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NECTA 2011

BIOLOGY PAPER 1
ANSWERS
SECTION A
QUESTION 1.
i ii iii iv V Vi vii viii ix x
B C E A B D E D C B

QUESTION 2.

LIST A i ii iii Iv v vi vii viii ix x


LIST B R B L M D F N S O P

SECTION B

QUESTION 3.
(a) Structures found in plant cell are ;
I. Cell wall
II. Chloroplast
III. Large permanent vacuole.
(b) i). Function of the cell wall is to provide definite shape of the cell.
ii). Chloroplast is the site for photosynthesis.
iii). Permanent vacuole is used as an excretory organ.

QUESTION 4.
(a) (i). Peristalsis is an involuntary rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the muscles
of esophagus as the bolus passes from the mouth to the stomach.
(ii) COSTIPATION
(b) ROUPHAGES
QUESTION 5.
(a) Irritability is the ability of an organism to detect changes in the environment and
respond to them.
OR
Is an excitation response to the stimulus.
(b) (i). Germinating seeds illustrate the phenomenon that the root part of the seed
becomes positive geotropism but the shoot part become negatively geotropism.

(ii). A potted hibiscus flower plant growing near a window respond positively to
the sunlight and grows towards the sunlight.
(iii) A zebra sniffing the air with a predator nearby in order to save his life by
running from being eaten by a predator.
QUESTION 6


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(a) (i). Renewable natural resources are resources which when used can be
replenished or replaced. For example wind, sun and water.
(ii). Nonrenewable natural resources are resources which when used cannot
be replenished or replaced. For example Petroleum and Coal.
(b) Recycling resources helps maintain the nature of the environment as well as
reducing the number of eruption of diseases.
(c) The carbon cycle processes which are likely to affect the oxygen
concentration in the atmosphere are;
i) Photosynthesis
ii) Respiration
iii) Combustion

QUESTION 7
(a) Two type of girdles found in human skeleton are:
i) Pelvic girdle
ii) Pectoral girdle
(b) Three main function of the limb girdle are as follows;
i) Provides the connection between the axial skeleton and the limbs.
ii) Contribute to the stability of an organism.
iii) They are areas for muscle attachment and articulation with the limb
bones.

QUESTION 8
(a) (i) The group of plant represented by the diagram is leguminous plant
(legume).
(ii) Examples of the leguminous plants are beans plant and cowpeas plant.
(iii) The organism that inhibit the swelling on the root are Bacteria.
(iv) The type of relationship between the plant and bacteria is Mutual
relationship (mutualism).
(b) (i) Bacteria which changes nitrates into nitrites is called Rhizobium.
(ii) Bacteria which convert ammonia into nitrites is called Anabaena blue-
green bacteria.
(iii) Bacteria which change nitrites into nitrates is called Nitrobacter.
QUESTION 9
(a) Four laboratory safety rules
i) Dont enter into the laboratory without permission from either
technician or subject teacher.
ii) Dont make noise in the laboratory.
iii) Dont taste anything without permission,
iv) Dont eat in the laboratory.
(b) (i) Toxic substance causes death instantly.
(ii) Highly flammable substance can catch fire easily and explode.
(iii) Corrosive substance corrode/ burns ones skin.
(iv) Radioactive substances emits radiation which may harm the body.
(v) Bioharzad exposes biological harmful substances, example viruses.
QUESTION 10
(a) (i) Five kingdoms into which organism are placed

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i) Kingdom Monera
ii) Kingdom Plantae
iii) Kingdom Animalia
iv) Kingdom Proctista
v) Kingdom Fungi

(ii) Malaria vector belongs to Kingdom Proctista.


Distinctive features of the Kingdom proctista are as follows;
i) They are most unicellular eukaryote
ii) They possess membrane- bound distinct organelles like nucleus with
nuclear membrane and nucleoli, mitochondria, chloroplast ( in
photosynthetic protist)
iii) Photosynthetic forms have a distinct cell wall. Some protists
(predatory protozoans) have special organelles for the intake of food
and elimination of waste.
iv) Protist produce by both sexual and asexual means.

(b) Type of flat-warm found in the alimentary canal


i) Liver flukes
ii) Tape worm

(ii) The organism belong to kingdom Animalia.


QUESTION 11
(a) Transportation is the process in which materials are translocate from one part
of the plant to another. These involve transportation of water and mineral salt
through the xylem tissue and transportation of food through phloem.

The importance of transportation


(i) It cools the plant
(ii) Reduce excess water from the plant

Adaptation of features which enables plants to reduce water loss


(i) Small number of stoma
(ii) Thick waxy cuticle
(iii) Stoma are located on the lower parts of the leave
(iv) Presence of narrow leaves

QUESTION 12


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Structure of the blood tissue
Blood tissue is a connective tissue that has a fluid matrix called plasma, and no
fibers. Erythrocytes (red blood cell) the predominant cell type are involved in
transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Also present are various leukocytes
(white blood cell) involved in immune response.
Function of blood tissue
i) To supply oxygen to cells and other tissue .
ii) Presence of antibodies which defend us from infections and foreign bodies
iii) Supplies essential nutrients to cells such as amino acid, fatty acids and
glucose.

QUESTION 13
(a) Functions of the following parts of the brain
(i) Medulla oblongata
This controls all involuntary activities of the body such as swallowing and
contraction or relaxation for cardiac muscles.

(iii) Hypothalamus controls selection of hormones, temperature regulation


as well as osmotic condition of the body.

(iii) Cerebellum controls body balancing procers


(iv) Cerebrum controls all voluntary activities such as reasoning and also
recalling the past events
(b) Drug abuse; Is an illegal or misuse of drugs in the way that can cause hamful
effect

(ii) Effects of drug abuse


(a) Death
(b) Health deterioration
(c) Poverty


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Ways of controlling drug abuse
(a) Enacting of strictly rules
(b) Providing education particular among youth
(c) Raising awareness
(d) Having policies which prohibit the use of drugs


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