piezoelement. M refers to the dynamic

mass, C to the structural damping coefficient and KE to the open-circuit stiffness. Finally, and C0

stand for the force factor and clamped capacitance of the piezoelectric insert.

The energy analysis of such a system over a time range [t0;t0+] is obtained by integrating in the

time domain the product of the motion equation by the velocity and the product of the electrical

equation by the voltage:

1 2 t0 t0 t0 t0 t0

M u C u dt K E u 2 Fudt Vudt

2

2 t0 t0 t0 t0 t0

t0 t0

(2)

1 2 t0

t0 VIdt 2 C0 V t0 t0 Vudt

u, F

M

I

PZT

KE C V

(C0)

From Equation (2), it can be shown that the converted energy is represented by the time integral of

the product of the voltage by the speed (with a multiplying coefficient ), which can be decomposed

into the electrostatic energy on the piezoelectric element and energy transferred to the electrical

system. Hence, in order to increase the conversion abilities of the piezoelectric material, three ways

can be envisaged:

1. Increase of the voltage.

2. Reduction of the time shift between speed and voltage (approximating the voltage and

speed by monochromatic functions ( u uM sin t and V VM sin t ), the time

2

uM VM

integral over a time period of their product yields Vudt cos , which is

0 2

therefore maximal for 0 ).

The last option implies the change of the material itself. In this domain, single crystals have

recently been investigated [30,31], but their high cost, low conformability and processing complexity

make them quite delicate to use in realistic implementations. The discussion about this material aspect

is however out of the scope of this paper.

Micromachines 2011, 2 278

3. Switching Techniques

As the principles of energy harvesting enhancement have been described, the aim of this section is

to present the various electronic interfaces that have been proposed in the literature, and to discuss the

performance of each. Basically, the approaches can be divided into two categories, whether the

piezoelectric element is directly connected to the storage stage, or not.

Nevertheless, whatever the considered case, the operation principles are quite similar and consist of

using the two possibilities for enhancing the conversion (i.e., voltage increase and reduction of the

time shift between voltage and velocity). Actually both of these possibilities may be obtained by

taking advantage of the dielectric nature of the piezoelectric element. If the piezoelectric voltage is

reversed on zero speed values (extremum displacements) as depicted in Figure 3(a), this shapes an

additional piecewise constant voltage proportional to the sign of the speed. The voltage continuity also

insures a cumulative process that increases its magnitude, denoting the conversion enhancement as

well. Hence, from Figure 3(a) (bottom), it can be seen that the nonlinear approach permits both

reducing the time shift between speed and voltage, as well as significantly increasing the voltage level,

allowing the conversion magnification.

Figure 3. (a) Waveforms of the displacement, speed and piezovoltage induced by the

switching process on zero speed values (the bottom figure shows how the voltage in the

nonlinear processing may be decomposed into a voltage proportional to the displacement

and a piecewise constant voltage that is proportional to the sign of the speed and much

larger than the original voltage); (b) Implementation of the nonlinear treatment.

(a) (b)

Such a processing of the voltage inversion can be implemented in a really simple way, by briefly

connecting the piezoelectric element to an inductor (Figure 3(b)), therefore shaping a resonant

electrical network. In particular, if the digital switch is closed for half a period of the electrical

oscillation (whose period is much smaller than the vibration period), this leads to an almost

instantaneous inversion of the voltage. This solution for inverting the voltage across the piezoelectric

Micromachines 2011, 2 279

element requires very low power as it does not need any external energy, except to control the digital

switch. This autonomous voltage inverter can therefore be made self-powered [21,26,27,32-38],

consuming a very small amount of power (typically 3% of the electrostatic energy available on the

active material); as will be discussed in Section 4.2. As the energy conversion gain is typically in the

range of a factor of 20, this energy requirement can easily be neglected.

However, because of the losses in the switching device (especially resistive losses in the inductor),

the voltage inversion is not perfect and characterized by the inversion coefficient , giving the ratio of

the absolute voltage after and before the inversion process (0 1).

Finally, it can be noted that the concept of the nonlinear operation is independent from the physical

phenomenon (as long as one quantity is continuous), allowing its application to other conversion

effects [28,39,40].

The first class of nonlinear electronic interfaces for conversion enhancement consists of performing the

previously described switching concept with a direct connection of the piezoelectric element to the

storage stage.

In this case, starting from the standard implementation of an energy harvester as depicted in

Figure 4 which consists of simply connecting the piezoelectric element to a storage capacitor

(connected to the load) through a rectifier bridge, several architectures may be considered.

The first and simplest one consists of connecting the switching element in parallel (Figure 5(a)) or

in series (Figure 5(b)) with the piezomaterial, leading to the concept of Synchronized Switch

Harvesting on Inductor (SSHI).

The principles of operations of the parallel SSHI [14] consist of inverting the voltage after an

energy extraction process, while inversion and energy extraction occur at the same time for the series

SSHI [18,41]. Hence, the different steps involved in the energy harvesting process are as follows:

Parallel SSHI:

(i) Open circuit phase

(ii) Harvesting phase

(iii) Inversion phase

Series SSHI:

(i) Open circuit phase

(ii) Harvesting and inversion phase

Micromachines 2011, 2 280

It can also be noted that the series SSHI harvesting approach may be obtained by replacing the

switching inductance by a transformer, which actually allows an artificial change in the load seen by

the piezoelectric element (by a factor 1/m2, with m being the transformer ratio). This approach, called

SSHI-MR (Synchronized Switch Harvesting on Inductor using Magnetic Rectifier), also allows

dividing by m the voltage gap of discrete components (such as diodes) seen by the piezoelectric

element, and is therefore suitable for energy harvesting from low output voltage levels [42].

(b) Series SSHI.

(a)

(b)

As the SSHI-MR also permits an electrical decoupling of the storage stage from the extraction stage, it

is possible to combine it with the parallel SSHI, leading to the concept of hybrid SSHI (Figure 6[43]),

which allows harvesting four times a period (vs. 2 in the previous cases) both during inversion and

conduction of the rectifier, when the rectified voltage is less than the maximum piezovoltage

(operating parallel SSHI); otherwise only the SSHI-MR is operating. Although the hybrid SSHI does

not further improve the conversion enhancement (typical gain of 8 compared to the standard

approach), it does permit widening the load bandwidth.

Using typical components, the gain, in terms of harvested energy of the SSHI techniques, can reach

up to 10 compared to the classical implementation under constant displacement magnitude. The SSHI

also permits increasing the effective bandwidth of the microgenerators [44]. However, extracting

energy from a structure also modifies its mechanical behavior. In particular, harvesting energy from

vibrations generates a damping effect that limits the power output of the SSHI techniques. This power

output is actually the same as in the standard case. However, the nonlinear interface permits harvesting

a similar energy to the classical implementation but with a dramatically reduced volume of

piezoelectric element, as the power limit is almost reached for a lower global coupling coefficient.

In [45], Wu et al. used a similar architecture to the series SSHI, but with a modified switch control.

The principles of the method, called SSDCI (Synchronized Switching and Discharging to a storage

Capacitor through an Inductor), consists of transferring the electrostatic energy available on the

piezoelectric element to a storage capacitor through an inductance (Figure 7). However, the switching

process is naturally stopped by a diode bridge rectifier when the piezovoltage equals zero. At this

instant there is still energy in the inductance, which is then transferred to the storage capacitor.

However, for high load values (high rectified voltage), the piezoelectric voltage does not reach zero,

Micromachines 2011, 2 281

and the circuit performs in a similar fashion than the series SSHI. Such an approach therefore permits

harvesting four times more energy than the standard case over a wide load range.

Figure 7. SSDCI.

The last possibility for performing the switching process, consists of assisting the voltage inversion

through the use of an inverter, using pulse-width modulation (PWM) approaches (Figure 8), leading to

the so-called active energy harvesting scheme (that consists of an Ericsson cycle). Such an active

technique therefore permits an almost perfect inversion [46,47], yielding an outstanding harvested

energy level (proportional to the output voltage, and thus not limited), although requiring significant

external energy for driving the PWM command; possibly compromising the operations of the approach

as will be discussed later. Another approach for enhancing the inversion (and thus the output power)

consists of performing a two-step switching [48], typically increasing the energy output of the SSH

techniques by 40%, under constant displacement magnitude.

The previously exposed approaches consisted of directly connecting the piezoelectric element to the

storage stage (possibly through an inductor). However, because of this connection, the extracted

energy and, therefore, harvested powers are closely dependent on the connected load. In realistic

applications, however, the load may not be fixed in advance, and can even change with time according

to the state of the connected system (e.g., sleep mode, RF communication, etc.).

Hence, in order to counteract this drawback, using the switching concept in a slightly different way

has been proposed. In these techniques, the inductance is used as an energy storage element. The

energy harvesting process is therefore performed in two steps. First, the energy available on the

Micromachines 2011, 2 282

piezoelement is transferred to the inductance. Then the piezoelement is disconnected from the circuit,

and the energy stored in the inductor is transferred to the storage capacitor. This therefore prevents the

direct connection of the piezoelectric element to the load, and thus leads to a harvested energy

independent of the connected system.

The direct application of this concept leads to the Synchronous Electric Charge Extraction (SECE)

technique, depicted in Figure 9 [49]. In addition to the independence of the harvested power from the

load, such a technique also permits a gain of 4 in terms of scavenged energy compared to the standard

approach. However, when considering the damping effect, the SECE features a critical value of the

figure of merit given by the product of the squared coupling coefficient k2 (giving the amount of

energy that can be converted into electric energy) by the mechanical quality factor QM (reflecting the

effective available energy). Above this threshold, the harvested energy decreases as the product k2QM

increases. This is explained by the fact that it is not possible to control the trade-off between energy

extraction and damping effect. From a mechanical point of view, the SECE technique may be seen to

be equivalent to the SSDS (Synchronized Switch Damping on Short-circuit) damping technique ([29]).

In order to be able to control this trade-off, it is possible to combine the series SSHI with the SECE,

leading to the Double Synchronized Switch Harvesting (DSSH) technique [50], shown in Figure 10.

This approach consists first of transferring a part of the electrostatic energy on the piezoelectric

element to an intermediate storage capacitor Cint, and using the remaining energy for the inversion

process, and then transferring the energy on Cint to the inductance and finally to the storage stage.

Through the tuning of the capacitance ratio x = Cint/C0, such a technique permits controlling the

amount of extracted energy, and thus the above-mentioned trade-off, as well as the trade-off between

conversion enhancement and harvested energy. By properly tuning the value of the intermediate to

piezoelectric capacitance ratio, it can be shown that the harvested power, considering a constant

displacement magnitude, can be 6 times higher than when using the classical energy harvesting

interface. When considering the damping effect, the DSSH allows harvesting a significant amount of

energy even for low coupling coefficient (and typically requires 10 times less piezomaterial than the

classical approach for the same power output), although it features the same power limit as the

standard technique for highly coupled, weakly damped systems excited at one of their resonance

frequencies. The DSSH may be further enhanced by leaving a small amount of energy (i.e., non zero

voltage) on the intermediate capacitor, leading to the concept of Enhanced Synchronized Switch

Harvesting (ESSH[51], which allows a finer control of the trade-offs between energy extraction and

voltage increase, and between extracted energy and damping effect. The ESSH approach also permits a

lower sensitivity to a mismatch in the capacitance ratio [51].

Micromachines 2011, 2 283

Another approach consists of using the SECE technique but adding an energy feedback loop from

the energy storage stage to the piezoelectric element itself that permits applying an initial voltage to

the active material [52]. The principles of such an approach, depicted in Figure 11, consist of:

i. Extracting the energy from the piezoelectric element (using the SECE interface - S1 and L1).

ii. Providing energy to the piezoelectric insert, from the storage stage (S21, S22 and L2).

iii. Let the voltage increase by leaving the active material in open-circuit condition.

Such an energy injection technique therefore permits bypassing the limits of the unidirectional

stand-alone techniques presented so far (this excludes the case of the active energy harvesting

scheme), and features a harvested energy gain of up to 40 (typically 20 using off-the-shelf

components) compared to the classical system when considering constant displacement magnitude.

When the damping effect cannot be neglected, the energy feedback loop, by a particular energy

resonance effect, allows bypassing the power limit of the previously exposed techniques.

4. Discussion

This section outlines the performances of the considered energy harvesting schemes as well as their

implementation issues.

Here the performance of the energy harvesting systems will be compared. For the sake of

simplicity, it is assumed that the input force is monochromatic (broadband excitation will be discussed

in Section 4.2). When considering that the system features a constant displacement magnitude uM (This

assumption relates to the case where the structure is excited out of resonance or when the global

electromechanical coupling is weak and/or the mechanical quality factor low so that the backward

coupling of the piezoelectric element can be neglected), the power that can be harvested as a function

of the connected load for each of the discussed technique is depicted in Figure 12. In order to make

Micromachines 2011, 2 284

these charts as independent as possible from the system parameters, the loads and powers have been

normalized with respect to the optimal load and maximum power in the standard case:

1

RL opt stand

4C0 f 0

(3)

2

Pmax stand

f0 uM 2

C0

and the figures only depend on the inversion factor and extraction efficiency C, which are

respectively fixed at 0.8 and 90%, and transformer ratio m for the hybrid SSHI (set to 20). In the case

of the ESSH, the remaining voltage on the intermediate capacitor has been set close to its optimal

value [51].

Standard Parallel SSHI Series SSHI Hybrid SSHI SSDCI

20 20 20 20 20

Normalized output

Normalized output

Normalized output

Normalized output

Normalized output

15 15 15 15 15

power (a.u.)

power (a.u.)

power (a.u.)

power (a.u.)

power (a.u.)

10 10 10 10 10

5 5 5 5 5

0 0 0 0 0

-3 0 3 -3 0 3 -3 0 3 -3 0 3 -3 0 3

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

Normalized load (a.u.) Normalized load (a.u.) Normalized load (a.u.) Normalized load (a.u.) Normalized load (a.u.)

Ericsson (active) SECE DSSH ESSH Energy injection

20 20 20 20 20

Normalized output

Normalized output

Normalized output

Normalized output

Normalized output

15 15 15 15 15

power (a.u.)

power (a.u.)

power (a.u.)

power (a.u.)

power (a.u.)

10 10 10 10 10

5 5 5 5 5

0 0 0 0 0

-3 0 3 -3 0 3 -3 0 3 -3 0 3 -3 0 3

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

Normalized load (a.u.) Normalized load (a.u.) Normalized load (a.u.) Normalized load (a.u.) Normalized load (a.u.)

This figure clearly demonstrates the ability of the nonlinear processing to significantly enhance the

conversion enhancement (and thus the power generation ability) of microgenerators when the

backward coupling can be neglected (high mechanical damping coefficient and/or low coupling).

When using the SSH approach, the harvested power gain is typically 10 compared to the classical

technique. However, it will be further shown that the two schemes feature the same power limit for

highly coupled, weakly damped systems. The particular principles of the active energy harvesting

scheme also permit an outstanding power output (theoretically infinite), but it has to be noted that the

switching and driving losses have not been taken into account in the figure. A full analysis of the

energy transfer and energy balance would show the limits of this technique. The damping effect (in the

constant displacement magnitude case, the input energy is neither fixed nor bounded) not taken into

account here, would also decrease the power harvested by the active scheme.

Micromachines 2011, 2 285

Although the series SSHI features a power slightly less than the parallel SSHI, it permits a decrease

of the optimal load, which may be beneficial for realistic systems, as the dielectric behavior of

piezodevices associated with the low frequencies of vibration leads to relatively high optimal

resistance (usually several hundreds of kiloohms in standard case). Hence the series SSHI may be

more adapted to electronic devices whose input impedance is less than this value, which is generally

the case. However, although they permit a high power gain, the SSHI approaches are strongly

dependent on the connected load, which would be problematic if the connected system would have an

input impedance varying with time (corresponding, for example, to a change in state, e.g., from active

transmission to sleep mode). An additional stage aimed at providing a constant load seen by the

piezoelectric element would therefore be required [53-58], but would also introduce some losses (the

efficiency of self-powered load adaptation stage is typically around 7580% [54,55]).

Such an case does not occur when using the SECE, DSSH or ESSH approaches, as these techniques

provide a natural load adaptation, although providing lower power output (it can however be noted that

the global output of SSHI generator with load adaptation stage is similar to the harvested power of the

DSSH and ESSH; the latter requiring less components as well). To a lesser extent, the SSDCI also

permits an independent harvested power from the load as long as the rectified voltage (or equivalently

the load) is less than a critical value.

Finally, using a part of the harvested energy to allow a bidirectional energy transfer (energy

injection technique) allows outperforming all the previously exposed techniques, with a typical energy

gain of 20 using typical off-the-shelf components. Such an energy harvesting magnification may be

explained by a particular energy resonance effect that occurs at the optimal load. As the power

output increases, the injected energy increases as well; this leads to an increase of the harvested energy

and so on. It can be seen on Figure 12 that for low load value (and thus low voltage output), the energy

injection technique performs in a similar way to the SECE.

The associated energy cycles for each technique are depicted in Figure 13, showing that the

nonlinear techniques describe either a Stirling cycle (series SSHI, SSHI-MR, SSDCI, SECE, DSSH,

ESSH and energy injection), an Ericsson cycle (active scheme), or a combination of the two (parallel

SSHI, hybrid SSHI).

When considering that the converse piezoelectric effect may not be neglected (low damping and

high electromechanical coupling), harvesting electrical energy decreases the amount of mechanical

energy in the structure, leading to a damping effect that limits the conversion. In this case, when

considering that the system is driven by a constant force magnitude, the harvested powers as a function

of normalized loads and powers, as well as of the figure of merit k2QM, given by the product of the

squared coupling coefficient by the mechanical quality factor, are depicted in Figure 14. The load axis

has been normalized in the same way as previously stated and the parameters , C and m are the same,

but the power is in this case normalized with respect to the maximal output power of the unidirectional

techniques:

FM 2

Plim (4)

8C

which occurs because of the damping effect.

Micromachines 2011, 2 286

Figure 13. Normalized energy cycles (converted and transferred) for different energy

harvesting interfaces: (a) Standard; (b) Parallel SSHI, hybrid SSHI; (c) Series SSHI,

SSHI-MR, SSDCI, SECE, DSSH, ESSH, Energy injection; (d) Ericsson (active

harvesting).

1 1

extracted charge

(normalized)

Normalized

u

0 0

-1 -1

-1 0 1 -1 0 1

Normalized voltage Normalized voltage

(a)

1 1

extracted charge

(normalized)

Normalized

u

0 0

-1 -1

-1 0 1 -1 0 1

Normalized voltage Normalized voltage

(b)

1 1

extracted charge

(normalized)

Normalized

0.5 0.5

u

0 0

-0.5 -0.5

-1 -1

-1 0 1 -1 0 1

Normalized voltage Normalized voltage

(c)

1 1

extracted charge

(normalized)

Normalized

0.5 0.5

u

0 0

-0.5 -0.5

-1 -1

-1 0 1 -1 0 1

Normalized voltage Normalized voltage

(d)

Micromachines 2011, 2 287

Figure 14. (a) Normalized harvested powers and (b) maximal harvested powers under

constant force magnitude.

(a)

Standard

Parallel SSHI

Series SSHI

Hybrid SSHI

SSDCI

1 Ericsson (active)

SECE

DSSH/ESSH

0.8

Energy injection

P/Plim

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 1 2 3 4 5

k 2QM

(b)

Micromachines 2011, 2 288

In this case, it can be shown that the use of nonlinear approaches permits harvesting the same

amount of energy than the standard approach but using much less volume of active materials (i.e., for

much lower values of k2QM), although the unidirectional techniques no longer improve the harvesting

abilities for high values of k2QM compared to the standard case. In particular, the DSSH and ESSH

(which have been depicted in a single plot because of their similarity) and energy injection techniques

show high slopes for low values of the figure of merit, having the same power generation abilities as

the standard approach, but with 10 times less active materials. These approaches, through the tuning of

the capacitance ratio x, also feature a constant power output after a critical value of k2QM, contrary to

the SECE which is a decreasing function of k2QM after a critical value of the figure of merit

((k2QM)critical = /4).

However, the most efficient technique among the unidirectional energy transfer approaches remains

the active scheme, which permits reaching the power limit for very low value of k2QM (theoretically,

Plim is reached as soon as k2QM0). Hence, it can be concluded that unidirectional nonlinear

approaches are particularly interesting for low coupled systems, but do not induce any improvement

for highly coupled, weakly damped systems (which is however an unusual casethe value of k2QM is

generally less than 0.2 in realistic applications). As can be seen in Figure 14, only the energy injection

scheme (that features bidirectional energy transfer) permits bypassing this limit, thanks to the energy

resonance effect. The technique also shows a decrease in the harvested power for high values of k2QM,

as the trade-off between energy extraction and damping effect cannot be controlled. However, it is

possible that the implementation of a DSSH-like energy extraction interface would permit a

non-decreasing harvested power.

From Figure 14 it can be seen that the optimal load also varies with k2QM (denoting the trade-off

between energy harvesting and vibration damping), which shows the advantage of using load

decoupling techniques (SECE, DSSH and ESSH), and, although the latter features a lower harvested

power because of the extraction efficiency C, one has to keep in mind that the realistic implementation

of SSH techniques requires the use of an additional load adaptation stage whose losses make their

global maximum power output similar to that obtained with the SECE or DSSH

When designing systems that aim at scavenging energy from environmental sources, particular

attention has to be placed on the design in terms of realistic implementation (e.g., the energy balance

between harvested energy and required energy should be positive).

In terms of implementation issues, several architectures have been proposed to make the switch

control autonomous [21,26,27,32-35]. In these works, the extremum detection is usually designed by

computing the derivative of the piezovoltage (which gives the extremum position when it cancels), but

the derivative operator is not really stable and is sensitive to noise. Another commonly used approach for

the design of the self-powered switch lies in the use of a differentiation of the piezovoltage. This is

obtained by comparing the voltage itself with its delayed version (Figure 15). The Synchronized Switch

systems can therefore be made truly self-powered using a few typical off-the-shelf components [32-34].

In addition, thanks to the principles of the maximum detection, the device can operate in a wide

frequency range. However, for the other techniques (SECE, DSSH, ESSH and energy injection), the

Micromachines 2011, 2 289

self-powered design may be a bit more complex because of the command of the digital switch,

although some implementations have been proposed [58].

Piezovoltage

Comparator Switching

Delay device

+ energy

storage

Although the previous analysis has been done considering sine excitation, realistic solicitation

would more likely be random. Although few analyses have been conducted in this domain for

nonlinear systems [60], it can be stated that load-independent techniques would perform better than the

other approaches, as the optimal loads are frequency-dependent.

In the particular case of small-scale systems and microsystems (e.g., MEMS devices), some

considerations occur with respect to the implementation of the control systems [61]. In particular, the

magnetic components (inductor and transformers) may be seen as a limitation in terms of the

miniaturization of the device. However, Liu et al. proposed a process for realizing on-chip inductors

and transformers which typically require a surface of a few square millimeters [62,63]. In [39],

changing the inductor with a capacitor for a better integration has been proposed. However, the

dielectric nature of piezoelectric elements makes such an approach quite unsuitable for these systems.

However, the main limitations of piezoelectric generators at microscale are due to the electronic

command, and particularly discrete components (such as diodes and transistors) that feature voltage gap

whose values which are typically a few hundreds of millivolts [35]. As the voltage output of microscale

generator is often below this threshold, no power can be harvested. In this case, the cumulative voltage

increase allowed by the nonlinear process is helpful to bypass this minimum voltage requirement, and the

use of a transformer in the SSHI-MR and hybrid SSHI techniques permits a great reduction of the

impacts of discrete electronic components (the voltage gap seen by the piezoelectric element is divided

by the transformer ratio m). It is also possible to slightly modify the series SSHI technique to remove the

diodes without changing the circuit operations as shown in Figure 16.

5. Conclusion

This paper proposed a comprehensive review of nonlinear energy harvesting interfaces for

performance enhancement of vibration energy harvesters featuring the piezoelectric element. The

principles of each scheme have been presented and main results summarized, and the specificities of

Micromachines 2011, 2 290

each of them emphasized, in terms of output power, load dependency and performance under low

piezoelectric output voltage. From the analyses done though the paper, it is possible to classify the

techniques according to several criteria. As a conclusion, Table 1 proposes a tentative visual

description of the performance of the exposed techniques considering several factors.

Harvested energy

Low

Load Implementation

Technique Constant Constant force Constant force voltage

independency easiness

displacement magnitude- magnitude- harvesting

magnitude Low coupling High coupling

Standard

Parallel SSHI

Series SSHI

(diodeless)

SSHI-MR

Hybrid SSHI

SSDCI

Active

Scheme

(Ericsson)

SECE

DSSH/ESSH

Energy

/ [64]

injection

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64. The happy face relates the maximum power greater than all the other techniques for moderate

value of k2QM, while the unhappy face denotes the power decrease for high values of the figure

of merit.

2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article

distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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