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###################FORM 1CHAPTER 1Mass Mass is the quantity of matter in an
object.SI unit : Kilogram (kg) Lever balanceWeightWeight is the pull of
gravity on an objectSI unit : Newton (N) Spring balanceBasic physical
quantities & S.I. Physical quantities#SI Unit##Length#Metre (m) ##Mass#Kilogram
(kg) ##Time#Second (s) ##Temperature#Kelvin (K) ##Electric current#Ampere (A) ##
Measuring toolsLength :Measuring tapeMetre ruleCalipersMeasure area of irregular
shape:Graph paperMeasure volume of liquid:Measuring cylinderBurettePipette
CHAPTER 2 #Structure of cell and its functionUnicellular organismPlant :
ChlamydomonasYeastEuglenaAnimal :AmoebaParameciumPlasmodium Multicellular
organisms:Plant :SpirogyraSea weedGrassAnimal :EagleSquirrelAntCell organisation
Cell ( Tissue ( Organ ( System ( OrganismSystem and functionSkeleton system:
Protects internal organs and gives support to the bodyBlood circulation system:
Transport dissolved food, gases, and waste materialsNervous system:Conveys nerve
impulses and reacts to stimuliReproductive system:Produces reproductive cells
Respiratory system:Enables the exchange of gases with the surroundingsExcretory
system:Removes wastes materials from the bodyDigestive system:Breaks up food
into simples form to be absorbed and used by the bodyMuscular system:Moves the
parts of the bodyCHAPTER 3What is matter? Matter is everything that has mass and
occupies spaceMatter is made up of tiny particlesMatter exist in either:##Solid:
Liquid : Gas :#Particles vibrate in their
position#Particles move gliding among each other#Particles move fast and
randomly##Density:Density is the mass per unit volume of a substance.Unit :
g/cm3#Density formula:CHAPTER 4 Basic resources of earth :WaterAirSoilLiving
thingsMineralsFossil fuelsClassification of matter:Matter is classified into:#
Element Substance which is made up of one type of particle onlyCompoundSubstance
that is made up of two or more types of elements.Chemically combinedSeparation
method : electrolysisMixtureSubstance that consist of two or more substance
Joined physicallySeparation method :DistillationFiltrationCHAPTER 5Contents of
air:Nitrogen : 78%Oxygen : 2 1%Carbon dioxide :
0.03%Inert gases : 0.9%MicroorganismsWater vapourDustProperties
of oxygen:Colourless, odourless and tasteless gasslightly on waterno effect on
litmus papersupports combustion and respirationConfirmation test for Oxygen:
Glowing wooden splinter:Presence of oxygen causes the glowing wooden splinter to
ignites.#Properties of carbon dioxide:Colourless, odourless and tasteless gas
Slightly soluble in waterVery soluble in sodium hydroxideChanges moist blue
litmus paper from blue to red#Confirmation test for carbon dioxide:Limewater
test:Carbon dioxide turns the limewater cloudyRespiration##Comparison between
inhaled and exhaled air:Inhaled#Exhaled##Nitrogen 78%#Nitrogen 78%##Inert
gases 0.9%#Inert gases 0.9%##Oxygen 2 1%#Oxygen 16%##Carbon dioxide
0.03%#Carbon dioxide 0.03%##Combustion:#CHAPTER 6FORMS of energy:Potential
energyKinetic energyHeat energyLight energyChemical energySound energyElectrical
energyNuclear energyPotential energy:Energy stored in an object due to its
position or conditionKinetic energy:Energy stored in any moving objectHeat
energy:Is a type of energy that rises the temperature of an object.Light energy:
Energy that enables us to seeChemical energy:Energy stored in chemical
substancesEq: Food, battery, fuelSound energy:Energy that is produced in
vibrating objectElectrical energy:Is produced by an electric charge or current
Nuclear energy:Energy stored in the nucleus of an atomSOURCES of Energy:Fossil
fuelsBiomass fuelsWindWaterSunRadioactive substancesGeothermal energyRenewable &
Non-renewable energy sourcesRenewable energy sources:SolarWaterWindBiomass
GeothermalWave/tidalNon-renewable:fossil fuelsradioactive substances CHAPTER 7
heat is a form of energyheat can be produced by the following ways:rubbing two
objects togetherburning objectselectricity that runs through a coiled wireheat
causes solids, liquids and gases to expand and contractdifferences between heat
and temperatureHeat#Temperature##A form of energy#The degree of hotness or
coldness of a substance##Unit = Joule (J) #Unit = Kelvins (K) ##Heat flows in
three different ways:Conductionis the flow of heat through solidConvectionis the
flow of heat through fluids such as in gases and in liquidsRadiationis the
transfer of heat through vacuum(Heat flows from hotter area to colder area) Land
breeze:####Sea breeze:Physical process that involved in the change of states of
matter.#Absorption of heat:Durk and dull objects absorbs heat better than shiny
objectsGives out heat:A dull, dark surface, gives out heat better than white
shiny surface.FORM 2 CHAPTER 1Sensory organs:Skin:sense of touchStimuli : hot,
cold, pain, pressure, touchNose:sense of smellStimuli : Chemical substance in
the airTongue:Sense of tasteStimuli:Chemical substance in the foodEar:sense of
hearingStimuli: soundEye:sense of sightStimuli: lightProperties of light:light
can be reflected and refractedDefects of vision:long sightedCan see far objects
clearlyImage formed behind retinaCauses:eyeball too small/shortlens too thin
correction Use convex lensshort sightedcan see near objects clearlyimage
formed infront of retinacauses:eye ball too big/longLens too thickcorrection
use concave lensProperties of sound:is a form of energyproduced by vibrating
objectstravels in the form of wavescan be reflected (echo) can be absorbedcan
only travel through mediumcannot travel through vacuumStimuli and responses in
plants:Phototropism:Stimuli LightResponse to obtain sunlightGeotropism:Stimuli
gravityResponse to root itself firmly in the soil/to obtain mineral salts and
waterHydrotropism:stimuli waterResponse to obtain water and mineral salts
Thigmotropism:Stimuli touchResponse to obtain support and lightCHAPTER 2
Classes of food:Carbohydrate:supply energyProtein:needed for growthproduce new
cellsfats:insulator of heat for the bodysupply energywater:helps transport
excretory products from cells to excretory organshelps the digestion of food
vitamins:maintain good healthMinerals:maintain good healthFibre:helps in
peristalsisprevents constipationFOOD TESTSStarch:a few drops of iodine solution
is added to food sample+ve result = It turns Dark BlueGlucose:Benedicts
Solution is added to the food sample and heated+ve result = Brick red
precipitate formedProtein:Millons reagent is added to the food sample and
heated+ve result = Brick red precipitate formedFats:A little food sample is
placed on a piece of filter paper+ve result = A translucent spot is detected.
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM#END PRODUCT OF DIGESTION#Starch glucoseProtein
amino acidsFat Fatty acid + glycerolCHAPTER 3Animal kingdom:#
Plant Kingdom####CHAPTER 4 Species : A group of the same kind of organisms
with common characteristicsPopulation :a group of organisms of the same species
living and reproducing in a defined areaCommunity :is made up of different
populations of organisms living together in a habitatEcosystem :consists of
plants, animals and the non-living environment interacting with each other for
livingHabitat :a place where an organism livesInteraction between living
organism:Prey-predatorPredator : animal that hunts other animals for foodPrey :
The animal being hunted(hubungan pemangsa-mangsa) SymbiosisCommensalismsatu pihak
mendapat faedah dan pihak yang satu lagi tidak ada kesan ve atau +veMutualism
Kedua-dua pihak mendapat faedahParasitismSatu pihak mendapat mendapat faedah dan
satu pihak rugiCompetitioninteraksi antara organisma untuk keperluan yang sama
Biological controlis a control of pests by the introduction of their natural
enemyFood webProducer (Selalunya tumbuhan) Primary consumer (Yang memakan
tumbuhan-Producer) Secondary consumer(Yang memakan Primary consumer) Tertiary
consumer(Yang memakan Secondary consumer) Decomposers (pengurai bahan atau
organisma yang sudah mati) Photosynthesismerupakan process membuat makanan oleh
tumbuhan hijau#Conservationmeans proper management on the use of natural
resources to maintain future accessibilityPreservationMeasures taken to maintain
living organisms and the natural environment in their natural balance state
CHAPTER 5Physical characteristics of waterwater can exist in 3 states : Solid,
liquid, gasColourless, tasteless, odourless at room temperatureFreezing point of
pure water : 0oCBoiling point of pure water : 100 oCDensity of pure water : 1
g/cm3Test for presence of water:Cobalt chloride paper changes from blue to pink
Composition of waterWater is a compound, made up of 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1
atom of oxygenH2 OEvaporationis a process by which liquid changes into water
vapour at any temperatureFactors
affecting evaporation:Surface areaHumidityMovement of airTemperature of
surroundingsSolution & SolubilitySolution a mixture of solute and solventSolvent
Liquid that dissolves a substanceSoluteA substance that is dissolved) Dilute
solutiona solution that contains very little soluteConcentrated solutionSolution
that contain a lot of soluteSaturated solutionSolution that contains the maximum
amount of solute and cannot dissolve any more soluteFactors affecting solubility
Nature of the soluteNature of the solventTemperature of the solventACIDTaste
sourCorrosivepH less than 7Change wet blue litmus paper to redALKALISTaste
bitter and soapyCorrosivepH more than 7Change wet blue litmus paper to red
PURIFICATIONFiltrationstrength Remove large insoluble solidsCant remove
dissolve substance & microorganismBoilingStrengh kills microorganismsCant
remove insoluble particles & dissolve substanceDistillationStrengh removes
insoluble and dissolve substance/ removes microorganismsTastelessChlorination
Strengh kills microorganismCant remove insoluble particles & dissolved
substanceCHAPTER 6Kinetic theory of gasgas particles move freely in all
directionGas particles collide with the wall of the container and bounce backA
force is exerted by the particles onto the wallThis force produces a pressure on
the walls of the containerFactors affecting Air #p#r#e#s#s#u#r#e# #(#A#P#) #
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#s#e#e#n##E#F#F#E#C#T# #c#a#n# #b#e# #s#e#e#n# #o#r# #f#e#l#t##H#a#s#
#m#a#g#n#i#t#u#d#e# #a#n#d# #d#i#r#e#c#t#i#o#n####T#Y#P#E# #O#F# #F#O#R#C#E#
#F#r#i#c#t#i#o#n#a#l# #forceOccurs when two surface in contactAlways opposes the
motion of the objectActs in the opposite direction to movementCan slow down or
stop moving objectGravitational forceForce that pull objects to the earthCauses
all objects to have weightElectrostatic forceForce of attraction or repulsion
between charged substanceEnables charge substance to attract neutral substance
such as small pieces of paperSame charges repel each otherDifferent charges
attract each otherMagnetic forceEnables a magnet to attract magnetic substances
like iron, nickel and cobaltWORKWork is said to be done when a force moves an
object over a distance in the direction of the forceEquation for calculating
work done:#POWERPower is the rate of doing work, which means the amount of work
done per unit time.Power can be calculated using the equation:#CHAPTER 8
Vertebrates have1. Endoskeletonalso known as internal skeletonMade up of bones
and cartilageInvertebrates have1. ExoskeletonMade of cuticle or calcium
carbonateExamples animals: centipede, ant, crab2 . Hydrostatic skeletonConsist of
a muscular wall which encloses a body cavity that is filled with fluidThis body
fluid pressure gives support and shape to the animalExamples animals: earthworm,
leech, jellyfishSUPPORT SYSTEM IN PLANTSButtress Root thick and wide roots that
grow from the stem above the grounde.q: Angsana tree, durian treeProp rootsRoots
which grow from the stem or branchesE.q.: pandan plant, maize plantPricklesAn
outgrouwth of the epidermis and can be easily removed from the stem.E.q: Rose
TendrilsCurly string-like structures modified from stems and leavesCurl and
twine round parts of other plants or objects to help the plant to climbE.q:
Cucumber plant, bitter gourd, pumpkinStilt rootsRoots that develop from the main
stem and grow into the ground for support.E.q: Mangrove tree (Bakau) Clasping
rootsRoots that grip onto other plants or structure to get supportE.q: betel
vine (sirih) , orchidThorns (duri) Sharp modified branches that cannot be easily
removedAct as hooks to hold on to supports.E.q: Bouganvillea (Bunga Kertas)
CHAPTER 9The point of equilibrium is the point where the whole weight of an
object appears to act on.It is also the point which an object can be balanced on
and it is present in all objects.It is also known as the centre of gravity of
the objectFACTORS AFFECTING THE STABILITY OF AN OBJECTThe position of the centre
of gravity.the lower the centre of gravity, the more stable the objectThe base
areaThe wider the base area, the more stable the objectCHAPTER 10LEVERis a
simple machinemakes work easierhave 3 parts :F = FulcrumE = EffortL = Load
CLASSES OF LEVERNotice the middle part of the lever#L F E = 1st class
F L E = 2 nd classF E L = 3rd classTHE MOMENT OF FORCEThe
SI unit for moment of force = Newton-metre (Nm) Formula for moment of force:#
LEVER IN EQUILIBRIUMwhen a lever is in equilibrium, the sum of the anticlockwise
moments is equal to the sum of the clockwise moments.The principle of moments
can be represented by the following formula:######PAGE ##PAGE #1#NucleusCell
control centreCell membraneControls the entry and exit of materials from the
cellCytoplasm Stores dissolved materialsChloroplastProduces chlorophyllVacuole
Contains water and soluteCell wallMaintains the shape of the cellDensity =
____mass of substance (g) ___ Volume of substance (cm3) Metal
Non - MetalAt nightSea is warmer than landCool air from land flows to the sea as
land breezeHydrocarbon + oxygen Light E. + Heat E. + carbon
dioxide + waterCarbon + oxygen Light E. + Heat E. + carbon dioxide
Glucose + oxygen water + carbon dioxide + energyCarbon dioxideEnergywater
OxygenGlucoseDuring dayLand is warmer than the seaLess dense hot air on land
risesCool air from the sea flows towards the land as sea breezesolidLiquidGas
Small intestineDuodenumLarge intestineStomachOesophagusMouthRectum Anus
Vertebrates:Have backbonesInverertebrates:No backbonesMammalsBody covered with
hair/furBreath through lungsGive birth to young aliveBirdsBody covered with
feathersBreath through lungsLay eggsHave wingsReptilesBody covered with dry
scalesLay eggsAmphibiansLive on both land and waterBreath through lungs & moist
skinHave moist skinLay eggsFishLive in waterBreath through gillsBody covered
with slimy scalesHave finsLay eggsBreath Through lungsWarm BloodedFlowering
plantNon-Flowering plantMonocotyledons(Plants with only one cotyledon) Leaves
with parallel veinsHave fibrous rootsEq: Paddy,oil palm, maizeDicotyledons
(Plants with two cotyledon) Have net veined leavesHave tap rootsEq: beans,
hibiscus, rubber treesFernsMossesFungiCarbon dioxideConiferAlgaeWaterglucose
Oxygen ++sunlightchlorophyllWork (joule) = Force (Newton) x distance (metre)
Power (watts) Work done (joules) Time taken (seconds) =
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