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2001

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.., : -, 2001. 50 .

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.. 2011

.................................................................................................................................................................4
1. ...........................................................................................................4
...............................................................................5
2. .........................................................................................................13
2.1. ...................................................................................13
2.2. ............................................................13
2.3. ..............14
2.4. - .........................................................................................................................15
..16
3. ...........................................................................................................24
......................................................................................................24
4. ..................................................................................................................29
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5. ....................................................................................................................34
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6. ..............................................................................................38
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7. .....................................................................................................................................42
.........................................................................................42
8. ........................................................................................................................................46
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(343) 375 94 03 3
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.. 2011

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(343) 375 94 03 4
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
:
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/filename,stress , - Utility Menu> File> Change Jobname
, - [Stress> OK]
-
;
stress - .
/units,si -
. .
*afun,deg . Utility Menu> Parameters> Angular
Units [Degrees> OK]
*SET,exx,2.07e11 ;
exx - ; , -
2.07e11 - . -

-
.
Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar
Parameters [Selection> exx=2.07e11>
Accept>
*SET,w_hex,.01 ; Selection> w_hex =.01> Accept>
w_hex - ;
.01 - .
*SET,w_flat,w_hex*tan(30) ; Selection> w_flat = w_hex*tan(30) > Ac-
w_flat - ; cept>
w_hex*tan(30) - .
*SET,l_shank,.075 ; Selection> l_shank = .075 > Accept>
l_shank - ;
.075 - .
*SET,l_handle,.2 ; Selection> l_ handle = .2 > Accept>
l_ handle - ;
.2 - .
*SET,bendrad,.01 ; Selection> bendrad = .01 > Accept>
bendrad - ;
.01 - .
*SET,l_elem,.0075 ; Selection> l_elem = .0075 > Accept>
l_elem - ;
.0075 - .
*SET,no_d_hex,2 ; Selection> no_d_hex = 2 > Accept>
no_d_hex - ;
2 - .
*SET,tol,25e-6 ; Selection> tol = 25e-6 > Accept> Close]
tol - ;
25e-6 - .
/prep7
et,1,solid45 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element
1 ; Type> Add/Edit/Delete [Add> Structural>
solid45 - Solid> Brick 8node 45> Apply>
.

(343) 375 94 03 5
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.. 2011
1
et,2,plane42 ; Structural> Solid> Quad 4node 42> OK>
2 ; Close]
plane42
.
mp,ex,1,exx ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material
ex ; Props
1 ; [Constant> Isotropic> 1> OK> Young's
exx , modulus EX> exx > OK]
.
rpoly,6,w_flat ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Create>
6 - ; Areas> Poligon> By Side Length
w_flat - , [Number of sides> 6> Length of each
. side> w_flat> OK]
k,7 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Create>
7 - ; Keypoints> In Active CS
0,0,0. [Keypoint number> 7> X,Y,Z Location in
active CS> 0,0,0> Apply>
k,8,,,-l_shank ; Keypoint number> 8> X,Y,Z Location in
8 - ; active CS> 0,0, -l_shank > Apply>
,,,-l_shank - X, Y ,Z .
k,9,,l_handle,-l_shank ; Keypoint number> 9> X,Y,Z Location in
9 - ; active CS> 0,l_handle, -l_shank > OK]
,,l_handle,-l_shank - X, Y ,Z .
l,4,1 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Create>
4 - ; Lines> In Active Coord [ >
1 - . Apply>
l,7,8 ; Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan-Zoom-
7 - ; Rotate [+Y]
8 - . Main Menu> Preprocessor> Model-
ing> Create> Lines> In Active Coord
[ > Apply>
l,8,9 ; > OK]
8 - ;
9 - .
lfillt,8,9,bendrad Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering
; [Line Numbers> ON> OK]
8 - ; Utility Menu> Plot> Lines
9 - ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Model-
bendrad - , ing> Create> Line Fillet [
. > OK>Fillet Radius>bendrad>OK]
/view,,1,1,1 ;
,, - Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> View Set-
1; tings> Viewing Direction [XV, YV, ZV
1,1,1 X,Y,Z Coords of view point>
, 1,1,1> OK]
;
-
.
/angle,,90,xm ;
,, - Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> View Set-
1; tings> Angle of Rotation
90 ; [Angle of degrees> 90> OK]
xm - x
.
/pnum,line,1
Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering
; [Line numbers> On> OK]
line
;
1 -
.
1
(343) 375 94 03 6
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
lplot . Utility Menu> Plot> Lines
/pnum,line,0
Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering
; [Line numbers> Off> OK]
line
;
0 -
.
l,1,4 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Create>
1 - ; Lines> In Active Coord [ >
4 - . Apply>
asbl,1,7,,,keep ; Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering
1 - ; [Keypoint numbers> On> OK]
7 - ; Utility Menu> Plot> Areas
,,,keep - . Main Menu> Preprocessor> Model-
ing> Operate> Booleans> Divide> With
Options> Areas by Line [ -
> OK]
Utility Menu> Plot> Lines
[ 7> OK> Subtracted
lines will be> Kept> OK]
cm,botarea,area ; Utility Menu> Select>
botarea - ; Comp/Assembly> Create Component
line - [Component name> botarea> Compo-
- . nent is made of> areas> OK]
lesize,1,,,no_d_hex - Main Menu> Preprocessor> Mesh-
; ing> Size Cntrls> Picked Lines [
1 - ; 1,2,6> Enter> OK> Ele-
,,, - ; ment Edge length> no_d_hex> OK]
no_d_hex - ,
.
lesize,2,,,no_d_hex -
;
2 - ;
,,, - ;
no_d_hex - ,
.
lesize,6,,,no_d_hex -
;
6 - ;
,,, - ;
no_d_hex - ,
.
type,2 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Create>
2 - (). Elements> Elem Attributes [Element type
number> 2 Plane42> OK]
mshape,0,2d ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Mesh-
0 - ; ing> Mesher Opts
2d - . [Mesher type> Mapped> OK> Shape
key> Quad>OK]
mshkey,1 . Main Menu> Preprocessor> Mesh-
ing> Mesh> Areas> Mapped> 3 or 4
sided [Pick all]
save . Ansys Toolbar> Save_db
amesh,all -
;
all - -
.
eplot Utility Menu> Plot> Elements
type,1 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Create>
1 - (). Elements> Elem Attributes [Element type
number> 1 Solid 45> OK]

(343) 375 94 03 7
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.. 2011
1
esize,l_elem - Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing>
; Size Cntrls> Global> Size
l_elem - , - [Element edge length> l_elem> OK]
.
vdrag,2,3,,,,,8,10,9 - Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering [Line
; numbers> On> OK]
2,3,,,,, - ; Utility Menu> Plot> Lines
8,10,9 - , Main Menu> Preprocessor> Operate>
. Extrude> Areas> Along Lines [Pick all> -

8,10,9> OK]
/type,,hidp ; Utility Menu> Plot> Elements
,, - 1;
hidp - .
eplot
.1.1.
.

cmsel,,botarea ; Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly>


,, - ; Select Comp/Assembly [Comp/Assemb>
botarea - . botarea> OK]
aclear,all - Utility Menu> Select> Entities [Lines>
( Exterior> Apply> Nodes> Attached to>
); Lines,all> OK]
all - .
asel,all ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities [Lines>
all - . Sele all> Cansel]
finish .
/solu
antype,static ; Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type>
static - . New analysis [Static> OK]
cmsel,,botarea ; Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly>
,, - ; Select Comp/Assembly [Comp/Assemb>
botarea - . botarea> OK]
lsel,,ext ; Utility Menu> Select> > Entities [Lines>
,, - ; Exterior> Apply>
ext - .
nsll,,1 , - Nodes> Attached to> Lines,all> OK]
;
,, - ;
1 - .
d,all,all ; Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Apply>
all - ; Structural> Displacement> On Nodes [Pick
all - - all> DOFs to be constrained> All DOF> OK]
.
lsel,all ; Utility Menu> Select> > Entities [Lines>
all - . Sele all> Cansel]
/pbc,u,,1 ; Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Symbols [All
u - ; Applied BCs> Surface Load Symbols> Pres-
,,1 - . sures> Show pres and convect as> Arrows>
OK]

(343) 375 94 03 8
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
nplot . Utility Menu> Plot> Nodes
1
asel,,loc,y,bendrad,l_handle ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities [Areas>
,, - ; By location> Y coordinates> Min,Max>
loc - bendrad,l_handle> Apply>
;
y - y;
bendrad - , -
;
l_handle - , -
.
asel,r,loc,x,w_flat/2,w_flat ; X coordinates> Reselect> Min,Max>
r - - w_flat/2,w_flat> Apply]
;
loc -
;
x - x;
w_flat/2 - , -
;
w_flat - , -
.
nsla,,1 , Nodes> Attached to> Areas,all> From
; full> Apply
,, - ;
1 - .
nsel,r,loc,y,l_handle+tol,l_han , Nodes> By Location> Y coordinates>
dle-(3.0*l_elem)-tol ; Reselect> Min,Max>
r - - l_handle+tol,l_handle-(3.0*l_elem)-tol>
; OK]
loc -
;
y - y;
l_handle+tol - ,
;
l_handle-(3.0*l_elem)-tol -
, .
*get,minyval,node,,mnloc,y ; Utility Menu> Parameters> Get Scalar
minyval - ; Data [Model data>For selected set> OK>
node - ; Name of parameter to be defined> miny-
,, - ; val> Current node set> Min Y coordi-
mnloc - - nates> Apply>
;
y - y.
*get,maxyval,node,,mxloc,y ; Model data>For selected set> OK> Name
maxyval - ; of parameter to be defined> maxyval>
node - ; Current node set> Max Y coordinates>
,, - ; OK]
mxloc - -
;
y - y.
*SET,ptorq,100/(w_hex*(maxy ; Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar
val-minyval)) ptorq - ; Parameters [Selection> ptorq
100/(w_hex*(maxyval-minyval)) - =100/(w_hex*(maxyval-minyval)) > Ac-
. cept> Close]
sf,all,pres,ptorq ; Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Ap-
all - ; ply> Structural> Pressure> On nodes
pres - ; [Pick all> Load pres valu> ptorq> OK]
ptorq - .
allsel Utility Menu> Select> Everything
/psf,pres,,2 - Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Symbols [All
; Applied BCs> Surface Load Symbols>
pres - ; Pressures> Show pres and convect as>
,,2 - . Arrows> OK]
nplot . Utility Menu> Plot> Nodes
(343) 375 94 03 9
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
1
.1.2. , -
: , -
-
.

lswrite . Main Menu> Solution> Write LS File


[Load step file number> 1> OK]
*SET,pdown,20/(w_flat ; Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar
*(maxyval-minyval)) pdown - ; Parameters [Selection> pdown
20/(w_flat*(maxyval-minyval)) - - =20/(w_flat*(maxyval-minyval)) > Accept>
. Close]
asel,,loc,z,- ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities [Areas>
(l_shank+(w_hex/2)) ,, - ; By location> Z coordinates> Min,Max> -
loc - - (l_shank+(w_hex/2))> OK]
;
z - z;
-(l_shank+(w_hex/2)) - -
,
.
nsla,,1 , - Nodes> Attached to> Areas,all> From
; full> Apply>
,, - ;
1 - .
nsel,r,loc,y,l_handle+to , - Nodes> By Location> Y coordinates>
l,l_handle-(3.0*l_elem)- ; Reselect> Min,Max>
tol r - ; l_handle+tol,l_handle-(3.0*l_elem)-tol>
loc - - OK]
;
y - y;
l_handle+tol - , -
;
l_handle-(3.0*l_elem)-tol - -
, .
sf,all,pres,pdown ; Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Ap-
all - ; ply> Structural> Pressure> On nodes
pres - ; [Pick all> Load pres valu> pdown > OK]
pdown - .
allsel Utility Menu> Select> Everything
nplot . Utility Menu> Plot> Nodes
lswrite . Main Menu> Solution> Write LS File
[Load step file number> 2> OK]
save . Ansys Toolbar> Save_db
lssolve,1,2 , - Main Menu> Solution> Solve> From
; LS Files [Starting LS file number> 1>
1 - ; Ending LS file number> 2> File number
2 - . increment> 1> OK]
finish .
/post1
set,1 , Main Menu> General Postproc> Read
; Results> First Set
1 - .
prrsol Main Menu> General Postproc> List

(343) 375 94 03 10
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
. Results> Reaction Solu> All items> OK>
Close]
1
/pbc,defa Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Symbols
; [Boundary conditions simbols> None>
defa - . OK]
/psf,defa Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Symbols
; [Surface load symbols> None> OK]
defa - .
/edge,,1 Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Edge
; Options [Element outlines for non-
,, - 1; contour/contour plots> Edge Only/ All>
1 - OK]
.
pldisp,2 - Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot
; Results> Deformed Shape [Items to be
2 - - plotted> Def + undef edge> OK]
.
.1.3. -

.

/gsave,pldisp,gsav Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Save Plot


; Ctrls [File name> pldisp.gsa> OK]
pldisp - ;
gsav - .
/plopts,info,on Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Window Con-
; trols> Reset Window Options [Display of
info - ; legend> Auto legend>
on - .
/plopts,leg1,off Legend header> Off> OK]
;
leg1 - ;
off - .
/angle,,120,ym,1 ; Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> View Set-
,, - - tings> Angle of Rotation [THETA Angle of
1; degrees> 120> Relative/ absolute> Rela-
120 ; tive angle> Axis of rotation> Global
ym - y - Cartes Y> OK]
;
1 - -
.
plnsol,s,int - Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot
; Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu
s - ; [Stress> Intensity SINT> OK]
int - (-
-
,

).

(343) 375 94 03 11
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
1
.1.4. ,
-
.

/gsave,plnsol,gsav - Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Save Plot


; Ctrls [File name> pldisp.gsa> OK]
pldisp - ;
gsav - .
set,2 , - Main Menu> General Postproc> Read
- Results> Next Set
;
2 - .
prrsol - Main Menu> General Postproc> List
. Results> Reaction Solu> All items> OK>
Close]
/gresume,pldisp,gsav - Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Restore Plot
; Ctrls [File name> pldisp.gsa> OK]
pldisp - ;
gsav - .
pldisp,2 - Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot
; Results> Deformed Shape [Items to be
2 - - plotted> Def + undef edge> OK]
.
/gresume,plnsol,gsav - Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Restore Plot
; Ctrls [File name> plnsol.gsa> OK]
plnsol - ;
gsav - .
plnsol,s,int Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot
; Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu
s - ; [Stress> Intensity SINT> OK]
int -
.
wpof,,,-0.067 Utility Menu> Work plane> Offset WP
; by Increments
-0.067 [-x,y,z Offsets> 0,0,-0.067> OK]
z.
/type,1,5 ; Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Hid-
1 - 1; den- Line Options> Type of Plot> Capped
5 - . hidden> Cutting plane> Working plane>
/cplane,1,wp ; OK]
1,wp - .
/view,1,wp ; Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan-Zoom-
1 - 1; Rotate [WP>
wp - .
/dist,1,.01 -
;
1 - 1; ]
.01 .
(343) 375 94 03 12
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
1

plnsol,s,int Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot


; Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu
s - ; [Stress> Intensity SINT> OK]
int - -
.
.1.5.
.

finish .

2.

-
. -
.

2.1.

,
.
1. .
. ,
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2. .
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, .
3. , .
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- ,
.
, .
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, .

2.2.

, , ,
, , , , -
, , - . .2.1. -

(343) 375 94 03 13
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
: , -
.
, , -
. ;
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; -
( )
.

. 2.1.
.

2.3.


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; -
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, . -
.2.2 . ,
, . 2.3.
.

(343) 375 94 03 14
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
. 2.2. ()
() -
.

. 2.3. ,
.

2. .
(.2.2 ) ,
;
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3. .
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4. .
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.
5. .
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2.4. -

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. -

.2.4.

(343) 375 94 03 15
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
. 2.4. _
:
.

, -
: 1) ( ); -
; 2) ( ); -
; 3) ; -
.

: .
: .
: .
: 0.1 1.0 -
, , ,
-
.
. .

2

/prep7
*SET,radius,1.0 , - > radius
; =1.0 > Enter>
radius - (
);
1.0 - .
*SET,thick,0.1 , - thick = 0.1 > Enter
;
thick - (
);
0.1 - .
et,1,plane42,,,1 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element
1 ; Type> Add/Edit/Delete [Add> Structural>
plane42 - Solid> > Quad 4node 42 > OK> Options>
; Element behavior> Axisymmetric> OK>
,, - - Close]
-
;
,, - ;
1 - .
mp,ex,1,16911.23 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material
ex ; Props [Constant> Isotropic> 1> OK>
1 ; Young's modulus EX> 16911.23 >
16911.23 .

(343) 375 94 03 16
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
2
mp,nuxy,1,0.3 ; Poisson's ratio NUXY> 0.3> OK]
nuxy ;
1 ;
0.3 .
tb,kinh,1,1,5 , Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material
; Props> Data Tables> Define/Activate
kinh - : - [Type of data table> Kin Harden KINH>
- Material ref. Number> 1> No of tempera-
; tures> 1> No of data points/temp> 5>
1 - ; OK]
1 - ,
;
5 - (
) .
tbpt,,0.001123514,19.00 - Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material
; Props> Data Tables> Edit Active
,, - ; [1> Strain> 0.001123514> Stress>
0.001123514 - ; 19.00>
19.00 - .
tbpt,,0.001865643,22.80 - - 2> Strain> 0.001865643> Stress> 22.80>
tbpt,,0.002562402,25.08 5 . 3> Strain> 0.002562402> Stress> 25.08>
tbpt,,0.004471788,29.07 4> Strain> 0.004471788> Stress> 29.07>
tbpt,,0.006422389,31.73 5> Strain> 0.006422389> Stress> 31.73>
File> Apply/Quit
/axlab,X, Strain ; Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style>
X - X; Graphs> Modify Axes [X-axis label>
Strain - (). Strain>
/axlab,Y, Stress ; Y-axis label> Stress> OK]
Y - Y;
Stress - ().
tbpl,kinh,1 Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material
( ) ; Props> Data Tables> Graph [OK]
kinh - ;
1 - .
.2.5. -
-
.

rect,,radius,,thick - Main Menu> Preprocessor> Create>


; Rectangle> By Dimensions [X-
,, - X 0; coordinates> 0> radius> Y-coordinates>
radius - X 0> thick> OK]
radius, ;
,, - Y 0
thick - Y -

(343) 375 94 03 17
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
thick, .
2
.2.6. -
, -
.

flst,5,2,4,orde,2 , - Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering>


fitem; Line numbers> ON
5 - ; Utility Menu> Plot> Lines
2 - ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Mesh
4 - ; Tool [Size Controls> Lines> Set>
orde -
;
2 - .
fitem,5,2 ; 2 >
5 - ;
2 - .
fitem,5,4 ; 4>
5 - ;
4 - .
cm,_y,line ; Picking Menu> OK>
_y - ;
line -
- .
lsel,,,,p51x ; No of element divisions> 8> OK>
,,,, - - ;
p51x - .
cm,_y1,line ;
_y1 - ;
line -
- .
cmsel,,_y ;
,, - ;
_y - .
lesize,_y1,,,8,1
;
_y1 - ;
,,, - ;
8 - ;
1 - .
cmdel,_y ;
_y - .
cmdel,_y1 ;
_y1 - .
flst,5,2,4,orde,2 , - Size Controls> Lines> Set>
fitem;
5 - ;
2 - ;
4 - ;
orde -
;
2 - .
fitem,5,1 ; 1 >
5 - ;
1 - .
fitem,5,3 ; 3 >
5 - ;
3 - .
cm,_y,line ; Picking Menu> OK>
_y - ;
line -
- .

(343) 375 94 03 18
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
lsel,,,,p51x ; No of element divisions> 40> OK>
,,,, - - ;
p51x - .
2

cm,_y1,line ;
_y1 - ;
line -
- .
cmsel,,_y ;
,, - ;
_y - .
lesize,_y1,,,40,1
;
_y1 - ;
,,, - ;
40 - ;
1 - .
cmdel,_y ;
_y - .
cmdel,_y1 ;
_y1 - .
cm,_y,area ; Mesh Tool> Quad> Mapped> Mesh>
_y - ;
area -
- .
asel,,,,1 ;
,,,, - ;
1 - .
cm,_y1,area ;
_y1 - ;
area -
- .
chkmsh,'area'
;
'area' - .
cmsel,s,_y ;
,, - ;
_y - .
amesh,all ; Mesh area> Pick all> Mesh Tool> Close]
all - .
.2.7. .

cmdel,_y ;
_y - .
cmdel,_y1 ;
_y1 - .
cmdel,_y2 ;
_y2 - .
finish
/solu
nlgeom,on - Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Op-
- tions [Large deform effects> ON> OK]
;
on - .
*SET,ntop,node(0,thick,0) , - Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar
; Parameters [Selection> ntop =
ntop - ; node(0,thick,0) > Accept>
node(0,thick,0) - .
*SET,nright,node(radius,0,0) , - Selection> nright = node(radius,0,0) >
; Accept> Close]

(343) 375 94 03 19
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
nright - ;
node(radius,0,0) - .
2
monitor,1,ntop,uy file.mntr Main Menu> Solution> Nonlinear>
- Monitor [ >
; ntop> Enter> Monitor> OK> Quantity to
1 - ; be monitored> UY> OK]
ntop - ;
uy -
y.
monitor,2,nright,fy file.mntr Main Menu> Solution> Nonlinear>
- Monitor [ >
; nright > Enter> Monitor> OK> Variable to
2 - ; redefine> Variable 2> Quantity to be
nright - ; monitored> FY> OK]
fy -
y.
outres,all,all - Main Menu> Solution> Load Step
, ; Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File
all - - [Item to be controlled> All items> File
; write frequency> Every substep> OK]
all - .
nsel,s,loc,x,radius ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities
s - ; [Nodes> By Location> X coordinates>
loc - Min,Max> radius> OK]
;
x - x;
radius - x -
.
d,all,all ; Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Ap-
all - ; ply> Structural> Displacement> On
all - Nodes [Pick all> DOFs to be con-
. strained> All DOF> OK]
nsel,s,loc,x,0.0 ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities
s - ; [Nodes> By Location> X coordinates>
loc - Min,Max> 0> OK]
;
x - x;
0.0 - .
d,all,ux,0.0 ; Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Ap-
all - ; ply> Structural> Displacement> On
ux - x; Nodes [Pick all> DOFs to be con-
0.0 - x. strained> UX> 0> OK]
.2.8. -
, -
x
.

nsel,s,loc,y,thick ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities


s - ; [Nodes> By Location> Y coordinates>
loc - ; Min,Max> thick> OK]
y - y;
thick - .
sf,all,pres,1.25 ; Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Ap-
all - ; ply> Structural> Pressure> On Nodes
pres - ; [Pick all> Load Pres value> 1.25> OK]
1.25 - .
alls . Utility Menu> Select> Everything
nsub,10,50,5 - Main Menu> Solution> Load Step
; Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Sub-
10 - ; steps [Number of substeps> 10> Maxi-
50 - ; mum No of substeps> 50> Minimum No
5 - . of substeps> 5> OK]

(343) 375 94 03 20
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
2
solve Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current
LS> OK
*SET,f,0.0425 , Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Pa-
; rameters [Selection> f = 0.0425 > Accept>
f - ; Close]
0.0425 - .
nsel,s,node,,ntop ; Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Apply>
s - ; Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes
node - ; [ : ntop> En-
,, - ; ter> OK
ntop - , .
f,all,fy,-f , ; Direction of Force/mom> FY>
all ; Force/moment value> -f> OK]
fy , y;
-f , .
nsel,all ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities [Nodes>
all - . By Num/Pick> Reselect> OK> Pick all]
nsubst,4,25,2 - Main Menu> Solution> Load Step
; Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substeps
4 - ; [Number of substeps> 4> Maximum No of
25 - ; substeps> 25> Minimum No of substeps>
2 - . 2> OK]
solve Main Menu> Solution> Solve>
Current LS> OK
nsel,s,node,,ntop ; Main Menu> Solution> Loads>
s - ; Apply> Structural> Force/Moment> On
node - ; Nodes [ : ntop>
,, - ; Enter> OK
ntop - , .
f,all,fy,f , ; Direction of Force/mom> FY>
all ; Force/moment value> f> OK]
fy , y;
f , .
nsel,all ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities [Nodes>
all - . By Num/Pick> Reselect> OK> Pick all]
nsubst,4,25,2 - Main Menu> Solution> Load Step
; Opts> Time/Frequenc>
4 - ; Time and Substeps [Number of substeps>
25 - ; 4> Maximum No of substeps> 25> Mini-
2 - . mum No of substeps> 2> OK]
solve Main Menu> Solution> Solve>
Current LS> OK
nsel,s,node,,ntop -
f,all,fy,-f , -
nsel,all -
nsubst,4,25,2 .
solve
nsel,s,node,,ntop
f,all,fy,f
nsel,all
nsubst,4,25,2
solve
.2.9.
nsel,s,node,,ntop
-
f,all,fy,-f
.
nsel,all
nsubst,4,25,2
solve
nsel,s,node,,ntop
f,all,fy,f
nsel,all

(343) 375 94 03 21
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
nsubst,4,25,2

2
solve Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Cur-
rent LS> OK
save ANSYS Toolbar> Save_db
.
fini
/post1
set,last , Main Menu> General Postproc> Last
; Set
last - -
.
pldi,2 - Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot
; Results> Deformed Shapes
2 - - [Items to be plotted> Def + undef edge>
. OK]
.2.10. -
, -
-
.

ples,nl,epeq - Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot


; Results> Contour Plot> Element Solu
nl - ; [Strain-plastic> Eqv plastic EPEQ> OK]
epeq -
.
.2.11. -
.

fini
/post26 -

eplo . Utility Menu> Plot> Elements
nsel,s,node,,ntop ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities
s - ; [Nodes> By Num/Pick> OK>
node - ; > ntop> Enter> OK]
,, - ;
ntop - , .
esln , - Utility Menu> Select> Entities [Ele-
. ments> Attached to> Nodes> OK]
*SET,elem,elnext(0) , - >
; elem=elnext(0)> Enter
elem - ;
elnext(0) - ,
.
alls . Utility Menu> Select> Everything
esol,2,elem,ntop,s,y , Main Menu> TimeHist Pro> Define
- Variable [Add> Element results> OK>
; -
2 - ; > Define Element Data> OK> -
elem - ; >
ntop - , - Define Nodal Data> OK> Ref number of
; Variable> 2> Data item> Stress> Y-

(343) 375 94 03 22
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
s - ; direction SY> OK>
y - -
y.
2
esol,3,elem,ntop,epel,y , Add> Element results> OK>
; > De-
3 - ; fine Element Data> OK> -
elem - ; > Define Nodal
ntop - , Data> OK> Ref number of Variable> 3>
; Data item> Strain-elastic> Y-dir'n EPEL
epel - - ; Y> OK>
y - -
y.
esol,4,elem,ntop,eppl,y , Add> Element results> OK>
; > De-
4 - ; fine Element Data> OK> -
elem - ; > Define Nodal
ntop - , Data> OK> Ref number of Variable> 4>
; Data item> Strain-plastic> Y-dir'n EPPL
eppl - - - Y> OK> Close]
;
y -
y.
add,5,3,4,,,,,1,1,0 ; Main Menu> TimeHist Pro> Math
5 - ; Operations> Add [Reference number for
3,4,, - , results> 5> 1st Variable> 3> 2nd Variable>
- 4]
;
,,,, - ;
1,1,0 -
.
xvar,5 X - Main Menu> TimeHist Pro> Settings>
; Graph [Single variable> 5> OK]
5 - , -
.
/axlab,x,Total y-strain ; Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style>
x - x; Graphs> Modify Axes [X-axis label>
Total y-strain - .
/axlab,y,y-stress ; Total Y-strain> Y-axis label> Y-stress>
y - y; OK]
y-stress - .
plvar,2 ; Main Menu> TimeHist Pro> Graph
st
2 - . Variables> 1 variable to graph> 2> OK]

(343) 375 94 03 23
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
.2.12. -
.

fini

3.
.
, -
. -
, .
-
, , , , - .

: .
: .

3

/prep7
et,1,plane42 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element
1 ; Type> Add/Edit/Delete [Add> Structural>
plane42 - Solid> Quad 4node 42> Apply>
.
et,2,solid45 ; Structural> Solid> Brick 8node 45> OK>
2 ; Close]
solid45 -
.
mp,ex,1,38000 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material
ex ; Props
1 ; [Constant> Isotropic> 1> OK> Young's
38000 . modulus EX> 38000>
mp,dens,1,1.033e-3 ; Density DENS> 1.033e-3>
dens ;
1 ;
1.033e-3 .
mp,nuxy,1,.3 ; Poisson's ratio NUXY> 0.3> OK]
nuxy ;
1 ;
0.3 -

(343) 375 94 03 24
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
.
k,1 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Create>
1 - ; Keypoints> In Active CS [Keypoint num-
0,0,0. ber> 1> X,Y,Z Location in active CS>
0,0,0> Apply>
k,2,2 ; Keypoint number> 2> X,Y,Z Location in
2 - ; active CS> 2,0,0> Apply>
2 - X .
k,3,2.3,.2 ; Keypoint number> 3> X,Y,Z Location in
3 - ; active CS> 2.3,.2,0> Apply>
2.3,.2 - X, Y .
k,4,1.9,.45 ; Keypoint number> 4> X,Y,Z Location in
4 - ; active CS> 1.9,.45,0> Apply>
1.9,.45 - X, Y .
k,5,1,.25 ; Keypoint number> 5> X,Y,Z Location in
5 - ; active CS> 1,.25,0> OK]
1,.25 - X, Y .
lstr,1,2 Main Menu> Preprocessor> Create>
; Lines> Straight Line [
1 - ; 1 2> Apply>
2 - .
lstr,5,1 5 1> OK]
;
5 - ;
1 - .

3
bsplin,2,3,4,5,,,-1,,,-1,-.25 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Cre-
2,3,4,5,,, - ; ate> Splines> With Options> Spline
-1,,, - , - thru KPs
[ 2,3,4,5>
( OK>Start tangent> -1,0,0> Ending tan-
gent> -1,-0.25,0> OK]
x);
-1,-.25 - , -

.
al,1,3,2 , Main Menu> Preprocessor> Cre-
; ate> Areas> Arbitrary> By Lines
1,3,2 - ( [ > OK]
,
-
).
esize,.25 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Mesh-
.25 - - ing> Size Cntrls> Manual Size>
. Global> Size
[SIZE Element edge length> 0.25> OK]
amesh,1 - Main Menu> Preprocessor> Mesh-
; ing> Mesh> Areas> Free
1 - [ >
1. OK]
.3.1. -
.

esize,,10 Main Menu> Preprocessor> Mesh-


; ing> Size Cntrls> Global> Size
,,10 - - [No of Element devision> 10> OK]
.
type,2 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Model-

(343) 375 94 03 25
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
2 - (). ing> Create> Elements> Elem Attrib-
utes
[Element type number> 2 Solid45> OK]
vext,all,,,,,10 Main Menu> Preprocessor> Oper-
; ate> Extrude/Sweep> By X,Y,Z Offset
all,,, - - [ > OK>
; Offset for extrusion> 0> 0> 10> OK]
,,10 - Z, -
10.
/view,,1,1,1 ; Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> View Set-
,, - - tings> Viewing Direction
1; [XV, YV, ZV Coords of view point>
1,1,1 X,Y,Z 1,1,1> OK]
, -
-
;
-
.

.3.2.
.

/ang,1 ;
,, - 1; -
Y.
,

:
Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan-Zoom-
Rotate
/rep .

.
eplot .
Utility Menu> Plot> Elements
finish .
/solu
antype,modal ; Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type>
modal - . New analysis [modal > OK]
modopt,subsp,5 ; Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Op-

(343) 375 94 03 26
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
subsp - ; tions
5 - . [Mode extraction method> Subspace> No
of modes to extract> 5> OK> OK]
esel,u,type,,1 ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities [Ele-
u - ; ments> By attributes> Elem type num>
type - - Min,Max,Inc> 1> Unselect> Apply>
;
,,1 - 1
().
nsel,s,loc,z,0 ; Nodes> By Location> Z coordinates> Re-
s - ; select> Min,Max> 0> OK]
loc - -
;
z - z;
0 - z,
0.
d,all,all Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Apply>
( ); Structural> Displacement> On Nodes
all - ; [Pick all> DOFs to be constrained> All
all - DOF> OK]
.

.3.3.
.

nsel,all ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities [Nodes>


all - . By Num/Pick> Reselect> OK> Pick all]
mxpand,5 Main Menu> Solution> Analyssis Op-
; tions [NMODE No of modes to extract> 5>
5 - . OK> OK]
solve Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current
LS> OK
finish .
/post1
set,list,2 , Main Menu> General Postproc> Read
; Results> By Load Step [Substep number>
list - - 5> OK]
;
2 - ,
.
set,first , Main Menu> General Postproc> Read
; Results> First Set
first - -

(343) 375 94 03 27
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
.
pldisp,0 - Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot
; Results> Deformed Shape [Items to be
0 - . plotted> Def shape only> OK]
anmode,10,.5e-1 ; Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate>
10 - ; Mode shape [No of frames to create> 10>
.5e-1 - - Time delay> 0.5> OK]
.
set,next , Main Menu> General Postproc> Read
; Results> Next Set
next -
.
pldisp,0 - Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot
; Results> Deformed Shape [Items to be
0 - . plotted> Def shape only> OK]
anmode,10,.5e-1 ; Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate>
10 - ; Mode shape [No of frames to create> 10>
.5e-1 - - Time delay> 0.5> OK]
.
set,next , Main Menu> General Postproc> Read
; Results> Next Set
next -
.
pldisp,0 - Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot
; Results> Deformed Shape [Items to be
0 - . plotted> Def shape only> OK]
3

.3.4.

;


(freq=22.952).

anmode,10,.5e-1 - Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate>


; Mode shape [No of frames to create> 10>
10 - ; Time delay> 0.5> OK]
.5e-1 -
.
set,next , Main Menu> General Postproc> Read
; Results> Next Set
next - -
.
pldisp,0 Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot
; Results> Deformed Shape [Items to be
0 - . plotted> Def shape only> OK]
anmode,10,.5e-1 - Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate>
; Mode shape [No of frames to create> 10>
10 - ; Time delay> 0.5> OK]
.5e-1 -
.
set,next , Main Menu> General Postproc> Read
; Results> Next Set
(343) 375 94 03 28
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
next - -
.
pldisp,0 Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot
; Results> Deformed Shape [Items to be
0 - . plotted> Def shape only> OK]
anmode,10,.5e-1 - Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate>
; Mode shape [No of frames to create> 10>
10 - ; Time delay> 0.5> OK]
.5e-1 -
.
finish .

4.

, , -
, (coupled-field analysis). -
: ,
, ; -
, -
; ; ; -
.
, -
, ,
,
. -
.
,
.
: 1) , (
); , , ., -
; 2) -
, , , -
; -
, .


: , ;
.
: ,
.
: ,
; , 130
; .

4

/title,indirect method . Utility Menu> File> Change Title [indi-
. rect method> OK]
/prep7
et,1,plane77,,,1 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element
1 ; Type> Add/Edit/Delete [Add> Thermal>
plane77 Solid> Quad 8 node 77> OK> Close]
,, - -
;
,, - ;
1 - .
mp,kxx,1,2.2 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material
kxx ; Props [Constant> Isotropic> 1> OK> Con-

(343) 375 94 03 29
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
1 ; ductivity> 2.2> OK]
2.2 .
mp,kxx,2,10.8 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material
kxx ; Props [Constant> Isotropic> 2> OK> Con-
2 ; ductivity> 10.8 > OK]
10.8 .
rectng,.1875,.4,0,.05 Main Menu> Preprocessor> Create>
; Rectangle> By Dimensions [X-
.1875 - X; coordinates> .1875> .4> Y-coordinates> 0>
.4 - X; .05> Apply>
0 - Y;
.05 - Y.
rectng,.4,.6,0,.05 X-coordinates> .4 > .6> Y-coordinates> 0>
; .05> OK]
.4 - X;
.6 - X;
0 - Y;
.05 - Y.
aglue,all - Main Menu> Preprocessor> Operate>
, ; Glue> Areas [Pick all]
all - .
numcmp,area ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Numbering
area - . Ctrls> Compress numbers [Areas> OK]
asel,s,area,,1 ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities [Areas>
s,area,, - ; By Num/Pick> OK>
1 - . > OK]
4
aatt,1,1,1 Main Menu> Preprocessor> Attributes>
; Define> Picked area [ -
1 - ; > OK]
1 - ;
1 - .
asel,s,area,,2 ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities [Areas>
s,area,, - ; By Num/Pick> OK>
2 - . > OK]
aatt,2,1,1 Main Menu> Preprocessor> Attributes>
; Define> Picked area [
2 - ; > Material num-
1 - ; ber> 2> OK]
1 - .
asel,all ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities [Areas>
all - . Sele all> Cansel]
esize,.05 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing>
.05 - - Size Cntrls> Manual Size> Global> Size
. [SIZE Element edge length> 0.05> OK]
amesh,all - Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing>
; Mesh> Areas> Mapped> 3 or 4 sided [Pick
all - - all]
.
nsel,s,loc,x,.1875 ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities [Nodes>
s - ; By Location> X coordinates> Min,Max>
loc - - .1875> OK]
;
x - x;
.1875 - .
d,all,temp,200 ; Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Apply>
all - ; Tharmal> Temperature> On Nodes [Pick
temp - ; all> Load TEMP value> 200> OK]
200 - .
nsel,s,loc,x,.6 ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities [Nodes>
s - ; By Location> X coordinates> Min,Max> .6>
loc - - OK]
;

(343) 375 94 03 30
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
x - x;
.6 - .
d,all,temp,70 ; Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Apply>
all - ; Tharmal> Temperature> On Nodes [Pick
temp - ; all> Load TEMP value> 70> OK]
70 - .
.4.1. ; -
;

(
).
nsel,all ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities [Nodes>
all - . By Num/Pick> From Full> OK> Pick all]
finish .
/solu
solve . Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current
LS> OK
finish .
/post1
path,radial,2 ( Main Menu> General Postproc> Path
- Operation> Define Path> By Location [De-
); fine Path Name> radial> OK>
radial - ;
2 - , -
.
ppath,1,,.1875 , ; Path Point number> 1> X,Y,Z Location in
1 - ; Global CS> 0> .1875> OK>
,,.1875 - X, Y .
4
ppath,2,,.6 , - Path Point number> 1> X,Y,Z Location in
; Global CS> 0> .6> OK> Cansel]
2 - ;
,,.6 - X, Y .
pdef,temp,temp Main Menu> General Postproc> Path
; Operation> Map onto Path [User label for
temp - - item> temp> OK]
,
;
temp - -
.
pasave,radial,filea
;
radial - ;
filea - .
plpath,temp - Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot
; results> On Graph
temp - .

(343) 375 94 03 31
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
.4.2.
.

finish .
/prep7
et,1,82,,,1 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element
1 ; Type> Add/Edit/Delete [Add> Structural>
82 - Solid> Quad 8node 82> Element type ref-
; erence number> 1> OK> Options> Ele-
,, - - ment behavior> Axisymmetric> OK> Close]
;
,, - ;
1 - -
.
mp,ex,1,30e6 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material
ex ; Props
1 ; [Constant> Isotropic> 1> OK> Young's
30e6 . modulus EX> 30e6>
mp,alpx,1,.65e-5 ; Thermal expansion coeff ALPX> .65e-5>
alpx ;
1 ;
.65e-5
.
mp,nuxy,1,.3 ; Poisson's ratio NUXY> 0.3> Apply>
nuxy ;
1 ;
0.3 .
4
mp,ex,2,10.6e6 ; 2> OK> Young's modulus EX> 10.6e6 >
ex ;
2 ;
10.6e6 .
mp,alpx,2,1.35e-5 ; Thermal expansion coeff ALPX> 1.35e-5 >
alpx ;
2 ;
.1.35e-5 -
.
mp,nuxy,2,.33 ; Poisson's ratio NUXY> 0.33> OK]
nuxy ;
2 ;
0.33 .
nsel,s,loc,y,.05 ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities [Nodes>
s - ; By Location> Y coordinates> Min,Max>
loc - - .05> OK]
;
y - y;

(343) 375 94 03 32
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
.05 - .
cp,1,uy,all ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Cou-
1 - pling/Ceqn> Couple DOFs [Set reference
; number> 1> Degree of freedom label> UY>
uy - Y; OK]
all - .
nsel,s,loc,x,.1875 ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities [Nodes>
s - ; By Location> X coordinates> Min,Max>
loc - - .1875> OK]
;
x - x;
.1875 - .
cp,2,ux,all ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Cou-
2 - pling/Ceqn> Couple DOFs [Set reference
; number> 2> Degree of freedom label> UX>
ux - X; OK]
all - .
nsel,s,loc,y,0 ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities [Nodes>
s - ; By Location> Y coordinates> Min,Max> 0>
loc - - OK]
;
y - y;
0 - .
d,all,uy,0 ; Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Apply>
all - ; Structural> Displacement> On Nodes [Pick
uy - y; all> DOFs to be constrained> UY> 0> OK]
0.0 - y.
nsel,all ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities [Nodes>
all - . By Num/Pick> From Full> OK> Pick all]
finish .
/solu
tref,70 , Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Set-
- tings> Reference Temp
; [70> OK]
70 .
ldread,temp,,,,,,rth Main Menu> Solution> Apply> Tem-
; perature> From Therm Analy [File Name>
temp - ; *.rst> OK]
rth - () .
solve Main Menu> Solution> Current LS
finish .
/post1
paresu,radial,filea ; Main Menu> General Postproc> Path
radial - ; Operations> Archive Path> Paths from file
filea - . [Read from file> filea> OK]
4
pmap,,mat ; Main Menu> General Postproc> Path
,, map - - - Operations> Define Path> Path Options
. [Account for discontinuities> Mat disconti-
nuity> OK]
pdef,sx,s,x Main Menu> General Postproc> Path
; Operation> Map onto Path [User label for
sx - - item> sx> Item to be mapped> Stress> X-
, direction SX> OK]
;
s -
;
x - x.
pdef,sz,s,z Main Menu> General Postproc> Path
; Operation> Map onto Path [User label for
sz - - item> sz> Item to be mapped> Stress> Z-
, direction SZ> OK]
;

(343) 375 94 03 33
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
s -
;
z - x.
plpath,sx,sz - Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot
; results> On Graph [Path items to be
sx,sz - . graphed> SX SY> OK]
.4.3.
-
.

plpagm,sx,,node - Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot


; results> On Geometry [Path item to be
sx - X; displayed> SX> with nodes> OK]
,,node - .
.4.4. .

finish .

5.

: ,
. -
, .. , . -
, , , . -
, ; , -
; . -
.

1) - ;
2) - ;
3) - ;
4) - ;

(343) 375 94 03 34
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
5) , ,
, , .

; - -
. , -
, ; ,
, .
.
.
, . -
. , -
, . -
,
. , -
. . -
, .
, , , -
, .
, , .
: 1) , 2) , -
, 3) . ,
, .
.

. -
, , .. . -
. -
, 1) -
; 2)
; 3) , , -
; 4) .

, ( ) . -
- , . -
, -
, . -
, -
.

: .
: .
: , -
; ;
, ; -
.
5

/prep7
et,1,combin14,,,2 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element
1 ; Type> Add/Edit/Delete [Add> Library of Ele-
combin14 - ment Types> Combination> Spring-damper
(). 14> Apply>
et,2,mass21,,,4 ; Structural> Mass> 3D mass 21> OK> Close]
2 ;
mass21
().

(343) 375 94 03 35
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
r,1,200 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Con-
1 - ; stants [Add> Choose element type> Type 1
200 - ( Combin14> OK> Real Constant Set No> 1>
). Spring Constant K> 200> Damping coefficient
CV1> 0.1> OK>
r,2,.5 ; Add> Choose element type> Type 2 Mass21>
2 - ; OK> Real Constant Set No> 2> Mass in X
0.5 - (). direction> 0.5> OK> Close]
n,1 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling>
1 - , Create> Nodes> In Active CS [Node number>
0,0,0. 1> X,Y,Z Location in active CS> 0> 0> 0> Ap-
ply>
n,4,1 ; Node number> 4> X,Y,Z Location in active
4 - ; CS> 1> 0> 0> OK]
1 - x.
fill Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling>
- 1 4 Create> Nodes> Fill between Nds>
1 . 1 4> OK> OK]
e,1,2 (); Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling>
1,2 - , - Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru
; Nodes> 1 2> Apply>
.
e,2,3 (); 2 3> Apply>
2,3 - , -
;
.
e,3,4 (); 3 4> OK]
3,4 - , -
;
.
type,2 - Main Menu> Preprocessor> Create> Ele-
; ments> Elem Attributes [Element type num-
2 - ( ber> 2 mass21>
).
real,2 Real constant set number>2> OK]
;
2 - ( -
).
e,2 (); Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling>
2 - , Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru
. Nodes> 2> Apply>
e,3 (); 3> OK]
3 - ,
.
finish .
/solu
antype,harmic ; Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type>
harmic - . New analysis [Harmonic> OK]
hropt,full ; Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Options
full - . [Solution method> Full>
5

hrout,off - DOF printout format> Amplitud + phase> OK>


; OK]
off -
.
outpr,basic,1 ; Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>
basic - Output Ctrls> Solu Printout [Print frequency>
, - Last substep> OK]
;
1 -
.
nsubst,30 - Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>
; Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substeps [Number
(343) 375 94 03 36
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
30 - . of substeps> 30>
harfrq,,7.5 - Harmonic freq range> 0> 7.5>
;
,,7.5 - 0 7.5.
kbc,1 Stepped or ramped b.c.> Stepped> OK]
;
1 - .
d,1,uy,,,4 Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Apply>
; Structural> Displacement> On Nodes [Pick
1 - 1; all> DOFs to be constrained> UY> OK]
uy - y,
0;
,,,4 - -
1 4 1.
d,1,ux,,,4,3 Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Apply>
; Structural> Displacement> On Nodes [-
1 - 1; 1 4> DOFs to be con-
ux - x, strained> UX> OK]
0;
,,,4,3 -
1 4 3, .. - 1 4.
f,2,fx,200 , ; Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Apply>
2 ; Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes [-
fx , x; 2> OK> Direction of
200 . force/mom> FX> Real Part of force/mom>
200> OK]

.5.1. ,

.
solve Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS>
OK
finish .
/post26 -

nsol,2,2,u,x,2ux , Main Menu> TimeHist PostPro> Define
; Variables [Add> Type of variable> Nodal Dof
2 - ; results> OK> 2> OK>
2 - 2; Ref numbers of variables> 2> Node number>
u - ; 2> User specified label> 2UX> Data Item>
x - x; DOF Solution> Translation UX> OK>
2ux - -
.
nsol,3,3,u,x,3ux , Add> Type of variable> Nodal Dof results>
; OK> 3> OK> Ref num-
3 - bers of variables> 3> Node number> 3> User
3 - 2; specified label> 3UX> Data Item> DOF Solu-
u - ; tion> Translation UX> OK> Close]
x - x;
3ux - -
.
5

/grid,1 Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Graphs


; [Modify grids> Type of grid> X and Y lines>
1 - OK]
.
/axlab,y,disp ; Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Graphs>
Y - Y; Modify Axes [Y-axis label> disp > OK]
disp - ().
plvar,2,3 ; Main Menu> TimeHist PostPro> Graph
2,3 - 2 3. Variables [1st variable to graph> 2> 2nd vari-
able to graph> 3> OK]

(343) 375 94 03 37
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
.5.2. -
.

finish .

6.

, -
, .
, . -
; -
, ,
.
-
, .. ;
, .
,
.

: .
: .
: ,
(0.75 ) -
; , ,
, .


/prep7
et,1,beam3 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element
1 1 Type> Add/Edit/Delete [Add> Structural>
; Beam> 2d elastic 3> Apply>
beam3 -
( ).
et,2,mass21,,,4 ; Structural> Mass> 3D mass 21> OK> Close]
2 2
;
mass21 -
( ).
r,1,1,800.6,18 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Con-
(343) 375 94 03 38
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
1 - 1 - stants [Add> Choose element type> Type 1
; beam3> OK> Real Constant Set No> 1>
1 - ; Cross-sectional area> 1> Area moment of iner-
800.6 - ; tia> 800.6> Total beam height> 18> OK>
18 - .
r,2,.0259067 ; Add> Choose element type> Type 2 Mass21>
2 - 2 - OK> Real Constant Set No> 2> Mass in Y
; direction> .0259067> OK> Close]
.0259067 - (-
).
mp,ex,1,30e3 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props
ex ; [Constant> Isotropic> 1> OK> Young's
1 1 - modulus EX> 30e3 > OK]
();
30e3 .
n,1 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling>
1 - , - Create> Nodes> In Active CS [Node number>
0,0,0. 1> X,Y,Z Location in active CS> 0> 0> 0> Ap-
ply>
n,3,240 ; Node number> 3> X,Y,Z Location in active
3 - ; CS> 240> 0> 0> OK]
240 - x.
fill Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling>
- 1 3 Create> Nodes> Fill between Nds>
1 1 3> OK> OK]
.
e,1,2 ( ); Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling>
1,2 - , Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru
, - Nodes> 1 2> Apply>
.
egen,2,1,1 - 2 3> OK]
( );
2 - ;
1 - ;
1 - .
type,2 Main Menu> Preprocessor> Create> Ele-
- ments> Elem Attributes [Element type num-
; ber> 2 mass21>
2 - (-
).
real,2 - Real constant set number>2> OK]
;
2 - (
).
e,2 (); Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling>
2 - , Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru
, Nodes> 2> OK]

.
finish .
/solu
6

antype,trans ; Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type>


trans - . New analysis [Transient> OK]
trnopt,reduc,,nodamp ; Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Options
reduc - ( - [Solution method> Reduced> OK>Damping
); effects> Ignore> OK]
,,nodamp - -
.
m,2,uy Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User
; selected> Define [ 2>
2 - ; OK> 1st degree of freedom> UY> OK]
uy - , ,
(343) 375 94 03 39
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
y ( ).
deltim,.004 ; Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>
.004 - . Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step [Time Step
Size> .004> OK]
d,1,uy - Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Apply>
; Structural> Displacement> On Nodes [-
1 - 1; 1> OK> DOFs to be con-
uy - y, strained> UY> Apply>
0.
d,3,ux,,,,,uy - 3> OK> DOFs to be
; constrained> UX> UY> (
3 - 3; ) OK]
ux - x,
0;
,,,,,uy -
y, 0.
outpr,basic,1 ; Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>
basic - - Output Ctrls> DB/Results File [Item to be con-
, trolled> All items>
;
1 -
.
outres,all,1 - File write frequency> Every substep> OK]
, ;
all - -
;
1 -
.
f,2,fy,0 ; Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Apply>
2 2; Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes [-
fy , y; 2> OK> Direction of
0 . Force/mom> FY> Force/moment value> 0>
OK]
solve Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS>
OK
time,.075 - Main Menu> Solution> Load Step
( - , Opts>Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step [Time
- at end of load step> .075> OK]
-
);
.075 - .
f,2,fy,20 ; Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Apply>
2 2; Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes [-
fy , y; 2> OK> Direction of
20 . Force/mom> FY> Force/moment value> 20>
OK]
.6.1. -
, -
.

solve Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS>


OK
6

time,.1 Main Menu> Solution> Load Step


( - Opts>Time/Frequenc> Time-Time Step [Time
at end of load step> .1> OK]
);
.1 - .
solve Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS>
OK
finish - Main Menu> Finish
.
/post26 -
(343) 375 94 03 40
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011

numvar,0 ; Main Menu> TimeHist PostPro> Settings>
0 - . File [Number of variables> 0>
file,file,rdsp File containing data> *.rst> OK]
;
file - (
);
rdsp - () .
nsol,2,2,u,y,nsol , - Main Menu> TimeHist PostPro> Define
; Variables [Add> Type of variable> Nodal Dof
2 - ; results> OK> 2> OK>
2 - 2; Ref numbers of variables> 2> Node number>
u - ; 2> User specified label> nsol > Data Item>
y - y; DOF Solution> Translation UY> OK> Close]
nsol -
.
plvar,2 ; Main Menu> TimeHist PostPro> Graph
2 - 2. Variables [1st variable to graph> 2> OK]
.6.2. -
,
-
.

prvar,2 Main Menu> TimeHist PostPro> List Vari-


st
; ables [1 variable to graph> 2> OK]
2 - ( (,
y). y 0.092
)
finish -
.
/solu , - Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type>
. Expansion Pass [Transient> OK]
expass,on ; Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type>
on - . Expansion Pass [Expansion Pass> On> OK]
expsol,,,0.092 Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>
; Expansion Pass> Single Expand> By
,,,.092 - Time/Freq [Time-point/Frequency> 0.092> OK]
.092 .
6

solve Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS>


OK
finish .
/post1
set,first , Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Re-
; sults> First Set
first - -
(
0.092 ).

(343) 375 94 03 41
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
pldisp,1 Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Re-
; sults> Deformed Shape [Items to be plotted>
1 - - Def + undeformed> OK]
.
.6.3. , -
, -
-
.

finish .

7.

, -
. -
. -
, , , ,
, , ..
, ..
, . -
,
(-
, , ), .
.
.

: .
: .
: .
: , , -
; .


/prep7
et,1,beam3 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element
1 1 Type> Add/Edit/Delete [Add> Structural>
; Beam> 2d elastic 3> OK]
beam3 -
( ).
r,1,273.9726,(1000/3),14 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Con-
1 - 1 ; stants [Add> Choose element type> Type
273.9726 - ; 1 beam3> OK> Real Constant Set No> 1>
(1000/3) - ; Cross-sectional area> 273.9726 > Area
14 - . moment of inertia> (1000/3)> Total beam
height> 14> OK> Close]
mp,ex,1,30e6 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material
ex ; Props
1 1 - [Constant> Isotropic> 1> OK> Young's

(343) 375 94 03 42
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
; modulus EX> 30e3 >
30e6 .
mp,dens,1,73e-5 ; Density> 73e-5> OK]
dens ;
1 ;
73e-5 .
k,1 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Create>
1 - ; Keypoints> In Active CS [Keypoint num-
0,0,0. ber> 1> X,Y,Z Location in active CS>
0,0,0> Apply>
k,2,240 ; Keypoint number> 2> X,Y,Z Location in
2 - ; active CS> 240,0,0> OK]
240 - X .
l,1,2 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Create>
1 - ; Lines> Straight line [ > OK]
2 - .
esize,,40 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing>
,,40 - . Size Cntrls> Manual Size> Global> Size
[Number of element divisions> 40> OK]
lmesh,1 Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing>
; Mesh> Lines [Pick all]
1 - -
1.
nsel,s,loc,x,0 ; Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Apply>
s - ; Structural> Displacement> On Nodes [-
loc - 1 ( )>
; OK>
x - x;
0 - .
d,all,uy DOFs to be constrained> UY> Apply>
;
all - ;
uy - y.
nsel,s,loc,x,240 ; >
s - ; OK>
loc -
;
x - x;
240 - .
d,all,ux,,,,,uy DOFs to be constrained> UX> UY> (
; )> OK]
all - ;
ux - x;
,,,,,uy -
uy.
.7.1. -
; 40 -
.
nsel,all ; Utility Menu> Select> Entities [lines> By
all - . pick/num> Apply> -
> OK> Nodes> Attached to> Lines>
Reselect> Sele all> OK]
finish .
/solu
7

antype,modal ; Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type>


modal - . New analysis [modal > OK]
modopt,subs,10 ; Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Op-
subs - ; tions [Mode extraction method> Sub-
10 - . space> No of modes to extract> 10> Ex-
pand mode shapes> No> OK> OK]
solve Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current

(343) 375 94 03 43
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
LS> OK
finish .
/post1
set,list,2 , - Main Menu> General Postproc> Read
; Results> By Load Step [Substep number>
list - 10> OK]
;
2 - ,
.
set,first , - Main Menu> General Postproc> Read
; Results> First Set
first -
.
pldisp,0 Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot
; Results> Deformed Shape [Items to be
0 - . plotted> Def shape only> OK]
anmode,10,.5e-1 - Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate>
; Mode shape [No of frames to create> 10>
10 - ; Time delay> 0.5> OK]
.5e-1 -
.
set,next , - Main Menu> General Postproc> Read
; Results> Next Set
next - -
.
pldisp,0 Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot
; Results> Deformed Shape [Items to be
0 - . plotted> Def shape only> OK]
anmode,10,.5e-1 - Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate>
; Mode shape [No of frames to create> 10>
10 - ; Time delay> 0.5> OK]
.5e-1 -
.
.7.2. -
; -
-
freq = 97.405
.

finish .
/solu
antype,spectr ; Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type>
spectr - . New analysis [Spectrum> OK]
spopt,sprs,10,yes ; Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Op-
sprs - ( tions [Single-pt resp> No of modes for
); solu> 10> Calculate element stresses>
10 - ; Yes> OK]
yes - -
.
7

sed,,1 - Main Menu> Solution> Load Step


; Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Settings
,,1 - Y [Excitation direction> Coordinates of point>
( ). 0> 1> 0>
svtype,3 ( - Type of response spectr> Seismic displac>
); OK]
3 - .
freq,.1,800 ( - Main Menu> Solution> Load Step
(343) 375 94 03 44
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
); Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Freq Table
.1,800 - . [Freq1> 0.1> Freq2> 800> OK]
sv,,.44,.44 , - Main Menu> Solution> Load Step
; Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Spectr
,, - ; Values [OK> Freq1> .44> Freq2> .44> OK]
.44,.44 - (
).
solve Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current
LS> OK
finish - Main Menu> Finish
.
/post1
set,list,2 , - Main Menu> General Postproc> Read
; Results> By Load Step [Substep number>
list - 10> OK]
;
2 - ,
.
set,first , - Main Menu> General Postproc> Read
; Results> First Set
first -
.
set,next , - Main Menu> General Postproc> Read
; Results> Next Set
next - -
.
set,next , - Main Menu> General Postproc> Read
; Results> Next Set
next - -
.
set,next , - Main Menu> General Postproc> Read
; Results> Next Set
next - -
.
.7.3. -

Main Menu> General Postproc> Vector
Plot> Predefined> Vector item to be plot-
ted> Translation U> OK].

finish .
/solu
antype,modal ; Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type>
modal - . New analysis [modal > OK]
expass,on ; Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type>
on - . Expansion Pass [Expansion Pass> On>
OK]
7

mxpand,10,,,yes,0.005 Main Menu> Solution> Load Step


; Opts> Expansion Pass> Single expand>
10 - ; Expand Modes [No of modes to expand>
,,, - , 10> Significant Threshold> 0.005> Calcu-
( 0.1 800); late element results?> Yes> OK]
yes - ,
;
.005 -

(343) 375 94 03 45
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
, (-
).
solve Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current
LS> OK
finish . Main Menu> Finish
/post1
set,list,2 , - Main Menu> General Postproc> Read
; Results> By Load Step [Substep number>
list - 10> OK]
; ,
2 - , 10 5 !
.
finish . Main Menu> Finish
/solu
antype,spectr ; Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type>
spectr - . New analysis [Spectrum> OK]
srss,0.15,disp Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Op-
( tions [Type of spectrum> Single-pt resp>
); OK]
0.15 - , - Main Menu> Solution> Load Step
; Opts> Spectrum> Single Point> Mode
disp - . combine [Mode combine method> SRSS>
Significant threshold> 0.15> Type of out-
put> Displacement> OK]
solve Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current
LS> OK
finish .
/post1
set,list , - Main Menu> General Postproc> Read
; Results> Results Summary> OK
list - . ( 5 .)
/inp,,mcom - Utility Menu> File> Read Input From
; [ *.mcom> OK]
,, - , -
;
mcom - () .
prnsol,dof Main Menu> General Postproc> List
; Results> Nodal Solution [Item to be listed>
dof - . DOF solution> All DOFs> OK]
.7.3.
.

presol,elem Main Menu> General Postproc> List


; Results> Element Solution [Line Elem Re-
elem - . sults> Structural ELEM> OK]
prrsol,f Main Menu> General Postproc> List
; Results> Reaction Solu [All struc forc F>
f - . OK]
finish .

8.

-
, , .
,
, . -

(343) 375 94 03 46
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
, -
, .. ; -
, .

: .
: .
: ;
.


/prep7
et,1,beam3 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element
1 1 - Type> Add/Edit/Delete [Add> Structural>
; Beam> 2d elastic 3> OK> Close]
beam3
( ).
r,1,.25,52083e-7,.5 (- Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Con-
- stants [Add> Choose element type> Type 1
- beam3> OK> Real Constant Set No> 1>
); Cross-sectional area> .25> Area moment of
1 - 1 ; inertia> 52083e-7> Total beam height> .5>
.25 - ; OK> Close]
52083e-7 - (-
,
);
.5 - .
mp,ex,1,30e6 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props
ex ; [Constant> Isotropic> 1> OK> Young's
1 1 - modulus EX> 30e6 > OK]
;
30e6 .
n,1 ; Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling>
1 - , Create> Nodes> In Active CS [Node number>
0,0,0. 1> X,Y,Z Location in active CS> 0> 0> 0> Ap-
ply>
n,11,,100 ; Node number> 3> X,Y,Z Location in active
11 - ; CS> 0> 100> 0> OK]
,,100 - y.
fill Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling>
- 1 11 Create> Nodes> Fill between Nds> [
1 1 11> OK> OK]
.
e,1,2 ( ); Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling>
1,2 - , - Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru
, Nodes> 1 2> OK]
.
egen,10,1,1 - Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling>
; Copy> Elements> Auto Numbered [Puck all>
10 - , Total number of copies> 10> Node number
1 - ; increment> 1> OK]
1 - .
finish .
8

/solu
antype,static ; Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type>
static - . New analysis [Static> OK]
pstres,on Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Options
[Prestress Stiffness or prestress> Prestress
(343) 375 94 03 47
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
on - . ON> OK]
d,1,all ; Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Apply>
1 - 1; Structural> Displacement> On Nodes [-
all - . 1> OK> DOFs to be con-
strained> All DOF> OK]
f,11,fy,-1 , ; Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Apply>
11 ; Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes [-
fy , y ( 11> OK> Direction of
); force/mom> FY> Real Part of force/mom> -1>
-1 . OK]

solve Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS>


OK
finish . Main Menu> Finish

/solu
antype,buckle ; Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type>
buckle - . New analysis [Eigen Buckling> OK]
bucopt,reduc,1 ; Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Options
reduc - ( - [Solution method> Reduced> No of modes to
); extract> 1> OK]
1 - .
mxpand,1 Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts>
; Expansion Pass> Expand modes [No of
1 - . modes to expand> 1> OK]
m,2,ux,11,1 - Main Menu> Solution> Master DOFs> User
; selected> Define [ 2
2 - ; 11> OK> 1st degree of freedom> UX> OK]
ux - , , -
x ( );
11,1 - 11 1.
solve Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS>
OK
finish .
/post1
set,first , - Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Re-
; sults> First Set
first -
.
pldisp,1 Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Re-
; sults> Deformed Shape [Items to be plotted>
1 - . Def + undeformed> OK]

(343) 375 94 03 48
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011
8

.8.1.
(), -
().


finish .

(343) 375 94 03 49
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
.. 2011

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