You are on page 1of 45


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Hainan (disambiguation).

Hainan Province


Name transcription(s)

Chinese (Hinn Shng)

Abbreviation simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: (pinyin:

Qing, POJ: khng, Jyutping: king4)


Yue Jyutping Hoi2 Naam4 Saang2

Map showing the location of Hainan Province

Map showing the location of Hainan Province

Coordinates: 1912N 10942ECoordinates: 1912N 10942E

Named for hi sea

nn south

"South of the Sea [Qiongzhou Strait]"


(and largest city) Haikou

Divisions 4 prefectures, 20 counties, 218 townships


Secretary Liu Cigui

Governor Shen Xiaoming

Total 35,400 km2 (13,700 sq mi)

Area rank 28th

Population (2015)[2]

Total 9,110,000

Rank 28th

Density 260/km2 (670/sq mi)

Density rank 17th


Ethnic composition Han 82.6%

Li 15.84%

Miao 0.82%

Zhuang 0.67%

Languages and dialectsHainanese, Yue, Hlai

ISO 3166 code CN-46

GDP (2016) CNY 0.4 trillion

USD 61 billion (28th)

per capita CNY 44,405

USD 6,687 (18th)

HDI (2014) 0.738[3] (high) (19th)



Native name:

Hainan tmo 07feb05 250m.jpg


Location East Asia

Area 33,210 km2 (12,820 sq mi)

Area rank 42nd

Length 156 km (96.9 mi)

Width 170 km (106 mi)

Highest elevation 1,840 m (6,040 ft)

Highest point Wuzhi Mountain


People's Republic of China

Province Hainan

Largest settlement Haikou (pop. 2,046,189)


Population approx. 8,180,000

Ethnic groups Han, Li, Miao, Zhuang


Hainan (Chinese characters).svg

"Hainan" in Chinese characters


Literal meaning South of the Sea


Hainan Island

Hainan 1820-1875.jpg

A 19th-century map of Hainan Island

Simplified Chinese

Literal meaning Island South of the Sea


Former names


Literal meaning Pearl Cliffs



Traditional Chinese

Simplified Chinese

Literal meaning Jade Cliffs



Traditional Chinese

Simplified Chinese

Literal meaning Jade Prefecture


Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of

China, consisting of various islands in the South China Sea. Hainan Island,
separated from Guangdong's Leizhou Peninsula by the Qiongzhou Strait, is
the largest island under PRC control (Taiwan, which is slightly larger, is also
claimed but not controlled by the PRC) and makes up the majority of the
province. The province has an area of 33,920 square kilometers (13,100 sq
mi), with Hainan Island making up 32,900 square kilometers (12,700 sq mi)
(97%) and the rest divided among two hundred islands scattered across three
archipelagos. It was administered as part of Guangdong until 1988, when it
became a separate province; around the same time, it was made the largest
Special Economic Zone established by Deng Xiaoping as part of the Opening
Up of China. There are a total of ten major cities and ten counties in Hainan
Province. Haikou on the northern coast of Hainan Island is the capital while
Sanya is a well-known tourist destination on the southern coast. The other
major cities are Wenchang, Qionghai, Wanning, Wuzhishan, Dongfang, and

China's controversial claims in the South China Sea, including the Nansha and
Xisha Islands,[4] are notionally administered as part of the province.

Contents [hide]
1 Names

2 History

2.1 Prehistoric Era

2.2 Imperial Era

2.3 Republic of China rule

2.4 People's Republic of China rule

3 Geography

3.1 Rivers and lakes

3.2 Islands

3.2.1 Nearby islands

3.2.2 Disputed islands

3.3 Environment

3.3.1 Province-wide infrastructure improvements

3.4 Climate

3.4.1 Annual fog

4 Flora and fauna

4.1 Flora

4.2 Fauna

5 Demographics

5.1 Religion

5.2 Languages

6 Government

6.1 Politics

6.2 Intelligence

6.3 Administrative

6.4 Subdivisions
6.5 Military

7 Economy

7.1 Economic and technological development zones

7.2 Duty-free program

7.3 Natural resources

7.4 Agriculture

7.5 Fisheries

7.6 Real estate market

7.7 Golf industry

7.8 Medical tourism

7.9 Automotive industry

8 Transportation

8.1 Road

8.2 Air

8.3 Rail

8.4 Seaports

9 Education

10 Culture

11 Media

12 Cuisine

13 Tourism

13.1 Statistics

13.2 Historical sites

13.3 Other attractions and destinations


13.4 Tax refund

14 Events

15 Miscellaneous topics

15.1 Space centre

16 Notable residents

17 International partnership

18 See also

19 References

20 Further reading

21 External links


The provincial name derives from its major island, Hainan, which is named for
its position south of the Qiongzhou Strait. (To the north of the strait, the
Leizhou Peninsula in Guangdong is also known as Haibei or "North of the
Sea".) Former names for Hainan Island include Zhuya, Qiongya, and
Qiongzhou. The later two gave rise to the provincial abbreviation or


Prehistoric Era[edit]

Hainan island was originally attached to the Northeastern part of what is now
Vietnam, however the island was formed after it physically broke away from
Vietnam due to volcano eruption and drifted southeast near China after the
Mesozoic period, millions of years ago.[5]

Imperial Era[edit]

Hainan Island first entered written history in 110 BC, when the Han dynasty of
China established a military garrison there following the arrival of General Lu
Bode. In 46 BC the Han court decided that the conquest was too expensive
and abandoned the island. Around that time, Han Chinese people together
with military personnel and officials began to migrate to Hainan Island from
the mainland. Among them were the offspring of those who were banished to
Hainan for political reasons. Most of them arrived in Hainan Island from the
southern Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Fujian and Guangxi.

Li people are the original inhabitants of Hainan. They are believed to be the
descendants of the ancient tribes from the mainland, who settled on the
island between 7 and 27 thousand years ago.[6]

The Li people mainly reside in the nine cities and counties in the middle and
southern part of Hainan the cities of Sanya, Wuzhishan and Dongfang, the Li
autonomous counties of Baisha, Lingshui, Ledong, Changjiang, and the 'Li and
Miao Autonomous Counties of Qiongzhong and Baoting'. Some others live
elsewhere on Hainan with other ethnic groups in Danzhou, Wanning,
Qionghai, Lingshui and Tunchang.

The area inhabited by the Li ethnic group totals 18,700 square kilometers
(7,200 sq mi), about 55 percent of the province's total.[7]

Haikou, the capital of the province as seen looking south from Evergreen
Park, a large park located on the north shore of the city

During the Three Kingdoms Period (184280), Hainan was the Zhuya
Commandery () under the control of Eastern Wu.

At the time of the Song dynasty (9801279), Hainan became part of

Guangxi, and for the first time large numbers of Han Chinese arrived, settling
mostly in the north. Under the Mongol Empire (12061368) the island became
an independent province then in 1370 was placed under the administration of
Guangdong by the ruling Ming dynasty. In the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries, large numbers of Han people from Fujian and Guangdong began
migrating to Hainan, pushing the Li into the highlands in the southern half of
the island. In the eighteenth century, the Li rebelled against the Qing Empire,
which responded by bringing in mercenaries from the Miao regions of
Guizhou. Many of the Miao settled on the island and their descendants live in
the western highlands to this day.

During the 17th and 18th centuries, explorers referred to the island as
"Aynam",[8][9] which remains the pronunciation of its name in the local
Hainanese dialect.

In 1906, the revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen proposed that Hainan should
become a separate province although this did not happen until 1988.

Republic of China rule[edit]

Hainan was historically part of Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces and as

such was the Qiongya Circuit () under the 1912 establishment of the
Republic of China. In 1921, it was planned to become a special administrative
region (); in 1944, it became Hainan Special Administrative
Region with 16 counties containing the South China Sea Islands.
Hainanese residents in the countryside

During the 1920s and 30s, Hainan was a hotbed of Communist activity,
especially after a bloody crackdown in Shanghai, the Republic of China in
1927 drove many Communists into hiding. The Communists and the Li
natives fought a vigorous guerrilla campaign against the Japanese occupation
of Hainan (193945), but in retaliation over one third of the male population
were killed by the Japanese with the Li ethnic minority suffering greatly. Feng
Baiju led the Hainan Independent Column of fighters throughout the 1930s
and 1940s. After the Japanese surrender in 1945 the Nationalist Party (KMT)
re-established control. Hainan was one of the last areas of China controlled by
the Republic of China.

People's Republic of China rule[edit]

From March to May 1950, the Landing Operation on Hainan Island captured
the island for the Chinese communists. Hainan had been left to the command
of Xue Yue after Chiang Kai-shek fled to Taiwan. Feng Baiju and his column of
guerrilla fighters played an essential role in scouting for the landing operation
and coordinated their own offensive from their jungle bases on the island.
This allowed the Hainan takeover to be successful where the Jinmen and
Dengbu assaults had failed in the previous fall. The takeover was made
possible by the presence of a local guerrilla force that was lacking also on
Taiwan. Hence, while many observers of the Chinese civil war thought that
the fall of Hainan Island to the Communists would be followed shortly by the
fall of Taiwan Island, the lack of any communist guerrilla force on Taiwan
Island and its sheer distance from the mainland made this impossible, as did
the arrival of the US 7th fleet in the Taiwan Strait after the outbreak of the
Korean War in June.

The capital city of Haikou, although highly populated relative to many other
international cities, is geographically quite small, with almost no urban
sprawl. Much of the city limits end abruptly with forest or farm land.

On 1 May 1950, under the PRC, the Special Administrative Region became an
Administrative Region Office (), a branch of the Guangdong
provincial government.

The Communists resumed development of the island along the lines

established by the Japanese, but the results were limited by the island's
isolation, its humid and typhoon-prone climate, and its continuing reputation
as a place of danger and exile by mainland Chinese. With China's shift in
economic policy at the end of the 1970s, Hainan became a focus of attention.

During the mid-1980s, when Hainan Island was still part of Guangdong
Province, a fourteen-month episode of marketing zeal by Hainan Special
District Administrator Lei Yu[10] put Hainan's pursuit of provincial status
under a cloud. It involved the duty-free imports from Hong Kong of 90,000
Japanese-made cars and trucks at a cost of 4.5 billion (US$1.5 billion), and
exporting them with the help of local naval units to the mainland, making
150% profits. By comparison, only 10,000 vehicles were imported into Hainan
since 1950. In addition, it involved further consignments of 2.9 million TV
sets, 252,000 videocassette recorders & 122,000 motorcycles. The money
was taken from the 1983 central government funds destined for the
construction of the island's transportation infrastructure (roads, railways,
airports, harbours) over the next ten years.[citation needed]

On October 1, 1984, it became the Hainan Administrative Region (),

with a People's Government, and finally as province separate from
Guangdong four years later. In 1988, when the island was made a separate
province, it was designated a Special Economic Zone in an effort to increase

The central government funds were deemed insufficient by the Hainan

authorities for the construction of the island's other infrastructures (water
works, power stations, telecommunications, etc.) and had taken a very liberal
interpretation of the economic and trade regulations for Hainan and thirteen
coastal cities; the regulations did not mention on prohibiting the re-selling of
second-hand goods. Some of the proceeds, from unsold units, were later
retrieved by the central government to re-finance the special district.


Topographical map

Hainan, separated by the Qiongzhou Strait from the Leizhou Peninsula of

Guangdong, is the largest island administered by the People's Republic of
China. The area of Hainan Island (32,900 km2 (12,700 sq mi), 97% of the
province) is similar to that of Belgium. To the west of Hainan Island is the Gulf
of Tonkin. Wuzhi Mountain (1,840 m) is the highest mountain on the island.

Hainan Island measures 155 km (96 mi) long and 169 km (105 mi) wide.

Wetland covers 320,000 hectares, 78,000 hectares of which were created

artificially. Most of this is located in the eastern and northern part of Hainan.
Rivers and lakes[edit]

Most of the rivers in Hainan originate in the central area of the island and
flow radially in different directions. The Wanning River in the southern part of
the island is the largest river surrounding Hainan. It is 350 km (220 mi) long.
The Nandu River in the northern part of the island is 314 km (195 mi) long,
and its tributary, the Xinwu River, is 109 km (68 mi) long. The Changhua
River in the west is 230 km (140 mi) long, and the Wanquan River in the east
is 162 km (101 mi) long. Evaporation during the dry season around the
coastal areas greatly reduces the flow of the rivers.

There are very few natural lakes in Hainan. There is a well-known artificial
reservoir, the Songtao Reservoir, in the central-north area.


Further information: Islands of Hainan

Nearby islands[edit]

Several small islands exist around the coast of Hainan Island:

Dazhou Island is located about 5 km (3.1 mi) off the coast of Wanning

Haidian Island, on the north coast, is part of Haikou City

Nanwan Monkey Island, in actuality a peninsula

Phoenix Island is an artificial resort island currently under construction in

Sanya Bay.

Wuzhizhou Island is located within Haitang Bay

Xinbu Island is located directly to the east of Haidian Island

Due to their close proximity to the main island, the flora, fauna, and climate
conditions are very similar.

Disputed islands[edit]

See also: South China Sea Islands

Maritime claims of South China Sea

A number of small islands, which are located hundreds of kilometers to the

south, are claimed and administrated by Sansha as part of Hainan Province.
[12] Sovereignty of these islands is however disputed. These islands include:
Paracel Islands Xisha Islands "The West-sands" claimed by Vietnam, the
PRC and the Republic of China (Taiwan, ROC)

Money Island, Paracel Islands

Rocky Island, South China Sea

Tree Island, South China Sea

Triton Island

Woody Island, South China Sea

Zhongsha Islands "The Middle-sands"

Spratly Islands Nansha Islands "The South-sands" are subject to claims by

Vietnam, the PRC, ROC, Malaysia, The Philippines, and Brunei.

Spratly Island

Flat Island (Spratly)

Taiping Island

James Shoal (southernmost point)

Loaita Island

Namyit Island

Nanshan Island

Sin Cowe Island

Thitu Island

West York Island


Compared to most of mainland China, the air quality of Hainan is far

higher[why?]. Throughout 2012, Hainan had the highest air quality in the
country for 351 days.[13]

The provincial government's environmental protection campaign has taken

action against a number of industrial plants. During 2012, several outdated
manufacturing facilities had their business licenses revoked, and 175 cases
related to illegal sewage discharge were handled.[13]

Total sulfur dioxide emissions for the province were 34,000 tons in 2012, a 3
percent year-on-year reduction. In 2011, smog emissions were reduced 6.3
percent to 15,000 tons.[13]

Province-wide infrastructure improvements[edit]



A typical example of a town's improvement. The above images show the

same place in Guilinyang roughly four and a half years apart.

From 2015 to the present, a widespread program to improve cities and other
settlements has been taking place. It includes the removal of litter from
towns, villages, and many roadsides. Small, illegal dumps are being removed.
Large, plastic dumpsters have been put in place within villages and at
countryside road intersections. Towns are being improved with new road and
sidewalk surfaces, landscaping features are being created, and many
buildings are receiving new faades. This initiative in Haikou has seen entire
neighbourhoods demolished and rebuilt, sanitation improved, illegal
structures used for business removed, roadside vendors banned, roads and
sidewalks replaced, and new street crossings with traffic lights installed.


The climate of Hainan varies from subtropical to fully tropical. Northern

Hainan, including the island's capital Haikou, has a humid subtropical climate,
while most of the rest of the island has a tropical monsoon climate with
warmer annual temperatures the further south a location is. The coldest
months are January and February when temperatures drop to 16 to 21 C (61
to 70 F); the hottest months are July and August, and the temperatures are
25 to 29 C (77 to 84 F). Except for the mountainous regions in the central
part of the island, the daily average temperature in Hainan in all months is
well above 10 C (50 F), and the total number of growing degree-days
reaches eight thousand to nine thousand degrees Celsius.[citation needed]
The summer in the north is hot and, for more than 20 days in a year, the
temperature can be higher than 35 C (95 F)[citation needed]. The average
annual precipitation is 1,500 to 2,000 millimetres (59 to 79 in) and can be as
high as 2,400 millimetres (94 in) in central and eastern areas, and as low as
900 millimetres (35 in) in the coastal areas of the southwest. Parts of Hainan
lie in the path of typhoons, and 70% of the annual precipitation is derived
from typhoons and the summer rainy season. Major flooding occurs due to
typhoons, which can cause many problems for local residents.
Annual fog[edit]

From January to February, the island of Hainan is affected by thick fog,

particularly in coastal areas and the northern part of the island. This is caused
by cold winter air from the north coming into contact with the warmer sea,
causing the moisture that evaporates from the sea to be condensed into fog.
The fog remains from day to night, and is evenly distributed. Visibility may be
reduced to 50 metres for days at a time. During this period, residents
normally keep windows shut. The moisture in the air is so extreme that the
walls in homes weep, and floors often accumulate a layer of water several
millimetres deep.[citation needed]

Flora and fauna[edit]

This view in Wanning near the southeast coast is typical of the inland

Hainan has over 1,500 km2 (580 sq mi) of tropical forest, in which live 4,600
kinds of plants and more than 570 species of animals.[citation needed]
However, due to an invasion of exotic species, human impact from tourism,
deforestation, and the release of pollutants, many species are under threat. A
report from the Department of Land, Environment and Resources of Hainan
Province states that 200 species are near extinction, with 6 species, such as
Maytenus hainanensis and Sciaphila tenella already extinct.[14]


The majority of Hainan's land mass is forest with 61.5 percent coverage
(210,000 hectares) reported at the end of 2012. This is an increase of 34,133
hectares since 2011. A further 1,187 hectares grass and trees were planted
along the province's highways.[13]

Hainan yellow lantern chili

There are 53 genera in 29 families of wild and cultivated fruit growing on

Hainan Island.[15] There are few large trees on the island; coconut palms are
very common along with other smaller trees. Most of Hainan Island is
however covered by forest.

Hainan yellow lantern chili is a pepper similar to the scotch bonnet.

Hainan white pine, a species of tree.

Cephalotaxus hainanensis is a species of plum-yew.


There are numerous protected areas and wildlife preserves on the island.
Animals that are ubiquitous throughout the island include frogs, toads,
geckos, skinks, and butterflies. Present, but less commonly observed, are
snakes (Asian palm pit vipers and red bamboo snake), Siberian chipmunks,
squirrels, and the masked palm civet. Almost no large animals remain in the
wild. The lakes are largely populated with carp and catfish.

There are 362 known bird species.[14] Seabirds such as gulls are not
generally seen. Egrets are common in agricultural areas. Similar to many
subtropical areas, insect species are diverse, and mosquitoes are very

Hainan gymnure (Neohylomys hainanensis or Hainan moonrat) is a small


Hainan partridge (Arborophila ardens) is a species of bird endemic to Hainan


Hainan peacock-pheasant (Polyplectron katsumatae) is an endangered

species belonging to the Phasianidae family.

Hainan black crested gibbon (Nomascus hainanus) is one of the world's most
endangered primates. Seacology, a non-profit organization in Berkeley,
California, United States, initiated a project to protect the highly endangered
Hainan gibbon in exchange for scholarships for the children of four villages
near Bawangling Reserve.

Hainan hare (Lepus hainanus) is a species of hare endemic to Hainan.

A subspecies of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis alleni) is endemic to


Hainan leaf-warbler (Phylloscopus hainanus) is an Old World warbler in the

Phylloscopidae family.

In the ocean, sea turtles and whale sharks are known to migrate in these

Hainan island has rich bio-diversity of cetaceans and is the site of studying
these in Chinese waters.[16] Many whales such as North Pacific right whales,
western gray whales, humpback whales, and blue whales (all of these are
almost extinct in Chinese waters)[17] were historically seen in the winter and
spring to mate and calve. These gentle giants of the sea had been hunted
heavily and were wiped out by Japanese whalers (established whaling
stations on various sites on Chinese and Korean coasts including Hainan and
Daya Bay). A few Bryde's whales and minke whales may still occur in the
adjacent waters along with on Leizhou Peninsula and the Gulf of Tonkin.[18]
[19] Smaller species of whale and dolphins, such as short-finned pilot
whales[20] and pantropical spotted dolphins,[21] but most notably the
endangered Chinese white dolphin. Declared sanctuary for the species
extends along the coasts. These dolphins may appear among clearer waters
such as vicinity to Sanya.[22]

Dugongs still occur in small number, mostly on Gulf of Tonkin side.


Historical ethnolinguistic groups on Hainan, 1967 map

(Link to entire map including key).

The population density of Hainan is low compared to most Chinese coastal


In 2000, the ethnic groups of Hainan included the Han Chinese, known as the
Hainanese people, who are the majority (84% of the population); the Li (Hlai)
(14.7% of the population); the Miao (0.7%) and the Zhuang (0.6%).[citation
needed] The Li are the largest indigenous group on the island in terms of
population. Also found on the island are the Utsuls, descendants of Cham
refugees, who are classified as Hui by the Chinese government. There is a
Tanka community that live at Sanya Bay.[23]

Although they are indigenous to the island and do not speak a Chinese
language, the Limgao (Ong-Be) people near the capital (8% of the population)
are counted as Han Chinese.


The East Mosque in Sanya, a Chinese-Islamic architecture.

Most of the Hainanese population practices Chinese folk religion and Chinese
Buddhism. The Li population has a Theravada Buddhist minority. Most of the
Utsuls of the island, a branch of Cham people living near Sanya, are Muslims.
Because Hainan was a point in the travel route of missionaries, there are
some Christians. According to the Chinese General Social Survey of 2009,
Christians constitute 0.48% of the province's population.[24]

Nanshan Park is the centre of Buddhism on Hainan Island. Encompassing

more than 50 km2 (19 sq mi) of rainforest, the site includes countless grand
temples, statues and spiritual gardens the likes of Saviour Garden and
Longevity Valley, with intricately trimmed hedges and abundant in lotus
flowers, a venerated symbol in Buddhism meaning virtue or purity.

At the heart of the valley is the grand Nanshan Temple, its gates flanked by
stone figures of Buddha in front of the Tang Dynasty-style entrance. The
interior displays images of the Four Heavenly Kings amid statues of other
deities enshrined in renderings of stone, gold and jade.

Perhaps the most popular site within the Nanshan Buddhist Cultural Zone is
the awe-inspiring stone rendering of the bodhisattva Guan Yin, emerging out
of the South China Sea to stand at 108 metres, taller than the statue of

The Nanshan Buddhist Cultural Zone is visited by thousands of tourists and

pilgrims each year who come pay homage to the site that plays a significant
role in the religion in China and to sample some of the finest Buddhist vegan
cuisine on the island.[25]


This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. No

cleanup reason has been specified. Please help improve this section if you
can. (February 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The Han Chinese of Hainan speak a variant of the Min Nan Chinese language,
known as Hainanese. In addition, the national standard Putonghua is
understood and spoken by most people, and Cantonese is understood by
some local Hainanese. The Li, the Zhuang and the Limgao (Ong-Be) speak
TaiKadai languages. The Miao speak HmongMien languages. These groups
would usually speak Putonghua as a second language.

4,500 people in the villages of Yanglan () and Huixin (), two villages
on the outskirts of Sanya, speak the Tsat language, a member of the
Austronesian Chamic languages.

Adults who are members of a minority also have quite high literacy skills in
Chinese. Most adults speak several Chinese dialects, and some also speak Li.
In old Yacheng City and its vicinity as well as for several dozen miles west of
Huihui and Huixin, the so-called military speech (the official language of the
southwest among the northern Chinese dialects) is spoken. In Yanglan Village
to the northeast, two Min dialects, both closely related to Cantonese, are
spoken: the Mai dialect and the Danzhou dialect, spoken in Haipo Village in
the south, which is the same dialect as the dialect spoken in Danzhou in Dan
Country in the northern part of the island. From the east to the west along the
seashore, the Hainanese dialect is used. In Sanya City itself one sometimes
finds speakers of Mandarin Chinese and Cantonese.

The general public can also use Standard Chinese to communicate with
mainlanders. When Chams interact with the Hainanese dialect speakers from
within Hainan Province, they use the Hainanese dialect, though youngsters
generally use Mandarin. Not many can communicate in Li when interacting
with the Li, so the Hainanese dialect or Mandarin is often used. In the market
place and within the Sanya Municipality, the Cham speakers use Cham
among themselves, and when they interact with speakers of other languages,
they mostly use the Hainanese dialect. However, in the market places near
the government seat of Yanglan Township, the Chams either use the
Hainanese dialect or the Mai dialect.[26]


Even while Hainan Island was a part of Guangdong it had a considerable

amount of local autonomy; the southern half of the island was an
autonomous prefecture. Hainan's elevation to provincial level in 1988
increased its accountability to the Central People's Government, but by
designating the new province a special economic zone the central
government expressed its intent to allow Hainan maximum flexibility in
devising programs to facilitate foreign investment and economic growth.
Administratively, the province has been divided into five economic major
districts.[citation needed]


Main articles: Politics of Hainan and List of provincial leaders of the People's
Republic of China

The politics of Hainan is structured in a dual party-government system like all

other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Hainan is the highest-ranking official in the People's

Government of Hainan. However, in the province's dual party-government
governing system, the Governor has less power than the Hainan Communist
Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary or CPC Party Chief.


Per the research conducted by Information Warfare Monitor, Hainan is the

physical location of GhostNet. The Chinese government has officially denied
the existence of a cyber war and intelligence apparatus.

In the official PRC territorial claim, Hainan Province includes not just one
island, but also some two hundred South China Sea Islands. Whilst the
containment of the South China Sea Islands means that Hainan Province has
a very large water body, it has a disproportionally small land area. James
Shoal ( Zengmu Ansha), which is presently marked by the PRC,
signifies the country's southernmost border. But Malaysia also claims that it is
on their continental shelf.


Main articles: List of administrative divisions of Hainan and List of township-

level divisions of Hainan

Hainan Province uses a slightly different administrative system than the other
provinces of China. Most other provinces are divided entirely into prefecture-
level divisions, each of which is then divided entirely into county-level
divisions. County-level divisions generally do not come directly under the
province. In Hainan, nearly all county-level divisions (the eight districts
excepted) come directly under the province. This method of division is due to
Hainan's relatively sparse population of around 8 million people.

Administrative divisions of Hainan

Map of Hainan

Division code[27] English name Chinese Pinyin Area in

km2[28] Population 2010[29] Seat Divisions[30]

Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities

460000 Hainan Hinn Shng 35354.00

8,671,518 Haikou 8 4 6 5

1 460100 Haikou Hiku Sh 2304.80 2,046,189

Xiuying District 4

2 460200 Sanya Sny Sh 1910.67 685,408 Jiyang

District 4

19 460300 Sansha * # Snsh Sh ~13.00 444

Yongxing Town

3 460400 Danzhou # Dnzhu Sh 3394.00 932,362

Nada Town

6 469001 Wuzhishan ** Wzhshn Sh

1131.00 104,122 Tongshen Town 1
4 469002 Qionghai ** Qinghi Sh 1710.14 483,217
Jiaji Town 1

8 469005 Wenchang ** Wnchng Sh 2459.18

537,428 Wencheng Town 1

5 469006 Wanning ** Wnnng Sh 1899.90 545,597

Wancheng Town 1

7 469007 Dongfang ** Dngfng Sh 2272.29

408,309 Basuo Town 1

11 469021 Ding'an County ** Dng'n Xin 1187.00

284,616 Dingcheng Town 1

12 469022 Tunchang County ** Tnchng Xin

1223.97 256,931 Tuncheng Town 1

10 469023 Chengmai County ** Chngmi Xin

2076.28 467,161 Jinjiang Town 1

9 469024 Lingao County ** Lngo Xin 1343.33

427,873 Lincheng Town 1

14 469025 Baisha Li

Autonomous County ** Bish Lz Zzhxin

2117.20 167,918 Yacha Town 1

13 469026 Changjiang Li

Autonomous County ** Chngjing Lz Zzhxin

1617.70 223,839 Shilu Town 1

18 469027 Ledong Li

Autonomous County ** Ldng Lz Zzhxin

2763.53 458,876 Baoyou Town 1

16 469028 Lingshui Li

Autonomous County ** Lngshu Lz Zzhxin

1121.24 320,468 Yelin Town 1

17 469029 Baoting Li and Miao

Autonomous County ** Botng Lz Mioz Zzhxin

1166.78 146,684 Baocheng Town 1
15 469030 Qiongzhong Li and Miao

Autonomous County ** Qingzhng Lz Mioz

Zzhxin 2704.00 174,076 Yinggen Town 1

* - Sovereignty over Sansha (including the Paracel, Spratly and Zhongsha

Islands) is disputed as of 18 May 2017.

** - Directly administered county-level divisions

# - direct-piped cities - does not contain any county-level divisions


Main article: People's Liberation Army Navy

Hainan Island is home to the People's Liberation Army Navy Hainan

Submarine Base and strategic nuclear submarine naval harbor at 18.221N
109.686E.[31] The naval harbor is estimated to be 60 feet (18 m) high, built
into hillsides around a military base. The caverns are capable of hiding up to
20 nuclear submarines from spy satellites. The harbor houses nuclear ballistic
missile submarines and is large enough to accommodate aircraft carriers. The
U.S. Department of Defense has estimated that China will have five type 094
submarines operational by 2010 with each capable of carrying 12 JL-2
ballistic missiles. Two 950-metre (3,120 ft) piers and three smaller ones would
be enough to accommodate two carrier strike groups or amphibious assault


Further information: Tourism

Hainan's economy is predominantly agricultural, and more than a half of the

island's exports are agricultural products. Hainan's elevation to province-level
status (1988), however, was accompanied by its designation as China's
largest "special economic zone", the intent being to hasten the development
of the island's plentiful resources.

Prior to this, the province had a reputation for being a "Wild West" area,
largely untouched by industrialisation; even today there are relatively few
factories in the province. Tourism plays an important part of Hainan's
economy, thanks largely to its tropical beaches and lush forests.

The central government has encouraged foreign investment in Hainan and

has allowed the island to rely to a large extent on market forces.[citation

Hainan's industrial development largely has been limited to the processing of

its mineral and agricultural products, particularly rubber and iron ore. Since
the 1950s, machinery, farm equipment, and textiles have been manufactured
in the Haikou area for local consumption. A major constraint on industrial
expansion has been an inadequate supply of electricity. Much of the island's
generating capacity is hydroelectric, and it is subject to seasonal fluctuations
in stream and river flows.[citation needed]

Its nominal GDP for 2011 was 251.5 billion yuan (US$39.9 billion), making it
the 4th smallest in all of the PRC and contributes just 0.53% to the entire
country's economy. At that time, its GDP per capita was 19,166 yuan

By the first quarter of 2010, Hainan had the highest increase in GDP of any
province in China, with a year-on-year increase of 25.1%. The GDP of
Hainan's Qionghai city grew 58.7%.

In December 2009, the government of China announced that it plans to

establish Hainan as an "international tourist destination" by 2020.[32] This
announcement contributed to a surge in the province's economy, with a year-
on-year increase in investment of 136.9% in the first three months of 2010.
Hainan's real estate sector accounted for more than one third of the
province's economic growth.[33]

Economic and technological development zones[edit]

Haikou Free Trade Zone

Haikou New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Yangpu Economic Development Zone

Duty-free program[edit]

On April 20, 2011, a pilot duty-free program commenced with the aim of
increasing luxury goods purchases. It permits domestic Chinese visitors to
claim tax refunds on imported luxury items purchased within the province.
The maximum value is set at 5,000 yuan (US$762), with lowered tax rates on
purchases over 5,000 yuan.[34] In October 2012, duty limits were raised to
8,000 yuan ($1,273), and became available to both domestic and
international tourists.[35]

The total sales of duty-free products for 2012 was 2.4 billion yuan.[36]

The world's largest duty-free shopping complex is scheduled to open in

Haitang Bay in August 2014.[37]

Natural resources[edit]
Hainan has commercially exploitable reserves of more than 30 minerals. Iron,
first mined by the Japanese during their occupation of the island in World War
II, is the most important. Also important are titanium, manganese, tungsten,
bauxite, molybdenum, cobalt, copper, gold, and silver. There are large
deposits of lignite and oil shale on the island, and significant offshore finds of
oil and natural gas have been discovered. Virgin forests in the interior
mountains contain more than 20 commercially valuable species, including
teak and sandalwood.


One of the many rice fields in Hainan

Owing to Hainan's tropical climate, paddy rice is cultivated extensively in the

northeastern lowlands and in the southern mountain valleys.[32] Leading
crops other than rice include coconuts, palm oil, sisal, tropical fruits (including
pineapples, of which Hainan is China's leading producer), black pepper,
coffee, tea, cashews, and sugarcane. In the early 20th century Chinese
emigrants returning from then British Malaya, introduced rubber trees to the
island; after 1950, state farms were developed, and Hainan now produces a
substantial amount of China's rubber. The hot Hainan yellow lantern chili, a
variety unique to the island, is grown in the southeast and southwest.

Domesticated farm animals comprise mainly goats, cows, water buffalo,

chickens, geese and ducks.


Fish farms in Chengmai

Grouper, Spanish mackerel, and tuna[citation needed] constitute the bulk of

the catch from offshore fishing grounds. Scallops and pearls are raised in
shallow bays and basins for local use and export.

Shrimp production is estimated to have been 120,000 to 150,000 metric tons

(130,000 to 170,000 short tons) in 2007, more than 50% of which was
exported. Hainan has over 400 hatcheries, most being located between
Wenchang and Qionghai.

Tilapia production in 2008 was 300,000 metric tons (330,000 short tons). The
island has an estimated 100,000 local, commercial fish farming families.[38]

Real estate market[edit]

Ambox current red.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent
events or newly available information. (April 2014)

In 1990, Hainan province was the site of the largest property bust in modern
Chinese history[32] With 2009 and the announcement of the Chinese
Government's plan to develop the province into a major international tourist
location, property sales rose by 73%, creating the possibility of another
bubble in Hainan's property market.[32]

Since March 2010, commercial and residential property values in some parts
of Hainan have slowed down since the market peaked in February. In March,
average month-on-month transaction prices dropped 12.82% to 12,280 RMB
per square meter, with a reduction in volume to 627,000 square metres
(6,750,000 sq ft), a 19.05% decline. Later in April, prices declined 2.84% to
11,932 yuan per square metre, with a 57.59% decline in volume to 567,200
square meters (6,105,000 sq ft). Then in May prices declined a further
29.74% from the previous month to 8,483 yuan per square metre, with a
57.95% decline in volume to 229,000 square metres (2,460,000 sq ft).[39]
However, property prices in the tourist resort of Sanya remain strong as of
January 2011, with prime developments selling at prices of up to 80,000 RMB
per square metre.

Golf industry[edit]

See also: Golf in China Hainan

This industry is expanding in Hainan, with numerous courses being

constructed, including Mission Hills Haikou, which is one of the largest golf
complexes in the world. The golf industry attracts foreign investment and
overseas golfers from such countries as Australia, South Korea, and Japan.

Medical tourism[edit]

The government of Hainan intends to expand the province's medical tourism

industry.[40][41] The provincial government plans to establish the Boao
Lecheng International Medical Travel Zone in the Bo'ao area. This was
announced at the Boao Forum for Asia in 2011.[42] The State Council has
approved the development of Lecheng Island[43] as a medical tourism-
themed destination.[44] Lecheng Island is a small island in the Wanquan
River about 3 km (1.9 mi) west of the coastal town of Bo'ao on the west coast
of the province. Construction on the 20 km2. zone is expected to begin in
December 2014, will cost a projected 1.5 billion yuan, and is scheduled for
completion in 2016. It will be the first special zone for medical travel in China.
Automotive industry[edit]

Domestic Chinese manufacturer, Haima Automobile has its global

headquarters in Haikou.



Map showing main highways

Before 1950 there were practically no transportation links with the interior of
the island. The first roads were built in the early 20th century, but no major
road construction was undertaken in the mountains until the 1950s. Parallel
northsouth roads along the east and west coasts and through the interior of
the island constitute most of Hainan's road network.


Hainan Province has two international airports (Haikou Meilan International

Airport and Sanya Phoenix International Airport) and two domestic airports
(Qionghai Bo'ao Airport and Danzhou Airport, the latter is under


Today's Hainan is ringed by standard-gauge railways. Since 2004, a rail ferry

connects the island's railroad network to the mainland.[46] In 2005, Ministry
of Communications allocated 20 million yuan (US$2.4 million) to set up a
committee to research and study the possibility of a bridge or tunnel link
connecting the island to the mainland.[47]

From the ferry terminal, located near Haikou Railway Station (west of Haikou),
freight and passenger trains arriving from the mainland can proceed on the
Hainan Western Ring Railway along the island's west coast, via Dongfang to
Sanya. This railway line has been developed over several decades, starting
with a few short 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) narrow gauge lines constructed during
the Japanese occupation in the early 1940s.

The Hainan Eastern Ring High-Speed Railway links Haikou and Sanya along
the island's east coast. There are 15 stations in between, either in operation
or still under construction. Trains are designed to travel at 250 km/h (160
mph). Travel time from Haikou to Sanya is approximately 1 hour and 22

The total length of Hainan Eastern Ring High-Speed Railway is 308.11 km

(191.45 mi). The in-between railway stations include Haikou East, Changliu,
Xiuying, Meilan Airport, Wenchang, Qionghai, Bo'ao, Wanning, Shenzhou, Sun
and Moon Bay, Lingshui and Tiandu.[48]

The first train run started on 30 December 2010 at the price of 114 RMB for
first-class seat and 95 RMB for a second-class seat for a full journey between
Haikou and Sanya.[49]

The Hainan Western Ring High-Speed Railway is on the west coast of Hainan,
roughly paralleling the existing Hainan Western Ring Railway. It links up with
the Hainan Eastern Ring Railway at both ends, thus forming a high-speed
railway ring around the island.[50]


Haikou Xiuying Port

Haikou Xiuying Port () serves as the main passenger and cargo


Haikou New Port () opened June 1, 2005[51]

Macun Port () located in Chengmai County; opened June 1, 2005[51]

Hainan Strait Port[52]

Basuo Port in Dongfang City is a small port on the west coast of Hainan. One
of its main cargos is iron ore from the Shilu Mine.

Hainan received 11,000 tons of products via ports November 2010, up 90.1
percent month-on-month. Between January and November 2010, 102,000
tons of products were exported via Hainan, 34,000 tons of which were
exported to the US, and 14,000 tons sent to the EU.[53]


Haikou College of Economics, Guilinyang campus

See also: List of universities and colleges in Hainan

The level of primary and secondary education has improved since 1949, but
facilities for higher education remain somewhat inadequate.[citation needed]

Hainan University ()
Hainan Normal University ()

Qiongzhou University ()

Hainan Medical Institute ()

Haikou College of Economics ()

South China Tropical Agricultural University (, merged into

Hainan University on Aug 14, 2007)


Hainan Provincial Museum

Hainan has always been on the fringe of the Chinese cultural sphere.
Traditionally, the island was a place of exile for criminals and disgraced
officials. As a frontier region celebrated by such exiled poets as Su Dongpo,
Hainan acquired an air of mystery and romance. The influx of large numbers
of mainlanders after 1950 particularly in the 1970s, when young Chinese
from southern Guangdong were assigned to state farms to help develop
Hainan, and in the 1980s, when thousands more came to take advantage of
the economic opportunities offered has perpetuated the frontier
atmosphere on the island.


As well as programming from Central China Television (CCTV), Hainan has a

number of local TV stations including Hainan TV and Haikou TV. The Chinese
language Nanguo Metropolis Daily, Haikou Evening News, and Hainan Daily
newspapers are published in Haikou.

A large movie studio is located in the south part of Haikou. Movie Town
Haikou comprises several studio buildings and an artificial town used as
filming sets and a visitor attraction.


Common dishes served in Hainan

Main article: Hainan cuisine

Hainan cuisine is said to be "lighter, with mild seasonings." A lot of local taste
is mixed with the Han Chinese taste. Seafood predominates the menu, as
shrimp, crab, fish and other sea life are widely available.

Wenchang chicken is a dish known throughout the province of Hainan.

Although there are many varieties of this dish, the name is usually used to
define a type of small, free-range chicken from Wenchang, located on the
east coast of the province. As opposed to battery chickens, its meat has more
texture and is somewhat drier.

Hainan chicken rice is a famous dish in Southeast Asia bearing the region's
name. However, whilst many restaurants use chicken fat to quickly add
flavour to the dish, the proper local method is to 'marinate' the rice with
chicken soup to add a more full flavour.


Located in Sanya, this beach is typical of those along the entire eastern coast
of Hainan

Hainan Island is often divided into eight regions for tourism purposes: Haikou
and area (Haikou, Qiongshan, Ding'an); the Northeast (Wenchang); the
Central East Coast (Qionghai, Ding'an); the South East Coast; the South
(Sanya); the West Coast also called the Chinese Riviera (Ledong, Dongfang,
Xianghsui, Changjiang); the North West (Danzhou, Lingao, Chengmai); and
the Central Highlands (Baisha, Qiongzhong, and Wuzhishan/Tongzha).

Popular tourist destinations include the beaches and resorts in the southern
part of the province. Inland is Five Finger Mountain, a scenic area. Tourists
also visit the capital of Haikou with area visitor attractions such as Movie
Town Haikou and Holiday Beach.


In 2000, the province initiated a visa-upon-arrival policy for foreign tourist

groups. It is available to citizens of twenty-six different countries, and was
established in order to attract visitors.

During 2008, 20.6 million tourists visited Hainan, producing total revenues of
19.23 billion yuan (US$2.81 billion). Of these tourists, 979,800 were from
overseas with the largest numbers coming from South Korea, Russia and

In 2010, the amount of overnight tourists visiting Hainan was 25.87 million,
663,000 of which came from outside China.[55]

During 2011, more than 30 million tourists visited Hainan, mostly from
mainland China. Of the 814,600 overseas tourists, 227,600 of them came
from Russia, a 53.3 percent a rise year-on-year.[56] Total revenue during that
year was 32 billion RMB ($4.3 billion US), up 25 percent from 2010.[57]

In the first quarter of 2012, the Hainan Provincial Tourism Development

Commission reports that Hainan received 208,300 overnight visitors, 25
percent of whom came from Russia.[56]

In 2014, Hainan received 50.2 million tourists, 660,000 of whom were from

During 2015, Hainan received 53 million visitors.[59][60]

Historical sites[edit]

Main article: Major national historical and cultural sites (Hainan)

Haikou is the province's capital and contains interesting historic sites. Also
known as Coconut City, Haikou is a major port. The Five Officials Temple
(Chinese: ; pinyin: Wgng c, 20035.79N 1102117.34E) consists of
five traditional temples and halls that were built in honour of five officials of
the Tang (618-907) and Song (960-1279) dynasties. These officials were
banished to Hainan for periods ranging from 11 days to 11 years for speaking
out against what they felt were wrong practices by the emperors. (It is
perhaps significant that the establishment of the Five Officials Temple in the
late 19th century coincides with a time when China's territorial integrity was
under threat, and that several of the officials honoured here were exiled for
espousing aggressive policies on the recapture of the north of China from the
Jurchens during the Southern Song dynasty.)

Xiuying Fort was built in 1891 to defend the southeastern corner of China
during the Sino-French War. The Xiuying Fort Barbette covers about a third of
an acre. Its five large cannons are still intact and viewable at the site.

Tomb of Hai Rui

The Tomb of Hai Rui (20029.66N 1101730.18E) is a key national cultural

protection site. Hai Rui was a compassionate and popular official of
Hainanese origins who lived during the Ming Dynasty. He was famous for his
lifelong honesty and his willingness to speak out on behalf of local people. In
later life, Hai Rui was persecuted and fell out of favour with the emperor. His
admirers built the Hai Rui Tomb after his death to commemorate his great
works. Construction of the tomb began in 1589.

The Yangpu Ancient Salt Field is a heritage site in Yantian village on Yangpu
Peninsula. The area comprises more than 1,000 stones, cut flat on top, used
to dry seawater to produce salt.

Other attractions and destinations[edit]

Yalong Bay, the most expensive and well-known beach in Hainan, and
location of numerous 5-star hotels.

Hainan Island has a number of beaches, hot springs and other attractions.
Some top scenic sites include Yalong bay National Resort; Dadonghai Tourist
Resort; Qizhi Shan (Seven Finger Mountain), Nuilin mountain tropical
botanical reserve in Lingshui county, Guantang Hot Spring Resort, Shishan
Volcanic Garden; the Wanquan River, Baishi Ridge Scenic Zone and Baihua

Other attractions in Hainan include:

Phoenix Island, an artificial island in Sanya Bay.

Monkey Island, near the well-known perfume bay or Xiangshui Wan, a popular
tourist destination located in Lingshui County, is a state-protected nature
reserve for macaques.

Yalong Bay (Crescent Dragon Bay or Yalong Wan), a 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) long
beach east of Sanya City.

Xiangshui Bay Scenic Area, 48 kilometres (30 mi) from Sanya Tiandu.

Luobi Cave, 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) north of Sanya City.

Nanshan Temple, a Buddhist cultural area west of Sanya featuring a 108

metres (354 ft) statue of Guanyin, Buddhist Goddess of Mercy.

Yanoda is a rainforest area. It is open to visitors with guided walking tours, a

zipline, and a waterfall climbing activity.


To encourage the international yachting community, new regulations now

allow foreign yachts to stay for a total of 183 days each year, with a
maximum single stay duration of 30 days. 13 additional ports will be built
around the island to accommodate this market.[55]

Tax refund[edit]

To encourage tourism to Hainan, visitors are allowed to claim a maximum

8,000 yuan tax refund on luxury items purchased within the province.

Numerous events are hosted or sponsored on the island, including:

Swatch Girls World Pro China - Annual Elite Women's surfing competition, held
at Wanning[61]

Hainan International Surfing Festival, held annually at Riyue Bay,


Miss World beauty pageant is regularly held in the city of Sanya.

Mission Hills Star Trophy is an annual golf tournament that started in 2010.

Tour of Hainan bicycle race

Hainan Rendez-Vous, an annual four-day event that draws China's ultra high-
net-worth individuals to the Chinese Riviera-like shores of Hainan[63]

Ironman triathlon

Boao Forum for Asia, held in Boao, is an international high-level government,

business, and academia forum.

H1 Hot Air Balloon Challenge is held annually in Haikou. Balloons from across
the nation fly over the Qiongzhou Strait from Haikou to a designated location
on the mainland in Xunwen County, Guangdong.[64][65]

Miscellaneous topics[edit]

Hainan is a sister province of Jeju-do island-province of South Korea and of

the Canadian island-province of Prince Edward Island.

The novel, Red Detachment of Women, by Liang Xin, was set in Hainan. The
novel was first adapted to a feature film in the 1950s, and then a ballet in the
1960s as one of the Eight model plays. Most of the people of that time
derived their romanticized image of Hainan Island from the scenes in the
ballet, particularly that of the vivid forests of coconut trees, the Five Finger
Mountain (Wuzhi Shan), and the Wanquan River.

Parts of the 2010 movie If you are the One 2 ( 2) were shot in Shimei
Bay () near Sanya.[66]

Two notable lighthouses are located on Hainan: the Baishamen Lighthouse

and Mulantou Lighthouse are among the tallest in the world, the latter being
the tallest in China.

3024 Hainan, named for the province, is an outer main-belt asteroid

discovered in 1981.
Hainan Kopi Tales is an award-winning Singaporean Chinese drama serial set
in a famous Hainan coffee shop that explores the Hainanese way of life from
the 1960s to the 1980s.

Hainian Resort is also a multiplayer map in the 2013 video game Battlefield 4.

Space centre[edit]

Main article: Wenchang Satellite Launch Center

One of China's satellite launch centers is located in Hainan east of the city of
Wenchang. The Wenchang Satellite Launch Center, a 1,200 hectares (3,000
acres) facility, is the closest Chinese launch center to the equator. The
construction plan was first announced in October 2007. The new launch
centre began operations on November 3, 2016 with the Long March 5 rocket
making its maiden flight.

Notable residents[edit]

The poet Su Shi (10361101) popularized Hainan's isolation and exoticism

when he was exiled there under the Song dynasty. The Dongpo Academy was
built on the site of the residence where he lived in exile.

Hai Rui (15141587) was a famous Chinese official of the Ming dynasty. His
name has come down in history as a model of honesty and integrity in office.

Chih-Ping Chen (1906-1983) was a distinguished diplomat and statesman for

the Republic of China, who served to build the Yunnan-Burma Road, and a
diplomatic career that spanned four decades.

The most well-known native of Hainan is Chinese-American Methodist

minister turned businessman, Charlie Soong, father of the Shanghai-born
Soong sisters: Soong Ai-ling, wife of H. H. Kung (once China's richest man);
Soong Ching-ling, wife of Sun Yat-Sen; and Soong Mei-ling, wife of former ROC
President Chiang Kai-shek.

International partnership[edit]

Hainan has international relationships with these places: [67]

Region Country Date

Hygo Prefecture Hyogo Prefecture Japan 1990.9

Hawaii Hawaii United States 1992.6

Flag of Jejudo Jejudo South Korea 1995.10

Autonomous Republic of Crimea Crimea Ukraine 1996.4

Cebu Cebu Island Philippines 1996.6

Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island Canada 2001.6

Balearic Islands Balearic Islands Spain 2004.7

Seal Phuket.png Phuket Island Thailand 2005.9

Canary Islands Canary Islands Spain 2005.11

East New Britain New Britain Island Papua New Guinea2006.9

Logotipo de la Gobernacin de Chilo.svg Chilo Island Chile 2007.12

Bandera de la Provincia de Tierra del Fuego.svg Fuego Island Argentina


Flag of Washington.svg Washington State United States 2009.7

Murmansk Oblast Murmansk Russia 2010.10

Gotland Gotland Island Sweden 2010.11

Sardinia Sardegna Island Italy 2011.10

Bali Bali Island Indonesia 2012.2

Grande Comore Grande Comore Island Comoros 2012.8

Penang Penang Island Malaysia 2013.10

Crete Crete Island Greece 2014.10

Tasmania Tasmania Island Australia 2016.10

Palawan Palawan Island Philippines 2017.3

See also[edit]

Hainan Island incident

Icne Ile.svgIslands portal Asia (orthographic projection).svgAsia portal

Location Southeast Asia.svgSoutheast Asia portal Flag of the People's
Republic of China.svgChina portal


Jump up ^ "Doing Business in China - Survey". Ministry Of Commerce -

People's Republic Of China. Retrieved 5 August 2013.

Jump up ^ "Communiqu of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's

Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census [1] (No. 2)".
National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Archived from the
original on July 27, 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.

Jump up ^ 2013 (PDF) (in Chinese). United Nations

Development Programme China. 2013. Retrieved 2014-05-14.

Jump up ^ "Why is the South China Sea contentious? - BBC News". Retrieved

Jump up ^ Chen, Stephen. "China's southern island of Hainan born out of

Vietnam millions of years ago: study". South China Morning Post. Retrieved

Jump up ^ "Tracing the legacy of the early Hainan Islanders a perspective

from mitochondrial DNA". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 15 February 2011.
Retrieved February 18, 2011.

Jump up ^ "Population and People of Hainan Island".

Jump up ^ "Map of the Island of Aynam". Atlas of Mutual Heritage. Retrieved

February 2, 2015.

Jump up ^ Dampier, William (1729). Mr. Dampier's Voyages. Mr.Dampiers

Voyages Around the World. 2. London: James & John Knapton.

Jump up ^ Subsequently Vice Mayor of Shenzhen SEZ (May 1985 to January

1988), Executive Vice Mayor of Guangzhou (January 1988 to April 1992) and
Vice Chairman of Guangxi AR (April 1992 to January 1996).

Jump up ^

Jump up ^ " [Online Map - Hainan People's

Government Website]". Retrieved 2010-08-09.

^ Jump up to: a b c d Hainan Special: Report: Hainan grew greener in 2012 |IP
Special |

^ Jump up to: a b "200 Species on Verge of Extinction in Hainan". Retrieved 2012-11-16.

Jump up ^ Gwinnell, Philip; Han, Bin (2010), China's Emerging Jewel, Hainan,
The Definitive Guide, ISBN 978-7-5501-0016-9., p.23-26

Jump up ^ 2016. 1993 2015 (pdf).

2016 2 . DOI10.11922/csdata.170.2015.0029. Retrieved on March
05, 2017
Jump up ^ "Identification Guide for Marine Mammals In the South China Sea".
The Sanya Institute of Deep-sea Science and Engineering at The Chinese
Academy Of Sciences. Retrieved 2015-01-19.

Jump up ^ . [ -
Balaenoptera edeni Anderson, 1879]. the CITES. Retrieved on December 07.

Jump up ^ Wang Pei Lei (). 1984. .

(Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute). (the
CNKI.NET). Retrieved on December 07. 2014

Jump up ^ "Injured whale could survive after intensive care". China Internet
Information Center. Retrieved 2017-04-29.

Jump up ^ Jun 22nd, 2011 - Pantropical Spotted Dolphin, Renee, Gives Birth
in China ~ Cetabase - Cetacean News

Jump up ^ 2016. . Retrieved

onMarch 05, 2017

Jump up ^ "'Water gypsies' fear lifestyle sea change". Retrieved 2017-04-29.

Jump up ^ China General Social Survey (CGSS) 2009. Report by: Xiuhua Wang
(2015, p. 15)

Jump up ^ "". Retrieved 2011-11-12.

Jump up ^ Thurgood, Graham. "Sociolinguistics and contact-induced

language change: Hainan Cham, Anong, and Phan Rang Cham.". 2006. Tenth
International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, 1720 January 2006,
Palawan, Philippines. Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL

Jump up ^ "". .

Jump up ^ . 2014. . .
Retrieved 2015-05-29.

Jump up ^ shi, Guo wu yuan ren kou pu cha ban gong; council, Guo jia tong ji
ju ren kou he jiu ye tong ji si bian = Tabulation on the 2010 population census
of the people's republic of China by township / compiled by Population census
office under the state; population, Department of; statistics, employment
statistics national bureau of (2012). Zhongguo 2010 nian ren kou pu cha fen
xiang, zhen, jie dao zi liao (Di 1 ban. ed.). Beijing Shi: Zhongguo tong ji chu
ban she. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.
Jump up ^ (2014.08). 2014.
. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9. Check date values in: |date= (help)

Jump up ^ "China Builds Secret Nuclear Submarine Base in South China Sea". 2008-05-02. Retrieved 2009-05-03.

^ Jump up to: a b c d "Hainan Province: Economic News and Statistics for

Hainan's Economy". Retrieved 2011-11-12.

Jump up ^ "Hainan officials rule out bubble burst". 2010-

05-10. Retrieved 2010-08-09.

Jump up ^ "The Business of Luxury and Culture in China". Jing Daily. 2011-04-
18. Retrieved 2013-01-25.

Jump up ^ "The Business of Luxury and Culture in China". Jing Daily. 2012-10-
02. Retrieved 2013-01-25.

Jump up ^ F_221. "Hainan tax rebate attracts 1.6 million tourists for shopping
- People's Daily Online". Retrieved 2013-01-25.

Jump up ^ HK, Jeju and Okinawa, now Hainan! |Economy |

Jump up ^ "Sustainable Aquaculture in South China Shrimp and Tilapia

Farming in Hainan and Guangdong Provinces". Retrieved

Jump up ^ "CapitalVue News: Hainan Property Market Collapses". 2010-06-17. Retrieved 2010-08-09.

Jump up ^ "Hainan steps up learning process with Spain visit". 2011-09-16. Retrieved 2012-11-16.

Jump up ^ "China Drive". 2011-12-07. Retrieved 2012-11-16.

Jump up ^ (2011-04-25). "China in key position to attract medical

tourists". Retrieved 2012-11-16.

Jump up ^ Qionghai, Hainan (1970-01-01). "19.142995,110.526272 - Google

Maps". Retrieved 2012-11-16.

Jump up ^ F_100585 (2012-07-02). "Hainan makes foray into int'l medical

tourism (2) - People's Daily Online". Retrieved

Jump up ^ Construction on Hainan's Boao Lecheng Int'l Medical Travel Zone

to start in 2014 - What's On Sanya
Jump up ^ "Railway Ferry Service Across Qiongzhou Straits Begins". People's
Daily Online. 2003-01-08. Retrieved 2008-08-12.

Jump up ^ Xinhua News Agency (2005-02-03). "Hainan Mulls Bridge/ Tunnel

Link to Mainland". Retrieved 2008-08-12.

Jump up ^ "Hainan Steps into an Era of High Speed Railways ("

")" (in Chinese). People's Daily Online. December 31, 2010. Archived
from the original on October 1, 2011. Retrieved January 10, 2012.

Jump up ^ "Hainan's Eastern Ring Railway/Ticket Price".

December 28, 2010. Retrieved January 10, 2012.

Jump up ^ "Hainan International Tourism Island Steps into the Age of High
Speed Rail Age ( )" (in Chinese). January
4, 2011. Retrieved January 6, 2011.

^ Jump up to: a b c "Hainan Harbor & Shipping Holding Co.,Ltd.". China Ports.
Retrieved 2011-11-12.

Jump up ^ "Hainan Strait Port , China". Retrieved 2011-11-12.

Jump up ^ "China exports 11k tons of aquatic products via Hainan ports in
Nov What's On Sanya". 2010-12-28. Retrieved 2011-

Jump up ^ "Hainan tourism Hainan on the way to become the new Hawaii ?". Retrieved 2010-08-09.

^ Jump up to: a b "China opening up Hainan Island to the world". The

Independent. London. 2011-03-31.

^ Jump up to: a b "Sanya big draw for tourists - Xinhua |". 2012-05-01. Retrieved 2012-11-16.

Jump up ^ "Leader in Hotel, Airlines, Tourism and Travel Trade News - Hainan
unveils plans to boost infrastructure, flight connectivity". TTG Asia. 2012-05-
03. Retrieved 2012-11-16.

Jump up ^

Jump up ^

Jump up ^
Jump up ^ "Swatch Girls World Pro China".

Jump up ^ "Hainan International Surfing Festival".

Jump up ^ "(Hainan Sanya) Yachts, Business Jets, Luxury LifeStyle". Hainan

RendezVous. Archived from the original on October 7, 2011. Retrieved 2011-

Jump up ^ "Hot Air Balloon Challenge held in Haikou".

Retrieved 2011-11-12.

Jump up ^ "H1 China Hot Air Balloon Challenge kicks off".
Retrieved 2011-11-12.

Jump up ^ "China's Top Ten 2011". Global Times. January 19, 2011. Retrieved
January 20, 2011.

Jump up ^ Peoples Government of HaiNan Province

Further reading[edit]

D'Arcy Brown, Liam (2003). Green Dragon, Sombre Warrior: travels to China's
extremes. London: John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-6038-1

Edmonds, Richard Louis. "Hainan province" and its impact on the geography
of China, Geography, Vol. 74, No. 2 (April 1989), pp. 165169

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hainan.

Hainan Government Website

Hainan travel guide from Wikivoyage

Economic profile for Hainan at HKTDC

Dr Howard M Scott "Hainan"

Resources on the Hainanese in the National Library of Singapore

Learn Hainanese Website

Hainan Province Official English Language Tourism Website

Gulf of Tonkin

Haiphong, Nam nh, Qung Ninh and Thi Bnh Provinces, Vietnam

Qiongzhou Strait Taiwan

Qiongzhou Strait

Gulf of Tonkin

H Tnh, Ngh An and Thanh Ha Provinces, Vietnam Pratas



Gulf of Tonkin

Qung Tr and Tha Thin-Hu Provinces, Vietnam South China Sea South
China Sea

[show] v t e

Hainan topics

[show] v t e

County-level divisions of Hainan Province

[show] v t e

Economic Development Zones of China

[show] v t e

China Provincial-level divisions of the People's Republic of China

Authority control

GND: 4238805-3

Categories: HainanSouth ChinaProvinces of the People's Republic of

ChinaIslands of ChinaIslands of HainanIslands of the South China SeaGulf of
Tonkin1988 establishments in ChinaStates and territories established in 1988

Navigation menu

Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog inArticleTalkReadEditView

Search Wikipedia


Main page


Featured content

Current events

Random article

Donate to Wikipedia

Wikipedia store



About Wikipedia

Community portal

Recent changes

Contact page


What links here

Related changes

Upload file

Special pages

Permanent link

Page information

Wikidata item

Cite this page


Create a book
Download as PDF

Printable version

In other projects

Wikimedia Commons
























Bahasa Indonesia











Bahasa Melayu



Norsk bokml

Norsk nynorsk






Runa Simi



Simple English


/ srpski

Srpskohrvatski /





/ Uyghurche



Ting Vit



Edit links

This page was last edited on 18 May 2017, at 05:18.

Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License;

additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use
and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia
Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

Privacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimersContact WikipediaDevelopersCookie

statementMobile viewWikimedia Foundation Powered by MediaWiki