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INTRODUCTION

A process in which
Mechanization, the organization of labour, and innovations in
transport and communications
lead to
transformations in manufacturing, commerce, and society

Britain: 1730-1850
Western Europe: 1800-1880
United States: 1820-1850
CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION
- Population Growth
- American Crops
- Better hygiene
- Malthus Essay on Principle of Population: Pop. Growth (geometric), Food
(arithmetic)

- Agricultural Revolution
- Consolidated large-scale farming:
- Enclosure = economies of scale, new tools, crop rotation
- Sophisticated techniques: Commercial and Agricultural Magazine, Tulls Horse-Drawn
Seed Drill
- Extended arable farming over heaths and commons, intensive livestock
husbandry
- Improved transport: canals, railroads, toll roads = urban pop. cheaply fed
CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION
- Trade
- More capital for investment = more demand for good
- Parts of Europe very wealthy = SE England, Netherlands, N. Italy, N. France
- European Trade grew (interrupted 1791-1815)
- Profits from imperial trade e.g. sugar
- Could export to captive markets e.g. India, N. America
- Improved transport = canals, toll roads, railroads
- Culture of Innovation and Invention
- Political Environment:
- Rule of Law protection of private property = political stability
- Freedom from religious persecution
- Culture:
- Enterprising spirit
- Growing literacy
- Keeping to time and doing things quickly
TECHNOLOGICAL REVOLUTION
1. Division of Labor: Pin Makers Workshop Noted by Adam Smith (1723-90), Wealth of Nations

2. Mechanization
1. Productivity up e.g. in Cotton Industry:
1. Increased 10x 1760-85 then again 1785-1825
2. By 1812: one spinner producing 200x prior to invention of Hargreaves Jenny
3. By 1815: cotton textiles were 40% of British domestic exports, woolen 18%
2. Developing in Spinning and Weaving Machines:
1. 1733 onwards, John Kays flying shuttle adopted 1750s and 60s
2. Also: Hargreaves Spinning Jenny, Cromptons Spinning Mule, Cartwrights Power Loom

3. Effects on Workplace:
1. Inventions altered social conditions
2. Families moved from cottages to water as water frame used
3. With steam power, factories built anywhere but near coal
4. Specialized factories for spinning and weaving
5. Power-driven weaving for men, spinning women, odd jobs children.
6. Population became labor and was urbanised
TECHNOLOGICAL REVOLUTION
3. New Iron Age:

- Iron much cheaper because of new manufacturing techniques (use of coke,


Corts puddling process) and cheaper coal-mining due to cheaper labor
and steam engines

4. Steam Engine:

First useful steam engine invented by Cornish mechanic Thomas Newcomen


in 1712.

Newcomens engine as installed at Coneygree Coal Works near Dudley


Castle in 1712.

James Watt added a separate condenser to create a more power steam


engine (1769)

1825 Robert and George Stephenson adopt steam engine to make a steam
locomotive
CULTURE OF INVENTION AND
INNOVATION
Political Environment:
Rule of law protection of private property. [political stability]
Freedom from religious prosecution.

Culture:
Enterprising and commercial spirit
Strongly growing literacy
Culture of invention and innovation
Keeping to time and doing things quickly.
3. THE NEW IRON AGE
Iron becomes much cheaper due to new manufacturing
techniques (use of coke, Corts puddling process (1784)), and
cheaper coal mining due to cheaper labour and steam engines
1825: STOCKTON DARLINGTON
RAILWAY, 26 MILES
TRANSPORTATION

Growth in roads,
canals, and finally
railways

LENGTH OF RAILWAYS (IN KM)


The Forth Bridge is a cantilever railway
bridge over the Firth of Forth in the east
of Scotland (1882-1890)

FORTH BRIDGE (1890)


7 YEAR CONSTRUCTION PERIOD
IMPACT
1. INDUSTRIAL CITIES

Pugins Contrasts 1838


INDUSTRIAL CITIES

Unplanned
Slum growth -
overcrowded
Minimal sanitation
No street lighting
Poor housing and
transportation
Poor working conditions:
exploitation of weak
Pollution
2. LABOUR AND WORKING
CONDITIONS

Two Types of Division of Labour Emerge


Specialisation by trade of industry
Higher productivity
Jobs more monotonous, more routine

Specialisation between labour and capital


Creation of large capitalist class and massive working class
(proletariat).
The poor sell their labour to capitalists, who have capital, and so have
invested in plant and machinery.
Capitalists profits soared 1820s 1840s, but labours wages fell.
Population growth, Irish inward immigration due to famine
DESCRIPTION OF TRAPPERS AT WILLIAM PIT, IN AYTON AND
DANIELLS, A VOYAGE AROUND GREAT BRITAIN 1813 1823

One class of sufferers in the mine moved my compassion more than any other, a number of the children
who attend at the doors to open them when the horses pass through, and who in this duty are compelled
to linger through their lives, in silence, solitude, and darkness, for sixpence a day. When I first came to
one of these doors, I saw it open without perceiving by what means, till, looking behind it, I beheld a
miserable little wretch standing without a light, silent and motionless and resembling in the abjectness
of its condition, some reptile peculiar to the place, rather than a human creature. On speaking to it, I was
touched with the patience and uncomplaining meekness with which it submitted to its horrible
imprisonment, and the little sense that it had of the barbarity of its unnatural parents. Few of the
children thus inhumanely sacrificed were more than eight years old, and several were considerably less,
and had barely strength sufficient to perform the office that was required of them. On their first
introduction into the mine, the poor little victims struggle and scream with terror at the darkness, but
there are found people brutal enough to force them to compliance, and after a few trials they become
tame and spiritless, and yield themselves up at least without noise and resistance to any cruel slavery
that it please their masters to impose on them. In the Winter time they never see daylight, except on a
Sunday, for it has been discovered that they can serve for thirteen hours a day without perishing, and
they are pitilessly compelled to such a term of solitary confinement, with as little consideration for the
injury that they suffer, as is felt for the hinges and pulleys of the doors at which they attend. As soon as
they rise from their beds, they descend down the pit, and they are not relieved from their prison till,
exhausted with watching and fatigue, they return to their beds again. Surely the savages who murder the
children which they cannot support are merciful compared with those who devote them to a life like
this.
TRAPPERS
GROWTH OF MIDDLE CLASSES

The bourgeoisie
Range of wealth, but wealthier than working classes
Wealthier middle classes: Bankers, factory and mine owners,
merchants, lawyers, doctors.
Poorer middle classes: shopkeepers, managers.
New Economic and Political Ideas
RESPONSES TO POOR WORKING CLASS
WORKING CONDITIONS
1819 Luddites break machines in factories
1820s, 1830s Chartists call for rights, including universal male
suffrage
1802 1833 English Factory Acts gradually limited hours women
and children could work
1834 Poor Law compelled unemployed to work in public
factories called workhouses
1847 Ten-Hour Bill for women and children
1871 Trade Unions recognised under law
LAISSEZ FAIRE
(FREE MARKET CAPITALISM)
E.g. Adam Smith (1723-1790), in The
Wealth of Nations (1776):
Government should protect private
property
Government should not interfere in
business
Free trade between nations
Challenged Mercantilism
THE GLOBAL SPREAD OF
INDUSTRIALISATION
A gradual process. Spreads from England to the rest of Europe,
then the United States, then to South America, Asia, and Africa.
Initial industrialisation in 3 waves:
1780s 1820s Britain and Belgium
1840 1870 France, German States, USA
1894 1914 Many. Most prominent:
Italy, Japan, Sweden, Austrian part of the Habsburg Empire, Russia

No one path to industrialisation - different processes in different


countries
Important: ability to protect industries from cheaper imports, to
export excess production, to import and use technologies, state
support
INTERNATIONAL LIMITS OF
INDUSTRIALISATION

19th century - Egypt and India


British crush nascent industrial
growth through free trade policies
Forced to become producers of raw
materials
China did not industrialise in 19th
century
Did not have overseas empire to
provide cheap commodities
Did not have capitalist class willing to
invest
Peasants powerful enough to resist
proletarianisation
Civil wars and social unrest