You are on page 1of 6

TRANSMISSION LINE-1

NAME : H.M.S.L.G.Bandara
INDEX NO : 050036J
FIELD : EE
DATE OF SUB: 2007.06.05
CALCULATIONS:

 For the actual transmission line model,

r = 0.3 Ω/km
l = 2.0 mH/km
c = 0.256 µF/km
g=0

The scale factor,

Voltage Scale: 1000:1


Current Scale: 200:1

According to the V=IR, then


Resistance Scale: 5:1

 Total resistance, induction, capacitance of the transmission line,

r = (0.30 Ω/km) × (25 km) = 7.5 Ω 1.5 Ω


l = (2 mH) × (25 km) = 50 mH 10 mH
c= (0.256 µF) × (25 km) =6.4 µF 32 µF

• Calculating the theoretical values of A, B, C and D for the given transmission line

E s = cosh ( )
γL VR + Z 0 sinh γL I R ( )
Is =
1
Z0
sinh ( )
γL VR + cosh ( )
γL I R

E S  
 cosh γL ( ) ( )
Z 0 sinh γL  V
 R 
 I  =  1 sinh γL
 S  Z ( ) ( )
cosh γL   I R 

 0

E S   A B  V R 
 I  = C D   I 
 S   R 
r + jωl
Characteristic impedance ( Z 0 ) =
g + jωc
1.5 + j × 2π × 50 × 10 × 10 −3
Zo =
0 + j × 2π × 50 × 32 × 10 −6
Zo = 312.5 − 149.2 j
Zo = 346.3∠ − 25.52
Zo = 18.6∠ − 12.76

Propagation constant (γ ) = (r + jωl )( g + jωc )


γ = (1.5 + j × 2π × 50 × 10 × 10 − 3 )(0 + j × 2π × 50 × 32 × 10 − 6 )
γ = − 0.0316 + 0.0151 j
γ = 0.035∠ 154.48
γ = 0.187∠ 77.2

ES
By Short circuit test, B= VR = 0
IR

IS
D= VR = 0
IR

ES
Open circuit test, A = IR = 0
VR

IS
C= IR = 0
VR
Theoretical values of A, B, C and D

A = cosh(γL)
A = cosh(0.187 × 2)
A = 1.071∠0

B = Zo sinh(γL)
B = 18.6∠ − 12.76 × sinh(0.187 × 2)
B = 7.12∠ − 12.76

1
C= sinh(γL)
Zo
1
C= sinh(0.187 × 2)
18.6∠ − 12.76
C = 0.021∠12.76

D = A by above equation
D = cosh(0.187 × 2)
D = 1.071∠0

Finding A, B, C, D values using experimental values

W= R/Z VocIoccos(ϕoc-θ)
Z=(R2 + (1/ωc)2)1/2
Z=(11.32x103)2+ (1/(8πx 10-6))
Z=41.37 kΩ

Cos(ϕoc-θ) = Cos(θ-ϕoc) =(5x41.37x103)/(11.32x103x74x0.88)


Cos(ϕoc-θ)=0.2806
(ϕoc-θ)=cos-1(0.2806)
(ϕoc-θ)=73.70
Zoc= (74V/0.88 A) ∠73.7 0
Zoc= 84.09 ∠73.7 0

50 MW
Rated current of the model = = 1.1A
3 x132kVx 200
W = Z sc I sc cos Φ
5
cos Φ = = 0.86
5.29 x1.1
Φ = 30.68 0
5.29
Z sc = ∠30.68 0 = 4.81∠30.68 0 Ω
1.1
AD − BC = cosh 2 (γ L) − sinh 2 (γ L) = 1
AD − BC = 1

A B
Z oc − Z sc = −
C D
Z
Z oc − Z sc = oc2
A
Z oc
A2 =
Z oc − Z sc
84.09∠73.70
A=
84.09∠73.7 0 − 4.81∠30.680
A = 1.02∠ − 1.1660

D = 1.02∠ − 1.1660

A
C= = 0.012∠ − 74.8660
Z oc
B = DxZ sc = 1.02∠ − 1.1660 x(4.81∠ − 30.680 ) = 4.91∠ − 31.850
DISCUSSION:
Due to the errors like used capacitor bank would not have the represent value,
Errors due to reading the instruments, used instruments are not accurate, Used transmission
line model was a very old one which would not work very accurately, Since we are scaling
the transmission line there will be some errors due to scaling factor, Per unit values would
not constant along the line. We haven’t got the practical value similar to theoretical value.
We can avoid these problems by providing new equipment to the lab and using short
conductors.

Some of things must be considered in the design and operation of a transmission line
is the determination of voltage drop, line losses and efficiency of transmission. These values
are greatly influenced by the line constants, resistance, impedance and capacitance of the
transmission. For instance, the voltage drop in the line depends upon the values of above
three line constants. In any four terminal network, where the net work should be passive i.e.
containing no source of e.m.f., and linear i.e. impedances independent of current flowing, and
bilateral i.e. impedances independent of direction of current flowing, the input voltage and
input current can be expressed in terms of output voltage and output current. Incidentally, a
transmission line is a four-terminal network; two input terminals where enters the network
and two output terminals where power leaves the network, and the conditions for a network
are fully met in transmission lines. Due to smaller length and lower voltage in these lines, the
effect of line capacitance is small and hence can be neglected. Therefore the line is
considered to have series impedance i.e. only resistance and inductance of the line are taken
into account. There are two methods to represent medium lines. they are Nominal T-model
and Nominal model. In this transmission line the whole line to neutral capacitance is assumed
to be concentrated at the middle point of line and the half the line resistance and reactance are
lumped on either side. Here the lengths of lines are more then 150km and the voltage used is
higher than 100kV. In this case, the line constants i.e. resistance, inductance and capacitance
are considered uniformly distributed and line to neutral capacitance is divided into two
halves; one half being concentrated at the load end and the other half at the sending end.