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You are on page 1of 6

NAME : H.M.S.L.G.Bandara

INDEX NO : 050036J

FIELD : EE

DATE OF SUB: 2007.06.05

CALCULATIONS:

r = 0.3 Ω/km

l = 2.0 mH/km

c = 0.256 µF/km

g=0

Current Scale: 200:1

Resistance Scale: 5:1

l = (2 mH) × (25 km) = 50 mH 10 mH

c= (0.256 µF) × (25 km) =6.4 µF 32 µF

• Calculating the theoretical values of A, B, C and D for the given transmission line

E s = cosh ( )

γL VR + Z 0 sinh γL I R ( )

Is =

1

Z0

sinh ( )

γL VR + cosh ( )

γL I R

E S

cosh γL ( ) ( )

Z 0 sinh γL V

R

I = 1 sinh γL

S Z ( ) ( )

cosh γL I R

0

E S A B V R

I = C D I

S R

r + jωl

Characteristic impedance ( Z 0 ) =

g + jωc

1.5 + j × 2π × 50 × 10 × 10 −3

Zo =

0 + j × 2π × 50 × 32 × 10 −6

Zo = 312.5 − 149.2 j

Zo = 346.3∠ − 25.52

Zo = 18.6∠ − 12.76

γ = (1.5 + j × 2π × 50 × 10 × 10 − 3 )(0 + j × 2π × 50 × 32 × 10 − 6 )

γ = − 0.0316 + 0.0151 j

γ = 0.035∠ 154.48

γ = 0.187∠ 77.2

ES

By Short circuit test, B= VR = 0

IR

IS

D= VR = 0

IR

ES

Open circuit test, A = IR = 0

VR

IS

C= IR = 0

VR

Theoretical values of A, B, C and D

A = cosh(γL)

A = cosh(0.187 × 2)

A = 1.071∠0

B = Zo sinh(γL)

B = 18.6∠ − 12.76 × sinh(0.187 × 2)

B = 7.12∠ − 12.76

1

C= sinh(γL)

Zo

1

C= sinh(0.187 × 2)

18.6∠ − 12.76

C = 0.021∠12.76

D = A by above equation

D = cosh(0.187 × 2)

D = 1.071∠0

W= R/Z VocIoccos(ϕoc-θ)

Z=(R2 + (1/ωc)2)1/2

Z=(11.32x103)2+ (1/(8πx 10-6))

Z=41.37 kΩ

Cos(ϕoc-θ)=0.2806

(ϕoc-θ)=cos-1(0.2806)

(ϕoc-θ)=73.70

Zoc= (74V/0.88 A) ∠73.7 0

Zoc= 84.09 ∠73.7 0

50 MW

Rated current of the model = = 1.1A

3 x132kVx 200

W = Z sc I sc cos Φ

5

cos Φ = = 0.86

5.29 x1.1

Φ = 30.68 0

5.29

Z sc = ∠30.68 0 = 4.81∠30.68 0 Ω

1.1

AD − BC = cosh 2 (γ L) − sinh 2 (γ L) = 1

AD − BC = 1

A B

Z oc − Z sc = −

C D

Z

Z oc − Z sc = oc2

A

Z oc

A2 =

Z oc − Z sc

84.09∠73.70

A=

84.09∠73.7 0 − 4.81∠30.680

A = 1.02∠ − 1.1660

D = 1.02∠ − 1.1660

A

C= = 0.012∠ − 74.8660

Z oc

B = DxZ sc = 1.02∠ − 1.1660 x(4.81∠ − 30.680 ) = 4.91∠ − 31.850

DISCUSSION:

Due to the errors like used capacitor bank would not have the represent value,

Errors due to reading the instruments, used instruments are not accurate, Used transmission

line model was a very old one which would not work very accurately, Since we are scaling

the transmission line there will be some errors due to scaling factor, Per unit values would

not constant along the line. We haven’t got the practical value similar to theoretical value.

We can avoid these problems by providing new equipment to the lab and using short

conductors.

Some of things must be considered in the design and operation of a transmission line

is the determination of voltage drop, line losses and efficiency of transmission. These values

are greatly influenced by the line constants, resistance, impedance and capacitance of the

transmission. For instance, the voltage drop in the line depends upon the values of above

three line constants. In any four terminal network, where the net work should be passive i.e.

containing no source of e.m.f., and linear i.e. impedances independent of current flowing, and

bilateral i.e. impedances independent of direction of current flowing, the input voltage and

input current can be expressed in terms of output voltage and output current. Incidentally, a

transmission line is a four-terminal network; two input terminals where enters the network

and two output terminals where power leaves the network, and the conditions for a network

are fully met in transmission lines. Due to smaller length and lower voltage in these lines, the

effect of line capacitance is small and hence can be neglected. Therefore the line is

considered to have series impedance i.e. only resistance and inductance of the line are taken

into account. There are two methods to represent medium lines. they are Nominal T-model

and Nominal model. In this transmission line the whole line to neutral capacitance is assumed

to be concentrated at the middle point of line and the half the line resistance and reactance are

lumped on either side. Here the lengths of lines are more then 150km and the voltage used is

higher than 100kV. In this case, the line constants i.e. resistance, inductance and capacitance

are considered uniformly distributed and line to neutral capacitance is divided into two

halves; one half being concentrated at the load end and the other half at the sending end.

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