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SIX SIGMA YELLOW

BELT TRAINING

Sudhakar SR
Objectives

Understand the need for Six Sigma


Explain the Six Sigma DMAIC process
Clarify the roles of the Sponsor and the Project Leader
Understand the key differences between traditional problem
solving methods and the Six Sigma approach
Demonstrate the 7 basic tools
Develop an awareness of the various Six Sigma tools and
their applicability
Outline the key attributes of a Six Sigma project
Overview

Section A: Six Sigma Concepts

Section B: Six Sigma Roles and Responsibilities


SECTION A

SIX SIGMA CONCEPTS


Six Sigma

l Customer focused business improvement process.


l Defect reduction in a process or product.
l Common measurement scale called the Sigma capability or Z.
l Six Sigma capability corresponds to an efficiency of 99.9996%.

Six
SixSigma
Sigma is
isaa Business
BusinessPhilosophy
Philosophy
History

lSix Sigma was developed by Bill Smith, QM at Motorola


lIts implementation began at Motorola in 1987
lIt allowed Motorola to win the first Baldrige Award in 1988
lSeveral major companies in the world have adopted Six Sigma since
then .and applied to Manufacturing processes to improve product
quality

Texas Instruments, Asea Brown Boveri, AlliedSignal, General


Electric, Bombardier, Nokia Mobile Phones, Lockheed Martin, Sony,
Polaroid, Dupont, American Express, Ford Motor,.

lGE applied the Six Sigma methodology to improve all business


processes and it became a way of running the business.

Six
SixSigma
Sigma is
isaa Competitive
Competitive Tool
Tool
Expectations of People Capability
LEVEL CONTENT COMPETENCY
50,000 feet view Characterize & Everybody should
Optimize understand, use & teach

500 feet view Define, Measure, Executives - understand

Analyze, Improve & Managers - understand,

Control use and teach (YB)

3 + 12 step process Managers understand,

5 feet view Project Leaders

understand, use and


teach (GB/BB)

Tools (info synthesis GB/BB understand, use


Ground level and statistics) MBB teach

Applicable
Applicableat
atall
all levels
levels
The Standard Deviation

1 Sigma - 68%
= (X X) 2
2 Sigma - 95%
3 Sigma - 99.73 %
n-1

1
p(d)

Upper Specification Limit (USL)


Target Specification (T)
Lower Specification Limit (LSL)
T USL
Mean of the distribution ( )
Standard Deviation of the distribution
( ) 3
What Is Six Sigma

A 3 process because 3 standard deviations


fit between target and spec
Before
Target
3
Customer
Specification

1
0.27% Defects up-to 6.6 %
2

Customer
Target Specification

After
1
2 6 !
3 No Defects!
4
5
6

Reducing Variability Is The Key To Six Sigma


The Focus of Six Sigma

Y f (X)
Dependent X1 . . . XN
Output Independent
Effect Input-Process
Symptom Cause
Monitor Problem
Control

Would you control target or the shooter to get the Gold Medal?
The Eye of the Beholder

Customers View How did Supplier influence my


A C Performance?
Handling Defects found at my end

Customer
Process
A B C

Supplier Process

How did I do against my


A B Obligations? Suppliers
Handling Damage at my end View
Focusing on Average

Average River Depth -4ft

Focus
Focuson
onAverage
Averagecan
canturn
turnyour
yourbusiness
business
red
red
The Need for Six Sigma

How are we viewed by our customers?


Reactionary, not
preventative
Adequately responsive to
customer needs
Problems not permanently
solved
Hard perennial problems
not solved.
Inconsistent
Flawed Startups

Customers look for our competitors


The Need for Six Sigma

How do we want to be viewed by our customers?


Proactive
Quick, agile
Having robust products
System experts
Flawless during startups
Continuously improving
through an Enterprise-
wide problem
prevention/problem
solving culture

Our Customers Best Supplier


The DMAIC Methodology
INPUT STEP OUTPUT

iz
You have a problem
Defin
t er
Identify Project, People and definition and a thorough
Process e execution plan
ac
ar

Ensure you have output


Meas
e

You ensure reliable


measures for process and analyses and decisions
Ch

reliable ways of measuring it ure

Find the gaps between current Analy You understand the


problem now
and final states ze

Impro You have the solution


e iz

Find root causes and develop to the problem


solution ve
t im
Op

Communicate, standardize and


document the improvement
Contr You have ensured sustained
improvement
ol
Where to apply..

... Can Be Applied To Every Business Function


Marketing Engineering

HR Purchasing

6 Sigma
Methods

Finance Manufacturing

Software
Example - Pizza Delivery Service

Dabbawala and Co. a fast food company, owned by Mr.


Dabbawala Pizza runs a pizza delivery service in and around
Delhi. Dabbawala and Co. which was doing very well over the
last four years, notices a drop in sales over the past five
months. Customer complaints about deliveries have been
gradually on the rise. Several complaints from customers
regarding irregular deliveries were bothering Dabbawala. He
had increased the number of delivery personnel to improve
delivery performance. But his customers were still leaving
him.

Pizza Hut, a multinational fast food chain, had set up shop in


downtown and was becoming more popular with the
customers. Dabbawala neither had the financial muscle to
match Pizza Huts advertising blitz nor could afford the
expensive packaging to lure his customers back.
The Define Phase
Grow
Divisional directive revenu
es
1. How does the customer
view Dabbawalas Quality?
Impr
ove Plant objectives
Sales 2. Who are the stakeholders -
Customer and Process
Improvement Team?
Get
Functional goals more
orders
3. Which of his processes
should he try to improve in
So order to improve Sales?
whats Employees
new
The Define Phase - Step A

A. IDENTIFY PROJECT CTQs:

A requirement of the customer is that the Pizza should be


delivered on time. Thus for the customer, Delivery is Critical to the
Quality of Dabbawalas service (CTQ).

Voice of Customer (VOC)


Affinity Diagram
CTQ Tree.
The Define Phase - Step B

B. DEVELOP TEAM CHARTER:

The Business Case


Why should the project be done

Problem and Goal Statement


Description of the problem/opportunity

Roles and Responsibilities


The team, expectations and responsibilities

Stakeholder Analysis, TMAP, Gantt Chart


The Define Phase - Step C

C. DEFINE PROJECT SCOPE:

Identify the high level process to be improved


Define boundaries of project

SIPOC
Stratification Analysis
Contract Sheet
The 7 Basic Tools - 1

STRATIFICATION ANALYSIS:
Stratification analysis (Is / Is Not Matrix) is helpful in defining the
conditions surrounding the problem - bounding or scoping

Is Is Not Distinctions
West and North
South, East and West and North
Geography Delhi are sub-
Central Delhi Delhi
contracted
Mixups, Hygiene,
Output Delivery time
Temperature
Premium service
Lower and Middle
Customer Higher Income for higher
Income
income group
Increased
Time After Aug 09 Before Aug 09 employees in
Aug 09
The Define Phase - Summary

The Define phase is owned Grow


by the Project Sponsor. The Divisional directive revenu
es
three steps of the Define
phase are: Widen
Custo
1. Identify Project CTQ mer Plant objectives
Base
2. Develop Team Charter
3. Define Project Scope
Improve
Delivery
Functional goals process
VOC, Affinity
Diagram, CTQ
Tree, Gantt Chart, SIPOC, Reduce
Stakeholder Analysis, TMAP, variation
in Employees
Stratification Analysis delivery
time
The Measure Phase - Step 1

1. IDENTIFY CTQ CHARACTERISTICS

Translate the CTQ to a measurable output of the delivery


process

Delivery time can be measured in many ways:

1. No. of times the delivery person delivered during the


shipping window (Discrete measure)
2. Time taken to travel from Dabbawalas location to customer
location (Continuous measure)
3. Actual delivery time as seen by customer (Continuous
measure)

Delivery time is the Project Y.


The Measure Phase - Step 2

2. DEFINE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS:

What are the customers requirements on Delivery time?


What is the definition of a defect?

1. Capture the Target (mean) delivery time - On time


2. Get the allowable variation on Y - +/- 30 minutes

Loss (Deviation)2

Loss
VOC
Competitive Benchmarking

Target Y
The Measure Phase - Step 2
The customer
tolerance
window is 30
minutes on
LSL either side USL

Customer Customer
does not want does not want
earlier than This is the later than this
this target
delivery time

45 30 15 0 15 30 45
EARLY DELIVERY (MINUTES) LATE DELIVERY

Visualize
Visualizecustomer
customerrequirements
requirements
The Measure Phase - Step 2

Preparation for data collection:

1. The Y or the Delivery Process Output


2. The Xs or the Inputs to the Delivery Process

Generate a list of Xs
Brainstorming
Process Map (PMAP)
Failure Modes Effects Analysis (FMEA)
Cause & Effect Diagram or Fishbone
Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
Prioritization Matrix
Check-sheet
The 7 Basic Tools - 2
CHECK-SHEET (DATA COLLECTION FORM)

Check-sheet is a data collection sheet used to record occurrences of


an event to look for patterns in the data in order to quantify the
problem and to facilitate understanding.

NO. OF LATE DELIVERIES


Categories Jan 6 Jan 7 Jan 8 Jan 9 Total
Misinterpreted llll llll llll llll llll l llll llll llll lll 47
Label llll
Traffic llll lll llll llll llll ll 24
Parking lll llll ll ll llll l 18

Large Order llll lll llll ll 15


Locating home ll l l lll 7

Others l ll l 4

Prepare
Prepareto
tocollect
collectdata
data on
on the
theXs
Xsalso
also!!
The Measure Phase - Step 3

3. EVALUATE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM:

Measurement system may


introduce variation into data

Actual process variation +


measurement variation =
data

Identify and remove


contribution to variation from
measurement system CAUTION: Objects in mirror
are closer than they appear
Ensure reliable data
MSE, Gage R&R, Test Re-
test, Kappa Method, Intra-
Class Correlation
The Measure Phase - Summary

A data collection plan is done in the Measure phase. It sets the


expectations for the project. This phase is owned by the Project
Leader. The three steps of the Measure phase are:

1. Identify CTQ characteristic


2. Define Performance Standards
3. Evaluate Measurement System

The list of tools available for the Measure phase are:

Brainstorming, PMAP, FMEA, MSE, GR&R, C&E


Diagram or Fishbone, Quality Function
Deployment or QFD, Prioritization Matrix,

Learn more about the PMAP, FMEA and MSE in the Six Sigma
Green Belt Training.
The Analyze Phase - Step 1

4. ESTABLISH PROCESS CAPABILITY

What are the chances of your process creating defects?


Baseline the current process:
Measure variation in current process output
Evaluate against Performance Standards

Understand variation in your data with the help of:


Histogram
Box and Whisker plot
Dot plot
Standard Deviation
Variance
Sum of Squares
The 7 Basic Tools - 3

HISTOGRAM

The Histogram is a graphical data summary tool which groups


observed data into pre-defined bins in order to analyze the data
values and distribution.

Target time Delivery time Target time Delivery time Target time Delivery time
hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs
12:30 12:18 13:00 12:38 13:30 13:45
12:30 12:26 13:00 13:09 13:30 13:21
13:30 13:34 13:00 12:49 12:00 12:17
13:30 13:42 13:00 13:05 12:00 11:58
13:00 13:07 13:30 13:31 12:00 12:17
13:00 13:06 12:00 12:04 12:00 11:46
13:30 13:23 12:00 12:08 12:00 11:53
13:30 13:41 12:00 12:10 12:30 12:33
12:30 12:26 13:00 13:18 12:30 12:30
12:30 12:37 13:00 13:01 13:30 13:28
The 7 Basic Tools - 3

CREATING A HISTOGRAM:

Using the concept of the late and early deliveries, take the target
time as the reference, and find the number of minutes by which
each delivery is late or early.

1. Subtract Target time for each


data point from the Delivery time
2. Define 5 predetermined bins
(class intervals) of size equal to
10 minutes, from -25 to 25 on a
horizontal line
3. Place each data point vertically
in a bin according to its value
4. Draw a bar equal to the height
-25 -15 -5 5 15 25
of stacked up points
The Analyze Phase - Step 1

NUMBER OF DATA POINTS
Dabbawala has an
average delivery time ()
2 minutes late and a
standard deviation () of
10 minutes

45 30 15 0 15 30 45
EARLY DELIVERY (MINUTES) LATE DELIVERY

Measure
Measurethe
theprocess
process output
output
The Analyze Phase - Step 1
Customer tolerance
Z= Process standard deviation

LSL USL

30 minutes
Z= 10 minutes
Z=3

45 30 15 0 15 30 45
EARLY DELIVERY (MINUTES) LATE DELIVERY
Measure
Measurethe
theProcess
ProcessOutput
Output
The Analyze Phase - Step 1

Defects per
Process Million It is cost
Capability Opportunities effective to

2 308,537
Inspect in
Quality
3 66,807

4 6,210 Manufacture in
Quality
5 233
Design in
6 3.4 Quality

Higher
HigherZZ implies
implies lower
lower defects
defects
Getting the Competitive Edge

Sweet Fruit
Design for Processability

5 Wall, Improve Designs

Bulk of Fruit
Process Characterization
and Optimization

4 Wall, Improve Processes

Low Hanging Fruit


Seven Basic Tools

3 Wall, Beat Up Suppliers

Ground Fruit
Logic and Intuition

Mikel Harry, 1994


Industry Benchmarks

Do you know the Sigma capabilities of the following processes?

Sigma capability, Z
U.S. Manufacturing industry average 4.0

Japanese manufacturing industry average 5.5

Flight fatality in airline industry 6.4

Airline Baggage handling 3.2

Doctor prescription writing 2.8

Tax advice by Internal Revenue Service in U.S. 2.5

Six
SixSigma
Sigmais
isaaMetric
Metric
The Analyze Phase - Step 2

5. DEFINE PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES


Process Off Target Excessive Variation in Process
Target Target

LSL USL LSL USL

Center Reduc
Proces Target e
s Spread

Hypothesis testing
LSL USL

Understand
Understandyour
your Problem
Problem
Quiz - Characterize
Six Sigma is a What is the Y?
A. Statistical Quality Tool A. Measurable Process Output
B. Business Philosophy B. Voice of the Customer
C. U.S. Management style C. Process Input

The goal of Six Sigma is to Who gives the USL and LSL?
A. Reduce defects to 3.4 per million A. Management
B. Improve products B. Customer
C. Reduce variation C. Derived from the process data
In the Pizza Delivery Service example, In the example, the Voice of the
what is the CTQ? Customer is characterized by
A. Lunch A. Delivery time
B. Time B. No. of deliveries made
C. Delivery C. Tolerance around the Target
If a process is Six Sigma (Z=6), it implies In the example, the delivery service is
A. Process is 99.99% good characterized by
B. Products are 99.99% defect free A. Mean delivery time
C. There are only 3.4 defects in a million B. Tolerance around the Target
opportunities C. Mean & variation of the delivery time
The Analyze Phase - Step 3

6. IDENTIFY SOURCES OF VARIATION


To find root causes or Xs

Fishbone or C&E Diagram (Ishikawa)


PMAP
FMEA
QFD

Fishbone (Ishikawa) is another of the 7 basic tools. It is also known


as the Cause & Effect Diagram. It is a hierarchy of causes that starts
with the primary cause and then steps several layers in detail to drive
towards possible root causes.
The 7 Basic Tools - 4
FISHBONE
MACHINE MOTHER NATURE MATERIALS
Too much traffic Sacks
Run out of storage
too small
Unreliable bikes Weather space on vehicles
Bus service Large items
unreliable in difficult to carry Too few delivery
No money for in bus /bikes
peak hours persons
repairs
Parking space Too many Too many orders
Delivery persons own junk sacks per person
problem
Delivery
Delivery person Dont know Cant locate Time
does not show up routes employees homes
High turnover Poor handling of large orders
Not on std routes
No training Too few
Delivery person gets lost
delivery
Did not Poor persons
No understand dispatching Uneven distribution
teamwork labels of delivery loads
Get wrong
information Did not
understand METHODS
MAN MEASUREMENT labels

Develop
Develop aalist
listof
ofXs
Xsthat
that possibly
possiblyaffect
affectYY
The Improve Phase - Step 1

7. SCREEN POTENTIAL CAUSES

To find the Vital Few Xs and separate it from the Trivial Many
Pareto
ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)
Regression
Chi-Square tests

Systematic data generation (if historical data is not sufficient)


Design of Experiments (DOE)

Statistical
StatisticalAnalysis
Analysisto
toidentify
identifyVital
Vital Few
Few Xs
Xs
The 7 Basic Tools -5

PARETO
This is also called the Pareto Principle or the 80/20 rule and is used
to identify the Vital Few Xs.

Others

Location
Order Size
Parking

Traffic
Label

Cut-off level to be decided by team consensus based on


Process knowledge
Resource availability
The Improve Phase - Step 2

8. DISCOVER CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS

To find out effect of Xs on the Y

Regression
Scatter Diagram X2
X1
The 7 Basic Tools - 6
SCATTER DIAGRAM
A Scatter Diagram is a graph that shows the relationship between
two numerical variables, X and Y

DELIVERY TIME SPAN


It is used to look for a cause
and effect relationship
between the two Numerical
variables.

NO. OF PIZZAS / DELIVERY PERSON

In this example, the Scatter Diagram shows that the Delivery time is
less if the number of lunches per delivery person is less.
The Improve Phase - Step 3

9. ESTABLISH OPERATING TOLERANCES

y = f ( x)
USL
DELIVERY TIME

LSL

x
xL xT xU
NO. OF PIZZAS PER DELIVERY PERSON
The Control Phase - Step 1

10. VALIDATE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ON X

Ensure noise from LSL USL


measurement system
on X is small process
compared to process
variation

MSE, GR&R measurement Measure


Test - Retest,
Kappa Method,
Intra Class Correlation
Tolerance
The Control Phase - Step 2
11. ESTABLISH NEW PROCESS CAPABILITY

LSL USL

Z = 4.5

45 30 15 0 15 30 45
EARLY DELIVERY (MINUTES) LATE DELIVERY
The Control Phase - Step 3

12. IMPLEMENT PROCESS CONTROL

A good Control Plan should be put in place to ensure sustained


improvement. This may include:

1. Use of Control Charts to monitor Xs


2. Documentation of Control Plan
3. Update of process documents such as PFMEA
4. Error Proofing
5. Standardization
The 7 Basic Tools - 7

RUN CHART

A Run Chart is a time series plot of data that allows a team to study
observed data for trends or patterns over a specific period of time. It
captures instances when the process is changing more than
statistically expected

30
No. lunches/person

20

10

0
The DMAIC Steps and Deliverables
STEP DELIVERABLES
A. Identify project CTQs Identify customers, customer CTQs and Business Case
B. Develop Team Charter
C. Define Project Scope D
Problem statement, Project Scope,Team, Milestones
High Level Process Map connecting customers to process

1. Select CTQ characteristic


2. Define performance standards M
Identify measurable characteristic of CTQ (Y)
Confirm specification limits (requirements) for Y

A
3. Evaluate Measurement System Ensure measurement system is capable

4. Establish process capability Baseline the current process

I
5. Define performance objectives Understand statistical objective - reduce variation or shift means?
6. Identify sources of variation List significant causes (Xs) or factors

C
7. Screen potential causes Determine vital few Xs, which will be controlled
8.Discover variable relationship Find causal relationship and optimal solution
9. Establish operating tolerances Validate the relation and determine specs on Xs

10. Measurement System Evaluation on Xs Ensure X measurement is capable


11. Establish process capability Establish improved capability
12. Implement process control Document control plan

Its
Itsaacommon
commonsense
senseapproach
approach
Attributes of a Six Sigma GB project

1. Customer Focused: A Six Sigma GB project should address a


customer CTQ

2. Data Driven: In a Six Sigma GB project, decisions should be


made using data analysis and not on gut feelings or intuitions

3. Variation reduction: Six Sigma GB projects address the issue


of variation in process outputs and is aimed at reducing variation
Quiz
Characterize part consists of The Pareto principle is
A. Define and Measure A. Also called the 80/20 rule
B. Define, Measure and Analyze B. Used to identify the Vital Few
C. Define, Measure and part of Analyze C. Useful in the Analyze phase

Optimize part consists of Which of the following tools is used to


A. Analyze, Improve and Control generate data?
B. Improve and Control A. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
C. part of Analyze, Improve and Control B. DOE
C. Regression
In Six Sigma, Xs are
A. Unknown variables Which of the following cannot identify the
B. Excess variation Vital Few Xs?
C. Process Inputs A. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
B. DOE
Which of the following is used to list Xs? C. Regression
A. DOE
B. Fishbone A Six Sigma GB project has to
C. Pareto A. Finish in 3 months
B. Show dollar savings
C. Address the variation issue
SECTION B

SIX SIGMA
ROLES & RESPONSIBILITIES
Roles and Responsibilities
Executive Champion
Responsible for providing resources to BB/GBs
Help in team selection
Track progress of project
Generally is supervisor of BB/GB. May help in selection of the project
Sponsor
Call for need of project (Project identification)
Beneficiary of the project
Validate current status and status after completion of project
Allocates resources for the project
Ensure compliance to controls established as a result of the project
Project Leader (Black Belt / Green Belt)
Lead the project
Ask for resources required
Call meeting of stakeholders and seek help from EC when stakeholders are
not responding
Ensure team involvement and sponsors buy in for solution
Publish weekly progress report & call for help when required
Roles and Responsibilities

Deployment Champion
Mentor and guide BBs/GBs
Provide technical help when BBs/GBs reach a roadblock
Publish Summary report of all projects
Raise alarm when things are not moving
MBB
Train BB/GB
Assess the skills of BB/GB
Certification of GBs and BBs after completion of projects
Deployment of Global policies and procedures
CFO/Finance
Assess the saving potential at start of project
Validate savings against the targets achieved at completion of project
Roles and Responsibilities

Yellow Belt (YB): Should understand the DMAIC process and


use the Six Sigma philosophy (Stakeholder involvement).

Green Belt (GB):Should be able to use DMAIC process with


basic Six Sigma tools for project execution. Lead Six Sigma
projects in their functions.

Black Belt (BB): Should be able to use advanced tools in


projects and teach Green Belt level techniques / tools.
Identifies Six Sigma projects and leads project teams.
Mentors Green Belts. Process experts in their functions.

Master Black Belt (MBB): Should be able to train Black


Belts and Green Belts. Mentors Black Belt projects. Drivers
of cultural change. Process experts in any function. Can
develop new tools.
The GB Certification Map
Basic statistics training (not mandatory for Certification)
Six Sigma GB Training
Project Application
Achieved a
Six Sigma

score of 5 or Technical
greater in all
Certification A
tool sets? Yes
10 weeks (3 - 5 day training) Based on demonstration of the Six
Sigma tools.
3 months avg. Occurs during project
No reviews and
on-site visits
Improve Tools and Instructor or MBB is
responsible
Application to Project
for technical certification.
Evaluation form sent to GB
and
Project Completed Champion after each session.
and Final Report
A Submitted and Six Sigma Green Belt and
Approved by
Yes I & CIM Associate Certification
Sponsor and
Finance

No

Complete Project and


Submit Final Report
Summary

Knowing Customer CTQs


Data driven improvements
Focus on the (Xs) of the process
Application of statistical tools to business problems
Understanding process capability and its impact on quality
An environment that demands only the highest performance
standards.

Success will be defined when our customers notice !


Thank You

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